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Appendices APPENDIX I Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences & Research,

Information Sheet for Parents"Guardians Dear Parents, We would like to request you that you and your child take part in a scientific study, which aims to provide a better understanding of difference in dental decay (caries) status of rural and urban areas of Fero epur city! "efore you decide whether or not to participate in the study, you need to understand what research is being carried out and what it will involve! Please read the following information carefully! #f there is anything unclear, or if you need more information, please do not hesitate to contact us! $hank you for your time!

ero!epur

#hat is the purpose of the study$ The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding regarding the difference between the prevalence of dental decay (dental caries) in rural and urban areas of Ferozepur city. This will help us to deliver better dental care in future. #hy has your child %een chosen$ Your child has been selected because he/she lives in one of the geographical sites, which have been chosen for the study and also your child is of 1 years

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 111

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of age, which is the age brac!et that we re"uire for our research. #e e$pect to involve al%ost 1&&& (parents/guardians and children) in this study. Do I have to participate$ 't is up to you to decide whether or not to participate. 'f you do decide to ta!e part you will be given this infor%ation sheet to !eep and be as!ed to sign an infor%ed consent for%. (ven if you decide to ta!e part you are free to withdraw at any ti%e without assigning us any reason for your decision and you will not be "uestioned in such a scenario. )lease note that participating in the study will not have any adverse effect on your child*s dental health.
#hat &ill happen if I participate$

'f you agree to participate, we will as! you to answer a "uestionnaire on dental health and related topics. 'n the "uestionnaire you are free not to answer any of the "uestions without assigning any reason. #hat &ill happen if my child participates$ 'f you agree for your child to participate, a "ualified dentist will carry out a si%ple and "uic! dental e$a%ination of your child with si%ple dental instru%ents to record the nu%ber and condition of your child*s teeth. +o additional e$a%ination will be carried out and no dental treat%ent will be provided. Are there any ris's of participatin( in the study$ The ris!s of participating in the study are the sa%e as having a dental chec!, up. This is a recognized health practice and to %ini%ize any ris!s, %a$i%u% infection control procedures are being followed. #e %ay find that your child has tooth decay. 'n such case we will infor% you.

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 112

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#hat are the possi%le %enefits of ta'in( part$ There is no i%%ediate direct benefit to you or your child other than the fact that you will gain better understanding regarding the oral condition of your child which in turn %ay help you plan on see!ing better dental care for your ward in future. #ill my ta'in( part in this study %e 'ept confidential$ -ll the infor%ation, which is collected during the research, will be !ept strictly confidential. -ny infor%ation about the participants will have the na%es and addresses re%oved. (ach person ta!ing part in the study will be labelled with a uni"ue study nu%ber.

.ontact 'nfor%ation
/r. 0hawna -rora )ostgraduate student /ept. of )ediatric /entistry 1enesis 'nstitute of /ental 2ciences 3 4esearch institute, Ferozepur 5 6udhiana 7ighway, Ferozepur .ontact +o8 9:&1&&;<<9 /ate,

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 113

Appendices Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences & Research, ero!epur )*NSEN+ *R, -Parent"Guardian. +hesis +itle/ Prevalence and )omparison of dental caries in 01 year old school (oin( children in rural and ur%an areas of ero!epur city usin( Si) inde23
4esearcher8 /r. 0hawna -rora 1. ' hereby confir% that ' have read and understood the infor%ation sheet related to the above,%entioned study and ' have been given opportunity to as! "uestions. . ' understand that %y child*s participation is voluntary and that we are free to withdraw at any ti%e without giving any reason and without %y child*s dental care or legal rights being affected. =. ' agree that %y child>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>(child*s na%e) and ' will participate in the above,%entioned study.

??????????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? +a%e of child*s parent/guardian /ate 2ignature

???????????????????? 4esearcher

????????????? ???????????????????? /ate 2ignature

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 114

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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 115

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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 116

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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 117

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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 118

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APPENDIX4II Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry Genesis Institute of Dental Sciences & Research, ero!epur

56ES+I*NNAIRE AND )7INI)A7 EXA,INA+I*N PER *R,A 2tudent na%e............................................................................. Father*s na%e............................................................................ -ge in years............................................................................... 1ender....................................................................................... /ate of birth.............................................................................. 2chool na%e.............................................................................. /ate of the interview................................................................ A3 RESIDEN)E 1. .ity or Town . 4ural area 83 S*)I*4E)*N*,I) S+A+6S Fa%ily inco%e???????????????? Father*s @ccupation

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 119

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1. 1overn%ent (%ployee . Teacher =. 1eneral #or!er A. Far%er :. @thers (specify)

Bother*s @ccupation
1. 1overn%ent (%ployee . Teacher =. 1eneral #or!er A. 7ousewife :. @thers (specify)

Bother*s (ducation
1. .annot read or write . )ri%ary school =. 2econdary school A. 7igh school :. Cndergraduate ;. )ost graduate

Father*s (ducation
1. . =. A.

