DANDY Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Biology – Cytology Unit – study of cells Subtopic DNA

ALL CELLS HAVE DNA…
• Cells are the basic unit of all living things – Prokaryotes (bacteria) – Eukaryotes (animals, plants, etc.)

Deoxyribonucleic Acid
• DNA is found in the nucleus!!! • Remember…the nucleus is the “control center” of the cell

DNA is found in three forms…
• Chromatin - Single strands of DNA found in the nucleus when the cell is NOT dividing

• Chromatid - Single copy of condensed DNA that is coiled and wound up prior to division

• Chromosomes - Two copies of DNA (two chromatids) connected prior to cell division

DNA is the code of life…
• Genes - segments of DNA that code for specific proteins and therefore specific traits

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

• D.N.A - Hereditary material - Double helix - a “twisted ladder” of nucleotides

Nucleotides:
• Sides of the ladder A. Sugar B. Phosphate • Steps of the ladder C. Nitrogen Base * Cytosine * Guanine * Adenine * Thymine
T A

C

G

G

C

The Bases Pair…
• C always goes with G – C G three hydrogen bonds – memory both letters have curves • A always goes with T – A T two hydrogen bonds – Memory both letters are made of straight lines

HOW DOES THE DNA “MAGIC” WORK?
• DNA makes RNA • RNA makes protein

• Which of our friendly organelles makes protein? • Where in the cell are they? • Where are the chromosomes?

So what is RNA?
• R.N.A - Ribonucleic Acid

G

C

• Just like DNA except:
** Ribose (sugar) ** Single Stranded ** Uracil instead of Thymine
A

U

How does DNA work?
• The DNA is first Read

1. The nucleus receives a chemical signal to make a protein
2. The DNA is opened (unzipped) where the gene starts

How does DNA work?

1. mRNA pairs up with the DNA template

4. The DNA closes and the mRNA strand leaves the nucleus

Let’s Try A DNA Example:
1. Fill in the matching bases for the DNA strand TTCGAG-

Let’s Try A DNA Example:
1. Fill in the matching bases for the DNA strand T-A T-A C-G G-C A-T G-C

RNA Example
TTCGAG-A -A -G -C

2. Fill in the new mRNA strand along the left side of the DNA

-T
-C

RNA Example
T-A T-A C-G G-C A-U G-C -A -A -G -C -T -C

2. Fill in the new mRNA strand along the left side of the DNA

Completed RNA
3. Write the new mRNA strand that moves into the cytoplasm

Completed RNA
1. Write the new mRNA strand that moves into the cytoplasm A A G C U C

How Powerful Proteins Are Made…
1. The mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches itself to a ribosome 2. The ribosome reads the RNA 3 bases at a time (codon)
Ribosome

mRNA

A A G C U C

codon

mRNA CODES FOR AMINO ACIDS
Third Base First Base
U

Second Base
U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G

U

C

A

G

Phenylalanine Serine Tyrosine Cysteine Leucine Proline Histidine Arginine Isoleucine Threonine Asparagine Serine Valine Alanine Aspartic Acid Glycine

Phenylalanine Serine Tyrosine Cysteine Leucine Proline Histidine Arginine Isoleucine Threonine Asparagine Serine Valine Alanine Aspartic Acid Glycine

Leucine Serine Stop Codon Stop Codon Leucine Proline Glutamine Arginine Isoleucine Threonine Lysine Arginine Valine Alanine Glutamic Acid Glycine

Leucine Serine Stop Codon Tryptophan Leucine Proline Glutamine Arginine Methionine Threonine Lysine Arginine Valine Alanine Glutamic Acid Glycine

C

A

G

How Powerful Proteins Are Made…
3. For each codon, an amino acid is attached to the ribosome to form a chain of proteins

CCG

How Powerful Proteins Are Made…
4. After reading the RNA the ribosome sends the protein chain to the golgi apparatus for repackaging

Shipped to Golgi

Let’s continue our example…
AARockin’ GRibosome CUC-

mRNA -

Amino Acids

Let’s continue our example…
AARockin’ GRibosome CUC-

Lysine

Leucine

mRNA -

Amino Acids

Let’s try the whole thing!!!
TACGGACCTD.N.A

Rockin’ Ribosome

R.N.A

Amino Acids

Let’s try the whole thing!!!
T-A A-T C-G G-C G-C A-T C-G C-G T-A D.N.A

Rockin’ Ribosome

R.N.A

Amino Acids

Let’s try the whole thing!!!
T-A A-T C-G G-C G-C A-T C-G C-G T-A D.N.A A U G C C U G G A
Methionine (start codon)

Rockin’ Ribosome

Proline

Glycine

R.N.A

Amino Acids

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