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Soilless Culture Dynamic Root Floating Technique (DRFT)

Arghya Narendra Dianastya

DEPARTMENT F ! RT"C#$T#RE FAC#$T% F A&R"C#$T#RA$ 'ASESART #N"(ERS"T% 'AMP!AEN& SAEN CAMP#S )*+,

"NTR D#CT" N In the future, it has been anticipated that hydroponics should play a much greater role in food production in developing countries. Food products from hydroponic techniques have a high potential to help improve dietary standards as they are of superior quality and rich in nutrients. Maybe, hydroponics could also become an important tool to eradicate malnutrient problems and certain diseases commonly associated with extreme poverty conditions (Paul, !!!". #ydroponics is usually claimed to involve a high initial capital cost and complicated operational procedures. #owever, these problems could be resolved by using new simplified hydroponic methods and simple equipment. In $apan, farmers simply built their own equipment using local materials which were much cheaper than purchasing the same thing (%atana&osol, '(()". *he dynamic root floating technique (+%F*" is a hybrid of several hydroponic systems. In *aiwan, *he *aichung +istrict ,gricultural Improvement -tation developed the +%F* in '(./. , diagram of the +%F* system is nutrient solution is pumped through one end and allowed to circulate through all the channels before being collected bac& into the tan& reservoir. Instead of a continuously circulating nutrient solution system li&e in the 0F*, the water pump is constantly turned on and off to alter the depth of the water. ,lternatively, the pump can remain on at all times and a drainage system can be installed to vary the depth. 1ne feature of the +%F* is the concave panels underneath the floating boards. *his extra space allows roots called 2aeroroots34 to grow above the nutrient solution and therefore receive more oxygen. ,lso, various techniques are used to control the temperature of the nutrient solution. 5hen temperatures reach above 6! 7, semi8transparent polyethylene sheets
!

are hung over the roof to bloc& out some sunlight. ,dditionally, the +%F* channels are lined with insulating material to impede heat transfer from the immediate surroundings. *he main advantage of the +%F* is that it can maintain the temperature of the nutrient solution. -ince oxygen is less soluble in warm water, the +%F* is well8suited for hydroponic farming in tropical and subtropical climates such as those found in *hailand (9ao, '(('". *he +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique (+%F*" is a nutrient circulation system of hydroponics developed for use in a tropical climate to grow hygienic, quality vegetable free of pesticides all year8round. *he +%F* technique reduces the build8up of heat in a greenhouse. :nder proper management, it reduces plants to develop an air root system (numerous fine roots" in the highly humid space between the surface of the nutrient solution and the underside of the culture boards. #ence, the +%F* technique overcomes the shortage

of dissolved oxygen in the nutrient solution in tropical climate. *he factors affecting plant growth in +%F* are the term of nutrient supply aspect, the concentration of the nutrient solution and population of the plants in the system can play role on the plant growth and final yield. 1n farm, the procedure of +%F* is ; '" <ermination =egetable seeds are sown in sponge and placed in the germination room for germination. It ta&es about " 0ursery -eedlings are raised in the nursery house for '! to '> days. *hey are fed with nutrient solution suitable for seedlings. 6" *ransplanting -eedlings that are of optimal height and si?e are transplanted onto the culture panels. 1nce the plants are inside the production greenhouse, the netting are closed and will not be open until harvest. >" <rowing 0utrient solution supplied to the vegetables is carefully monitored and ad@usted for healthy growth of the plants. A" #arvest B Pac&aging ,fter a period of about > days, the plants are ready for harvest. *he panels are removed from the greenhouses and brought to the harvesting area for pac&ing. Pac&ing only superb quality vegetables are pac&ed for sale. to 6 days for the seeds to germinate. ,fter germination, seedlings are then transferred to the nursery for further cultivation.

-.ECT"(ES *he ob@ective for +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique is; '. *o familiar the students with the components of the +%F* system . *o familiar the students with the operation of the +%F* system 6. *o acquaint students with the effect of plant population of plant si?e and yield of leafy vegetable grown in +%F* system.

MET! D $ &%

$a/ Procedure '. Preparing the +%F* table; assembly the stylo8foam gullies and lining with blac& plastic sheet. Place the nutrient tan& underneath the table. ,dd water to the system and determine the water volume. ,d@usting the p# of / and C7 value that is optimum for particular crop (Drassicas E '. m- cm8' for wee& '8 and '.. m- cm8' during wee& 68>, water spinach E '.! and '.> m- cm8' for wee& ' and as the followsG .' nutrient applied seedling; ' each seedling population. . 5ater applied seeedling; ' each seedling population. 6. *ransplanting the sponge cube with the same seedling population into the sllots on the same growing pads. 1ne growing pad consist of A nutrient applied seedling and A of water applied seedlings. >. ,fter transplanting, measure the C7 and p# of the solution in the early morning and in the late afternoon. %ecord the C7 and p# changing and the supplies use to ad@ust the %7 and p# in the table '. %eplace the solution in the tan& with the fresh one every wee& . after wee& decrease the water depth in the gully by halve. A. ,t the end of each wee&, ta&e two seedling as the samples from each population and record the growth according to table . /. ,fter ta&ing the sample of wee& >, harvest the rest of vegetables and weight all the plants. 6 or > seedling within a sponge cube and A sponge for 6 or > seedling within a sponge cube and A sponge for respectively". . Prepare different population of seedling in a sponge cube that have been prepared in Fab 6

RES#$T AND D"SC#SS" N *he +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique (+%F*" is a nutrient circulation system of hydroponics developed for use in a tropical climate to grow hygienic, quality vegetable free of pesticides all year8round. *he +%F* technique reduces the build8up of heat in a greenhouse. :nder proper management, it reduces plants to develop an air root system (numerous fine roots" in the highly humid space between the surface of the nutrient solution and the underside of the culture boards. #ence, the +%F* technique overcomes the shortage of dissolved oxygen in the nutrient solution in tropical climate. *he factors affecting plant growth in +%F* are the term of nutrient supply aspect, the concentration of the nutrient solution and population of the plants in the system can play role on the plant growth and final yield. +0 The Com1onent o2 DRFT system

Figure +0 The com1onents o2 DRFT system '. Pipe house . 7ulture bed 6. ,spirator >. Pump A. %eservoir /. 0utrient level ad@uster ). 0utrient exchange box

.. Panel (. 0utrient outlet plug '!. :pper nutrient tan& ''. Fower nutrient tan& ' . Floating switch '6. 0utrient controller box *he +%F* hydroponic system comprised a ridged culture bed, a concave panel, an aspirator, a nutrient level ad@uster, a nutrient exchange box and a nutrient concentration controller, all of which were housed in a low, typhoon8proof greenhouse (Fig. '". *he framewor& of the greenhouse was made of galvani?ed tubular iron piping !.AH F and !.)AH F. *he standard width of the house was .'6 m, with a height of .' m. *he length of the house could be extended indefinitely, depending on the vegetable supply and the grower3s production capacity. , dew8resistant transparent P=7 plastic film !.'A!. ! mm thic& was lain on top of the greenhouse as a rainproof cover, while the sides were covered with a white polythene plastic net ( > mesh" to &eep insects out. 5hen the inside temperature was higher than 6!I7, a blac& polythene plastic net ( A8>!J shading capacity" was hung 6! cm above the plastic house to reduce the build8up of heat in the greenhouse.

Figure 2. The appearance of the ridged culture bed and concave panel 1)Culture bed, 2) Panel, 3) Air space inside concave hole. A)Nutrient inlet and ) !utlet gutter, ") "idge of channel, #) #ull$ *he wave shaped culture unit was constructed from polystyrene board, and was .!' m wide and (!.' cm long, with a height of 'A cm at the sides. *he nutrient bed was lined, to insulate it from the inside temperature of the greenhouse, and was then given a second inner

lining of a blac& polythene sheet !. mm thic& to render it waterproof. Cach culture bed contained eight ridges (and nine gullies" (Fig. ". *he panel shown in Fig. was also made from polystyrene board, and measured (!.' cm (F" x ...! cm (5" x >.! cm (*". Cach panel had .! circular holes an equal distance apart. *he panel was flat on one side and had a '.! cm deep concave depression on the other side, around each hole, to give the >..' (..6 x A.. x '.!" cubic centimeter of air space used for aeroroot induction.

