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Cdigo IEFP: 5443

Autor(a): Filipa Joaquim


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Lngua Inglesa: Relaes Laborais -
Iniciao
Contents
Contents........................................................................................................................................... 2
OBJECTlVO GERAL:....................................................................................................................... 3
CONTEDOS PROGRAMATlCOS:................................................................................................. 3
lntroduo........................................................................................................................................ 4
Desenvolvimento.............................................................................................................................. 5
Recruitment.................................................................................................................................. 5
The lnterview.................................................................................................................................. l4
Management Styles........................................................................................................................ 22
Advertising & Marketing.................................................................................................................. 26
Advert............................................................................................................................................. 27
Accounting & Banking.................................................................................................................... 30
Banking.......................................................................................................................................... 34
Concluso...................................................................................................................................... 37
Bibliografia..................................................................................................................................... 38
REFERNClAS BlBLlOGRAFlCAS:.............................................................................................. 38
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OBJECTIVO GERAL:
Reconhecer e produzir mensagens orais e escritas em lngua inglesa relacionadas com a
actividade profissional, nomeadamente em matria de negociao colectiva, direito do trabalho
e comunicao institucional.
CONTEDOS PROGRAMTICOS:
Vocabulrio especfico s relaes laborais em lngua inglesa
Aquisio de estruturas gramaticais
Leitura e compreenso de textos
Exerccios escritos e orais
Jogos pedaggicos para desenvolvimento da oralidade
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Introduo
No se deve limitar as relaes empresariais ao idioma. As barreiras lingusticas no deveriam ser um
problema.
Muitos sustentam que a possibilidade de falar ingls no tem preo j que as possibilidades de crescimento
de saber a lngua so infinitas
aber mais de um idioma mel!ora a mem"ria e as !abilidades cognitivas no relacionadas # linguagem das
pessoas$ segundo um estudo. % saber especificamente ingls$ ir permitir ampliar o seu mundo e rede de
contatos.
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Deseno!"#ento
Re$ru"t#ent
Key Vocabulary
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When a company needs to recruit or employ new people, it usually advertises the job or
position in the recruitment section of a newspaper or magazine. People who are interested can
then apply for the job by sending a letter of application and a curriculum vitae containing details
of their education and experience to the company. The company will then draw up
a shortlist of candidates, who are then invited to attend an interview.

Reading Read the following job advertisements, and then answer the questions.
A) Job Advertisements
St. Mary's Junior School
Heath Drive, Ware,Herts
SGl2 ORL
!"#$I%& "''I'"%
Required from: November 2002 - Term time only, four mornings weekly
We are looking for a caring and enthusiastic teaching assistant to work in a Y3 classroom to work
alongside children who require extra support. Experience of working with children is essential. You
will be part of a friendly and committed staff team and we shall offer opportunities to help you
develop professionally.
Please telephone Jane Hannibal, School Secretary for further details. Visits are welcomed. Letters
of application and CV with the details of 2 referees should be sent to Liz Neville, Head teacher by
October l4.

B) Job Advertisements
#(%R"#' )"%"&!R
Diamond PLC has been providing a quality service for over 25 years, specialising in refurbishment
and major alterations for Local Authorities & Housing Associations in the London area.
Our continued success is due to the commitment of our dedicated team of professionals. We are
looking for an experienced Contracts Manager, able to demonstrate the drive necessary to lead a
team of Surveyors, Site Managers and Trades, reporting to the Contracts Director.
You will be responsible for controlling projects of all sizes up to 3m using the company's
management control process and our fully computerised lCT system.
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This is a great opportunity for an individual with a proven track record of delivering projects on time
& within budget whilst able to maintain our mission statement of 'Building Quality on Time'.
lf you feel this is the challenge for you, please apply in writing with a full CV to:
Sarah Curry
HR Department
Diamond Plc52
Stamford Road
London
Nl5 4PZ

Comprehension Questions
l. Read through the advertisements again and make a list of all the words and expressions used to
describe:
a) The job requirements
b) The benefits offered by the job.
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2. Look at the job advertisement labelled (B) and answer the questions.

