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Justyn Carrasco

1."Unprecedented Collection of African American Oral Histories Brings to Life An Important Chapter in
American History." PR Newswire 16 Oct. 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 8 Dec. 2013. This article was written by Timuel D. Black, Jr. on October 16, of 2003. The Purpose of this source is to show a bit of background information on the Great Migration, which happened during World War I. This article also tell people about how these African Americans made an impact in Chicagos society. The value that this article has is that it tells what the African Americans brought to Chicago from down South that changed the way Chicagos society . A new genre of music has been introduced in Chicago, jaz z. Most of these African Americans made up the south side of Chicago.Due to all of the available jobs in stockyards and steel mills. With all the job availabilities, african americans had job rights, and the were not punished for minor problems. This is a secondary source, so it does not have individuals opinions on the Great Migration, whether or not it cause a negative or positive effect on Chicago.

2.Williams, Bill. "SOUTHERN EXODUS." America 1 Nov. 2010: 19+. Student Resources in Context. Web. 8
Dec. 2013. This source was written on November 1, 2010 by Bill Williams. This article was written to tell people why slaves moved to the northern states such as Chicago. It also gives a timeframe of when the Great Migration happened (1920s-1970s) and the approximate amount of African Americans that fled the south for more working rights. The value that this source has is that it gives stories of individuals who were a part of this event and why they fled the south to come to Illinois or other northern states. Many of these people fled because they wanted more individual rights and working rights because down in the south, white people treated african americans unfairly. It also says how the white men were still racist in some parts of the north.This is a secondary source because it gives biographies of people who lived and experienced the Great Migration which can be very useful on giving individuals who lived in this era and experienced the event. This will eventually lead into a primary source.

3.Grossman, James. "Great Migration." Great Migration. N.p., 2005. Web. 09 Dec. 2013.
This source came from the encyclopedia of Chicago, and was written by James Grossman in 1989.This source is an encyclopedia, so it gives a lot of historical context on when the Great Migration happened which was in 1916. The purpose of this encyclopedia article is to inform people on what happened during the era of the great migration (1916-1970s), like the economical changes and social changes. The Great Migration happened during the years of 1916-1970. Before the Great MIgration occurred, only 2% of Chicago was made up of African Americans but later escalated to 33% by the year 1970. The reason of their migration to Chicago was the job availabilities as well as the working rights. Many of the former slaves had now worked in different kinds of factories, like meat packing industries, and etc. Since this an encyclopedia the reader will only obtain historical context on the event, and no key individuals will be noted with their opinion.

4.Wormser, Richard. "The Great Migration." PBS.

PBS, 2002. Web. 11 Dec. 2013 This source is from the Public Broadcasting Station website, which was written in 2002. The purpose of the article is to inform people of what the Great Migration era was all about, and where many former slaves fled to. The value that the article has is that it give the estimated amount of African Americans that fled the south to live in the Northern states, which was about six million. And out of those six million hundreds of thousands of them fled to Chicago. Chicago encouraged the African Americans to flee the south and live in the northern states. The people of the south feared the movement, because they would loose all the laborers that work for them, and they would not have anymore slaves. The reason why the African Americans left was for the job availabilities and the working rights. Since this is a secondary source, people will not know any key individuals who lived in the era, and it does not give any points of views on the era.

5.Early, Gerald. "Black Migration." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2013.
This article is from the PBS website. This article was written because it telling how the Great Migration changed the way of society like the music. It also tells what the reason of the migration was. The reason of Great Migration was opportunities. Many more job opportunities were available in Chicago, and other northern states like Detroit such as meat packing houses making 2.50 a day or even automobile assembly lines making 5.00 a day. These payments were nothing compared to nothing what the African Americans made as slaves. Since the Chicago and other northern states were industrialized states, more instruments were now beginning to become industrialized. So new instruments meant new genres of music like jazz. Since this is a secondary there is only certain information that is given, like individuals and numbers. But there are some names that are mentioned, like Louis Armstrong a famous jazz musician and he was a southern immigrant so this can help lead to a primary source.

6.Pilgrim, David. "What Was Jim Crow?" What Was Jim Crow. N.p., 2002. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. This article was written by David Pilgrim, who teaches at Ferris State University. This article was written in the year of 2002. This source was written to inform people about Jim Crow, and what it was. Jim Crow was an act of segregation, which separated African Americans from White people. African Americans were not able to do the same things at white men, such use the same bathrooms, there were different prices for administration to events, and drinking fountains were separated as well. There was also separate prisons and hospitals for blacks. People who violated the laws of Jim Crow were punished harshly, they were beaten by white men and the cops could not do anything about it. Not only that, but their houses were at risk and so were their job. In some cases their lives were even at risk. This ties in to rights because it was these were the rights the African Americans had, and they were not able to do the same thing as white folks. The responsibilities that were tied into the Jim Crow was the African Americans could not drink or use any of the white man's stuff, and if they did they would get punished, so it was their responsibility to not use the white mans stuff. This is a secondary source, so it does not name any individuals who lived during the time of the Jim Crow laws.

7. Layson, Hana, and Warren, Kenneth. "Digital Collections for the Classroom. Chicago and the Great Migration, 1915 1950:. N.p., 14-15 Mar. 2013. Web.09.


