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Language as the visual: Exploring the intersection of linguistic and visual language in manga 1 Giancarla Unser-Schutz Abstract: In manga

studies, a distinction is made between linguistic text (language) and visual language !owever, because linguistic text is mediated b" visual structures, there is a a tendenc" to assume that it is a secondar" element I would argue, however, that examination o# both languages might give a better idea o# how manga #unctions, and start that $rocess here b" loo%ing at two manga text t"$es: handwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments &isuall" di##erentiated #rom other texts, and more common in series #or girls (shjo-manga), I com$are them with 'tsu%a(s (1))*) highl"-visual monologues #rom 1)+,s-1).,s shjo-manga, and demonstrate similarities to /a%euchi(s (0,,1) mediator and s$ectator characters, and argue that these texts o##er a sense o# closeness to authors while also visuall"-coding data in terms o# relevance 2hile non-essential secondary text, their visual-encoding o##ers a s$ace o# d"namic inter$retation, with readershi$s able to ignore or read them as $er their needs Keywords: manga - linguistics - visual language - sh34o 1. Language in manga and the intersection of the linguistic and the visual In manga studies, a distinction is commonl" made between language in the more #amiliar sense o# linguistic text and visual language 5anguage in this latter sense can be thought o# as how various visual structures act as units which can combine together to #orm a 6grammar7 such as is #ound in linguistic language: 65i%e se8uential units o# sound in s$eech or bodil" motions in sign languages, se8uential drawings ordered b" a rule s"stem9a grammar9literall" com$rise a visual language (:ohn 0,,), 1.+) 7 ;uch as with linguistic language, this visual language di##ers #rom communit" to communit", develo$ing di##erent grammars de$ending on the text being loo%ed at: (<merican) comics, (=rench) bande desin>e, (?a$anese) manga (:ohn, 1.+) <n im$ortant characteristic o# manga, however, could be said to be how language in the ever"da" sense o# linguistic language itsel# becomes $art o# the larger visual structure: <s textual data, language must alwa"s be $resented through a mediating visual mode, a $oint which ma" be $articularl" relevant to written ?a$anese, at least in terms o# how it is $erceived, due to arguments #or the 6gra$hic7 nature o# ?a$anese text itsel# such as @3r3 (1))1) ma%es 0 Aaturall", linguistic language does $la" an im$ortant role in manga in and o# itsel#, one not limited to moving narratives #orward through dialogue <s /a%euchi (0,,1) describes, in toda"Bs modern sutr-manga (6stor"-manga7, or narrative-driven manga), language can be used to create a Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1

sense o# time b" di##ering the amount o# text as a$$ro$riate to the scene being de$icted, thereb" develo$ing, altering and ad4usting readersB rh"thm, through which readersB sense o# time also changes as the narrative $rogressesD interestingl", @amada (0,,1) also ascribes a similar usage to onomato$oeia Einsui (0,,F) $oints out that language also $la"s a crucial role in creating characters through what he describes as yakuwari-go, 6role-$la"ing language7, or stereot"$ical s$eech $atterns used in clich>d st"les associated with the gender, occu$ation, origin or other such as$ects o# the characterD in more traditional linguistic terms, then, a t"$e o# stereot"$ical s$eech register 5anguage also a$$ears to be crucial in the reading $rocess as readers a$$ear to search #or it in $rocessing manga, $erha$s against the ex$ectations o# some such as Gommens (0,,,), who stresses how text is eliminated in order to encourage scan-reading: In an interesting ex$eriment b" <llen and Ingulsrud (0,,+), where readers traced in $en how the" read through their #avorite manga, the ma4orit" #irst #ocused on lines, onl" then #ollowed b" charactersB #acial ex$ressions !owever, while I would argue (Unser-Schutz, 0,1,D 0,,)) that these reasons are su##icient in themselves to be interested in language in manga, to trul" understand the role that linguistic language $la"s in manga it is necessar" to ta%e a ste$ bac% and consider its inherent interrelationshi$ with visual structures <s Aa%amura (0,,H) discusses, the com$lex relationshi$ between linguistic language and visual language in manga has resulted in a lac% o# thorough attention to how linguistic language #unctions in manga as there has been a tendenc" to assume that because language must be mediated b" visual structures, it is alwa"s a secondar" element subsumed to the visual !owever, #or $recisel" that reason it is essential that this relationshi$ be reviewed, and I would argue that b" loo%ing more thoroughl" at the wa" that linguistic language and visual language interact in manga, we might get a better idea o# how the" both #unction together to #orm a com$lete wor% /his $a$er is an attem$t to start this $rocess b" loo%ing at two s$ecial t"$es o# text in manga, handwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments Ii##erentiated #rom other text t"$es $rimaril" b" their visual $resentation, I will argue that these texts encode data #or readers into more and less JessentialB reading, and acting as visual clues to allow readers to choose between di##erent inter$retations <t the same time, as handwritten text s$ea%s more strongl" o# a JwriterB, I will suggest that authorial comments are es$eciall" able to create a sense o# communit" with authors to those readers so desiring one K# course, the intersection between linguistic language and visual language has been loo%ed at be#ore 2ithin that, there has in $articular been much research on the gra$hic nature o# onomato$oeic ex$ressions 2riting on the semiotics o# language in manga, Aumata argues that 6one can thin% o# such language as something which is situated between written and s$o%en language, and between the linguistic and the non-linguistic (1).), 1F) 7 2hile the #ormer $oint Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 0

re#ers to how manga uses written language to re$resent s$o%en s$eech, the latter $oint is the result o# how language in manga utilizes both text and s"mbols, i e , visual and linguistic elements Aumata(s latter $oint was made with $articular re#erence to onomato$oeia, where the use o# s"mbols with text means that 6such text and s"mbols are no longer ex$ressing linguistic sounds alone (1F) 7 /his results in 6$assive7 and 6active7 8ualities which Aumata argues are characteristic o# language in manga, the #ormer being how language acts to 6com$ensate7 #or audio in#ormation, and the latter how it uses such as$ects (s"mbols, etc ) visuall" =use (0,,*) #ocuses on the di##erence between handwritten and t"$ed text in manga, associating handwritten text with onomato$oeia and t"$e with lines <rguing that there is something inherentl" di##erent between handwritten and t"$ed text, he claims that handwritten text has a closer relationshi$ with drawings than t"$e, giving it a visual 8ualit" not #ound in t"$e !andwritten onomato$oeia are thus more gra$hicall"-oriented, with a large $art o# their meaning not derived not #rom their linguistic structure, but rather #rom how the" are $h"sicall" written, allowing him to argue that onomato$oeia can be 6read7 even #rom 4ust how the" are written visuall" Interestingl", similar arguments have been $ro$osed #or translations #rom ?a$anese, and Gommens (0,,,) writes that 6 #urther testi#ies to the visual integration o# the verbal 7 It could be argued, however, that the intersection o# linguistic and visual language is most obviousl" and im$ortantl" realized not within individual t"$es o# text such as lines or onomato$oeia, but in how linguistic in#ormation can be categorized into those di##erent t"$es themselves (lines, narration, etc ) b" their visual $resentation (i e , whether the" are in s$eech bubbles or written on the bac%ground, etc ) It is #irst and #oremost through the use o# such visual structures that we as readers are able to distinguish between text t"$es, clearl" an im$ortant $art o# reading manga In the $en-tracing ex$eriment described earlier, while readers seemed to search #or text, the" also seemed to di##erentiate what types of text the" loo%ed #or In $articular, readers seemed to search #or lines, but ignored other text t"$es, with some readers even activel" commenting that the" s%i$$ed them (<llen and Ingulsrud 0,,+, .) Given that the ma4or wa" #or telling whether a given $iece o# text which one has not "et read counts as lines or narration is their visual $resentation, these results suggest that readers use visual structural clues to determine what $arts the" will (and will not) read !owever, while the role o# visual structures has been well covered #or ma4or categories such as lines and thoughts such as in Groensteen (0,,+), language in manga actuall" a$$ears in man" other #orms which have not been as well described !andwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments have been given $articularl" limited attention, and the" ma" o##er a uni8ue chance to go Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) F it has to be noted that non-translated ?a$anese onomato$oeia are ver" visual, next to being additive, which