Job Ads: Reading between the lines
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Checking out job advertisements is popular with executives worldwide. But though the activity is
universal, is the same true of the advertisements? Are executive positions in different countries
advertised in the same way? A comparison of the jobs pages of The Times of London, Le Monde
of Paris and Germany's Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung suggests not.
First, what UK job seekers consider an essential piece of information -what the post pays- is
absent from French and German adverts. lt is often left to applicants to raise this themselves. ln
contrast, most British advertisements mention not only salary, but also other material incentives
including a car and fringe benefits. French or German advertisements rarely refer to these.
The attention given to rewards in the UK indicates the importance of the job and its responsibility.
ln Germany and France, that information is given by the level of experience and qualifications
demanded. Salary can be assumed to correspond with this.
lf French and German adverts are vague about material rewards, they are precise about
qualifications. They usually demand "a degree in ...", not simply "a degree". ln Germany, for
example, a technical director for a machine tool company will be expected to have a Dipl.-lng
degree in Mechanical Engineering.
French advertisements go further. They may specify not just the type of grande cole degree, but
sometimes a particular set of institutions (Formation suprieure X, Centrale, Mines, HEC, ESSEC),
these being the most famous grandes coles.
All this contrasts with the vague call for "graduates" (or "graduate preferred"), which is found in the
UK. British companies often give the impression that they have a particular type of applicant in
mind, but are not sure about the supply and will consider others. Their wording suggests hope and
uncertainty, as in this advertisement from The Times: "Whilst educational standards are obviously
important, a large measure of personal enthusiasm is likely to secure the success of your
application."
ln the UK, qualifications beyond degree level make employers nervous, but in France or Germany
it is difficult to be "overqualified". Many people on German executive boards have doctorates and
the French regard five or six years of intensive post-bacealaur at study at a grand cole as ideal
training. British managers are not selected primarily for their intelligence, as managers are in
France or for their expert knowledge, as in Germany. lnstead the British give importance to social,
political and leadership skills.
This difference also shows in the personal qualities mentioned. British advertisements stress
energy, ability to communicate and motivate. German advertisements like achievement, but it
tends to be less personality-driven. German companies want candidates with sound knowledge,
experience and competence in their field. They rarely recruit novices, as do British employers.
French advertisements refer more to intellectual qualities like analytical aptitude and
independence.
Even the tone of the job advertisements is different in the three countries. By French and German
standards, British advertisements are very audacious: They attract young executives with
challenges such as: "Are you reaching your potential?" whereas French and German
advertisements are boringly direct, aiming to give information about the job rather than to sell it.
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All this points to three different conceptions of management. The French regard it as intellectually
complex, the Germans as technically complex, and the British as interpersonally complex. But they
agree on one thing: it's complex.

Questions

he Curriculum Vitae
Study the following CV and decide where each of the following headings should be placed.
References
lnterests & Achievements
Personal Details
Employment
Education & Qualifications
Additional Skills

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l.- ________________________________
DATE OF BlRTH: l5th June l977
MARlTAL STATUS: Single
NATlONALlTY: British
DRlVlNG LlCENCE: Full UK Driving Licence (Sep l994)
2.- ________________________________
l995 - l999 UNlVERSlTY OF THE WEST OF ENGLAND, Bristol
BA (Hons) Modern Languages & European Studies (2i)
l989 - l995 GOFFS LANGUAGE COLLEGE, Cheshunt
A-Levels: German (C) French (E)
AS-Levels: Religious lnstruction (E) General Studies (D)
3.- ________________________________
- Computer, lnternet and E-Mail literate.
- Proficient in the use of Windows 95, 98; experience of Windows NT.
- Detailed knowledge of Microsoft Word, Excel, Access and PowerPoint.
- Fully conversant with Microsoft Outlook and Netscape Messenger.
- Accurate keyboard skills and the ability to type 50 w.p.m.
4.- ________________________________
Jun 2000 - present SDRC UK Limited, Hitchin, Hertfordshire
Position: Training Co-ordinator
At SDRC, my role is to support the Automotive Team in the processing and marketing of training
for all UK-based Ford and Jaguar approved Suppliers. l am responsible for co-ordinating all training
orders, acting as the sole point of contact for Automotive Suppliers.
Sep l999 - Jan 2000 Trade Mark Consultants Co, Harrow, Middlesex
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Position: Trade Mark Agent
As a Trade Mark Agent, my time was spent performing an array of tasks, including: conducting
search reports; reporting to the client; filing U.K. and Community Trade Mark Applications;
answering clients' Trade Mark enquiries and updating the company's Trade Mark Database.
5.- ________________________________
- l take great pleasure from the cinema, especially contemporary foreign cinema.
- l am a sports enthusiast and especially enjoy playing badminton, tennis, golf and football.
6.- ________________________________
Employment
Mr Mark Parry
SDRC UK Limited
Milford House
Priory End
Academic
Mrs Ann Kennard
Faculty of Languages and
European Studies
University of the West of England