.annot read or write )ri%ary school 2econdary school 7igh school

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 120

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:. ;.

Cndergraduate )ost graduate

)3 *RA7 9:GIENE PRA)+I)ES 1) /o you brush your teethD 1. Yes . +o ) 7ow often do you brush your teethD 13 +ot everyday . @nce everyday =. Twice everyday A. Bore than twice everyday =) #hen do you brush your teethD 1. +ot fi$ed . -fter getting up =. -fter brea!fast A. 0efore going to bed A) /o you use tooth paste to brush your teethD 1. Yes . +o

:) 7ave you ever gone to dentistD 0. Yes . +o ;) #hen is the %ost recent visit to dentistD 1. ; %onths or less . Bore than ; %onths =. Bore than 1 year
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 121

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A. Bore than years

<) #hy did you go to dentistD (1) 4outine chec! up ( ) /ental pain (=) Filling (A) 1u% bleeding (:) ($traction (;) @thers (specify) D3 EA+ING 9A8I+S (1) /iet (a) Eegetarian ( ) .ereals and 1rains (a)4ice (b) 0read/ chapati (b) +on 5 vegetarian

(=) Fre"uency of 2nac!s, ca!e and .andy/ wee! (A) Bil! 2weetened %il! Cnsweetened %il! (:) 7ow %any sugar spoons per cup ( &&%l) appro$i%ately

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 122

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)7INI)A7 EXA,INA+I*N /ental status

1<

1;

1:

1A

1=

11

<

A<

A;

A:

AA

A=

A1

=1

==

=A

=:

=;

=<

.ode for dental status & 1 , 2ound , /ecayed , Filled and /ecayed = A : ; < F 9 , Filled without decay , Bissing as a result of caries , Bissing any other reason , Fissure sealant , 0ridge abut%ent , Cnerupted tooth,(crown/une$posed root) , +ot recorded

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 123

Appendices APPENDIX4III APPR*;A7 * P7AN * +9ESIS

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 124

Appendices APPENDIX4I; )9ANGE * )*4 S6PER;IS*R

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 125

Appendices APPENDIX4; GENESIS INS+I+6+E * DEN+A7 S)IEN)ES & RESEAR)9, ER*<EP6R Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry P7AN * +9ESIS
IN+R*D6)+I*N 'n 19F;, #alter 6oesche described caries and periodontal disease as perhaps the %ost e$pensive infections that %ost individuals have to contend with during a lifeti%e.1 The word G.-4'(2* is derived fro% the 6atin word %eaning Grot* or Gdecay*. 't is also a!in to the word GHer* for G/eath*. -ccording to #7@ Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissues .I1 /ental .aries is the outco%e of a %ultiple co%ple$ process involving factors li!e diet, %icroorganis%s, trace ele%ents, saliva, genetic predisposition and tooth %orphology. -part fro% these, %any related factors li!e individual, social, environ%ental and cultural factors are also responsible.
=,A,:,; 3<

@ral health status studies in east and southern -frican countries generally show that the prevalence is low but widespread and possibly increasing due to increased e$posure to the deter%inants of caries. F -ccording to #7@ report &&=, it is the %aJor oral health condition in

developing countries, affecting ;&,9&K of the school children and the vast %aJority of adults.9 -ccording to +ational @ral 7ealth 2urvey done on Barch, &1&, caries prevalence in 'ndia was :1.9K (%ean deft ), :=.FK (%ean

/BFT 1.F) and ;=.1K (%ean /BFT .A) at ages :, 1 , and 1: years. 1& /ata
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 126