Figure 3% Co&ponent of the '"FT nutrient flo( s$ste& 1)Aspirator, 2) Nutrient level ad)uster 3) Nutrient e*change bo*, +) Nutrient outlet plug 0utrient outlet plugs were set 6./ m apart in the bottom gutter of the culture bed, connected by a 'H F P=7 pipe to the nutrient exchange box. *he nutrient level ad@uster was made from AH F ,D- plastic tube containing a double set of inner rings (Fig. 6". *he outer ring was . cm high, and two !.AH F holes were cut at the bottom of the outer ring to allow nutrient solution flowing through and over the inner ring to run bac& into the reservoir. *he inner ring was 6H F in diameter and . cm high. *his inner ring contained four lin&ed rings, 6, , and ' cm high, respectively. *he height of this set of inner rings could be ad@usted from . cm to ! cm, according to the state of vegetable growth. In the east side of the culture bed was a !.A cm F P=7 plastic nutrient supply pipe running into the main gutter. *he nutrient supply tube had a tiny hole where it ran through each gully. *he aspirator was connected to the nutrient supply pipe at one end, and to the pump at the other end. *he aspirator was designed to have a four8bladed propeller inside the tube, while two holes !.' cm in diameter were cut opposite each other so that the nutrient solution would absorb more air as it flowed through.

)0 The

1eration o2 the DRFT system 1riginally a hybrid technique combining elements of both +F* and ebb and flow

systems, it is now more commonly applied as a modification to +F*, where the panels are suspended above the nutrient solution (as opposed to floating on it" once the roots of the plants are sufficiently developed. It3s refers to the modified +F* water culture that the gully is divided into several chanels by the partitions and have a mechanism to ad@ust the water level. a. 0utrient 7irculation -ystem *he frequency with which the nutrient solution was pumped through the +%F* hydroponic system was controlled by an automatic timer insulated within the nutrient controller box (see Fig. ' and Fig. 6". ,n automatic pumping cycle was set up, with a flow of /K > minutes onKoff during the daytime, and /K')> minutes onKoff at night. *he nutrient in the +%F* system was recirculated. It was first enriched by solution pumped from the reservoir, then passed through the aspirator and the nutrient supply pipe to spray into each gully, collecting in the bottom gutter to run into the nutrient exchange box and bac& into the reservoir again. In Fig. and Fig. 6 the letters , and D show the inlet and outlet gutter m long. , constant respectively of the nutrient flow path, which was no more

concentration of nutrients in the solution was maintained automatically by an insulated floating switch in the lower nutrient tan& (Fig. '". 5hen 6J of the total amount of nutrient solution in the +%F* hydroponic system had been used, the floating switch automatically turned on to allow twice as much concentrated nutrient solution to run from the upper nutrient tan& into the reservoir. -ince the lower nutrient tan& was connected with the reservoir, a constant level of nutrient solution could thus be maintained. *he standard nutrient formula used in the +%F* system could be used to grow all &inds of crops, but an increase in macroelement concentration was needed for some cropping seasons and vegetable species (*able 6 and *able >" (9ao '((!". *he concentration of micro8elements was maintained at a constant level.

30 The $ea2y 4egeta/le gro5n in DRFT system

=egetable seedlings were grown in a polyfoam (polyurethane sponge" bloc& for several days, the length of time depending on the species of vegetable grown. 5hen the root length of the seedlings reached 68A cm or the primary leaf was well developed, the seedlings were transplanted into precut holes in the panels. *he root system of the seedlings had to be immersed in the nutrient solution, so that the plants could grow on the ridges of the culture bed (Fig. ". *he planting density in each panel varied from .! to . plants, according to the type of vegetable grown. *all fruit vegetables were supported by a nylon net tied to the overhead frame of the house. *able species. shows the number of days to germination, to the seedling stage, from transplanting to harvest, and planting density, for various vegetable

,0 Data 6ee7

ne

Table 1.1 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during the 1 (ee. after transplanting Pa. cho$ seedling into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" p# -upply :sed 5ater (F" -toc& -ol. (mF" ,cid (mF" ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'"

p#

Morning ''K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning ' K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '6K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '>K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'AK' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '/K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning ')K' K !'6 ,fternoon '.K' K !'6 Morning ', ',' L A, A 8 8 8 8 8 8 ', ',' L A,A ', ', ',6 ', ', ',' ',6 ', ', ' !,> ',' ., / ) /, /, ' A, . /, 6 A, 6 A A, / L A, ( L ',A 6 > '6! 8 8 ',A 8 > .A. 8 8 '/,/ 8 8 8 '!.,6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 '!! 6A 8 8 8 ', ',' ', ', ',6 ', ', ', ', ',' ', ', A /,' /, /,' A,. A,. A,. / A,( L A,. L

,fternoon

'

A, >

'/,/

',

A,.

L p# meter cannot use because of no battery

Table 1.2 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during the 1 (ee. after transplanting 'ito.$o seedlings into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" p# -upply :sed 5ater (F" -toc& -ol. (mF" ,cid (mF" ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'"

p#

Morning ''K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning ' K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '6K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '>K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'AK' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning '/K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning ')K' K !'6 ,fternoon '.K' K !'6 Morning ',6 ', L / 8 8 8 8 8 8 ',6 ', L A,( ',6 ',6 ', ',6 ',' ' ', ', ', ' !,> ',' ., / /, ( /, /, / A, / /, ) A, A A, . A, . L A, ( L ,A 8 A 8 6 '6! 8 8 . !,A ,A .A. 8 8 '/,/ 8 8 8 '/,/ 8 8 8 8 '!! 6A 8 ! 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 ', ',' ', ', ', ', ',' ', ', ', ', ',6 A,( /,' /, A,. A,. A,. A,. / A,. L A,( L

,fternoon

'

A, (

'/,/

',

A,.

L p# meter cannot use because of no battery Table 1.3 #ro(th of Pa. cho$ seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and p- of 1 for 1 (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" A,) /, / ,A 6 ,. >,A > >,6 ,( 6,) 6,6 6,( >,( >,> 6,( ,' 6 >,) >,6 >,A 6,A ,/ 6,' Feaf 5eight (gKplant" +iameter 0o. of stem shoot root ) L',6A , L ,.> / ,' ) ',> !,/) ,'A / ',6 L ,6) L','A ) ',. ) !,A) ','. ',AA ) ',( L',!A L6, > A ',/A / ',/ !,A ',). / ',> L',(6 L!,(! / ',/A / !,>A !,(/ ',A6 A ,!. L ,!. L!,). A ',() A ',!> !,6( ,!6 A ',.) L!,/. L ,!6 A ',)6 A !,6> ',!' ',. / ',)A L ,!6 L!,A. A ',/> A ',!' !, ( ',) A ',>' L!,/! L','/ A ', ( A !,6! !,A. ',6A

%ep. ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg

L" two plants measure at the same time

Table 1.+ #ro(th of 'ito.$o seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and p- of 1 for 1 (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" ,A , ,> ',. ',) ',. 6, ,) 6 6,' ,' ,/ 6,( >,' > 6,6 ,( 6,' ,. 6,( 6,> , ,> ,6 Feaf 0o. ) ) ) / / / ) ) ) / A / ) ) ) / / / / / / A A A +iameter of stem !, . !, ( !, ( !, > !, 6 !, > !, ) !, 6 !, A !, A !, 6 !, > !,'( !, !, ' !,') !,'( !,'. !, 6 !, !, 6 !,'( !,'( !,'( 5eight (gKplant" shoot L/.)( 6,6( L',(' !,(. LA,). ,.( L',>( !,)> LA,!!A ,A! L',6. !,/( L6,/6 ',.' L',6> !,/) root L', 6 !,/' L!,'. !,(6 L!,(/ !,>. L!, 6 !,'' L', > !,/ L!, ( !,'> L!,>6 !, ' L!,'. !,!(