This source comes from DCC.Newberry.Org. It was written by Hana Layson and Kenneth Warren On March of 2013. The purpose of this source was to inform people of some of the reasons of why African Americans left the south to the northern states. It also tells what years this happened , and those years are 1915-1970. During this period of time 6 million African Americans left their homes down south to move to the Northern states due to the social criticism happening in the southern states. The Jim Crow laws was one of the major reasons the Great Migration happened. The Jim Crow law was the law that separated African Americans from white people(This is the law that considered African Americans second class citizens). Another reason why African Americans left the south was for industrial jobs. Some African Americans were recruited by scouts who worked in industrial places and that opened a new trail of opportunities. In 1942 a neighborhood known as bronzeville was made for the migrants to live. To the whites this neighborhood was considered the Black Belt but the African Americans found that name racist. The rights and responsibilities to this topic is that African Americans had to follow the Jim Crow laws, even in some parts of Chicago. Some responsibilities that African Americans had to take care of was taking responsibilities of Bronzeville, it was their neighborhood so they had to clean it up build new buildings the city of Chicago had nothing to do with the neighborhood because it was an organization made by residence of Bronzeville. This is a secondary source because it does not give first hand accounts of this period of time but this source helped me find a way the Great Migration had an impact on Chicago and it gave me a new subject of the topic to research.

8."The Great Migration." The Great Migration. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. <http://myweb.rollins.edu/jchambliss/Julian_C._Chambliss/FHC__The_Great_Migration.html>. This source is from myweb.edu. This source was made to inform people about the cities that the Great Migration impacted the most it also tells the amount of African American population in Chicago by years. It also tells what key events happened in Chicago during the Great Migration. When African Americans migrated to Chicago, they created a new kinds of art and institutions. By the year of 1930 the population of African Americans had jumped from 40,000 residents to 200,000 residents. With this huge jump of African American residents in Chicago came Black media such as newspapers and social/political influences. The Harlem Renaissance came as well with the large amount of migrants coming to Chicago. The Harlem Renaissance brought new types of arts such as music, literature ,and intellectual movements. In 1919 there was a racial riot that happened in Chicago due to the racial tension and overcrowded ghettos. The responsibilities that came with the media was to keep everything everything appropriate. And to respect all the rules and to not disrespect white man's property and etc. This is a secondary source because it does not have any first hand accounts of the racial riot, but this source can help me lead to a primary source about the racial riot of 1919.m 9. "The Chicago Race Riot of 1919." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web.

Jan.2014.<http://www.history.com/topics/chicago-race-riot-of-1919>. This source is from History.com. It was written to inform people on why the race riot of 1919 started in Chicago. It gives individuals who were a part of the riot of 1919. It also gives locations on where the riot took place in and amounts of people who lost their homes and lives. It also give reasons of why the riot happened. On July 27,1919 was when the riot broke out in Chicago. 17 year old Eugene Williams was stoned and later drowned to death when he crossed the unofficial barrier which is located at 29th Street. When cops arrived to the scene they refused to arrest the murder of Eugene Williams. This is when racial tension build up on the 29th Street beach. With all the racial tension happening in Chicago 23 African Americans and 13 whites were killed. More than 500 people were injured, 60% of those people were blacks. And 1000 African Americans were left homeless due to white men torching their homes. The riot ended on August 3, 1919. After the riot African Americans were prohibited from working with white men. The rights that tie in to the riot was that they were able to protest against the racism. There responsibility that is tied into the riot is to not cross barriers of white men. This is a secondary source, so it does not give first hand accounts of individual who we're apart of the 1919 racial riot. This source can help me because it can lead to a primary of what president Woodrow did to resolve or tried to resolve the racial tension. 10. Armstrong, Ken. "Chicago Tribune." Chicago Tribune. N.p., 15 Aug. 2008. Web. 09 Jan. 2014. <http://my.chicagotribune.com/>. This article was written on August 15,2008 by Ken Armstrong who is a reporter for the Chicago Tribune. This article was written to inform of the racial riot of Chicago 1919, and why it happened in Chicago. The riot all started when Eugene Williams drowned to death in the 29th street beach. The cops refused to arrest the murders of Eugene. With that mistake the cops made, they created the most violent racial riots in Chicago. 38 people were killed 23 were black and 15 were white. The riot came to an end and and 500 people had been injured most of them were blacks. When African Americans moved out the black belt, 26 homes were bombed 2 years before the 1919 riot. Richard J.Daley participated in the violence of the 1919 racial riot of Chicago. But he refused to answer that he did participate in the violence to the public. The rights that were granted is that African Americans were able to live where they wanted, even where white men lived. The responsibilities that are tied into this is that African Americans were not able to cross white boundaries and they were responsible to defend themselves if they were attacked by white men. This is a secondary source because it does not give first hand information, but this can lead me to a primary source because it gives one individual who played a part of the riots violence and that was Richard J.Daley.

11. "Bronzeville Area Residents' and Commerce Council." Bronzeville Area Residents' and Commerce Council. Bronzeville Area Residents' and Commerce Council., n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. <http://www.thebarcc.org/history.php>.

This source was written by Bronzeville Area and Commerce Council. This source was written to tell the history of Bronzeville Chicago and why the migrants from down south move to Chicago's Bronzeville. This source also give some years of events that happened in Bronzeville. This source also names some key individuals who were we'll know around Bronzeville and this can help lead to a primary source. This source also give the location of where this town was. Bronzeville is located between 22nd Street, Washington park, Federal Street, and Lake Michigan. This town had the first black owned bank and insurance company. Bronzeville also hosted famous jazz players such as Loui Armstrong and Nat King Cole. After World War II there was a huge change in the economy and society. That caused many African Americans to move out of this town. These people move down to the more southern part of Chicago and that left one third of Bronzeville vacant. The rights that tie in to this is that African Americans were giving the right to build their own community and culture in a part of Chicago. The responsibilities that they had was to keep their neighborhood clean, and take care of the banks and insurance companies they had. This is a secondary source because it does not have have any ones perspective of that time, but this source does list off some individuals like Louie Armstrong, Congressman William Dawson, and Dr. Daniel Hale Williams.

The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot in 1919. New York, NY: Arno, 1968. Print