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Chapter 9: Time Management

This chapter provides some excellent tips for effective time management. While students can learn information to prepare them for the certification exam, emphasize that they can also make some important changes in their life to make it run more smoothly. As you begin, tell students that time management is an ongoing process, not a quick fix.

Lecture Notes A. Understanding Time

The basic realities of time must be understood in order to manage it. . Characteristics of time include! Time is democratic "veryone gets #$ hours in a day Time is perishable% it cannot be stored Time cannot be bought Time is a valuable and limited resource &o' time is used is up to ()U #. Efficiency vs. Effectiveness focuses on performing tasks correctly and quickly vs. focusing on doing the right things at the right time. *. Hurrying is +)T the ans'er to time management% no one can do it all.

,. -dentifying Time Wasters

. ,egin 'ith a Time Au it. a. ,egin by making a commitment to keep the log and accept the time 'asters it identifies. b. .eep a log of ho' you use your time for at least a 'eek to identify patterns% be sure to include a space to list the goals for each day /prioritized0. c. Transfer the information to a 'eekly chart and categorize the activities in order to identify the percentage of time spent on various types of activities. d. 1inpoint the time 'asters. #. Time !asters are often uncovered in the time audit. a. 2is3udging time leads to 'asting time 'aiting for people or things. b. )versocializing occurs in an extended break or visit. c. 4ack of delegation is often due to reluctance for a number of reasons. d. Telephone calls can interrupt 'ork at any time. e. 2eetings may not be 'ell5managed and become unproductive. f. 1rocrastination occurs 'hen there are undesirable tasks to be done. g. 4ack of ob3ectives or goals makes it unlikely that very much can be accomplished.


*. Correct the "ro#$em based on individual goals% kno' 'here time is being 'asted each day and make necessary changes.

6. 7etting 8oals
. Esta#$ish C$ear %oa$s that meet five criteria! a. 8oals must be as specific as possible. b. -f a goal is not measurable, a person cannot kno' 'hen it has been achieved. c. -f goals are not attainable, there is no motivation to 'ork to'ard them. d. The goal should be realistic in relation to other responsibilities. e. All goals must have a timetable or deadline% some 'ill be short5term, others intermediate, and still others long5term. #. &et "ersona$ an "rofessiona$ %oa$s to maintain a balance, and then determine the specific steps necessary to reach them. 8oals should be prioritized. *. The "areto "rincip$e says #9: of time spent on certain tasks 'ill produce ;9: of final results, 'hile ;9: of time spent on others 'ill produce only #9: of output /;95#9 rule0. $. The 'rgency()mportance %ri is used to prioritize tasks to ensure that energy is spent on the #9: of tasks that produce ;9: of results. a. <one contains tasks that are important and urgent% they require immediate attention. b. <one # sho's tasks that are important, but not urgent% necessary but not immediate. c. <one * contains tasks that are urgent, but not important% the necessary evils that must be complete, but mean little to goals. d. <one $ includes tasks that are not urgent and not important% minimize or eliminate.

=. "liminating Time Wasters

. 6ontrol Te$ephone Ca$$s 'ith effective management. The text presents a variety of techniques that would be an effective class discussion. #. =iscourage *rop+in ,isitors or reduce the amount of time they spend in your office. The text presents a variety of techniques that would be an effective class discussion. *. Han $e Each "iece of "aper Once. a. =ump it if it is unimportant% do not 'aste time reading each 'ord. b. =efer items until there is more time if they do not need to be handled immediately. c. =elegate tasks that are not a priority for you to complete at this time.


d. =o it if it is something important that should be done. $. "nding "rocrastination takes a huge commitment% you must realize that it is a problem to make any commitment to change. a. (ou must first identify the causes /'hich can be many0 of your o'n procrastination. b. Then, you can 'ork to break the habit by making changes that directly tackle the causes. >. -aci$itate Meetings so that they do not last too long% training programs in facilitating are available. a. 1repare for the meeting ahead of time by distributing the agenda before the meeting. The agenda should include timeframes for each topic. b. 1lanning should include everyone involved 'ith the meeting% it may be that various people take on different presentations during the meeting. c. 7chedule meetings carefully% they should begin and end on time. ?. *e$egating is getting things done through others. a. @ailure to delegate occurs too often, but it happens for a variety of reasons. ,elief that no one can do it as 'ell as yourself 4ook like the supervisor lacks abilities =oesnAt 'ant to let go of a task -nsecurity b. "ffective supervisors delegate by the results they expect and accept no less. 6hoose the right person, make ob3ectives clear, provide support, specify deadlines, and provide feedback.

