Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

MEGR2180-001

Topics for today


Alloying Phase Diagrams Heat treatment

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Alloying
The mixing of metals and semi-metals in the molten state is called alloying An alloy is composed of two or more elements, the principle component is a metallic element Alloying is performed to change the physical properties of a metal Commonly alloying is done to change
Strength Modulus of Elasticity Ductility Toughness Corrosion Resistance

Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Alloying
Alloys are typically prepared by melting a known mass of metal (solvent) in a crucible and then adding in weighed amounts of the other material (solute). The liquid alloy is then cast and allowed to solidify. The resulting structure depends on how the different types of atoms behave around each other. If the atoms are indifferent to each other they will crystallize as a single set of crystals all the atoms will behave as if they are similar. A single phase Solid solution is said to form.

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

If the different elements crystallize separately to form different crystals that meet at grain boundaries then the resulting structure is referred to as a Phase Mixture

Alloying - Solid Solution


In a solid solution the crystal structure is the same as that of the solvent (parent metal). The Solute atoms are distributed through in crystal. The solution may be formed in two different ways Substitution
Intermetallic

Interstitial Substitutional Interstitial

Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Alloying - Solid Solution -substitution


Conditions for Substitutional alloying: -Atoms of the two metals do not differ in diameter more than 15% - The two metals must have a similar crystal structure. An example is Brass Solute is Zinc Solvent is Copper
(Elements are beside each other on periodic table)

Another example is that of Monel; A mixture of Copper and Nickel


(Elements are also beside each other on periodic table)
Dr. Mullany

Substitutional

MEGR2180-001

Alloying - Solid Solution -intermetallic


Intermetallic Compound: these are substituitional solid solutions where the solute atoms are present in specific proportions and geometric relationships They have sharp melting points, often higher than either of the two alloying elements, very good strength, low ductility

Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Alloying Solid Solution -interstitial


Interstitial: Solute atoms positioned between the atoms in the solvent Conditions
Atomic radius of the solute must be less than about 60% of the solvent radius

An example is Steel
Solute is Iron Solvent is Carbon Amount of carbon significantly affects material properties

Interstitial
Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Solidifcation curves
The graph below shows the difference between the solidification curves for pure metals (one element) and alloys (several elements) Pure metal

Temperature range for solidification

Alloy: the temperature at which it solidifies is not sharply defined


Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Phase Diagrams
Definition: A Phase has a definable structure, a uniform and identifiable chemistry (aka composition) and distinct boundaries or interfaces that separate it from other different phases. Definition: A Phase diagram (also called an equilibrium diagram) illustrates the relationship between temperature, composition and the phases present in a particular alloy.
Note: Phase diagrams are only valid under equilibrium conditions ...i.e. slow heating and cooling

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Copper-nickel phase diagram

Melting point of pure nickel

Melting point of pure copper


Dr. Mullany

80% Ni, 20% Cu Definition of wt%: wa = wt of component a x 100 S wt of all components


After spaceflight.esa.int

MEGR2180-001

Nickel Copper Phase diagram


40% Cu, 60% Ni

a b

Dr. Mullany

Point a: 40% Cu - 60%Ni , temp >1350C, homogenous liquid form Point b: 40% Cu - 60%Ni , temp <1300C, homogenous solid form In the two phase region (between and b) the Ni will exist in both solid and liquid forms. So will the Copper.
After spaceflight.esa.int

MEGR2180-001

Beware: check the axes

Dr. Mullany

What happened? Same phase diagram with 0% Cu at left


After Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

MEGR2180-001

What happens during solidification?

Consider slow cooling of a 50%Cu liquid mixture: first solids 36% Cu


(at liquidus, go left to the solidus line, then down to read composition of solids)
Dr. Mullany

Intermediate temp, go left for solid composition, right for liquid 50-50% at solidification (diffusion) EQUILIBRIUM PHASE DIAGRAM!
After Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

MEGR2180-001

Lever rule

Dr. Mullany

Create a lever balanced at the nominal composition, C0. CS represents solid composition. CL represents the liquid composition
After Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

Lever rule: Wt fraction solid a distance between C0 and CL: S = C0-CL S+L CS-CL

MEGR2180-001

Lever rule on Lead (Pb) Tin (Sn) phase diagram

At 250C what is the solid and liquid fraction of the alloy at 80% Lead (Pb)?
Dr. Mullany

Solid fraction, Fs = C-d X 100% b-d = 80-64 X 100% 87-64 = 69.5%

Liquid fraction, FL = b-C X 100% b-d = 87-80 X 100% 87-64 = 30.5%

MEGR2180-001

Terminology Definition: Eutectic: An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids on cooling (number of solids depend on the number of elements in the system) Definition: Eutectoid: An isothermal reversible reaction in which a solid phase is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids on cooling (number of solids depend on the number of elements in the system)

Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Terminology- Eutectic

Eutectic mix

Different structure grain

There is no mixed liquid-solid at an eutectic point. On freezing at this specific composition an eutectic mixture with the individual crystal in the form of plates or rods or tiny particles are formed. Note: Eutectic points have the lowest melting point

MEGR2180-001

Iron Carbon (steel) phase diagram

Liquid Liquid g + Liquid

Eutectic
L + Fe3C

Solid
g (Austenite) z

Microstructure of an eutectic mixture

Dr. Mullany

2.14

4.20

g + cementite (Fe3C)

Eutectoid
0.8

723C

H
Cementite (Fe3C)

Dr. Mullany

0.022 a (Ferrite)

a + cementite (Fe3C)

C
0.25 1.2

6.70
After Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

MEGR2180-001

Iron Carbon Systems Why we need to know about Iron-carbon Systems: Steel is an Alloy of Iron and Carbon Different phases of the Iron Carbon diagram have different structures, it is important to be familiar with them and to understand what influence they have with respect to material properties
% Carbon content of different materials: Pure Iron (Fe) = 0.008% Steel up to 2.11% Cast Irons up to 6.67%

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Iron Carbon phase diagram

Steel

Cast Iron

Dr. Mullany

100% Fe

93.3% Fe

10

MEGR2180-001

Iron Carbon - Main Structures


Ductile at elevated temperatures Good formability important for manufacturing Nonmagnetic

AUSTENITE: Single phase FCC Structure Austenite

CEMENTITE (Fe3C):
Also called Carbide A hard and brittle intermetallic compound that has a significant influence on the properties of steel

Pearlite

FERRITE: BCC Structure


Only stable at high temperatures and has little engineering relevance Soft, Ductile, and Magnetic
Dr. Mullany

Cementite
(White areas)

PEARLITE: lamellar aggregate of Ferrite and Cemetite

Ferrite
(dark areas)

MEGR2180-001

Cast Iron versus Steel


4
Cast iron has more silicon than steel which makes the Fe3C decompose to Ferrite and Graphite
Nodular Cast Iron

3
% Carbon

Grey Cast Iron White Cast Iron

2 1 0

Steels

2 3 % Silicon

Dr. Mullany

11

MEGR2180-001

Cast Iron Main structures found


The type of cast iron found is dependant on the following:
Carbon content Alloy and impurity content Cooling rate during and after freezing The Heat treatment after casting Gray Cast iron


Dr. Mullany

White Cast Iron


All carbon is in the combined form as cementite

Gray Cast Iron


Carbon is uncombined in the form of graphite flakes White Cast iron as cast

Nodular Cast Iron


Carbon is largely uncombined in the form of compact spheroids

Malleable Cast Iron


Carbon is uncombined in the form of irregular round particles known as temper carbon

Nodular cast iron

See also Chapter 5, Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

Malleable cast iron (white cast iron annealed to precipitate out carbon

Dr. Mullany

MEGR2180-001

Effect of Carbon on Steel Properties

Effect of carbon content on the mechanical properties of carbon steel


Figure 3.33 from Kalpakjian and Schmid, 5th ed

12

MEGR2180-001

Do you remember ?
1. A stress of 10MPa is applied to a tensile sample, if the materials stiffness is 10GPa, how much strain will the sample undergo? a) 0.001 b) 0.001% c) 1000 d) 0.01% 2. Which is false of work hardened materials ? a) Hardness > non work hardened b) Strength > non work hardened c) Have equiaxed grain sizes a) They are plastically deformed 3. Which is not true about stress a) Units = Pa b) Units = psi c) = force/area d) = area*force 4. Which of the following statements is true a) No part of engineering stress strain curves should be compared to a true stressstrain curve b) Stiffness is the ratio of stress to strain in the linear part of the curve c) Once you have gone past the yield point you can have no elastic recovery d) It doesnt matter under what temperature conditions a tensile test is preformed Section B questions: Explain why a metal with a yield strength of 10GPa may not be as tough as a metal with a yield strength of 5GPa

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Heat treatment
Definition: A combination of heating and cooling operations, timed and applied to a metal or alloy in the solid sate in a way that will produce desired properties
Heat treatments modify the microstructure of alloys to impart different mechanical properties Effects of thermal treatment depend on
The alloys composition and microstructure, The degree of cold work, The rates of heating and cooling, The temperatures and temperature ranges, etc.