bac% to the most basic $oint o# the meaning o# the visual $resentation o# text9i e , how and why language in manga is visuall" encoded in these di##erent wa"s /he" ma" $rove to be o# interest in at least two regards =irst, the" have man" similarities with the more orthodox categories o# lines, thoughts and narration which a$$ear in well-established environments li%e s$eech bubbles or ca$tions, demanding one to consider wh" authors would choose to ma%e such distinctions Second, variations in their distributions across series suggest that the" are a $oint o# di##erence between genres: 2hile in#re8uent in general, handwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments are #ound with regularit" in shjo-manga (manga #or girls), but ver" in#re8uentl" in shnen-manga (manga #or bo"s) L" examining the use o# these unusual text t"$es, this article ho$es to lend clarit" not onl" to language(s role in manga, but also to the interaction o# language with the structures which ma%e u$ manga(s visual language /o that $ur$ose, I will #irst discuss how I came to distinguish between these t"$es in the creation o# a cor$us o# the language o# manga, to com$ile which I had to categorize all o# the linguistic text #ound within the sam$le series In identi#"ing the distribution o# text within the di##erent t"$es, it will become obvious that two text t"$es, bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments, the earlier corres$onding with handwritten lines and thoughts and the later with handwritten authorial comments, var" b" genre, which is reminiscent o# the genredi##erentiation the use o# highl" visual monologue-li%e texts characterizing the so-called $s"chological 1)+,s-1).,s shjo-manga, st"les which eventuall" #ell out o# $o$ularit" ('tsu%a, 1))*) In inter$reting their meaning, I will consider how bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments $ic%-u$ and di##er #rom these st"les, eventuall" suggesting that bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments might #unction similarl" to /a%euchi(s (0,,1) mediator and s$ectator characters <s st"les that seem to emerge #rom a new authorial $resence in shjo-manga magazines such as described b" Aanba (0,,1), I will also argue that these t"$es o# handwritten text o##er a sense o# $ersonalit" and closeness, both to the characters and authors, while also #unctioning to visuall"code the data in terms o# relevance, thereb" hel$ing readers search #or in#ormation more e##icientl" =inall", as what I will argue to be essentiall" secondary text, these text t"$es ma" not be necessar" to understand the narrative, but visuall" encoded as the" are, the" o##er a s$ace o# inter$retation #or d"namic reading, with di##erent readershi$s able to either ignore them or read them as $er their needs and desires 2. efining handwritten lines! thoughts and authorial comments /he t"$es o# text described here were originall" identi#ied as a $art o# a $ro4ect to create a cor$us, used here in the sense used in linguistics, or a bod" o# text collected $rimaril" #or language Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) *

research, o# manga /he $ro4ect(s goal was to attem$t to understand how language #unctions in manga through 8uantitative methodsD b" collecting all o# the text #rom a sam$le o# #our series each #rom shjo-manga and shnen-manga (/able 1), selected b" sales ran%ing and surve"s amongst high school students, I ho$ed to be able to understand both how much language is used and what %ind o# language, both in terms o# its lexicon and grammar, but also in terms o# what t"$es o# text (lines, onomato$oeia, etc ) one sees
"able 1: #eries in corpus Genre itle !uthor "L# $% &aga'ine -imi ni odoke ($rom Lessatsu &e to .ou) ShMna, Earuho ;argaret )ana @azawa, <i :oo%ie ,hjo-manga )odame -antaabire Ainomi"a, ()odame /antabile) /omo%o Eiss 0abu--on (Lovely Lessatsu /omplex) Aa%ahara, <"a ;argaret ba, /sugumiD *eath )ote Kbata, /a%eshi Sh3nen ?um$ &eitantei -onan <o"ama, G3sh3 Sh3nen Sunda" ,hnen-manga (*etective /onan) Eishimoto, )aruto ;asashi Sh3nen ?um$ +ne (iece Kda, Oiichir3 Sh3nen ?um$ (ublisher ShNeisha ShNeisha Eodansha ShNeisha ShNeisha Sh3ga%u%an ShNeisha ShNeisha

In order to create the cor$us, it was essential to categorize all the text so as to a$$ro$riatel" in$ut it in electronic #ormD to that end, I gave $riorit" to their visual $resentation, i e , whether the" were written in s$eech bubbles or on the bac%ground, in t"$e or handwritten, etc /his lead to eight #inal categories: Lines, thoughts, narration, onomatopoeia, background text, bac%ground lines/thoughts, comments and titles /heir de#initions and environments are summarized in /able 0 ;ost o# the de#initions #or the more traditional categories9lines, thoughts, narration and onomato$oeia9#ollow the discussions #ound in Groensteen (0,,+), Eai (1).)), etc , and #urther details about the $rocess o# de#ining the categories can be #ound in Unser-Schutz (0,,)) !owever, in com$iling the cor$us it was necessar" to obtain a level o# ob4ectivit" about what texts were relevant to the manga reading ex$erience, and thus a ma4or de$arture $oint #rom more traditional categorizations is that I also di##erentiated and included non-onomato$oeic text seen outside o# s$eech bubbles and ca$tions, etc D bac%ground text, bac%ground lines-thoughts, comments and titles are all #our such s$eech t"$es <s mentioned $reviousl", o# these #our, bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments are the two categories which encom$ass handwritten lines, thoughts and authorial comments 2hile comments re#er directl" to handwritten authorial comments, bac%ground lines-thoughts encom$ass both handwritten bac%ground lines and handwritten thoughts, a $oint which will be ex$lained below <s should be clear #rom /able 0, both o# these categories have Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1

/ategory 5ines /houghts

1nvironment Unbro%en s$eech bubbles Iot-tailed s$eech bubblesD s8uares or whited-out s$aceD directl" on the bac%ground S8uare ca$tionsD directl" on bac%ground

"able 2: "ypes of text seen in corpus /haracteristics <udible in#ormationD $rimaril" dialogue but some onomato$oeia as well :haracters( inner voicesD are not audible to other charactersD do not directl" address the reader

ext Generall" t"$e Generall" t"$e

Aarration

/ext in#orming readers o# $lot develo$ment, location, etc D $rimaril" descri$tive in nature, o#ten #eaturing Generall" t"$e $rivileged in#ormation un%nown to charactersD can be in an" $ersonD is not audible or accessible to characters Io not #orm #ull sentencesD are not s$o%en b" an"oneD St"lized, gra$hic are mimetic o# real world sounds or describe the nature handwritten text or atmos$here o# a scene /ext written as a $art o# the sceneD is not actuall" Gra$hicall" vocalized, such as advertisements, building names, etc D incor$orated into a$$ear as text to characters drawing /ext re$resenting secondar" lines or thoughtsD it is im$ossible to tell whether the" vocalizedD o#ten 4o%es, criticisms or other non-essential in#ormation !andwritten

Knomato$oeia Iirectl" written on bac%ground Lac%ground text Lac%ground lines-thoughts

Part o# drawing Iirectl" written on bac%ground, sometimes mar%ed b" straight lines Iirectl" written on bac%ground, sometimes mar%ed b" arrows or stars In ca$tionsD directl" on bac%ground

:omments /itles

Aotes or 4o%es about characters or itemsD su$$l" $rivileged in#ormation about the scenes that has not Generall" been otherwise made available to the readersD generall" handwritten non-essential in#ormation /itles or subtitles o# the cha$ter or series nameD authors( Generall" t"$e names

much in common with lines, thoughts and narration: Lac%ground lines-thoughts re$resent characters( conversational lines or their inner thoughts, 4ust lines and thoughts do 5i%ewise, comments $resent $rivileged in#ormation about characters or scenes in much the wa" o# narration !owever, the" also di##er in several %e" wa"s, and the" do not a$$ear to be com$letel" interchangeable /hree ma4or #actors can be noted here: /heir visual $resentationD their relationshi$ with charactersD and their roles in the narrative It should be noted, however, that these three $oints are closel" interrelated, and thus overla$ to a degree /he #irst #actor, their visual $resentation, is the most im$ortant di##erence between bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments and lines, thoughts and narration <s noted alread", bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments are written directl" on the drawings themselves In this sense, the" seem to #loat within the drawings, not anchored to an"thing in $articularD at most, there ma" be a set o# straight lines on the sides o# bac%ground lines-thoughts (=ig 1) or an arrow $ointing to an ob4ect or character with comments (=ig 0), but these are o$tional and inconsistentD more o#ten than not, the text a$$ears bare In com$arison, lines, thoughts and narration a$$ear in a set number o# clear environments 5ines as de#ined here onl" a$$ear in unbro%en s$eech bubbles /houghts tend to a$$ear in s$ecial cloud-sha$ed or bro%en s$eech bubbles, with tails #ormed b" lin%ed dotsD the" ma" also a$$ear in areas o# whited-out negative s$ace in the screen tone Aarration generall" a$$ears in s8uare ca$tions, sometime st"lized but o#ten 4ust a rectangular box Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) H