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for 1 years old fro% =< -frican countries show that 1= (== K) have a very low /BFT (&. & , 1.1), 19 (AA K) a low /BFT (1. %oderate /BFT ( .< , A.A).= 1 , .;) and < ( = K) a

year age group is considered as global

%onitoring age for international co%parison as 't is the age of transition of teeth fro% %i$ed dentition to per%anent dentition. 11 - recent study, < investigating the association between educational indicators and dental caries e$perience of 1 ,year,old children in developing countries revealed that dental caries e$perience of 1 ,year,old children appears to be highest in countries with low,level of pri%ary education. The #7@ carried out several surveys to evaluate the prevalence of tooth decay all over the #orld using standardized surveys and indices. The %ost co%%on inde$ was /BFT inde$, -7enry T. Hlein, .arrole ( )al%er, Hnutson L.# in 19=F) which describes Gthe )revalence* of dental caries in an individual and is obtained by calculating the nu%ber of /ecayed (/), Bissing (B) and filled (F) Teeth. The #7@ goal thus indicates that a %a$i%u% of three teeth as a %ean %ay be affected by caries at the age of 1 . 7owever, a low %ean caries level such as G=.&* does not e$clude a nu%ber of individuals with considerably higher /BFT values in the sa%e population (Global goals for oral health in year 2000 FDI).1
.

- detailed analysis of the caries prevalence in %any countries has often shown a s!ewed distribution of the disease8 a group of 1 year olds %ay have high or very high decayed/%issing/filled teeth (/BFT) values, while the rest of the age group shows low /BFT or are totally caries free. @bviously, e$pressing caries prevalence as the %ean /BFT value does not correctly reflect the s!ewed distribution, leaving high caries groups undiscovered in the
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 127

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population. 'n order not to lose the positive %o%entu% gained fro% various oral health progra%%es around the world, and to target the still caries, susceptible individuals in the population, a new inde$, the significant caries (2i.) inde$, was introduced in the year &&& to call attention to those children with the highest scores in each population. 2o, for these type of populations, a low %ean caries level such as G=.&* does not e$clude a nu%ber of individuals with considerably higher /BFT values in the sa%e population (1lobal goals for oral health in year &&& F/'). 1= For those countries, who still have not

reached the #7@/F/' global goal of /BFT =, this goal is the first priority. -s a following step, it has been proposed that the 2i. 'nde$ for countries should be less than = /BFT in the 1 ,year,olds by the year &1:. 'ndia is the second highest populated country in the world with %ore than 1&=& %illion population, out of which appro$i%ately < K live in rural areas 3 re%aining FK in urban areas. 7owever, not enough wor! has been done in rural areas where %aJority of the 'ndian population lives. - %aJor cause of li%ited oral care in rural areas is lac! of trained %anpower, li%ited availability of resources, unavailability of baseline data of dental diseases and treat%ent needs and inade"uate planning and i%ple%entation of progra%%es and policies. -s far as the availability of %anpower goes, the dentist to population ratio in urban areas is 18 1&&&&, it is only 181:&,&&& in rural areas.1A,1: Earious prevalence studies on dental caries and treat%ent needs of different population in urban and rural regions of 'ndia have been done and reported. 'n a study conducted in =,: year age group school going children in rural and urban areas of Bangalore, it was found that, the prevalence of
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 128

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dental caries a%ong anganwadi children was F1.AK. -%ong the !indergarten children the prevalence of dental caries was ; .=K. The %ean d%ft a%ong the anganwadi children was A.; (=.F ) and a%ong !indergarten children the %ean d%ft score was =.A (=.<<).1; 7owever this is not always the trend, according to a longitudinal study done in :,< year old children in Tanzania, Cganda and Boza%bi"ue. -ppro$i%ately one hundred :,< year old children were e$a%ined fro% rando%ly selected schools in each of three locations (urban for%al, urban infor%al and rural) in each country. The %ean d%fs score for the entire sa%ple was :.1 (<.:), with the %ean nu%ber of decayed surfaces being =.A and %issing surfaces 1.<. The %ean d%fs score was significantly higher (p, value M &.&:) in Cganda, especially in the urban infor%al location. 1< The urban population residing in the Ferozepur city of )unJab is well co%ple%ented by a large agriculture based rural populace in the district. This study ai%s at esti%ating the caries prevalence in Ferozepur city using 2i. inde$ and co%parison of the caries prevalence in rural and urban 1 year old school going children ta!ing into account the gender, socio,econo%ic status and oral hygiene %easures.

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 129

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AI,S AND *8=E)+I;ES 1. To assess the dental caries prevalence in 1 year old school going

children in rural and urban population in Ferozepur city. . To co%pare the prevalence of dental caries in 1 year school going children in these two sets of population i.e. rural and urban in Ferozepur city using 2i. inde$.