!"pressing Contrast
*espite, in spite of, although and even though are all used to express contrast between two
ideas+
Look at the following sentences:
Despite her lack of hard work, she was promoted.
This sentence means that she didn't work very hard, but she was still promoted.
Despite promises by the government to cut working hours, the average Brit works 38 hours a
week.
This sentence means that the British government has promised to reduce working hours, but the
Brits still continue to work very hard.
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#ractice
Finish each of the following sentences so that it has the same meaning as the sentence printed
before it.

l. Although he is the boss, he does not find solutions to problems very easily.
ln spite of _______________________________________________

2. ln spite of his hard work, he could not finish the job.
Although ________________________________________________

3. Despite the increase in their salaries, many French employees spend Saturday at work.
Even though _____________________________________________

4. Although they are dedicated to their companies, many German employees want more leisure
time.
ln spite of _______________________________________________

5. Despite the fact that some German and British management styles are similar, there are many
differences between them.
Even though _____________________________________________

Shortlist Lista de candidatos finales
Staff Empleados
To apply for Solicitar
To be in charge of Estar a cargo de
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est your Vocabulary
Find a word from the vocabulary section (above) which corresponds to the following definitions:
T%e Inter"e&
Key Vocabulary
Once you have seen a ,ob advertisement that interests you, you should send a covering
letter together with your #urriculum -itae to the person of contact. The covering letter is equally
as important as your Curriculum Vitae as it provides the first direct contact between
a candidate and an employer. lf this letter is not well written or poorly presented, you will give a
bad impression.
he $etter o% Application
he Letter of "pplication
The letter of application usually has the following layout. Four Paragraphs which explain the
following:
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l. Why you are writing
2. Why you are interested in the position
3. What you personally can contribute to the job - highlight your relevant skills and experience.
4. Willingness to attend an interview
!"ercise
Complete the following letter of application using the following verbs:
Contact / discuss / employed / welcome / involved / apply / enjoy / notice / advertised / matches