=ig 1Oxam$le o# bac%ground lines-thoughts surrounded b" arrows in Eishimoto ;asashi(s Aaruto (vol 1, $ 101)

=ig 0 Oxam$le o# comments with an arrow #rom @azawa <i(s Aana (vol 0, $age 1F1)

su$erim$osed on the drawing Loth thoughts and narration occasionall" a$$ear written directl" on the drawings, but in such cases the" abide b" the second ma4or visual di##erence between them and bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments: /he" a$$ear in t"$e, with furigana (small $honetic 6gloss7 readings o# kanji, :hinese characters, $laced next to the relevant character between lines o# text) when a$$licable F Lac%ground lines-thoughts and comments, however, are generall" written in ver" casual, handwritten text It is o#ten ver" small, and b" no means neat: Geaders ma" #ind that the" must strain their e"es to correctl" read some o# them, es$eciall" when the" are reading them re$rinted in the bunko or tankbon sizes, which are considerabl" smaller than the size the" are when originall" $rinted in magazine-#orm * /here are exce$tions to this, and one ma" occasionall" see handwritten text within s$eech bubbles or ca$tionsD in such cases, however, the #act that the" are in the a$$ro$riate environment #or lines, thoughts or narration overrides that the" are handwritten /he second #actor is that while it is generall" eas" to di##erentiate between these text t"$es b" how the" a$$ear within the text, the" also have a $eculiar relationshi$ with characters In regards to bac%ground lines-thoughts, which generall" do not #eature an" identi#"ing elements such as the tails on s$eech bubbles #or lines, it is di##icult to determine who the" are associated with, usuall" #orcing the reader to guess that the" belong to the character the" are closest to Lut this is not alwa"s $ossibleD in man" cases, the" are se$arated #rom characters com$letel", or the closest characters are essentiall" indistinguishable 6extras7 (=ig F) Aaturall", there are times when it can also be di##icult to tell who a $articular s$eech bubble is associated with, but the inclusion o# tails,

Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11)

whether lines, triangles or dots, ma%es it is easier #or readers to inter$ret the text $ro$erl" @et combining the di##icult" in ascribing bac%ground lines-thoughts to individual characters with the #act that the" are generall" short, sni$$et-li%e texts ma%es it is o#ten near im$ossible to tell i# the" are even meant to audible: 2hile the" sometimes a$$ear to #orm $art o# a conversation, the" are more o#ten than not not res$onded to, leaving it a m"ster" as to whether or not the" were meant to be heard b" other characters or sim$l" $ersonal remar%s made onl" #or the 6s$ea%ers7 themselves /he reason that bac%ground lines-thoughts are com$iled into one categor" derives directl" #rom this observation :omments also have an unusual relationshi$ with characters which di##erentiates them #rom narration <s Gommens (0,,,) discusses, narration in manga is %e$t to a

=ig F Oxam$le o# bac%ground minimum, usuall" onl" to ex$lain what is not obvious b" the lines-thoughts which a$$ear with drawings themselves <s a result, much o# the narration we see shell-li%e, extra characters #rom ShMna Earuho(s Eimi ni /odo%e sim$l" acts to $rovide re#erential in#ormation to the scene such (vol 1, $ 10.) as the date, time or location Oven when narration is longer or more ex$ressive than this, it is generall" a $art o# an interior narrative, such as with the #irst-$erson narrator #ound in )ana /his narrator is, we come to understand, Eomatsu Aana, and there is consistentl" a ga$ between the tense she uses in her narration and the scenes readers encounter: 2hile the scenes occur right be#ore our e"es, to Eomatsu Aana, the" are all things o# a time gone b", as noted b" her consistent use o# the $ast tense <s a result o# this ga$, readers come to understand that something has ha$$ened, to which we will eventuall" become $riv" to Eomatsu Aana(s narration in this sense is im$ortant to setting u$ the stor", and locates her directl" within the events /hus, even such identi#iable narrators do not %now about the $roduction o# the manga, or even all o# the scenes Oven i# the" have %nowledge about the events b" being in a di##erent tense #rom the scenes, the" do not %now ever"thing about all o# the characters Kn the other hand, the s$ea%ers o# comments %now things about characters that other characters should not %now, and that other characters themselves ma" not %now, either /he" ma" be critical, com$laining about characters( actions or about some ga$ in realit", and even sometimes about the drawings themselves (=ig *) In this sense, comments seem to be motivated di##erentl" #rom the narration, and the" exist outside o# the interior narrativeD while the" are closel" #amiliar with the characters, the (s$ea%ers( o# comments are not involved as Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) .

$artici$ants themselves /he third and #inal #actor is that both bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments have a uni8ue role within the narrative <s one might $redict, in com$arison with lines, thoughts and narration, bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments are inherentl" secondar" texts which o##er readers non-essential in#ormation 2hereas lines, thoughts and narration all #eature in#ormation which can generall" be assumed to be essential to understanding the stor" to some degree,1 what we see in bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments is notD the" are 4o%es, notes, ex$lanations or other t"$es o# in#ormation which, while $erha$s interesting, are not necessar" to understand the stor" /hese t"$es o# text ma" be s%i$$ed over b" the hurried reader, who would not miss an"thing exce$t $erha$s an extra de$th or humorD the" would still be able to success#ull" understand the going-ons o# the narrative <s hinted above, this secondar" nature o# bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments ma" be understood b" di##erences in the use o# furigana In manga which #eature furigana, lines, thoughts and narration, as t"$ed text, are all sub4ect to having furigana, whereas bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments are not Interestingl", this aligns them with bac%ground text9text which has been gra$hicall" incor$orated into the drawings, such as advertisements and building names9which also do not #eature furigana 2hile the lac% o# furigana on bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments ma" be $artiall" attributed to the #act that, as handwritten text, the" do not have the s$ace to allow #or it, I would =ig * Oxam$le o# a $ro$ose that it is also because the" are not essential readingD whether critical comment (QSude ni hanzai Q readers choose to #ull" read them is their own choice, but because readers QIt(s alread" criminalQ) do not need them to #ull" understand the text, it ma" not be necessar" to in Ainomi"a /omo%o(s Aodame ma%e sure that all readers have access to them 5i%e bac%ground text, the" Eantaabire (vol 0 $ ma" add to the atmos$here, but can be s%i$$ed over without harming one(s 1FH) abilit" to understand the overall #low Kn the other hand, lines, thoughts and narration a$$ear with the understanding that readers will and must read them to #ull" understand the textD thus furigana has to be given to such exam$les In a similar vein, the sometimes mess", di##icult to read, casual handwriting o# bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments also suggests that authors are not as concerned with ma%ing sure the" are com$rehensible to all readers Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) )