%ep. ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg ' ,vg

L" two plants measure at the same time

a0 Results and Discussion 5ee7 + 0utrient is one of essential factor for growing pa& choy and +ito&yo. *he nutrient solution is controlled by measuring the electrical conductivity and p#. Clectrical conductivity measures the easiness in which an electrical charge can flow through a certain length of a certain material. ,n electrical conductivity usually measure by C7 meter. C7 meter measures the electrical conductivity for an electrical current to be transported through solution (&nown as molar conductivity" commonly used in hydroponics system as the part of soiless culture. P# or potential hydrogen commonly referred to as acidity or al&alinity in a particular medium, such as water or nutrient solution. ,ll elements (plant nurient" have a specific solubility p# range. *his means that mineral elements can become more available for plant upta&e within certain p# ranges. +uring a resirculation system usually common changes of C7 and p# as the impact of plant growth process. C7 and p# monitoring should be done by comparing on how much the decreasing or increasing point of C7 in the morning and evening during first wee& growing period. It can monitor the adequacy of nutrients for plant growth. In the pa& choy and +ito&yo table, we can prove that there are p# and C7 changing during plant growth stage. C7 changing caused by temperature and some nutrient have already upta&ed. p# changing related to the improvement of root exudates #M and free ion 1#8 in the solution caused by plant activity. *he principle is when C7 increase we can overcome it by adding water, but when C7 decrease we have to add nutrient stoc& solution to ma&e it balance in '. m-Kcm. *he principle of maintaining p# is when p# going to base @ust add acid solution. *he optimum p# level for this leafy vegetable is /. ,ctivity of plant roots can usually decrease the p# around the roots. *his is because the plants secrete # M cation to exchange with nutrient compounds also form cations. In some cases, root exudates also issued in the form of # M. *o overcome this -usilo ( !'6" says that no need to use acidic fertili?er solution at p# A.A. +uring the first wee& growth period of Pa& choy and +ito&yo, we had 6 times to ad@ust the C7 by adding water and stoc& nutrient solution. 1n the '6 +ecember !'6 morning and '. +ecember afternoon, we found that C7 decrease into '.! m-Kcm, which the day before is still in '. m-Kcm. *he lower C7 value means that the lower availability of nutrient for upta&ing by plant. 5hen C7 going down, we have to add nutrient solution immediately based on correct calculation, in order to avoid the defficiency of nutrient that can inhibit plant growth. Dased on correct calculation, we need '/./ mF nutrient solution

stoc& , and D to increase C7 from '.! up to '. . we need '!..6 mF nutrient solution stoc& , and D to increase C7 from '.! up to '.'. ,ctually when the C7 go down until '.' m-Kcm it may add stoc& solution or no add, because it still normal and includes tolerancy of C7. -omestimes we need to add water in those tables because some water upta&e by plant and evaporate by environmental factor. -o we need to add water to replace some water that lose. In some case for example on 'A +ecember !'6 afternoon when the C7 before adding water is ',' m-Kcm and we still need add > F water, we can add water > liters and stoc& solution '!..6 m-Kcm, concurrently. -o the C7 after water adding had ad@usted on the standart '. m-Kcm. P# changes in the table pa& choy and +ito&yo in this first wee& can still be in a reasonable category . In a wee& there are 6 times p# ad@ustment. For pa&choy, p# ad@ustement have already done at the beginning of the water inta&e to counter the growth of the date of +ecember '', !'6 , the next day morning the ' th of +ecember !'6 and '>th +ecember !'6 morning. For +ito&yo, p# ad@ustement have already done at the beginning of the water inta&e to counter the growth of the date of +ecember '', !'6, the ' th of +ecember !'6 and '6th +ecember !'6 morning. p# ad@ustment is performed based on the a decrease or increase in the p# value exceeds the tolerance limits of the standard. -tandard p# of the solution should be / in the growing table with a tolerance of plus or minus !. . *o overcome the p# of water that was originally located in the range of ../ , we can put on '!! cc of acid solution, and p# will be go down into A . *he next day p# solution increased to ). *his is due to the high 1#8 ions in the solution caused by the activity of plant growth. 1n the ' +ecember morning there are nutrient solution going to base again. -o we required a 6A cc acid solution to decrease its p# became /.' range. 1n +ecember '>th, on pa& choy table, an increase of p# happend up to /.6 and it needs to be overcome by adding cc of acid solution and will return in the range of p# A... *he same thing happens at the table of +ito&yo, but in different time, +ecember '6th on the moring where the p# grow up to /./, so they need ! cc to decrease the p# level. In some dates, we cannot maintain the p# level because of no battery, so p# meter cannot use. <rowth of seedling is one of the determinants of the initial success of a hydroponics system. Many factors influence the growth of seedling. Dasically, there are two ma@or factor, namely environmental factor and genetic factor. Cnvironmental factor related to environmental condition that can support or even inhibit plant growth, for example availability of oxigen and nutrient. <enetic factor related to the viability of seed and growth

rate are inherited from parent. <enetic factors can be overcome by choosing to use hybrid seeds because genetically it has a high potential rate to produce high yields. +%F* system is one technique of hydroponic that grow as well in *hailand. ,ctually, dynamic root floating technique is a modified of +eep Floating *echnique (+F*". *he difference between both of these are in dynamic root floating techniques still need a single pump. -ingle pump that used in dynamic root floating technique is not wor& continously, and can switch on and off occasionally. In this case, we used namely pa& choy and +ito&yo <rowth of pa& choy and +ito&yo seedling in +%F* table are affected by nutrient supply during nursery period. Doth pa& choy and +ito&yo have > seedling population and each population have various source of seedling. *he first sources of seedling is from nutrient applied, and another one is non nutrient applied. 0utrient supply factor during nursery stage period influence the speed of seedlings growth in the +%F* table. In the first wee&, we can &now that seedlings with nutrient applied during nursery stage had a high shoot growth rate. *he indicator is the weight of those seedlings are almost three times higher than the shoot growth of seedlings that do not apply fertili?er during nursery. Dut, seedlings with nutrient applied during nursery stage have a low root growth than seedling non nutrient applied. *he seedlings from non nutrient applied had a high root growth rate, almost two times higher than the root growth of seedlings that nutrient applied during nursery stage. ,ll of seedlings preparation in pa& choy sho5s li7e that0 -ut8 di22erent case ha11end in Dito7yo seedlings0 Dito7yo seedling 1o1ulation + 1lant each hole and ) 1lant each hole sho5s that seedlings 5ith nutrient a11lied during nursery stage had a high shoot gro5th rate and a lo5 root gro5th rate0 "n other case8 seedlings 5ith non nutrient a11lied had a high root gro5th rate and a lo5 shoot gro5th rate0 Dito7yo seedling 1o1ulation 3 1lant each hole and , 1lant each hole sho5s that seedlings 5ith nutrient a11lied during nursery stage had a higher shoot and root gro5th rate than non nutrient a11lied0 A4aili/ility o2 nutrient during nursery stage and some initial 5ee7 in ta/le stimulate seedlings to gro5th 4ertically or e9tend the shoot0 So8 they need to ha4e a 5ider and longer root to sur4i4e their li2e0 "n other hand8 non nutrient seedlings tent to stimulate root gro5th that can 2acilitate the search 2or nutrients in the 1lanting area 5ider and dee1er0 "n some case8 a4aila/ility nutrient also can stimulate a 2ast 1lant gro5th /oth shoot and root0 This 1henomenon ha11end in Dito7yo seedlings 1o1ulation 3 each hole and , each hole0 &ind of leafy in +%F* system,