Dear Ms Swan,
l am writing to l.___________ for the position of Public Affairs Associate, which was
2.__________ last week in The Guardian.
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Although l am presently 3.________ by a non-profit making organisation, it has always been my
intention to work in a commercial environment. l would particularly 4.________ the chance to work
for your company and as you will 5.___________ on my enclosed Curriculum Vitae, the job you
are offering 6.____________ both my personal and professional interests.
My work experience has familiarised me with many of the challenges 7._________ in Public
Relations today. l am sure that this, together with my understanding of the needs and expectations
of sport and nature enthusiasts, would be extremely relevant to the position. Moreover, as my
mother is Spanish, l am fluent in this language and would definitely 8._______________ working in
a Spanish-speaking environment.
l would be pleased to 9.___________ my curriculum vitae with you in more detail at an interview.
ln the meantime, please do not hesitate to l0.___________ me if you require further information.
l look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely
Sarah Brown
.ob interviews can be some of the most stressful situations we have to face. From the moment
you enter the potential employer's building to the time you are back outside, you are on show -
and preparing to give a good performance is what can guarantee success or at least give your
best.
#ossible interview &uestions
Warm-up questions:
What made you apply for this position?
How did you hear about this job opening?
Briefly, would you summarize your work history & education for me?
Work history:
What special aspects of your work experience have prepared you for this job?
Describe for me one or two of the biggest disappointments in your work history?
Why are you leaving your present job? (Or, why did you leave your last job?)
What is important to you in a company?
What things do you look for in an organization?
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Job performance:
Everyone has strengths & weaknesses as workers. What are your strong points for this job?
What areas do you consider need improving?
Do you prefer working alone or in a team?
What kind of people do you find it most difficult to work with? Why?
What are some things you would like to avoid in a job? Why?
ln your previous job what kind of pressures did you encounter?
What would you say is the most important thing you are looking for in a job?
What are some things you particularly liked about your last job?
Education:
What special aspects of your education or training have prepared you for this job?
What courses in school have been of most help in doing your job?
Career goals:
What is your long-term employment or career objective?
What kind of job do you see yourself holding five years from now?
What do you feel you need to develop in terms of skill & knowledge in order to be ready for that
opportunity?
Why might you be successful in such a job?
What might make you leave this job?
Self-assessment:
What kind of things do you feel most confident in doing?
Can you describe for me a difficult obstacle you have had to overcome?,How did you handle
it?, How do you feel this experience affected your personality or ability?
How would you describe yourself as a person?
What do you think are the most important characteristics & abilities a person must possess to
become a successful (............... )? How do you rate yourself in these areas?
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What do you consider to be your greatest achievements to date? Why?
Decisieness:
Do you consider yourself to be thoughtful, analytical or do you usually make up your mind fast?
Give an example. (Watch time taken to respond)
What was your most difficult decision in the last six months? What made it difficult?
How do you go about making an important decision affecting your career?
What was the last major problem that you were confronted with? What action did you take on it?
!otiation:
What is your professional goal?
Can you give me examples of experience on the job that you felt were satisfying?
"eadership:
What specifically do you do to set an example for your employees?
What sort of leader do your people feel you are? Are you satisfied?
How do you get people who do not want to work together to establish a common approach to a
problem?
How would you describe your basic leadership style? Give specific examples of how you practice
this?
Do you feel you work more effectively on a one to one basis or in a group situation?
#ral presentation skills:
Have you ever done any public or group speaking? Recently? Why? How did it go?
Have you made any individual presentations recently? How did you prepare?
Written communication skills:
Would you rather write a report or give a verbal report? Why?
What kind of writing have you done? For a group? For an individual?
$le%ibility:
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What was the most important idea or suggestion you received recently from your employees?
What happened as a result?
What do you think about the continuous changes in company operating policies & procedures?
How effective has your company been in adapting its policies to fit a changing environment?
What was the most significant change made in your company in the last six months, which directly
affected you, & how successfully do you think you implemented this change?
Stress tolerance:
Do you feel pressure in your job? Tell me about it.
What has been the highest-pressure situation you have been under in recent years? How did you
cope with it?
Stability & !aturity:
Describe your most significant success & failure in the last two years.
What do you like to do best?
What do you like to do-least?
What in your last review did your supervisor suggest needed improvement?
What have you done about it?
'he (ays in (hich you ans(er interie( questions are ery important)
9 times out of l0 the same types of interview questions come up time and time again.
/0e 1repared2/ Before you go to the interview prepare your answers carefully.

Answering 'nteriew Questions
3rite the answers to the following interview 4uestions, including the vocabulary given in
brown in your answer.
l. Why are you leaving your present job? (Or, why did you leave your last job?)
Firstly...... / in the long term...... / besides......

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2. What is important to you in a company? What things do you look for in an organization?
From my point of view...... / it is extremely important that.......

3. Everyone has strengths & weaknesses as workers. What are your strong points for this job?
As far as l know...... / having said that......... / what's more.........

4. What is your long-term employment or career objective? What is your professional goal?
My one ambition is to...... / to aim high.....

5. What has been the highest-pressure situation you have been under in recent years? How did
you cope with it?
At first ........ / to face up to the situation........

(hat is wrong)
Listen to an interviewer interviewing a candidate for a Secretarial Position within a company. The
secretary will answer questions l, 2 and 3.
l. Why are you leaving your present job?
2. What is important to you in a company?
3. What are your strong points for this job?
What does she say wrong?