F 5ocating bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments: /heir relationshi$ with genre <lthough their $resentation within the text allows enough ambiguit" in their status to $revent bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments #rom being wholl" absorbed into the traditional categories o# lines, thoughts and narration, one might still as% wh" the" should not sim$l" be treated as some variation o# those t"$es !ere, however, it is interesting to consider the #act that bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments actuall" show a ver" mar%ed and distinct variation in distribution (/able F) H <lthough the" a$$ear in#re8uentl" com$ared with the other categories, both bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments a$$ear at least occasionall" in shjo-manga, but minimall" at best in shnen-manga In shjo-manga, bac%ground lines-thoughts seem to a$$ear on a regular basis, coming in at an average o# H .FR o# all characters, and a$$earing a little less than once ever" three $ages (, F+ entries-$age), as o$$osed to shnen-manga, where the" average at , F0R 2hile comments are signi#icantl" less common, the" are still seen regularl" irregularl" in shjo-manga (, +*R o# all characters), but almost never in shnen-manga (, ,HR)
"able $: Genre /itle -imi ni odoke Iata 5ines ** 10R 1+ ..R H1 1,R +, ,+R 11 )FR HF )1R 1) 01R +0 01R 1* ++R H1 .FR HH ,*R +1 *1R +, +*R ., 0FR 1+ *HR H) *FR +F HFR .H 1FR H+ 0)R +H .+R H, .1R +1 *)R /houghts 1,1F+ 11,1)1 HF1 .,HH) +FF ),11H +,H ),F*F F,0,+ *F,11) H0, 11,F01 +1+ 1,,*1H +,F 1,,0+0 ), 1,)F) 0,1F, F+,)*. 1,FF+ .1,,H+ Aarration , .+R 1 10R 1 F+R 1 H1R 0 ,FR F 01R 1 0HR 1 +)R 0 0)R 0 )*R , +1R , +0R 1 01R 1 H*R , )FR 1 )HR 1 0*R 1 0HR 1 ,1R 1 FFR 1 H)R 0 10R istribution of text across categories :ategor" Knomato$oeia 1,0F1 1,*0, **) 1,1*+ )*H F,+,0 1,,0H F,1++ F,H1H 1*,0*H *FF 1,1*. +FF 0,011 1,1.0 F,HFH 1,010 1,+*) F,H,, 1F,1.. +,01H 0+,*F* Lac%ground text 1 ..R 1 00R F *+R F .+R * F*R * )1R F )HR 0 ..R F FHR F 11R ) )FR . .1R 0 ),R 1 +HR F 10R 1 .FR 1 1*R , .*R * ,)R F +1R F +0R F **R Lac%ground lines-thoughts )F+ 1* 1)R ),F1, 11 ..R *+) . )FR *,.)+ H 1,R F1* H ,)R F,,1. * .+R 0HF * 1)R 0,,F* F ,.R 0,,FF . +1R 1),0)) H .FR 0 , ,*R . , ,1R 1 , ,0R 1 , ,,R )H 1 .0R +). 1 *,R 01 , FHR 1*) , 01R 10, , 11R )1H , F0R 0,11F * +.R 0,,011 F 1,R :omments .) H)0 0F 11H 1F) 1,,+0 F* 1H+ 0.1 0,,.+ 1 F)R , ..R , *FR , 01R 0 F)R 1 +1R , 1)R , 01R 1 00R , +*R , ,,R , ,,R , ,,R , ,,R , *,R , 0)R , ,,R , ,,R , 1,R , ,HR , H.R , F)R /itles 1* 11+ 1, 1*) 1. 11H 10 11, 1* 1+0 F, 0.1 F1 F.* F0 F1* 0) F+. 100 1,*,1 1+H 1,)+F , 00R , 0,R , 1)R , 0,R , F1R , 01R , 01R , 1+R , 0FR , 0,R , H*R , F0R , 1FR , *.R , H1R , H0R , *)R , 1*R , 1HR , *+R , F)R , F*R /otal H,*0F +.,F*+ 1,FHH +1,F)+ 1,.,) H0,+HF 1,+F1 H1,)+0 0F,FFF 0.0,*+) *,HH0 ),,F,1 1,.)1 +),++. 1,0.* 1H,.H. 1,),1 H),.F1 01,+F. 0)H,+.0 *1,,+1 1+),0H1 1* 01R 1F 1FR 11 )1R 1F ,0R 10 .)R 1, .FR 10 +FR 11 F)R 1,, ,,R 1,, ,,R 1, F*R 11 1)R 1F ,+R 1F ++R 11 +0R ) .0R 1F ,)R 10 ,HR 1,, ,,R 1,, ,,R 1,, ,,R 1,, ,,R

O 0,.F* : *1,F*. O F,F,, )ana : 10,.01 O F,0*) )odame -antaabire : *,,1FF O F,F)H 0abu-on : *+,H1. O 10,++) /otal,hjomanga : 1.1,)H* O F,,+) *eath)ote : H*,1,H O *,1H+ &eitantei -onan : H*,,,. O F,,FH )aruto : F),*.+ O *,F*1 +ne (iece : H,,1*1 /otal,hnen- O 1*,H0+ manga : 00.,1*H O 0+,*,H <ll Series : *1*,11, Aote: OSOntriesD :S:haracters ,hjo-manga ,hnen- manga

1+ +,R 1H 1) ),R .+H 11 +HR 0.. 11 1,R *,0FF 10 H0R 11. 11 1HR 0,,11 10 F1R +0 1* 1HR 1,1.F 1F +*R 1F* 11 0HR .,F,+ 1F F,R F1 1H )*R H*) 10 1+R +1 1F ,HR 1,F,. 1F F,R *) 1. ,+R 1,11F 1 1FR +F 0 +.R ..F ) .,R 00. 10 +)R F,)1F 11 .*R +H0 1F ))R 10,0H,

1) 0FR 101 H )0R )1F . F+R 1.H 0 ,1R 0,)01 1H 0)R 010 1 ),R F,111 1+ .)R 00H 1 *0R 1,),, 11 H+R +.1 1 ,*R .,..1 ) 0)R *HF 1 +1R +,).. 10 **R 1+1 0 .FR 1,*,H 00 F+R 1H1 H F)R 1,,*0 01 00R )1 . 0FR 1.. 1H 1HR .), * **R 11,,0* 1H 1,R 1,H+1 * +*R 1),),)

01 1HH 01 1HH F,H 0,01F

/hese are also the onl" categories that one can sa" reall" show a consistent division along genre lines 2hile when loo%ing at averages, shnen-manga seem to have considerable more lines than shjo-manga (+H .+R vs H1 .FR o# characters), the variation within series is actuall" ver" extreme, going #rom as low as H) *FR ()aruto) to as high as .H 1FR (+ne (iece) in shnenmanga, and #rom as low as 1+ ..R (-imi ni odoke) to as high as +0 01R (0abu-on) in shjomanga /hus while the range still $laces the shjo-manga with the least amount o# lines below the same-ran%ing shnen-manga9and vice-versa #or the highest9there is also much overla$ in their ranges Similar observations ma" be made #or both onomato$oeia and thoughts In the case o# bac%ground lines-thought and comments, however, the onl" shnen-manga to use either text t"$e Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1,

with an" #re8uenc" is )aruto (bac%ground lines-thoughts: 1 *,R, comments: , 0)R)D their use in )aruto is, however, extremel" restricted, showing u$ almost exclusivel" to describe the contradictions in the burikko (#a%e-cute) character Sa%ura(s outside demeanor and inner thoughts (=ig 1) <ll the other series showed no exam$les o# comments, and less than , 01R #or bac%ground lines-thoughts