". Work 7marter

. "areto "rincip$e /;95#9 rule0 is an excellent 'ay% use the UrgencyB-mportance grid to help. Both of these items were discussed earlier in the chapter. #. Comp$ete One.s Own !or/% donAt take on others /unless supervisor directs0. Accepting someone elseAs 'ork may make it difficult to give it back. *. Chec/ on 0ourse$f to keep focus on the high priorities. Ask yourself! What is the best 'ay for me to use my time right no'C $. 'se *ea Time Efficient$y% keep a folder handy 'ith things to revie' 'hen you have an extra minute. >. C$uster Tas/s in uninterrupted 'ork time to make the best use of time. ?. Have a "$an for every day% use a to5do list to help yourself focus on 'hat needs to be done.

@. 7etting Up s Time 2anagement 1lan

. A 1o# Ana$ysis looks analytically at a 3ob. 4ook at the task list created in the 3ob analysis and translate it into results.


#. "ut Time into "erspective by comparing time actually spent on tasks to the time that should be spent on them. a. Where is the time being physically spentC b. What are the staffing needsC c. Are there policies and procedures to be setC *. 'se a Time "$anner, the most important time management tool. A planner is used to 'rite do'n activities and goals to be completed and commit time to them. a. A 'eekly schedule identifies the needs and goals for each day in a 'eek. b. The daily schedule organizes each part of the day to assure goals are met.

8. "lectronic Tools for Time 2anagement

. The )nternet has changed ho' stakeholders interact. a. "5mail allo's users to create, send, and read messages on the computer at their o'n convenience. -t can be a tremendous help 'hen conducting business bet'een locations 'ith time differences. b. Dideoconferencing can replace face5to5face meetings 'hile reducing travel and expenses. c. -nternet telephony allo's users to talk to one another over the Web 'ithout utilizing the telephone line. d. @ile transfers /ftp0 allo's do'nloading and uploading of files for quick sharing of information. e. -nternet research saves a lot of time and resources and makes a broad range of information accessible. #. Te$ephone &ystems save time 'ith call management systems that allo' for better control of calls. a. -ncoming calls can be screened and routed by computer. b. )utgoing calls can be monitored and tracked, and some numbers can be dialed automatically. c. 6ell phones or pagers provide additional communication methods no matter 'here an employee is. d. Doice mail saves a lot of time since the message can be retrieved and acted upon after the call 'as made and 'ithout the caller on the line. *. Han he$ *evices /1=As0 have become very convenient. a. "lectronic schedulers can coordinate the desktop and handheld calendars% for some people they replace paper calendars. b. 6ontact managers keep information handy, even if you arenAt in the office. c. 1ro3ect management soft'are may be included to keep a pro3ect timeline handy. $. "ersona$ an Laptop Computers improve productivity 'ith soft'are options.


a. 1-2 soft'are combines the address book, appointment book, alarm clock, to5 do list, dialer, and notepad. b. 7cheduling soft'are can coordinate meetings electronically by coordinating different peopleAs schedules.

itiona$ 2esources for &tu ents

Eecommended readings /no texts should be more than t'o years old0! 6ovey, 7tephen E. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. @ranklin 6ovey. &ayes, 2arion ". Personal Time anagement. 6risp 1ublications. anagement. 1rentice5&all.

Eobbins, 7tephen 1. and 2ary 6oulter.

Eue, 4eslie W. and 4loyd ,yars. Supervision! "ey #in$ to Productivity. -r'inB2c8ra'5&ill.

6urrent issues of periodicals or business publications are also an excellent resource. 7ome of the follo'ing periodicals have an accompanying Web site. Current Periodical %&&P 'omplete (ffice Handboo$ odern (ffice Technology (fficePro The (ffice Business)ee$ )all Street *ournal http!BB'''.business'eek.com http!BB'''.'allstreet3ournal.com Web Address http!BB'''.iaap5hq.orgBproductsBhandbook.htm