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 130

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RE;IE# * 7I+ERA+6RE *lsson 8 et al30> -0?>?. conducted a study to assess the level of dental caries a%ong 11,1= year old children and adults in urban and rural areas in Boza%bi"ue. The survey co%prised a total of :<: schoolchildren fro% : areas in the Baputo )rovince, and =9 adults fro% of the areas. There was

a gradual increase in caries prevalence a%ong the children fro% = per cent in the %ost distant rural area to ;: per cent in the urban centre, with a corresponding increase in /BFT fro% &.: to .1. 't was concluded that there was a socio,geographic variation in caries levels strongly associated with the degree of e$posure to %ar!ets, and that a recent increase in e$posure to cariogenic factors had occurred in urban areas. ;; Doifode, NN Am%ade'ar, AG 7ane&ar@ -1AAA. carried out a large house to house cross sectional study on :&;1 participants of all the age groups including the people of all socio,econo%ic status. @bservations of the present study reveal that dental caries (A=. K) and periodontal diseases (=A.FK) were the %ost co%%on dental disorders. /ental caries was less co%%on in lower socioecono%ic strata but at the sa%e ti%e other disorders viz. periodontal disease, oral %ucosal lesions and opacities and ena%el disorders were %ore co%%on in lower socioecono%ic strata. This %ay be because socioecono%ic status is very broad categorisation. 't has various co%ponents which %ay differ in different geographic areas. -ttached with it are habits and behaviour which affects the prevalence of oro,dental diseases. De A%reu ,9, Pordeus IA, ,odena ),0? -1AAB. conducted a deter%ine study to

the prevalence of dental caries and its association with

socioecono%ic variables a%ong school children living in rural co%%unities in


Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 131

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'taNna, state of Binas 1erais, 0razil, in && . - total of A<; schoolchildren between A and 1: years of age underwent dental e$a%ination. .onsidering both the deciduous and per%anent dentitions, 1<.F;K of the children were free of caries. The /BFT a%ong children fro% lower,inco%e was &.9A and A.&& respectively. Bultivariate analysis showed that a%ong seven, and eight, year,old children fro% relatively higher,inco%e, the ris! of having caries in the deciduous dentition and in both dentitions was .;& and .F:A ti%es

greater, respectively, than a%ong children fro% lower,inco%e fa%ilies. The results suggest that in underprivileged populations, such as the inhabitants of rural co%%unities in 'taNna, fa%ilies with so%ewhat higher inco%es and better schooling were %ore li!ely to adopt behaviours that lead to dental caries. Cumar ,, ;irdi C7 & 8ansal ;0B -1AA>. conducted a cross,sectional

descriptive study 1 villages of a%bala district, 7aryana, 'ndia. - total of 1 :& subJects aged &,<A years, were e$a%ined using %odified #7@ for%at 199< 3 interviewed using structured "uestionnaire. The %ean /BFT was :. . Bost of the subJects had .)'T+ score .=:. K of subJects needed prosthetic status in %a$illary arch 3 A:.=K in %andibular arch. /ental caries was significantly associated with gender, education, socioecono%ic status 3 brushing fre"uency. Dhar ;, 8hatna(ar ,0D -1AA>. conducted a cross sectional study on <:& children of rural areas in the age group of ;,1& years using #7@ inde$, to record the prevalence of dental caries and treat%ent needs. /ental caries was found in ;=. &K children, and F:.&<K children needed dental treat%ent. The highest need was of one surface filling (F:.<=K) followed by sealant
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 132

Appendices
(:1. &K). /ental caries showed to be a significant health issue in the rural population re"uiring i%%ediate attention. Shenoy R, SeEueira PS, Rao A, Pai D 0@ -1AA?. conducted a study to

assess the dental caries e$perience of pre,school children aged =,: years in Bangalore city. .linical assess%ent of dental caries was done by /entition status and treat%ent need (#7@ @ral 7ealth -ssess%ent For%, 199<) using dentition status part only and decayed, %issing and filled teeth were calculated fro% the infor%ation. - total of <;F subJects were included in the study. @ut of those =F children were fro% anganwadi and =F; fro%

!indergarten. The prevalence of dental caries a%ong anganwadi children was F1.AK. -%ong the !indergarten children the prevalence of dental caries was ; .=K. The %ean d%ft a%ong the anganwadi children was A.; (=.F ) and a%ong !indergarten children the %ean d%ft score was =.A (=.<<). The caries prevalence and %ean d%ft was higher a%ong anganwadi children. )revalence of filled teeth was higher a%ong !indergarten children. Namal N, :Fceo'ur AA and )an G0G -1AA?. evaluated 2i. inde$ values and related factors in Tur!ish children aged :5; years old, children fro% : nursery schools in 'stanbul. 2ociode%ographic infor%ation and data about oral care habits were obtained fro% the records and fro% parents. @f :A students e$a%ined, the %ean decayed/%issing/filled pri%ary teeth (d%ft) inde$ was =.<A (2/ =.A9) and the 2i. inde$ was <.<: (2/ .:;). -bout