=ig 1 Oxam$le o# comments and bac%ground lines-thoughts in Eishimoto ;asashi(s Aaruto (vol 1 $ 111)D ex$lanator" text on the le#t Sa%ura(s #orehead (QUchi naru Sa%uraQ Q/he inner Sa%uraQ) categorizes as comments, whereas the handwritten text above her (QEou "uu no %e%%ou su%i nano "ouuTTQ QI reall" li%e these %inda thingsTQ) categorize as bac%ground lines-thoughts Interestingl", this is not the #irst time textual di##erences have been given #or di##erences in genre <s 'tsu%a (1))*) discusses, visuall" distinct text-t"$es were #ound in the #orm o# highl" visual narrative-monologue-li%e texts characterizing the so-called $s"chological mid 1)+,s and earl" 1).,s shjo-manga, st"les which eventuall" #ell out o# $o$ularit" and criticized as being di##icult to read 'tsu%a writes that 6 in shnen-manga, aside #rom handwritten-onomato$oeia, , but shjo-manga has much text outside o# s$eech the ma4orit" o# text is in s$eech bubbles

bubbles <nd, to $ut it sim$ler, this is most li%el" the onl" standard b" which to di##erentiate Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 11

between shjo-manga and shnen-manga (1))*, H1) 7 /his text that he describes as a$$earing outside o# s$eech bubbles generall" corres$onded to interior thoughts or monologues, which, according to his ex$lanation, were develo$ed b" #emale manga-writers in the mid 1)+,s o# the 0*gumi, a grou$ o# shjo-manga writers born in the 0*th "ear o# the Shouwa $eriod (1)*)) with a distinctl" new, literar"-bent See%ing to ex$ress characters( $s"chological de$th amongst the 6discover" o# the interior7, the" develo$ed new #orms o# text which lead to a new s"stemization o# interiorit" in shjo-manga !owever, 'tsu%a notes that with the emergence o# (#emale) shjo-manga readers who #ound it di##icult" to read such interior-oriented shjo-manga, these t"$es o# text seemed to disa$$ear or #all out o# #avor: /he main di##icult" #or such readers9and male, non-readers o# shjo-manga9was to be #ound not in the drawings or narratives, but in their inabilit" to get used to the 6multi-la"ering7 within which shjo-manga #inds its 6essence7, and the inabilit" o# 6their sense to #ollow the words written as the (interior words o# consciousness( that a$$ear li%e $oems (1))*, H+)7 in shjo-manga 2hen such text outside o# s$eech bubbles did get used, it was in extremel" restricted, $atterned wa"s that di##ered #rom their original t"$es: 6 /he characteristic use o# words outside o# s$eech-bubbles sto$$ed at best at the level o# (lines within their hearts(, and the #orm o# ex$ression #ound in shjo-manga which ob4ecti#ied the sel# to in#init" was abandoned (H.) 7 In this wa", 'tsu%a argues that there was a reversal in shjo-manga trends characterized b" a retreat bac%wards to the more traditional #orms o# shjo-manga ex$ressions In some wa"s, the shjo-manga collected here seem to su$er#iciall" su$$ort 'tsu%a(s descri$tion o# such $s"chologicall"-driven shjo-manga <s noted above, the" seem to use less lines than shnen-manga, and the" also seem to have a slight edge on the number o# thoughts (11 0HR vs 10 +)R o# characters)D however, the number o# thoughts varies radicall" between series In #act, the shnen-manga )aruto uses more thoughts (1. ,+R) than all but one shjomanga series, -im ni odoke (1) ),R) /hus, not onl" have shjo-manga lost some $s"chological de$th, as 'tsu%a asserted, but shnen-manga ma" also have gained some + Kn the other hand, however, bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments seem in some wa"s rather similar to the $atternization o# 'tsu%a(s interior monologues which came a#ter their decline in the late 1).,s 2hile bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments actuall" have some visual similarities with 'tsu%a(s interior monologues, their roles di##er greatl"D comments are clearl" not associated with individual characters, and bac%ground lines-thoughts also o##er a sense o# lightheartedness and humor where 'tsu%a(s monologues o##er re#ection and de$th It is not hard to associate bac%ground lines-thoughts with the 6lighter7 lines within their hearts that 'tsu%a sa"s his interior monologues were reduced to, but he also describes a t"$e o# text ver" similar to comments as well, writing that Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 10

a#ter the decline o# the interior monologue, one began to see critical texts that a$$eared to be commenting #rom outside o# the interior narrative =inding these t"$es in two $o$ular series #rom the earl" 1)),s, Sa%ura ;omo%oBs /hibi &aruko-chan and Sasa%i Aori%oBs *oubtsu no +isha-san, 'tsu%a writes that Loth o# these series do not use them UStext outside o# s$eech bubblesV #or 6interior7 ex$ressions, but as a $lace to insert a %ind o# narration Lut the distance between the narration and characters is ver" interesting /his narration loo%s at characters ob4ectivel", and adds accurate 4abs in res$onse to their actions and $s"cholog" In the $ast words which corres$onded to the 6interior7 were $ut in their $lace, through which readers were uni#ied with characters to an even excessive degree !owever, Sa%ura and Sasa%i invite readers to the outside o# the characters and the stories b" $lacing narration thereD characters are thoroughl" ob4ectived b" this narration (1))*, +1) 2hile the text is not accom$anied b" exam$les, and he still ma%es no di##erentiation between t"$e and handwritten text, 'tsu%a(s descri$tion here seems to corres$ond closel" to the humor and critical stance which characterizes commentsD in #act, examining the #irst #ew volumes o# both series, I #ound several exam$les o# what would li%el" be classi#ied as comments %. &nterpreting the roles of bac'ground lines(thoughts and comments 2hile 'tsu%a(s argument o##ers an interesting twist to the $ossible evolution o# commentli%e t"$e texts, it must also be admitted that the time line which is laid out here ma" not be entirel" re#lective o# realit" Kne alread" sees exam$les o# these %inds o# texts in the wor%s o# authors li%e /a%emi"a Eei%o, a member o# the 0*-gumi in the 1)+,s and .,s (=ig H, =ig +), $lacing them in the same time $eriod and context as 'tsu%a(s interior =ig H Oxam$le o# comments (handwritten text on bottom: Q@abuiteiru no dehanai Auideru noTQ QShe(s not tearing them o## She(s ta%ing them o## Q) in /a%emi"a Eei%o(s Izuar3n Iensetsu #rom 1).F (vol F, $ +)D /o%"o: Sh3ga%u%an) monologues, and even 'tsu%a himsel# is somewhat contradictor" on this $oint ) 2hen handwritten texts began to emerge is a 8uestion which I will touch on below, but it is im$ortant here to note that what is clear is that 'tsu%a does not seem to value these %inds o# texts as highl" as he does his interior monologues !e goes on to em$hasizes that the drama o# both series is ver" close to shnen-manga or seinenmanga (manga #or adult men) in terms o# the ex$ressions used because the" are $rimaril" moved on b" lines, giving them a di##erent %ind o# 1F
.

Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11)

ease o# reading not #ound in old-st"le shjo-mangaD this, he sa"s, is one o# the #actors #or their becoming best sellers (1))*, +1) /his is not something that can be said o# the series included in the cor$us here, howeverD as has become obvious, bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments in #act do not seem to be #ound in shnen-manga, and while two o# shjo-manga, )odame and 0abu-on, could be described as being comedic, the" are not, however, $rimaril", 6e$isodic7D their narratives do advance, as do their characters, who gain de$th and new as$ects to their $ersonalities as the stories $rogress /he other two series, )ana and -imi ni odoke, both are also $rimaril" dramas which have the develo$ment o# their characters at heart, and even though the $ercentage o# 6shnen-manga-li%e7 lines goes down, -imi ni odoke in $articular has the second highest averagenumber o# comments a#ter )odame -antaabire Lac%ground lines-thoughts and comments ma" $la" a larger role in the narrative than sim$l" adding humor to the text <s I suggest elsewhere (UnserSchutz 0,1,), there are man" similarities between bac%ground /a%euchi(s mediators lines-thoughts (0,,1) (baikaisha), and comments (bkansha) which to and he s$ectators