Relative Clauses
Look at the following sentences. The relative clause is in bold:
Mc Donald's is a place which sells hamburgers. Sally Jones is the manager of the McDonalds on
Oxford Street, which was one of the first fast food restaurants opened+
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he relative clause in the first sentence is a defining clause. lt tells us what type of restaurant
Mc Donald's is and is therefore essential to the meaning of the sentence.
he relative clause in the second sentence is a non-defining clause. lt gives us extra
information about Mc Donald's.
-------- ooo ( ooo --------
#ractice
(Haga click sobre las oraciones para ver las respuestas; doble click vuelve a posicin original)
l.- Look at the following sentences and decide whether they are defining or non-defining relative
clauses.
2.- Join each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun
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M'n'(e#ent St)!es
5ey -ocabulary
The amount of responsibility of any individual in a company depends on the position that he or
she occupies in its hierarchy. Managers, for example, are responsible for leading the people
directly under them, who are called subordinates. To do this successfully, they must use
their authority, which is the right to take the decisions and give the orders that will allow their
subordinates to reach certain objectives. Managers often delegate authority. This means that
employees at lower levels of the company hierarchy can participate in decision-making.

*anagement +tyles
The characteristics of management often vary according to national culture, which can
determine how managers are trained, how they lead people and how they approach their jobs.
Below you will find five brief portraits of managers in five different countries: the United States, the
United Kingdom, France, Germany and Sweden.
)anagers from the 6nited 'tates+++
Generally attend business schools.
Communicate easily and informally at work.
Admire the qualities of a leader.
Expect everyone to work hard.
lndividual performance is measured and initiative is rewarded.
Have competitive and sometimes aggressive attitudes towards work.
Often accept innovation and change.
)anagers from the 6nited 5ingdom+++
Receive a general education.
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Delegate authority.
Take a practical approach to management.
Have relatively formal relationship at work.
Encourage their employees to work individually.
Believe it is important to continue education and training at work.
)anagers from &ermany+++
Consider professional and technical skills to be very important.
Have a strong sense of authority.
Respect the different positions in the hierarchy of their companies.
Clearly define how jobs should be done.
Are very loyal to their companies and expect their subordinates to obey them.
Are often older than in other countries.
)anagers from 7rance+++
Go through an elitist educational system.
Have a strong sense of hierarchy and power.
Often have impersonal relationships at work.
Analyze problems in great detail before taking decisions.
Consider speaking skills to be particularly important.
Move easily between state and private sectors.
)anagers from 'weden+++
Consider social qualities to be as important as education.
Encourage their employees to take an interest in their work.
Pay close attention to the quality of working life.
Do not use as much authority as in other countries.
Appreciate low-level decision-making.
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Are often women.
Questions
l.- Decide which country the following statements refer to:
2.- Find synonyms in the text for the following words:

,bligations
Obligation is expressed using must, should and have to.
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Must and Have to
Must and have to is used to express a strong obligation
l. You must do this exercise again. (obligation)
2. You musnt smoke in the hotel. (prohibition)
3. Every night you have to do your homework. (obligation)
Should
Should is used to express a mild obligation of a suggestion
l. You should apologize to him. (mild obligation)
2. You should go to bed before llpm if you feel tired. (suggestion)
Past obligation
Must does not have a past tense form. We use had to to express a past obligation
l. We had to wake up early in order to take the exam.
Asking about obligation
Must is rarely found in the question form We normally use have to to ask about obligation
l. Do we have to go to the extra class?
2. Do l have to get up early on Sunday?
Questions
Fill in the gaps with the correct form of obligation, according to the rules.
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est your Vocabulary
Match a word from the vocabulary section above to the definition.
l. A system of training regulated by law or custom which combines on-the-job training and work
experience while in paid employment with formal off-the-job training.