Shoot is a 1art o2 1lant 5hich is emerged on the 5ater medium8 that consist o2 lea4es and stem0 The measurement o2 lea4es and stem are the lea2 num/er8 height o2 seedlings and diameter o2 stem0 All seedlings (/oth 1a7 choy and Dito7yo 5ith nutrient a11lied sho5s that they ha4e higher shoot gro5th rate than non nutrient a11lied0 That is true0 The second 1roo2 is all o2 seedlings 5ith nutrient a11lied ha4e higher stem8 5ider stem diameter and more lea2 than seedlings 5ith non nutrient a11lied0 A height and lea2 amount is the a22ect o2 a4aila/ility nutrient 5e 1ro4ide that can u1ta7ed /y 1lant and 1lant can gro5th as 5ell0 <rowth of pa& choy and +ito&yo seedling in +%F* table are also affected by plant population. 5e have variation in this case. *here are > variation, namely ' seedling each hole, seedlings each hole, 6 seedling each hole and > seedling each hole. In the theory, the more plant each hole, it means that the high competition. Cach plant compete with other one, in some case li&e water and nutrient. *he impact is some plant can be the winner and the another one be the looser. *he ' seedling each hole with nutrient applied in both pa& choy and +ito&yo shows that they are the highest shoot growth rate, the widest diameter of stem, the most leaf number, and the highest height of plant. It cause of there is no competition of each plant to upta&e the nutrient. -o, everyone can shows the best performence itself. *he > seedling each hole with non nutrient applied in both pa& choy and +ito&yo shows that they are the lowest shoot growth rate, narrowest diameter of stem, the less leaf number, and the lowest height of plant. It cause of there is tight competition of each plant to upta&e the nutrient. *he number of leaves on po& choy is strongly influenced by plant population. In the single population of pa& choy (both nutrient applied and non nutrient applied" can grow optimally and have ) leaves. In other side, the number of leaves of the pa& choy in double population decrease into / leaves. ,t triple and fourth population the number of leaves each plant is also decreased into A leaves. In this case illustrates that the higher the population is the tight competition. Pa& choy should fight each other to upta&e nutrient, which is consequently slower growth for some plant that be loser. *he number of leaves on +ito&yo is strongly influenced by nutrient applied and not much influenced by plant population. 0utrient applied seedlings are always superior or have more leaves than seedlings with non nutrient applied. In the single, double, and triple population of +ito&yo with nutrient applied seedlings source have ) leaves. In other hand seedlings with non nutrient applied source only have / leaves. For the fourth population,

seedlings of +ito&yo with nutrient applied seedlings have / leaves and non nutrient applied source only have A leaves.

:0 Data 6ee7 T5o Table 1.1 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution in the 2nd (ee. of Pa. cho$ seedling into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',' ', ',' ',' ' ', ', ', ',' ', ', ',' ',! ', p# A.! A,. /,' A,( A,A A,( A,6 A, A,. A,) /, A,> A,) A,/ -upply :sed 5ater (F" ( 8 > 8 ',A 8 6 '! 8 6 8 >,A ',A 6 -toc& -ol. (mF" '/,/ 8 '!.,. '!.,. '/,/ 8 8 8 '!.,. 8 8 '!.,. '/,/ 8 ,cid (mF" 8 8 8 8 ) 8 8 6 8 ' 8 8 8 8 ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ', 8 ',' ', ', 8 ', ', ', ', 8 ', ', ',

p# /,' 8 /,! /,! /, 8 /,! /,' A,. /,! 8 /, A,( A,)

Morning '(K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning !K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning >K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning AK' K !'6 ,fternoon

Table 1.2 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution in 2nd (ee. 'ito.$o seedlings into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',! ', ',' ',' '.' ',6 8 ',A ',6 ', ', ',' !,( ',' p# A, . A,. /,' A,( A,) /,! 8 /,6 /,. A,) /, /,A /,' /,/ -upply :sed 5ater (F" A,A 8 > / ',/ 8 6 '! 8 6 8 ),A 6 8 -toc& -ol. (mF" '/,/ 8 '!.,. '!.,. A>>,! 8 'A!,> 8 8 8 8 '!.,. 6 /,> '!.,. ,cid (mF" 8 8 8 8 88 8 '),/ 8 ' ' 8 8 8 ' ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ', 8 ',' ',' ', 8 ',> ',6 ', ', 8 ', ', ',

p#

Morning '(K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning !K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning >K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning AK' K !'6 ,fternoon

/,! 8 /,! /,! /, 8 /,> /, /, /, 8 /,A /,A /,

Table 1.3 #ro(th of Pa. cho$ seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and p- of 1 for 2nd (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" A,' A A,!A A,A A,> A,>A ) /,!A /,A6 >,'! A, ! >,/A >,(! /,66 A,/ >,6) >, ! >, ( / /, ! /,'! ,)! 6,>6 6,!6 Feaf 5eight (gKplant" +iameter 0o. of stem -hoot root ( '','( >,!A >,' '' !,!( A,6! >,> '! 'A,/> >,/. >, A . 6,/ /,/! ,(6 >,'! , > . ,A . A,6A ,A( 6,!A . 6,>A ),/> ',/A '',(! ,! . 6,(! . (,)) ',.> 6,/. / 6, 6 6,>! !,>A 6,>6 !,>A / ,/A / 6,> !,>A ,(> / 6,!A '',6' ',>/ (, ', ( ) ,.A ) '!, ) ',6. ,(A A ,A) ,). !,> 6,A> !,6( / ,/6 / 6,'/ !,>' ,/! . ,)6 A,/A !,/! (,!) !,>A / ,>6 ) ),6/ !,A6 ,A. / ','A ',!6 !, ) ,! !,/( A ',/. / ',A6 !,>. ',>

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Table 1.+ #ro(th of 'ito.$o seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and p- of 1 for 2nd (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" /,A! /,/! /,AA ,(! ,)! ,.! ), ! /,)! /,(A 6,.A 6,.A 6,.A ),6! /, ! /,)A 6, ) >,') 6,) A, A /, A A,)A 6,/! >,>! >,!! Feaf 0o. ) ) ) ) A / ) . . / / / A / / > A A A / / > > > +iameter of stem A,' >,> >0)A 6,' 6, 6,'A 6,/A 6,.A 6,)A 6,)A 6, ! 6,>. 6,6) ,() 6,') ',(! ,6) ,'> >, 6 6,)A 6,(( ,/A ,/! ,/6 5eight (gKplant" shoot 6),/. 6>,(> 6/,6' ' ,!A ),>A (,)A .,)) ,!) A,> (,>6 (,') (,6! 'A,A( '6,AA '>,A) /,' A,.6 A,() '!,!) 'A,.> ' ,(/ >,>/ /,6) A,> root >,>. >,). >,/6 ,(' ,AA ,)6 ,(' ,AA ,)6 ',. ', ',A !,A !,A !,A ', > ',6 ', . !,). ', > ',!' !,6' !,A6 !,>

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a0 Result and Discussion 6ee7 T5o ,s one of the >th factor plant need, nutrient play great role to determine the quality and quantity of yield in the hydrophonic system. Feafy vegetables li&e pa& choy and +ito&yo can be implemented in the hydrophonic system, namely +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique (+%F*". +uring the second wee& of growing these leafy plants in the +%F* tables, we can find that the number of p# and C7 change up8down from desired level. Clectrical conductivity measures the easiness in which an electrical charge can flow through a certain length of a certain material. ,n electrical conductivity usually measure by C7 meter. p# or