=ig + Oxam$le o# bac%ground lines-thoughts (handwritten text le#t o# the girl) in /a%emi"a Eei%o(s 2atashi wo describes as techni8ues o# ex$ression which 6draw /su%i made /suretetteT (originall" $ublished in 1).1D #rom $ *1 o# readers into the manga (F)) 7 /a%euchi argues that /a%emi"a Eei%o Xenshuu ) (1)..), there are two t"$es o# narratives occurring /o%"o: Eado%awa-shoten) simultaneousl" within manga, an internal narrative res$ectivel", and an external narrative 1, <n interior narrative is the conce$t o# a narrative which includes within itsel# the stor" (the develo$ment o# the narrative in res$ect to a time-axis) and the $lot (the networ%s o# cause and e##ect related to the narrative) /he external narrative are the elements o# the narrative which, while the" indirectl" $artici$ate in the develo$ment o# the stor", are in attendance within a se$arate, outside #rame, and are in a su$$lemental location, so to s$ea% I would li%e to suggest that the com$lete narrative is constructed o# both o# these $arts 2ithin this #ramewor%, mediator characters, which he states are essentiall" the $lacement o# 6authors( #aces7 within the text, are not dee$l" involved with the interior narrative, but rather loo% at it #rom the sidelines W i e , the" are a $art o# the external narrative L" introducing a character 6labeled7 as the author writers can hint at how the stor" will develo$, and 6#ul#ill the role o# guide Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1*

to the drama (*,) 7 <s he describes #or <nno ;o"oco(s use o# a 6;o"oco character7, the" also, however, bridge the distance between readers and authors and ma%e the manga more $ersonal Kn the other hand, s$ectators observe what is ha$$ening #rom the inside, #rom a $osition on the sidelines, bridging the develo$ment o# events <s non-main characters, the role o# observers is to 6bring a sense o# s"m$ath" to readers7, 6encourage readers to identi#" with characters7 and 6hel$ understand the situation (1)) 7 In the sense that the" seem to re$resent the voices o# authors, then, the $arallel between comments and /a%euchi(s mediator characters is clearD comments are similarl" $rivileged, being omniscient about the scenes bring de$icted, and having the same sense o# distance between themselves and the stories as mediators do =urther, their critical touches o##er much o# the same $arod"-li%e humor that /a%euchi observes (*)) 2hile bac%ground lines-thoughts ma" seem more distant #rom s$ectator characters as the" are used b" a wide variet" o# characters, central and not, it should be remembered that the" are o#ten used with shell #igures (=ig F above) In cases li%e these, bac%ground lines-thoughts seem to act as noise, #illing out the scenes and o##ering new $oints o# view in much the same wa" as s$ectators Oven when the" are used b" main characters, however, the common ga$ between the main text (lines and thoughts) and what we see in bac%ground lines-thoughts gives a di##erent sense o# $ers$ective, #illing out characters and o##ering readers a new wa" o# loo%ing at the text in a wa" similar to /a%euchi(s s$ectators ). *eturning to the basics: "hin'ing about the need to use different textual styles <lthough a $ossible context and role #or these text t"$es has been de#ined, it is not "et clear wh" the" should be $resented visually as the" are /o bring the circle to a close, the #inal section deals with this %e" 8uestion o# what gra$hicall"-di##erent writing does #or manga b" examining the $eculiar role o# handwritten text !andwritten text is nothing new to manga, $er se 2hile not a thorough review o# its usage b" an" means, i# one goes bac% to the earl" one #rame $olitical cartoons #ound in okyo (uck #rom the ;ei4i $eriod (1.H.-1)10) one #inds that handwritten text is 8uite common, and it can also be #ound in wor%s li%e 1noshima -amakura /htan 0yok b" /aguchi Lesa%u, which Shimizu (1))1, 1,+) describes as one o# the earliest exam$les o# stor"manga in the ;ei4i $eriod !owever, with the develo$ment o# the manga mar%et a#ter 22II, a new norm seems to have develo$ed, with t"$e emerging as the ma4or wa" to write most text
11

5oo%ing at ,h-chan no 2ken, a $o$ular series that straddled the border o# e-monogatari ($icture stories) and manga $ublished #rom the end o# the /aish3 $eriod (1)10-1)0H) to the #irst $art o# the Sh3wa $eriod (1)0H-1).)), aside #rom the exclusive use o# katakana (a ?a$anese s"llablar"), the earlier wor%s #rom the late /aish3 $eriod di##er $rimaril" in that while narration9in Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 11

the gutters and margins between $anels9is written in t"$e, the writing within s$eech bubbles is all handwritten In the wor%s dating #rom the $ost war $eriod 0, "ears later, however, not onl" has all the text reverted to hiragana (a di##erent ?a$anese s"llabar" now used as the standard #or writing #unction words) and kanji mixed text, but it is also written exclusivel" in t"$e 10 Kne can h"$othesize several reasons #or the switch to t"$e as the ma4or wa" o# writing in manga: It is consistent in st"le and easier #or readers to $rocessD it can be mani$ulated b" other t"$es-#onts #or more interesting st"lesD and the emergence o# new technolog" ma" have made it eas" to incor$orate it into non-linear text such as it a$$ears in s$eech-bubbles !owever, there seems to have been a reemergence o# handwritten text starting in the 1)+,s coinciding with new changes in the roles o# authors in shjo-manga <s Aanba (0,,1) describes, the then-booming 1)+,s shjo-manga di##ered #rom its 1)H,s counter-$arts in several wa"s, including the emergence o# furoku (s$ecial extra gi#ts with magazines) and the disa$$earance o# male writers Os$eciall" im$ortant, however, was the emergence o# the 6manga-writer as star7 model shjo-manga authors, who in the 1)1,s shared s$ace within more-general girls( magazines, were originall" not given much consideration, and even in the 1)H,s it was not uncommon to #ind shjo-manga $ublished without an" author credits Starting in those "ears, however, one began to see 6author corners7 or other s$aces #or authors to write about what was going on in their lives, give advice to readers and comment about their series, amongst other things /hese #orms o# text reall" began to boom in the 1)+,s9and thus coinciding with the 0*-grou$ and the develo$ment o# the interiorit"9encouraging the #ormation o# a sense o# an 6imagined communit" ( s' no kydtai)7 between readers and authors (Aanba 0,,1, 0,0), through which readers became both interested in and involved with authors 2riting on the connection between readers and authors as the same shjos, 'tsu%a argues that this emergence was characterized b" the use o# handwritten textD it was around this time that he began to see authors write comments not at all directl" related to the text such as notes to readers, o#ten in the cut areas outside o# $anels but also, occasionall", as he mentions in the case o# one wor% b" /achi%a%e !ide%o, directl" in the $anels themselves (1).), H1-H0) 2hile 4ust a $art o# the whole, with much o# this text being handwritten, not onl" did the relationshi$ between authors, readers and shjo-manga change, but that change was largel" mediated through handwritten text: 2riting #rom authors was encoded through this usage, giving it a distinct #lavor and s$ace within the text /hin%ing about how this relates to bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments, it is not di##icult to h"$othesize that comments in $articular might be considered a s$ecial #orm o# this %ind o# textD the" are a location #or authors to insert their voice in the text, ma%ing readers aware o# their relationshi$ in the creative $rocess <s ;ealing writes, Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1H

6hand-written text clearl" s$ea%s o# its author

(0,,F, *+),7 and thus readers who encounter it

will, i# onl" unconsciousl", associate it with some $erson Oven with the retreat o# the interior #rom shjo-manga, this similar awareness o# the existence o# manga writers has not changedD thus in this sense, it is $erha$s not sur$rising that these t"$es o# texts should still remain while 'tsu%a(s began to retreat <t the same time, i# one considers them to be similar to /a%euchiBs mediator characters, which have a long-established histor", then the" also have an organic $lace within the histor" o# manga ex$ressions /he same sense o# $ersonalit" and closeness that handwritten text gives to comments ma" also be a$$licable to bac%ground lines-thoughts 2hile the role o# bac%ground lines-thoughts ma" be a 6light7 #orm o# 'tsu%a(s interior monologues, one might suggest that the use o# handwritten text here is in #act a natural $rogression <s 'tsu%a himsel# writes, one might sa" that his s$ecial interior monologues reall" should have been written with hentai shjo-moji, a s$ecial t"$e o# writing st"le $o$ular with "oung girls in the 1)+,s and 1).,s t"$i#ied b" how it round it out characters: Lecause hentai shjo-moji were used as a wr"ing st"le to ex$ress "oung girls( (shjos() inner selves, the" are, he argues, inherentl" lin%ed to his interior monologues (1).), H*) 1F In this sense, 4ust as comments are better ex$ressed through handwritten text in that the" give them a $ersonalized #lavor o# the 6author7, bac%ground lines-thoughts might be considered to be better written b" hand because the" re$resent a $ersonal side o# characters <s /a%a"anagi comments while observing the usage o# di##erent t"$es o# writing in billboards, using handwritten text over t"$e ma" give a sense o# warmth and #amiliarit" to writing(0,,1, 0F*-0*F) /hus, even when bac%ground lines-thoughts are used with extras and side-characters, the use o# handwritten text ma" im$art them with a sense o# closeness or a $resence that would not be $ossible with t"$e
1*