2. To Monitor: keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance

3. A competent person in charge of a workplace or who has authority over a worker

4. The amount of money paid for some specified quantity of labour.
Adert"s"n( * M'r+et"n(
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Key Vocabulary
"dvertising is very important and is used to expand sales by making the product or service
known to a wider audience. The advert that a company uses is its personal message. lt has to be
received loud and clear. lf not customers do not understand why they should buy from the
company or what it is they are getting. 5nowledge of thetarget mar8et is needed to help refine
the message and to select the most useful way to communicating the message to the particular
group. Advertising can be done through various different ways:
Writing the message - direct mail, web sites, brochures, local newspapers, etc.
Speaking the message - telephone selling, television, local radio, etc.
Adert
In what other ways can we advertise9
Many adverts contain a slogan (a short phrase to attract the customer's attention).Effective
slogans are usually short, easy to remember and easy to repeat. Here are some authentic slogans
from adverts used in the United Kingdom.
- l'm lovin it
- We rent a lot more than a car
- The web's favourite airline
- Once you pop you can't stop
- Connecting people
- Where good food costs less
l. What type of product do you think each slogan is advertising?
2. Do you think they are effective?
!ndorsement is an advertising technique that leading companies use in which a celebrity is used
to advertise a certain product.
l.- Give examples of famous people endorsing a product in your country.
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-ollywood +tars Come to +pain


2006: Claudia Schiffer (Mango)
2005: Gisele Bundchen (El Corte lngls)
2004: Nicole Kidman, George Clooney (El Corte lngls)
2003: Sylvester Stallone (El Corte lngls)
These are just a few of the Hollywood Celebrities that have recently taken to advertising Spanish
brands and shops.
ln 2005, the world-famous Super Model Gisele Bundchen could be seen on thousands of
billboards in the lberian Peninsula advertising clothes, bikinis and accessories for Spain's leading
department store, 'El Corte lngls' (The English Cut).
El Corte lngls is Spain's best-known and best-loved store. El Corte lngls is to Spain as
Selfridges is to London and Macy's to New York. Whatever you need, an MP3 player, a CD, a
Burberry bag or a Papaya, El Corte lngls has it.
0ut why do these rich and famous superstars come to 'pain9
According to Juan Morales, Director of El Corte lngls, "many Hollywood stars have holiday
homes either in mainland Spain (Alicante, Marbella, etc) or in the Balearic or Canary lslands,
therefore El Corte lngls is their favourite department store. We pay them a lot of money and
promise to run their ads only within the confines of the lberian Peninsula".
The Superstars Agents protect their clients' reputation by demanding that "Spain only" clauses be
written into advertising contracts. The clauses impose heavy penalties if the ad somehow gets
shown in the U.S.
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ln the past, American stars confined their endorsement exploits to Japan. However, according to
Brian Dubin, senior vice-president at the William Morris Agency, stars can get between $l million
and $5 million for a single overseas campaign.
US stars wish to be seen by their home fans endorsing only products that boost their image. For
example, in the US, Arnold Schwarzenegger is seen advertising the off-road vehicle, the Hummer
and Sarah Jessica Parker fashionable Gap Clothes.
For many years now celebrities have been known to stoop pretty low to make some extra cash, but
now they don't mind if we see it. ln the near future we can expect more Hollywood embarrassing
endorsements, coming soon whatever the country.
Fictitious name
Katherine Mansfield - Queens English College

Questions
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'ynonyms (click sobre las preguntas para ver las respuestas)
Find synonyms for these words in the text:
l. a couple of
2. make (noun)
3. sign
4. merchandise
5. fine (noun)
6. confined
7. rather