potential hydrogen commonly referred to as acidity or al&alinity in a particular medium, such as water or nutrient solution. ,ll elements (plant nurient" have a specific solubility p# range. *his means that mineral elements can become more available for plant upta&e within certain p# ranges. +esired level of p# for leafy vegetables pa& choy and +ito&yo is /. 5hen the p# of nutrient solution in the system is greater than /, we have to ad@ust by adding acid solution. 5hen the p# of nutrient solution in the system is lower than /, we have to ad@ust by adding water. *he desired level of C7 nutrient solution for growing pa& choy and +ito&yo is ', m-Kcm. 5hen the C7 in the system is greater than ', m-Kcm, we have to ad@ust by adding %1 water. 5hen the C7 in the system is lower than ', m-Kcm, we have to ad@ust by adding stoc& nutrient solution. p# changing related with the improvement of root exudates in form of organic acid compound and also release bicarbonate compound (#71 68" to exchange with 0168 (nitrate", as the ma@or nutrient leafy vegetables need to boost the vegetative growth. In other case, C7 changing caused by temperature and some nutrient had already upta&ed by plant root, so the concentration of dissolved salt in nutrien solution change up and down. +uring the second wee& growth period of Pa& choy and +ito&yo, we had several times to ad@ust the lower C7 by adding water and stoc& nutrient solution. C7 must be &eep in the ', cmKcm to &eep the amount of nutrient content in the system for plant growth. *he lower C7 indicate the nutrient content in the system less than desired level as the consequence, some leafy vegetable swill be lac& of nutrient and even compete each other to get these nutrients. In other case, the higher C7 refers to the higher concentration of solution in the system that can made plant under stress and plasmolysis. *hat is why we have to &eep maintain the C7 of solution in the system ind esired level, ', m-Kcm. If the C7 in the system is greater than ', m-Kcm, we should add %1 water to ad@ust. *here are two reason of water adding, the first one is because of the greater concentration of C7 and the second one is the lower level of water content in the system. 5ater content in the system can be lower because of the transpiration of leafy plants and evaporation of ennvironment sorrounding the system. +uring the second wee& both +ito&yo and Pa&choy, every day we add the water, because of the environment condition in that time stimulate plant to boost transpiration rate and also the high rate of evapotranspiration. In addition, the stage of plant during second wee& is vegetative stage that need and use a lot of water to get shoot growth.

5hen the C7 in the system is lower than ', m-Kcm, we have to ad@ust by adding stoc& nutrient solution. Dased on correct calculation, we need '/./ mF nutrient solution stoc& , and D to increase C7 from '.! up to '. . 5e need '!... mF nutrient solution stoc& , and D to increase C7 from '.! up to '.'. ,ctually, during the second wee& growth of +ito&yo, the C7 solution is move in the range !,( up to ',A m-Kcm. In the difference one, Pa&choi, the C7 solution is move in the narrower range between ',!8', . *he difference caused by plant species. *he distinct species have their own capability to upta&e nutrient. Pa& choi may can upta&e nutrient greater than +ito&yo, so that the C7 of solution become difference. +uring the second wee& of Pa&choy and dito&yo, p# changing up and down. For the Pa&choi, the p# solution is move in the range between A,!8/, . For the +ito&yo, the p# canging range is A,) up to /,. m-Kcm. *he difference caused by plant species. *he distinct species have their own capability to produce bicarbonate as the base source for solution and also organic acid root exudates. 5hen the p# of nutrient solution in the system is greater than /, we have to ad@ust by adding acid solution. 5e have already add acid solution in the system several times. *he number of acids solution we add is ) cc, 6 cc and ' cc on the ' +ecember morning, +ecember afternoon and 6 december afternoon, respectively. 5hen the p# of nutrient solution in the system is lower than /, we have to ad@ust by adding water. Cventhough we dont add the water in the system that have greater p#, the solution will be stable again because of the root release bicarbonate that have funtion to made solution more base. 0utrient supply during nursery period and the number of population affecting growth of pa& choy and +ito&yo seedling in +%F* table. Pa& choy and +ito&yo have > &ind of seedling population, namely single population, double population, triple population adn fourple population. Cach population contain of the seedling from fertili?er applied during nursery stage and no application fertili?er during nursery stage. +uring the second wee&, Pa& choi that single population and applied by fertili?er by nursery is the best growth rate. *he indicator is these Pa&choi have the widest diameter of stem (>, A cm", the most number of leaf ('!", the greatest shoot (fresh weight E 'A,/> g" and root (fresh weight E >,/. g" than others. Dut the lac& is single population Pa&choi donot have the highest height, and tent to medium in height level (only A,!A cm", lower than double (/,A6 cm", triple (A,/ cm "or even fourple population (/,'! cm". *hat is true, because more than single population is quite competitiveness in light, so the Pa&choi tent to growt vertically compete each other. -ingle population means no competition, so the pa&choi can growth as

well in the optimum level, because it can upta&e a full portion of nutrient their want without have to compete others. -ingle population have a wide space for canopy growing, and full sunlight to photosynthesys. In addition this pa&choi have already treated by fertili?er during nursery stage, so the growth rate will be boost quic&ly in the further growth stage. *he worst growth rate is showed by fourple population (each hole contain of four seedling" without fertili?er application during nursery stage. Pa&choi in these treatment only have 6,!) cm in the height of plant, ',> cm in the diameter of stem, / leaf, the lightest shoot (fresh weight E ',A6 g" and root (fresh weight E !,>. g". *he reason is all of pa&choi in this treatment compete each other to survive and fight over nutrient, oxigen, and sunlight as the consequence their growth cannot optimum. In addition, there is no fertili?er treatment when nursery tha can promote the fastest growth for their future stage. +uring the second wee&, all of pa&choi that applied fertili?er in the nursery stage have a greater growth rate than pa&choi that no applied fertili?er. It still in the same pattern with the first wee&. 0utrient applied during nursery can boost the growth rate of pa&choi in the first and second wee& after transplanting. 0utrient applied during nursery can ma&e pa&choi faster growth than no applied fertili?er during nursery. *he second leafy vegetable we used in this exercise is +ito&yo. +uring the second wee&, the dito&yo in single population and fertili?er treated in nursery stage shows thye widest diameter ( >,)A cm" and the greatest growth of shoot (fresh weight E 6/,6' gram" and root (fresh weight E >,/6 gram". *he heighest one and the most leaf number is dito&yo from double treatment and applied fertili?er during nursery stage. Dy have an competitor in the double population, one dito&yo tent to growth fastest in order to cempete another one. *he winner will be growth optimal, have more leaf and really height. *he worst growth rate is showed by fourple population (each hole contain of four seedling" without fertili?er application during nursery stage. +ito&yo in these treatment only have > cm in the height of plant, ,/6 cm in the diameter of stem, > leaf, the lightest shoot (fresh weight E A,> g" and root (fresh weight E !,> g". *he reason is all of dito&yo in this treatment compete each other to survive and fight over nutrient, oxigen, and sunlight as the consequence their growth cannot optimum. In addition, there is no fertili?er treatment when nursery tha can promote the fastest growth for their future stage. ,t the same pattern with pa&choi, all of dito&yo that applied fertili?er in the nursery stage have a greater growth rate than dito&yo that no applied fertili?er. 0utrient applied during nursery can boost the growth rate in the first and second wee& after transplanting.

;0 Data 6ee7 Tree Table 1.1 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during the 3rd (ee. Pa. cho$ seedling into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',! ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',/ ',/ ',/ ',A ',/ ',. ',/ ',) p# A, A >, . >, ) /, ' A, ! A, A A, . >, ( A, / A, A, ! A, ! A, A >, / ,A -upply :sed 5ater (F" 6,/ ',A ) 8 > ' !,6 ) ',A ., A ,' >,A -toc& -ol. (mF" ()(, '),) 8 8 8 8 '),) '),) '),) 6 /,> 6 /,> 8 '),) '!.,. 8 8 8 . 8 ,cid (mF" !,A ,A 8 8 8 8 8 ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ',. ',. ',. 8 ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',.

p#

Morning /K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning )K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning .K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning (K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6!K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6'K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'K'K !'> ,fternoon

/ /, A,/ 8 /,6 A,( /,! /,> A,( / / /,' /,' /

Table 1.2 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during the 3rd (ee. of 'ito.$o seedlings into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',! ',) ',/ ',. ',. ',. ',/ ',6 ',/ ',! ',/ ',. ',/ ',. p# ), A, A, ( A, / A, ( /, / ), 6 A, ( /, ' A, . A, ( A, . A, ' 8 '! / 6 -upply :sed 5ater (F" ),A 6 / ' 8 8 8 '! -toc& -ol. (mF" .)!,> '),/ '),) 8 8 8 '),) A>> '),) .)!,> ').) '!.,. 6 /,> 8 ,cid (mF" 6 '! 8 8 8 8 8 A 8 A 8 8 . 8 ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ',. ',. ',. ',. 8 8 ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',.

p#

Morning /K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning )K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning .K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning (K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6!K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 6'K' K !'6 ,fternoon Morning 'K'K !'> ,fternoon

/ /, /,' / 8 8 /,' A,( /,' / / / /,' /,'

Table 1.3 #ro(th of Pa. cho$ seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and pof 1 for 3rd (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" '!,A '!,( '!,) ),( ) ),A '' '',( '',> ) . ),A (,) '',A '!,/ .,. '! (,> .,/ (,! .,. ),A /,( ), Feaf 5eight (gKplant" +iameter 0o. of stem shoot root '! /(,>6 ),> /,) ((,/. >,'' '6 /,> ' .>,A/ A,'' /,/ . /, 6.,6 /,(> >.,A. >,') ( .,' ( >6,>> A,AA ), ) /,A )A,'! 6,/. >',> ', . ( /,( . A., / ,>. /,) . A, ., . ,'. ,6 ',)' . /,A . A,6! ',(A A,. . A,' /, ( ','' >!,A> ,>6 / A,> ) 66,> ',)) A,> / >,/ >,>) ',6A >,>/ ',A. ) >,( ) >,>) ',>) >,) ) >,. ',(( !,6 66,.( !,. ) > ) '/,(A !,A/ >,> A 6,. 'A,A' !,/6 ' ,(6 !, . / 6,( / '>, !,>/ 6,.