K# course, handwritten text is not the onl" method o# ex$ressing the $ersonalities o# di##erent characters or authors, nor does it exclusivel" serve that $ur$ose Switching between t"$e and handwritten text ma" also o##er authors a strategic wa" o# dealing with text in that it allows authors to visuall"-code data as being more or less relevant, which is com$limented b" their a$$earance outside o# s$eech bubbles and ca$tions <s Gilreath reviews, there have been man" studies showing that 6gra$hic cues can greatl" im$rove $er#ormance #or virtuall" all reading strategies, ranging #rom care#ul serial reading to searching, surve"ing, browsing, s%imming and other #orms o# selective reading (1))F, F*0) 7 2e can ex$ect that manga should be no di##erent #rom other texts, and i# an"thing utilize such $oints all the more activel" as a mixed, visual media, and as <llen and IngulsrudBs (0,,+) ex$eriment showed, readers clearl" loo% #or di##erent t"$es o# text, with the visual re$resentation o# text clearl" an im$ortant #actor in choosing what to read /his a$$lies to bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments in two wa"s =irst, b" $lacing them outside o# Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1+

s$eech bubbles, authors are able to ta%e awa" #rom its #ocus as a ma4or item to be read: Geaders searching #or s$eech bubbles exclusivel" will automaticall" s%i$ them Second, b" writing them b" hand the" are also able to distinguish such text #rom other, more central text t"$es which can a$$ear outside o# s$eech bubbles such as thoughts In this wa", readers can search im$ortant in#ormation more e##icientl": /hose who wish to s%im can s%i$ right through such text, but those who wish to read thoroughl" ma" ta%e the time to absorb all o# the items, thereb" not onl" getting more in#ormation which might give a new de$th, humor o# insight into the events being de$icted 5oo%ing at earlier wor%s that do use texts o# a similar nature to the ones described here, one notices that the se$aration o# these %inds o# handwritten texts #rom s$eech bubbles and ca$tions ma" not "et have been com$lete =or exam$le, in the wor%s o# /a%emi"a Eei%o, one notices that text similar to comments and bac%ground lines-thoughts continue to be seen both in s$eech bubbles and on =ig . Oxam$le o# comment-li%e text within bubbles (handwritten text in the ca$tion in the bottom) in /a%emi"a Eei%o(s 2atashi wo /su%i made /suretetteT (originall" $ublished in 1).1D #rom $ 1H o# /a%emi"a Eei%o Xenshuu ) (1)..), /o%"o: Eado%awa-shoten) directl" on the drawings, suggesting that their $atternization was not "et com$lete (=ig .) In this sense, the real se$aration o# these %inds o# texts ma" be the ma4or di##erence between them and earlier t"$es /he visual encoding o# these texts ma" be $articularl" im$ortant given the s$ecial role the" ma" be #ul#illing Kn the one hand, not all readers ma" want a close sense o# 6communit"7 with authors, so that changing the wa" that the texts are written ma" o##er them the choice, i e , to $artici$ate in it or not through its consum$tion (Sreading) I#, #or exam$le, the $resence o# the authors was made more

obvious9such as through the use o# actual 6author characters79then readers who #elt that such authorial $resences too% awa" #rom the reading ex$erience ma" not be able to avoid reading them <t the same time, such texts ma" still #ill out the narrative through the roles o# mediators and s$ectators visuall"D encoded as it is b" handwritten text, the text alone, regardless o# its contents, ma" still create a sense o# multi$le voices 4ust b" being visible to readers because it im$lies that there is someone there with something to 6sa"7 +. ,onclusions 2riting on how t"$ogra$h" e##ects how text ma" be read, 2aller comments that (2)hile s$eech is on the whole s$ontaneous, text is a $lanned communication and ma%es a series o#assum$tion and $redictions about the reader It is, there#ore, the Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 1.

$roduct o# a design processD and whereas the $roduction o# a text involves $redictions ranging #rom the reader(s %nowledge and $ur$oses to his or her e"esight or the size o# the boo%shel#, clearl" our conce$t o# 6design7 must re#er not onl" to the visual a$$earance o# the document but to all as$ects o# in#ormation de#ined in the broadest manner I# 6literac"7 ma" be ta%en to re#er to the s%illed use o# the written word, it is as much a design as a linguistic issue (1).,, 0*FD em$hasis added)

It is interesting to consider 2aller(s $oint here in light o# the increasing attention given to the conce$t o# a 6manga (comics) literac"7, or a set o# s%ills necessar" to read manga and other comics e##ectivel" in wor%s (Ingulsrud and <llen, 0,,)D Aa%azawa, 0,,1) /his is clearl" a $art o# a larger trend o# assessing the s%ill sets necessar" to deal with man" di##erent %inds o# media, such as Eress (0,,F) does #or new media In the case o# manga, where linguistic language wal%s a #ine line between being a $urel" gra$hic entit" and one meant to re$resent words, the issue o# design could be said to be $articularl" im$ortant, as authors ma%e decisions about how to re$resent text in d"namic wa"s /he issue $resented b" the roles o# di##erent text t"$es in manga is one that is inherentl" connected with this %ind o# literac", and not 4ust what texts $resent in terms o# their contents but the wa" that those texts are $resented visually is a %e" $art o# this 2ith their main di##erences with other, more established text being how the" are $resented visuall", handwritten bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments o##er a $articularl" interesting view into how text, even as it acts as linguistic language, can be integrated into the visual structure Un#ortunatel", it was be"ond the sco$e o# this article to #ull" ex$lore the roots o# these texts, and to #urther the discussion advanced here, it will be necessar" to more #ull" trace their beginnings !owever, as I have argued, there a$$ears to be reason to thin% that these o#ten over-loo%ed texts $la" a vital role in the reading ex$erience &isuall" encoded as the" are, readers are able to choose how the" want to read, creating a d"namic element to the manga reading ex$erience which allows #or both scan-reading and #or the develo$ment o# dee$er, close readings @et regardless o# their linguistic context, their existence, $articularl" as handwritten text, alwa"s im$lies a writer, o##ering a sense o# de$th which is largel" created b" visual structures 2hile onl" one as$ect o# the larger $henomenon, it is in wa"s li%e this that linguistic language and visual language intertwine to o##er a dee$er manga ex$erience

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1)

-. .ibliography <llen, Eate and ?ohn Ingulsrud 0,,+ 6Strategies Used b" :hildren when Geading ;anga 7 -anda Gaigo *aigaku -iy 0,:1-1) <o"ama, Goushou 1))*-$resent &eitantei -onan /o%"o: Shouga%u%an :ohn, Aiel 0,,) 6?a$anese &isual 5anguage: /he Structure o# ;anga 7 In &anga3 !n !nthropology of Global and /ultural (erspective , edited b" /oni ?ohnson-2oods, 1.+-0,F Aew @or%: :ontinuum Loo%s :ouch, :hris 0,,, 6/he Publication =ormats o# :omics, Gra$hic Aovels, and /an%obon 7 4mage 5 )arrative, 1 =use, !ideto 0,,* &anga wo -aib uru /o%"o: :hi%uma Shob3 Gilreath, :harles / 1))F 6Gra$hic :ueing o# /ext: /he /"$ogra$hic and Iiagra$hic Iimensions 7 6isible Language, F:FFH-FH1 Groensteen, /hierr" 0,,+ he ,ystem of /omics /ranslated b" Lart Leat" and Aic% Agu"en ?ac%son: Universit" o# ;ississi$$i Press Ingulsrud, ?ohn C Eate <llen 0,,) 0eading 7apan /ool3 (atterns of &anga Literacy and *iscourse Pl"mouth: 5exington Loo%s Eai, ;utsur3 1).) 6;anga no Eotoba: ;ondai /ei%i 7 )ihongo-gaku, ):FF-F. Einsui, Satoshi 0,,F 68charu )ihongo3 .akuwari-go no )a'o /o%"o: Iwanami-shoten Eishimoto, ;asashi 1)))-$resent )aruto /o%"o: Shuueisha Eress, Gunther 0,,F Literacy in the )ew &edia !ge Aew @or%: Goutledge ;ealing, Stuart 0,,F 6&alue-added text: 2here Gra$hic Iesign meets Paralinguistics 7 6isible Language, 1:*1-1. Aa%amura, /adashi 0,,H 6Aobod"(s words: Kn the <s$ects o# 5anguage in ?a$anese comics in the 1)+,s-.,s 7 .amagata 9niversity $aculty of Literature 5 ,ocial ,ciences !nnual 0esearch 0eport F:0)-** Aa%azawa, ?un 0,,1 6Ievelo$ment o# &anga (:omic Loo%) 5iterac" in :hildren 7 In!pplied *evelopmental (sychology3 heory# (ractice an 0esearch from 7apan , edited b" Iavid 2 Shwalb, ?un Aa%azawa, Larbara ? Shwalb, 0F-*0 Greenwich, :/: In#ormation <ge Publishing Aanba, E34i 0,,1 6JSh34oB to iu Io%usha 7 In &anga no ,hakaigaku, edited b" Eo4iro ;i"ahara and ;asahiro Kgino, 1..-00, E"oto: Se%ai Shis3sha Ainomi"a, /omo%o 0,,1-0,,) )odame -antaabire /o%"o: Eoudansha Aumata, @oshi%o 1).) 6!"3%iron toshite ;ita ;anga no Eotoba 7 )ihongo-gaku, ):1F-1) Kda, Oiichirou 1))+-$resent +ne (iece /o%"o: Shuueisha Khba, /sugumi and /a%eshi Kbata 0,,F-0,,H *eath )ote /o%"o: Shuueisha Image C Aarrative, &ol 10, Ao1 (0,11) 0,