A$$ount"n( * B'n+"n(
Key Vocabulary

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"ccounting deals with recording, summarizing and reporting a company's transactions. There are
various types of accounting:
Financial accounting
Cost accounting
Managerial accounting
A statement is a copy of the bank's account with you. lt contains a record of the money paid into
your account, money withdrawn, etc.
The balance is the total amount of money in your account.
A balance sheet is a vital part of accounting. lt shows your company's financial position at a
particular point in time. lt could indicate one business to be in a strong financial position and
another to be in serious financial difficulties. By comparing balance sheets at different periods it is
possible to find out the profit made.
1rofit generation is the objective of a business and this requires the preparation ofprofit
statements.
Resources, debts and owner's interests are known correspondingly as assets,
liabilities and capital:
"ssets - anything of value owned by a company.
Liabilities - financial obligations to outside parties such as a loan repayable to the bank.
#apital - the sum of money invested in a business by the owners / partners / shareholders, etc.
Capital represents the rights of owners to the assets after the prior claims of outside parties
(liabilities) have been satisfied in the event of the business closing.
E.g.
:ou set up a business with l000. This money (#ash) is known as an"sset (l000). The
proprietor has introduced l000 #apital.
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The two are equal: Assets = Capital
(ne month later the owner buys a photocopier for 300. The business now has two assets:
Cash 700 + Photocopier 300 =Total: l000 (Assets)
Capital introduced l000 =Total: l000 (Capital)
'i; months later the owner decides to borrow 500 from the bank. The asset is increased.
However, the company now owes the bank money.
Cash l200 + Photocopier 300 =Total: l500 (Assets)
This money owed to the bank is called a Liability:
Capital l000 + Loan 500 = Total l500 (Capital + Liabilities)
Therefore the Accounting Equation is:
"ssets < Liabilities = #apital
#ost - money that is spent on maintaining a business. This includes wages, equipment, etc.
!;pense - is a cost that benefits the company in an accounting period.


Questions
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B'n+"n(
Ban.ing
The pictures below show some of the everyday items and documents used in banking. Match each
of these with the appropriate word from the following list.
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/on0t ban. on it1
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The banking sector has been radically affected by technological change, especially automation, to
the extent that the industry is nearly unrecognisable compared to twenty years ago. People are
beginning to ask themselves, "What is a bank?"
he branch
Customers are now far more likely to transact business using a cashpoint machine than facing a
teller across the counter. Speed, efficiency and convenience seem to be the key factors in retail
banking these days. As competition between banks increases, the ability to provide new and more
flexible products and services distinguishes winners from losers in the market. Banking by
telephone is set to become the norm for most personal clients within the next decade; the
customer need never enter his or her local branch.
However, there is a price to be paid for these changes. Thousands of jobs have been lost in the
banking sector, and more are likely to go. The image of banking has become tarnished; along with
many complaints about impersonal service and computer error, many people dislike the more
obvious sales role of banking staff. So, have banks allowed themselves to be seduced too quickly
by the promise of technology? Or, do we customers expect too much of our bank these days? Do
we need to change our thinking and accustom ourselves to a different view of what banks can and
cannot do?
&lobali>ation
Another issue in banking is the question of globalization. lt is not so many years ago that the term
"global player" was on the lips of bankers in many countries across Europe, a proud boast in the
faces of less adventurous provincial rivals. European banks made expensive purchases in the
United States and elsewhere, some more successful than others. Cultural differences and ill-
considered strategies have since shown that there is more to the process than simply putting a
logo on a letterhead. While it is certainly true that banks need to follow their customers and to be
present in emerging markets, some have felt that they would prefer to be national banks with an
international presence, rather than truly multinational institutions.
So where does banking go from here? The industry is changing so rapidly that it would need a
brave man to answer that question with any degree of confidence. Two things are, however,
certain. Firstly, the information revolution that is taking place in all sectors of the industry will
continue to have far-reaching effects within financial institutions. Secondly, as a result of those
changes, a bank of the twenty-first century will bear little resemblance to its historical forebears
founded six hundred years ago.

Questions
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rue or 7alse
Please correct the false statements

-ocabulary
Find synonyms for the following words in the text.
Con$!uso
&on!ecer uma lngua estrangeira dar'l!e'# in(meras possibilidades$ tais como)
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Ampliar neg"cios. As transaes internacionais reali*am'se maioritariamente em ingls.
+er mais oportunidades no mercado de trabal!o.
Ampliar o con!ecimento de novas culturas.
%spero que este manual o ten!a ajudado.
0ibliografia
Gramtica de lngls Nvel Al/A2
Texto Editora
http://www.aulafacil.com/lnglesnegocio
RE,ER-NCIAS BIBLIOGR,ICAS:
Aula Fcil lngls - website
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