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Table 1.+ #ro(th of 'ito.$o seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and pof 1 for 3rd (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" '. 'A,( ') ),' (, ., '!,6 '!,) '!,A ), /,( ) ),/ (,) .,) A,> > >,) '!,' ),A .,. ),! A,/ /,6 Feaf 0o. '! ( '! . A ) . ) . / A / / / / ) / ) / . ) ) . . +iameter of stem '!,> '!, '!,6 /, .,> ),6 .,( /,/ ),) .,) ),) ., A, A,> A,6 /,A A,) /,' >,' ),' A,/ /,. >,> A,/ 5eight (gKplant" shoot 'A>,! ')/, / '/A,'> A(,A( .(,6A )>,> /6,)/ /!,!> /',(! >(,A( >',)' >A,A/ '.,!6 6!,'. >,'' A,>6 /,66 A,.. (,>' (, A (,66 (,/' 6!,!( '(,.A root .,/. '',)> '!, ' '',./ 6,.A ),.A 6,. ,)' 6, . ',)6 ,/' ,'. !,6A !,'' !, 6 ,A) !,.' ',/( !,(> ',>) !,! ', > !,/6

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a0 Results and Discussion 6ee7 Three 0utrient solution must be &eep as close as desired level in order to create better condition for plant growth. *here are control point of nutrient solution, called as electrical conductivity (C7" and p#. Clectrical conductivity (C7" refers to the phisycal properties of solution that capable for conducting electrical current. p# is described as acidiy or al&alinity of solution that can influence the availability of dissolve nutrient for root upta&ing. *he desired p# is /. *he desired C7 in this wee& is '.. m-Kcm, differ from previous wee& only ', m-Kcm. It changes follow the growth stage of leafy. C7 and p# monitoring should be done by comparing on how much the decreasing or increasing point of C7 and p# in the morning and evening during third wee& growing period. It can monitor the adequacy of nutrients for plant growth. *he p# range in the pa&choi system is spread from >./ N /. . , little bit difference with the dito&yo that have p# range from A, N ),6. *he level p# in the /, is still tolerance whenever the standart is on /. *he changing of p# level in the solution occurs every time as the impact of the plnat growth activity. Cventhough the nutrient solution prepared as well in the desired level of p#, the p# will be change during the running of time. Feafy have vegetatife growth stage until its harvest so they tent to release a lot of bicarbonate to exchange with nitrate. Dicarbonate is one compound that can increase the p# range because its properties is base compound. *he ma@or pattern of p# cange during in this wee& is going to acids. *he first reason is leafy also excange the cation in order to get nutrient in the cation form li&e 9M and 7aM. Dut the amount of &ation need when vegetative stage is quite low for leafy. *he second reason is the having of organic acid or root exudates, li&e phtalic acids, phenicacetic acids and ben?oic. 1rganic acids absolutely stymulate the p# to change in the acid level. 5hen the p# change into acid level, actually we dont need to neutrali?e it with base solution. $ust in this case, leafy plant release a lot of bicarbonate, as base inducer. Clectrical conductivity changing up and down during the third wee&. *he C7 range in the pa&choi and dito&yo is spread from ' N ',.. *he desired level of C7 we need is ',. m-Kcm, a little difference with the first and second wee& ', m-Kcm. *he ma@or pattern both in dito&yo and pa&choi we analy?e every day is C7 nutrient solution going down. *he reason is several amount of nutrient have already upta&e by root plants.

1n this third wee& we also add the water because of the lac& water in the system. *he decreasing of water in the system is common thing because of plant absorb a lot of water every time. In addition the rate of evaporation of environment that can stimulate the loss of several water amount from the systems. *otal amount of water we add in this wee& is >A, A liter on the pa&choi tables and /!,A liter on dito&yo. *he difference is also depend on the plant species, because of differ species have their own capability deals water needs. In the +%F* system, growth of leafy vegetables is affevted environment and genetic factor. <enetic factor related to the viability of seed and growth rate are inherited from parent. <enetic factors had been overcome by choosing hybrid seeds both +ito&yo and Pa&choi. Cnvironment factor refers to any support or inhibitor in the form environmental condition for example fertili?er application and creating competition. 7ontinuing the observation at the third wee&, Pa& choi that single population and applied by fertili?er by nursery is still the best growth rate. *he indicator is these Pa&choi have the highest body ('!,) cm", wide diameter of stem (/,/ cm", the most number of leaf (' ", the greatest shoot (fresh weight E .>,A/ g" and root (fresh weight E A,)) g" than others. -ingle population means no competition, so the pa&choi can growth as well in the optimum level, because it can upta&e a full portion of nutrient their want without have to compete others. -ingle population have a wide space for canopy growing, and full sunlight to photosynthesys. In addition this pa&choi have already treated by fertili?er during nursery stage, so the growth rate will be boost quic&ly in the further growth stage. -till in the same pattern with the previous wee&, the worst growth rate is showed by fourple population (each hole contain of four seedling" without fertili?er application during nursery stage. Pa&choi in these treatment only have ),! cm in the height of plant, 6,. cm in the diameter of stem, / leaf, the lightest shoot (fresh weight E '>, g" and root (fresh weight E !,>/ g". *he reason is all of pa&choi in this treatment compete each other to survive and fight over nutrient, oxigen, and sunlight as the consequence their growth cannot optimum. In addition, there is no fertili?er treatment when nursery that can promote the fastest growth for their future stage. Pa&choi untreated by fertili?er in the nursery stage have a lower growth rate than pa&choi treated fertili?er. It still in the same pattern with the previous wee&. 0utrient applied during nursery can boost the growth rate of pa&choi in the first 8 second N third wee& after transplanting. 0utrient applied during nursery can ma&e pa&choi faster growth than no applied fertili?er during nursery.

In the same case with +ito&yo growth rate. +ito&yo in single population and fertili?er treated in nursery stage shows the best growt rate. In this case, +ito&yo is highest one ('),! cm" and the widest diameter ( '!,6 cm" , the most leaf ('!" and the greatest growth of shoot (fresh weight E '/A,'> gram" and root (fresh weight E '!, ' gram". -ingle population means no competition, so dito&yo can growth as well in the optimum level, because it can upta&e a full portion of nutrient their want without have to compete others. -ingle population have a wide space for canopy growing, and full sunlight to photosynthesys. In addition, +ito&yo that had already treated by fertili?er during nursery stage have good growth rate in the further growth stage. ,bsolutely, the worst growth rate is dito&yo that donot treated with fertili?er during nursery and set in form of fourple population ( > seedling at one sponge hole". +ito&yo in these treatment only have /,6cm in the height of plant, A,/ cm in the diameter of stem, . leaf, the lightest shoot (fresh weight E '(,.A g" and root (fresh weight E !,/6 g". <0 Data 6ee7 Four Table 1.1 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during the + th (ee. after transplanting Pa. cho$ seedling into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',A ',. ',) ',. ',A ',/ ',. -upply :sed 5ater p# (F" A, > A, >, A A A, ( A, > A, . / / !,A >,A 6 8 -toc& -ol. (mF" 6 /,> 8 '!.,. '),/ 6 /,> '),/ 8 ,cid (mF" ' 8 8 8 8 8 8 ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',.

p#

Morning 6K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning >K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning AK'K !'> ,fternoon /K'K !'> Morning

/,' /,' /,! A,( A,( /,! A,(

,fternoon Morning )K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning .K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning (K'K !'> ,fternoon

',/ ',. ',/ ',A ',. ',A ',/

A, > >, 6 A, ! A, >, ( >, ( A, A

6 > ( > 6,A A 6

'),/ 8 '),/ 6 /,> 8 6 /,> '),/

8 8 8 8 8

',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',.