'tsu%a, Oi4i 1))* ,engo-manga no :ygen -;kan3 -igteki ,hintai no 7ubaku E"oto: !3z3%an 'tsu%a, Oi4i 1).) Shjo &in'oku-gaku3 ,eikimatsu no ,hinwa wo umugu <&iko no &atsue=> /o%"o: E3bunsha Gommens, <arnoud 0,,, 6;anga Stor"-/elling-Showing 7 4mage 5 )arrative, 1 Shimizu, Isao 1))1 &anga no 0ekishi /o%"o: Iwanami ShMna, Earuho 0,,1-$resent -imi ni odoke /o%"o: Shuueisha /a%a"anagi, @a"oi 0,,1 &oji no *e'ain wo .omu /o%"o: Soc"m /a%euchi, Ksamu 0,,1 &anga :ygengaku )y;mon /o%"o: :hi%uma Shoten Unser-Schutz, Giancarla 0,,) 6Ievelo$ing a /ext-Lased :or$us o# the 5anguage o# ?a$anese :omics (;anga) 7 Pa$er $resented at the 0,,) <merican <ssociation #or :or$us 5inguistics :on#erence, Odmonton, :anada, Kctober .-1, Unser-Schutz, Giancarla 0,1, 6Ox$loring the Gole o# 5anguage in ;anga: /ext /"$es, their Usages and their Iistributions 7 he 4nternational 7ournal of /omic !rt, 0-F:01-*F 2aller, Gobert 1)., 6Gra$hic <s$ects o# :om$lex /exts: /"$ogra$h" as ;acro-Punctuation 7 In (rocessing of 6isible Language# 6ol> 44, edited b" P < Eolers, ;O 2rolstad and ! Louma, 0*,-01F Aew @or%: Plenum Press @amada, Aa%ami 0,,1 6Eomi%%u Se%ai no Giongo-Gitaigo 7 In sukishima .utaka :akushi ,anju -inen -okugo-gaku 0onsh;, edited b" /su%ishima @uta%a !a%ushi San4u Einen%ai, +F0+H, /o%"o: E"N%o-shoin @azawa, <i 1)))-$resent )ana /o%"o: Shuueisha @3r3, /a%ashi 1))1 ,u'ushii )miso /o%"o: Lunshun-bun%o Giancarla Unser-Schutz Ioctoral Student, Graduate School o# Social Sciences, !itotsubashi Universit"

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1 0

/he author is solel" res$onsible #or all ?a$anese translations unless otherwise noted 2hile $ersonall" somewhat cautious towards arguments that over-estimate the gra$hic elements o# ?a$anese text, m" $oint in mentioning this is to stress how manga and ?a$anese are $o$ularl" $erceived, not, however, to $ass 4udgment on the validit" o# such arguments F 2hether or not a given series uses furigana is largel" determined b" the magazine it a$$ears in originall" and the age o# its imagined readershi$, with furigana generall" a$$earing in series #or "ounger readers Series #or older readers ma" still #eature some furigana #or hard to read kanji, unusual readings or names, but do not a$$ear on all kanji <ll the series here but )odame include furigana #or all kanji * See :ouch (0,,,) #or a com$arative overview o# how manga are $ublished 1 K# course, this begs #or a de#inition o# 6essential7, es$eciall" given that em$t" s$eech bubbles or ones onl" containing non-linguistic s"mbols are not uncommon !owever, even em$t" s$eech bubbles would still $la" a role in creating time and interiorit" as /a%euchi (0,,1) describesD thus I would argue that 6essential in#ormation7 does not necessaril" mean that it su$$lies in#ormation about the narrative on directl", but rather that it hel$s in the larger sense o# creating a certain atmos$here, interiorit" or time H Statistics in the table are ex$ressed in terms o# two basic units: Ontries and characters Ontries are an" bloc% o# text, such as one s$eech bubble or onomato$oeic string, and characters are numbers o# (letters(, including orthogra$hic s"mbols /hus entries tell how o#ten something is seen, but characters tell the weight o# a categor" in terms o# how much literal text the" com$rise In the discussions below, I #avor statistics #or characters because the" ex$ress more clearl" how much text bac%ground lines-thoughts and comments ma%e u$ + Since I do not distinguish between some o# the man" di##erent t"$es o# thoughts, it is $ossible that the" ma" not all be o# the same, out-o#-s$eech-bubble t"$es that Ytsu%a describesD one might #ind somewhat di##erent results with re-categorization . /he" ma" be seen almost immediatel" in both series W exam$les o# bac%ground lines-thoughts a$$ear on 4ust the second $age o# *oubutsu no +isha-san, and comments on the thirdD the" are #ound in /hibi &aruko-chan alread" on the #ourth and sixth $ages, res$ectivel" ) 2hile in 'tsu%a (1).)) he alread" notes the emergence o# authorial notes in some earl" wor%s, onl" to later describe the critical comments he #inds in wor%s li%e /hibi &aruko-chan as 6new7 in 'tsu%a (1))*)9two t"$es o# exam$les which I would not onl" sa" were similar, but would classi#" under the same s"stem here 1, <lthough he does use such terms himsel#, /a%euchi(s arguments ma" be thought to com$arable with discussions on diegetic la"ers !owever, recon#iguring /a%euchi(s arguments in res$ect to such terms would be a tas% largel" se$arate #rom the one set out here, and there#ore must be le#t #or some other o$$ortunit" 11 I should note that in certain genre, such as *-koma (#rame) gag-manga, handwritten text seems to have maintained a consistent $resence over timeD thus it should be remembered that, as a cor$us o# $o$ular sutrmanga, I am $rimaril" ma%ing these arguments with similar, $o$ular series in mind 10 /his examination is based u$on the 0,,F re$ublished edition o# Eabashima G"3s%e and Kda Aobuhiro(s ,hchan no 2ken (/o%"o: Sh3ga%u%an Eurieitibu) 1F Aote that he does not state that his interior monologue are written b" handwritten text !e does, however, $oint out to the use o# di##erent #onts, stating that the Aar #ont used commonl" with his interior monologues was the t"$ogra$hic e8uivalent o# hentai shjo-mojiD he also notes that the switch to Aar #rom a gothic #ont #or these %inds o# texts coincided with the develo$ment o# hentai shjo-moji (1).), HF-H*) 1* :entai shjo-moji have since lost their ground, butwe might still ex$ect handwritten text to continue as other $o$ular writing st"les emerge <s Aanba writes, while the writers o# shjo-manga #or the now $o$ular 6teen magazines7 are not users o# hentai shjo-moji, the" are, however, users o# the hetauma-moji ? good $oor-writing W that have come to be associated with the teen readers o# magazines li%e 1gg (0,,1, 0,))

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