Dr. Mullany

It is a very complex subject and we will not cover it in detail, just an overview

13

MEGR2180-001

Heat treatment - terminology


Annealing: heating to and holding at a suitable temperature above the recrystalization temp and then cooling in the furnace at a suitable rate (usually slow), for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure or obtaining desired mechanical, physical or other properties. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses. Cold treatment: cooling to a temperature, often near -100F, for the purpose of obtaining desired conditions or properties such as structural stability. Hardening: Increasing the hardness by suitable treatment, usually involving heating and cooling. Under suitable cooling rates the carbon is able to diffuse out of the austenite structure. When steel is cooled quickly the carbon becomes trapped in solution and is known as Martensite or Martenistic structure

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Heat treatment - terminology


Normalizing: Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range (as in annealing) and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. It will produce harder and stronger steel than annealing partially due to faster cooling rates than used in Annealing Quenching: Rapid Cooling of a material. This increases the hardness of the metal. Quenching mediums are (listed in order decreasing severity): Brine (water and 10% Sodium Chloride) Tap water Soluble oil oil Air

Dr. Mullany

Tempering: Reheating a quenched hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the Transformation temperature and then cooling at the desired rate. It relieves internal stresses.

14

MEGR2180-001

Heat treatment - terminology


Transformation temperature: The temperature at which a change in phase occurs, i.e. the temperature at which austenite forms during heating. Martensite: A metastable phase of steel, formed by the rapid cooling of Austenite. It is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having body centered tetragonal lattice. Its microstructure is characterized by an needle like pattern

Dr. Mullany

1220X.

MEGR2180-001

Isothermal diagrams
Isothermaltransformation diagrams define the transformation of Austenite as a function of time at constant temperatures. They are also called Timetemperature Transformation (TTT) curves. Each curve represents only one alloy composition, an ironcarbon alloy of eutectoid composition.

Dr. Mullany

15

MEGR2180-001

Tempering Martensite

Tempering is accomplished by heating a martensitic steel


to a temperature below the eutectoid (normally, between 200-650C) for a specified time period.

By diffusion processes:
Martensite (BCT, single phase) Tempered Martensite (a + Fe3C)

Tempered martensite may be nearly as hard and strong


as martensite, but with substantially enhanced ductility & toughness.

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Effect of tempering Temperature

Heat treatment variables are temperature and time, and most treatments are constanttemperature processes. (Carbon diffusion is involved in the transformation.) Tensile and yield strengths and ductility (%RA) versus tempering temperature for an oilquenched alloy steel (type 4340).

Dr. Mullany

16

MEGR2180-001

Jominy End Quench test


Explain why stress strain curves are so important, detail the information that can be extracted from the curve and from looking at the tensile sample after fracture

Hardenability curve is the dependence of hardness on distance from the quenched end. The higher the hardness levels further away from the quenched end the more hardenable the alloy.
Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Test standards: American Society for testing and Materials (ASTM) Method A 255 Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard J406

Jominy End Quench test


Less Martensite

Quenched end

Quenched end cools most rapidly, contains mostly martensite Cooling rate decreases with distance from quenched end: greater C diffusion, more pearlite/bainite, lower hardness
Dr. Mullany

High hardenability means that the hardness curve is relatively flat.

17

MEGR2180-001

Dangers of heat treatment

Heat treatments can cause problems such as cracking, distortions etc. Parts incorrectly case hardened (for example through hardened instead) can fail due to lack of toughness Distortions must be corrected on precision parts by finish grinding (usually)
Martensitic and quench cracks

Grinding cracks
Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Case hardening
Many industrial applications require a hard wear resistant surface called the case and a relatively soft tough inside called the core
Examples of such are gears, bearings,cams, tool, dies, etc. This technique is called case hardening Case hardening is performed by adding other elements to the surface or by special heat treatments.

Dr. Mullany

18

MEGR2180-001

Case Hardening
Other method involve heat Treating:
Flame Hardening heating surface with a flame and quenching Induction hardening heating surface with high frequency induced current and quenching
This photo shows ways on 16" vise base being hardened utilizing flame hardening.

Dr. Mullany
MEGR2180-001

Case hardening One method involves adding surface elements:


Carburizing adding carbon Carbonitriding adding carbon and nitrogen Nitriding adding nitrogen Many recipes exist

Dr. Mullany

19

MEGR2180-001

Homework due Wednesday the 11th Sept 13


1. A 200mm long, 10mm dia. tensile sample experienced plastic deformation at a strain of 0.01. The applied load was 78.5 kN. What is the elastic modulus of the material? By how many mm did sample elastically deform? 2. Looking at the Ni-Cu phase diagram answer the following questions. At what temperature is a Cu (20%) - NI(80%) fully solid? What phases are present at 1300C and 50%Cu50%Ni? 3. Draw and label an engineering stress-strain diagram for a brittle metal.

Dr. Mullany

20