/,' / / A,( / A,( A,(

',.

Table 1.2 ,C and p- changing in nutrient solution during in +th (ee. after transplanting 'ito.$o seedlings into '"FT s$ste& controlling ,C of 1,2 &/c&01 and p- 1. Defore ,d@usting +ate *ime C7 (m-cm8'" ',> ',) ',) ',/ ',> ',/ ',. ',/ ',( ',) ',A ',. ',> ',/ p# A, A A,/ A A,> /,' A,) /,6 A,A >,/ A, >,) A,! A,> A,A -upply :sed 5ater (F" ),A ' /, A ),A 8 ' ),A ,A 6 ' / 6,A A -toc& -ol. (mF" >6A, '!.,. '!.,. '),/ >6A, '),/ 8 '),/ 8 '!.,. 6 /,> 8 >6A, '),/ ,cid (mF" ' 8 8 8 8 8 ' 8 8 8 ' 8 8 8 ,fter ,d@ust C7 (m-cm8'" ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. ',. 8 ',. ',.

p#

Morning 6K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning >K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning AK'K !'> ,fternoon Morning /K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning )K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning .K'K !'> ,fternoon Morning (K'K !'> ,fternoon

/ A,( /,' /,' / / / A,( A,( / / 8 /,! A,(

Table 1.3 #ro(th of Pa. cho$ seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and pof 1 in +th (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" '/ ! '. '> ) '!,A '/,A '(,. '.,' '),. '(,A '.,) '), '6,6 'A,6 '/ ' ,/ '>,6 '/,. '6,6 'A ' ,/ '6,A '6,' Feaf 5eight (gKplant" +iameter 0o. of stem shoot root '6 'A/, (,>' '!,> ' (,>' ),/6 ( '!,/ '' '> ,. .,A '!,A '' ),/ '!.,!' '!,!A .!,6. ),6 '' '!, '' (>, ! .,/. .,( '6 ., /),'6 ,A6 ( ,66 ,A6 ( (,. '' )(,)6 ,A6 ( / A,A >6,>A ,/. 6.,!/ ',') ) A,/ ) >!,)/ ',(6 A,/ ( A,6 A!,!' ',)/ A),A) ,'( ) A, . A6,)( ',(. A,6 . >,6 /,!( ','> /,! ','A / A,' ) /,!/ ','A >,) ( A,> >/,/6 ',A( 6 ,>! !,/6 . 6,) ( 6(,A' ','' >,A . A,' 6A,.( ',)> .,(> ',/' ) /,6 . 6 ,>' ',/. A,)

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Table 1.+ #ro(th of 'ito.$o seedlings as affected b$ nuttrient suppl$ during nurser$ period and plant population in '"FT s$ste& that control ,C at 1,2 &/c&01 and p- of 1 in +th (ee.. -eedling Population -ource of seedling 0utrient applied ' 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied 6 0on 0utrient applied 0utrient applied > 0on 0utrient applied #eight (cm" ' ) > > ' ,A '.,6 A,6 > >,) ' ,6 ' ,A ' ,> '),6 !,6 '.,. '6 '/ '>,A !,. '(,. !,6 '.,6 '/,( '),/ Feaf 0o. ( '' '! '' . '! . ( ( . / ) . ) . ) . . ) ( . > / A' , +iameter of stem '',6 ' ,/ ' '',/ ' ,. ' , . /,( ),A /,' /,' /,' A,/ A,6 A,A ),A ),. ),/ >,> /,6 A,6 A,( A,. A,( 5eight (gKplant" shoot '(/,/6 6!6,!6 >(,.6 !!, A '6>,// '/ ,> './, ' '6.,/6 '/ ,> >6,A/ A>,> >.,(. )(,' /',6/ )!, 6 /),A6 .6,' )A,6 A',)> .(,! )!,6. 6 ,/ >6,)' 6.,'/ %oot /,6> ' ,6A (,6A /,>' >,/( A,AA 6, > ', , 6 ',>( ,'6 ',.' !,6' !,)) !,A> !,)) ',!/ !,( ',!) 6,>' , > !,/> ','. !,('

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a0 Results and Discussion 6ee7 Four Clectrical conductivity (C7" is the capability of solution to conduct electrical current and related with the number of dissolved salt in that solution. C7 can be measured by C7 meter. P# is the potential hydrogen shows acidity or al&alinity of solution. p# can be measured by p# meter. C7 and p# are the &ey to maintain nutrient solution. p# and C7 changing is common as the impact of environmental changing and plant growth. Cenvironmental factor li&e temperature can affect on the C7 solution. *he activity of plnat growth can give impact both in C7 concentration in the solution and p# of solution. *he observation have done during > wee&. *he results is there are p# and C7 changing every day, so we need to maintain as close as our desired level, for ',. m-Kcm for C7 and p# on / level in order to conduct optimum plant growth condition. +uring observation only in the fourth wee&, we can see that the p# range on dito&yo tables spread from >./ and /.6. In other species, in pa&choi tables, p# move up and down in the range >.A N /.'. C7 changing in the pa&choi tables occurs from ',A m-Kcm up to ',. m-Kcm, in other leafy, dito&yo undergone C7 changing in the range spread from ',> m-Kcm to ',( m-Kcm. In the fact, start from the third wee& until the fourth wee& we move up the desired level of C7 ito be ',. m-Kcm. It is higher than C7 ad@usting point in the initial wee& (the first wee& and second wee&", as we &now only ', m-Kcm. Dased on correct calculation, we need '!... mF nutrient solution stoc& , and D to increase ' point C7 from '.) m-Kcm up to '.. m-Kcm. 5e need '),/ mF nutrient solution stoc& , and D to increase solution stoc& , and D. Ma@ority, after we ad@ust the p# as we do everyday, the solution come bac& to acid level on the tommorow morning. *he pattern of all treatment in this exercise is li&e that. It caused by the high amount of organic acid release as the impact of plnat growth activity. *here are some organic acids produced by plant and will be release in the form of root exudates, namely phthalic acid, ben?oic and also phenylacetic acid. 5hen the p# change into acid level, actually we dont need to neutrali?e it with base solution. $ust in this case, leafy plant release a lot of bicarbonate, as base inducer, to solution in order to exchnage with nitrate as the ma@or nutrient leafy need in vegetative stage. +uring fourth wee&, we also add the water because of lac& water in the system. 5ater can be loss from the systme by evapotranspiration. Cvapotranspiration comprise of the rate of evaporation that occurs in point C7 from ' ./ m-Kcm up to '.. m-Kcm. *o ad@ust C7 from '.A m-Kcm into '.. m-Kcm, we need 6 /.> mF nutrient