<;.FK of the children had e$perienced dental caries. 6ogistic regression analysis of the 2i. inde$ for d%ft showed that ris! factors for poor dental status were low %other*s education (@4 .&A) and irregular tooth brushing versus once a day brushing (@4 A.&9) or twice a day brushing (@4 A. &).
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 133

Appendices
a%ri!io , rancesco DS, Patri!ia 7, Giovanni R D -1A0A. conducted a year old children. Two

cross sectional study on <=A school going 11,1

"uestionnaires were sub%itted (to students and parents) and the children received a dental e$a%ination. /ietary and hygiene indicators were calculated and the /BFT inde$ (the nu%ber of decayed, %issing and filled teeth) was %easured using %ethods reco%%ended by the #orld 7ealth @rganisation (#7@). The education level of the head of fa%ily was used as a pro$y of social class indicator. The /BFT inde$ was %ore than double a%ong children whose parents only had a pri%ary school education, co%pared with those of graduate parents (=. versus 1.:). 'n addition, the percentage of caries free children increased fro% 1;.A to :9.1K fro% the lowest to the highest social group. 2o, it was concluded that large social differences are found in caries e$perience and in deter%inants of dental decay. Namal N, Sheiham A1A -1AA>. used the 2i. and /BFT data fro% the #7@ database for 1 year olds. 2F2,T inde$ values were esti%ated for the 1 year olds for 1; countries. The ran!ing by 2i. inde$ scores was lower for developed countries than for developing countries. These findings suggest that it %ay be %ore useful to use the 2F2,T inde$ than the 2i. inde$ in studies co%paring dental status between countries.

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 134

Appendices
,A+ERIA7S AND ,E+9*D - cross,sectional pilot study was carried out. The e$a%inations were perfor%ed under natural light. 2trict cross,infection control %easures were adopted. 2ets of sterilized plain %outh %irrors and e$plorers (+u%ber :) were used to assess the dental status. The study involved =& children of 1 year age group fro% a private school na%ed /... Bodel 7igh 2chool (Ferozepur cantt) and =& students of the sa%e age fro% a rural school na%ed 1overn%ent 7igh 2chool in #azirpur village. - letter was sent to the parents of the children e$plaining the ai%, characteristics and i%portance of the study, and as!ing for their child*s participation (-ppendi$ '). /ental e$a%ination was carried out and "uestionnaire was ad%inistered by a single e$a%iner. This survey was conducted using a %odified version of the #orld 7ealth @rganization (#.7.@.) 0asic @ral 7ealth 2urvey (0@72) pathfinder %ethod. The "uestionnaire (-ppendi$ '') includes the details regarding age, gender, socio 5econo%ic status, oral hygiene %easures and diet factors. The %ini%u% sa%ple size for the %ain study should be at least 1& ti%es the sa%ple size of the pilot study. Thus the %ini%u% sa%ple size for the %ain study co%es out to be ;&&, =&& subJects in each urban and rural school going 1 year old children. 7owever, ai%ing at an i%proved statistical analysis of the population in "uestion, it has been decided to increase the sa%ple size to :&& subJects in each group. IN)76SI*N )RI+ERIA/ 1) Full eruption of per%anent dentition in both arches through the first per%anent %olar ) The age of the child should be 1 years O 11 %onths
Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 135

Appendices
=) Bissing teeth due to caries A) Trau%atic teeth with dental caries :) +o previous history of receiving any specific organized preventive treat%ent ;) The child should be a resident of Ferozepur city fro% birth EX)76SI*N )RI+ERIA 1) The child should not be having %i$ed dentition ) The child of age below or above 1 years will not be included in the study =) -ny i%%igrant to Ferozepur city will not be included in the study A) 'ncipient caries and white spots will be e$cluded :) Bissing teeth due to any other reason than caries will be e$cluded ;) Teeth restored for reasons other than dental caries such as trau%a, cos%etic purpose or for use as a bridge abut%ent <) /eep fissures without catch will be e$cluded F) -ny develop%ental disturbance i.e. ano%aly or any develop%ental cyst of teeth will be e$cluded 9) )ri%ary tooth retained with the per%anent successor erupted RES67+S The statistical analysis will be done using z,test, .hi,s"uare test and %ultiple logistic regression.

Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 136

Appendices
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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 137

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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 138

Appendices
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Prevalence and Comparison of Dental Caries in 12 year old School going children in Rural and Urban areas of Fero epur City using SiC !nde" 139