surrounding plant growth system and also the rate of transpirationthat plant doing. 9eeping water in the desired level of plant need can support plant growth. *he lac& of water in the system must be replace in order to maintain the C7 point of solution. *he lac& of water related with the higher concentration of solution that very harmfull for plant growth. 7ontinuing observation in the last wee&, > wee& after transplanting, on the pa&choi and dito&yo in the +%F* system. I still saw the same pattern that the greatest growth rate is showed by single population with fertili?er applied during nutrient solution. *he final yield in the harvesting time is quite bigger than others treatment. Pa&choi single population with fertili?er applied during nutrient solution have optimum yield characteristic li&e optimum height '. cm, the number of leaf '', the diameter of stem '!,A, the big quantity of fresh weight on the shoot for about '> ,. gram and root .,A gram. Plant growth rate of the leafy vegetables both dito&yo and pa&choi is depend on the population and also fertili?er application during nursery. ,ll leafy that treated by fertili?er adding treatment during nursery stage can induce the high growth in the further stage until the harvest time of its leafy. *he economical point of leafy vegetables is on how big the edible point can be harvested from a plant. Dased on this concept, the most critical measurement value in the last wee& is shoot. -hoot for leafy vegetable is the entire edible part that have economic value. *he bigger edible part indicate by the heavy of fresh weight those part. *he heavy shoot means big and optimum growth level of its leafy. In the case of shoot, the difference between applied fertili?er pa&choin and non applied pa&choi is A! gram, >! gram, 6! gram, '! gram for the single, double, triple and fourple population, respectively. *he difference range is not quite wide in the last population, but quite different in the single population treatment. In other specie, dito&yo, the difference of shoot weight between applied fertili?er and non applied is .! gram, ''! gram, A gram, ! gram for the single, double, triple and fourple population, respectively. It is very difficult to conclude because the difference range is unstable in each population. 0ext comparation is between population treatment in the term of final shoot. -ingle population treatment absolutely give the optimum level of plant growth rate than double population. +ouble population treatment greater than triple population and triple population can be promote greater growth rate than fourple population. In this case we can see, that the rapid population will be conduct competition and interupt leafy plant to growth optimum. 7ompetition occurs not only in the term of nutrient but also light, water and growth space.

1n the pa&choi, the difference between single population and double population is /! gram. *he difference between double population and triple population is 6! gram. *he difference between triple population and fouple population is nearly 'A gram. ,nd the difference between fourple population compare with single population is quite wide for about '!! gram. In other species, dito&yo, show the same pattern. *he difference between single population and double population is .! gram. *he difference between double population and triple population is (! gram. *he difference between triple population and fourple population is ! gram. ,nd the difference between fourple population compare with single population is quite wide nearly !! gram. =0 Economic Analysis In this case, we would li&e to set up my hydroponic farm using +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique. we running with brassica because of relative high and stabil demand of its leafy. Initially, we have to estimate how much potential yield, cost, and price, basen on the field experinced in Faboratory -ix about +%F*. ,ll of the economic analysis points show per &g in order to ease understanding. *hese information are very important to plan further big leafy production. *he economic analysis of our hidroponic farm as following. ).' Potential yield of brassica ). Plant K &g ).6 *otal 7ost K &g a. Fixed 7ost OinfrastructureP b. =ariable cost K &g -eed A K &g, Q *#D !,A ; *#D *#D ,A ; ; ; > *#D >! ; *#D '! A! gram (F5 of shoot Ditokyo"

Fertili?er

*#D

,A>

,ccording to practicum, we need nutrinet solution ),( F. *he price of nutrient is '/ *#D K liter, so the price become to ' ) *#D. 1nce again, all points must be

provided into cost per &g. 1ne table potentially produce A! &g. -o the nutrient fees must be divided with A!, become ' )KA! E ,A> *#D 5ater ; *#D /,'

,ccording to practicum, we need 6!A F. *he price of water is equal to ' *#D K liter, so the price become to 6!A *#D. 1nce again, all points must be provided into cost per &g. 1ne table potentially produce A! &g. -o the water fees must be divided with A!, become 6!AKA! E /,' *#D Clectricity ; *#D ,A

Clectricity points is calculated by determine how many hour K day we used and how many day to growth brassica, and multiply by electric value per 9ilowatt. *he calculation is as bellow.

*hese calculation refers to ' table of brassica. 1ne table of brassica consist of !! plant and can potentially produce A! &g. 1nce again, all points must be provided into cost per &g. -o the electrical fees must be divided with A!, become ' >,6 KA! E ,A Fabor Q *#D 6!!K>.! minute ; *#D 'A,/

,ctually, wor&ing is divided to seedling, transplanting, maintenance, harvesting and cleaning medium. 5e assume that ' manday (*#D 6!!" is equal to . hour or >.! minutes of wor&ing. Decause of we have to convert all analysis point into costK&g, so we try to estimate that to do each wor&, @ust only for A seed and further > plant, we need A minute. *here are A stage of wor&, so totally it ta&e A minutes.

*#D

Media sponge cube

*#D

!,A/

-ponge cube easy to get in commercial mar&et and some provider have special offer about product in *hailand. 1ne table that potentially produce A! &g use sheet of sponge cube. 5e estimate the price of sheets of sponge cube is equal to . *#D . 1nce again, all points must be provided into cost per &g. -o the media fees must be divided with A!, become .KA! E !,A/ *#D ,cid ; *#D !,' A *#D K

,ccording to practicum, we need !! ml K table. *he price of #016 is liter.

. 1nce again, all points must be provided

into cost per &g. 1ne table potentially produce A! &g. -o the acid fees must be divided with A!, become AKA! E !,' *#D ).> Profit ).A -elling Price K &g ; ; !J *#D >.

C NC$#S" N

'. *he +ynamic %oot Floating *echnique (+%F*" is a nutrient circulation system of hydroponics developed for use in a tropical climate to grow hygienic, quality vegetable free of pesticides all year8round. *he system used originally a hybrid technique combining elements from both +F* and ebb and flow systems. . *he C7 and p# changing as the impact of environmental condition and plant growth activity. 5hen p# solution going to acid level as the impact of organic acid produced by plant release, namely ben?oic, pthalic acids and phenyl acetic acid. 5hen p# of nutrient solution in the system is greater than /, we have to ad@ust by adding acid solution. It is rare happend because of in that case, leafy plant can neutrali?e the p# by release bicarbonate to exchange with nitrate. 5hen the p# of nutrient solution in the system is lower than /, we have to dilute by adding water. *he C7 point is decrease as the impact of upta&ing nutrient, we can ad@ust it by adding stoc& nutrient solution based on correct calculation. 5hen the C7 point is increase as the impact of to much water lose from the system (evapotranspiration" we should add %1 water again. 6. +uring the last wee& observation, seedlings with nutrient applied during nursery stage had a faster growth rate than seedlings with non nutrient applied in the further stage. Feafy vegetables with nutrient applied during nursery stage set a higher final yield than seedlings with non nutrient applied. *he difference of these case found clearly in dito&yo and pa&choi. -etting population also affect the final yield and the faster of growth. Feafy in the single population fastest growth and produce a highest yield than all treatment. +ouble greater than triple population and *he worst one is fourple population. In shortly, it is proved that the growth of leafy in the +%F* system affect by population treatment and nutrient applied during nursery stage. >. *he cost per &g is >! Dath and the profit is !J, so the selling price is >. Dath per &g.

REFERENCE 9ao, *e87hen. '((!. +evelopment of a hydroponic vegetable system. In; Proceedings of the '((! 7hinese ,merican ,cademic and Professional 7onvention. 0ew Ror&, :-,. 9ao, *e87hen, -.*. 7hang, *.-. #ong and 7.F. Fiang. '(.(. , novel system design for tropical hydroponic techniques S ,n improvement on the +%F hydroponic system. *he -econd Proceedings of a -ymposium on #orticultural Production under -tructures. *aichung, %17 on *aiwan, pp. '6!8'>). (In 7hinese". 9uo, Fu8Rao. '(.). *he study and outloo& of the facility cultivation on the production of vegetable in *aiwan pp. 6'8> . In; *he First Proceedings of a -ymposium on #orticultural Production under -tructures, held in *aichung, %17 on *aiwan. pp. 6'8> . (In 7hinese" %esh, #oward M. '(.). #ydroponic Food Production. 5oodbridge Press Publishing 7ompany. -u?u&i, R., -hinohara, R., -hibuya, M. ,nd I&eda, #. '(.>. %ecent development of #ydroponics in $apan. In; Proceedings of the International 7ongress on -oilless 7ulture, Funteren, pp. //'8)/ . Ramasa&i, 9oya. '(./. +evelopment and respects of hydroponics in $apan. ,griculture and #orticulture /'; '!)8''>. (In $apanese"