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# 03501381

## Pressure Loss in Pipe

Objective
- To understand the ow behavior in pipes and piping systems. - To be able to estimate the pressure loss in a piping system. - To understand and to be able to use a manometer to determine the pressure dierence.

Theory
Friction losses
Pressure loss due to friction in pipe can be written as l V 2 D 2

## PLoss = f or in form of head loss as

(1)

hLoss

l V2 =f D 2g

(2)

The friction factor f is in a function of the roughness of the pipe and the Reynold number. The roughness depends on the material and the manufacturing process. It also depends on the level of corrosion. Examples of the equivalent roughness for new pipe is shown in the following table. Table 1 Equivalent roughness for new pipes
Pipe Riveted steel Concrete Wood stave Cast iron Galvanized iron Commercial steel Plastic,Glass (feet) 0.003-0.03 0.001-0.01 0.00006-0.003 0.00085 0.0005 0.00015 0.0 (smooth) (mm) 0.9-9.0 0.3-3.0 0.18-0.9 0.26 0.15 0.045 0.0 (smooth)

The friction factor as a function of Reynolds number and relative roughness for round pipes is illustrated in the Moody chart as in the following gure. The Moody chart can be represented by the Colebrooks equation as 1 = 2.0 log f /D 2.51 + 3.7 Re f

(3)

Minor losses
The head loss in long, straight pipe can be calculated by use of the friction factor obtained from either the Moody chart or Colebrooks equation. However, most pipe system, consists of more than straight pipes. These additional components (valves, bends for example) add to the overall head loss of the system. Such losses are generally termed Minor losses The most common method used to determine these Minor losses is to specify the head loss coecient KL , which is dened as hL 2 /2g ) P
1 V 2 2

KL =

(V

(4)

Eventually, the pressure loss and the head loss can be calculated from the following equations. 1 PLoss = KL V 2 2 V2 2g

(5)

hLoss = KL

(6)

Some of the head loss coecients are presented in the table below:

Manometer
A manometer could refer to a pressure measuring instrument, and is often used to refer specically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments. A very simple version is a U-shaped tube half-full of liquid as shown in Figure 2, the two sides of which are connected to where we want to measure the pressure dierence. The liquid column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure dierential between the two ends of the tube. The dierence in liquid level represents the applied 3

Figure 1 Friction factor as a function of Reynolds number and relative roughness for round pipes

## Table 2 Minor loss coecients in pipe system components

Type of Component or Fitting Tee, Flanged, Dividing Line Flow Tee, Threaded, Dividing Line Flow Tee, Flanged, Dividing Branched Flow Tee, Threaded , Dividing Branch Flow Union, Threaded Elbow, Flanged Regular 90 Elbow, Threaded Regular 90 Elbow, Threaded Regular 45 Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 90 Elbow, Threaded Long Radius 90 Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 45 Return Bend, Flanged 180 Return Bend, Threaded 180 Globe Valve, Fully Open Angle Valve, Fully Open Gate Valve, Fully Open Gate Valve, 1/4 Closed Gate Valve, 1/2 Closed Gate Valve, 3/4 Closed Swing Check Valve, Forward Flow Ball Valve, Fully Open Ball Valve, 1/3 Closed Ball Valve, 2/3 Closed Diaphragm Valve, Open Diaphragm Valve, Half Open Diaphragm Valve, 1/4 Open Water meter Minor Loss Coecient KL 0.2 0.9 1.0 2.0 0.08 0.3 1.5 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.2 1.5 10 2 0.15 0.26 2.1 17 2 0.05 5.5 200 2.3 4.3 21 7

pressure. The pressure exerted by a column of uid of height H and density is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation. P = gH (7)

## Figure 2 U-tube manometer

Experiment Procedure
1. Turn on the pump. 2. Open slightly the ow rate valve to chase air out of the system. 3. Open all the connector valves that connect the pipe system components to the manometers. 4. Release the pressure tubes that connected to the manometers. 5. Chase air out of the connector tubes. 6. Close all the connector valves. 7. Reconnect the pressure tubes to the manometers. 8. Setting the ow rate to the desired value.

9. Open the connector valves upstream and downstream of the considered component. 10. Read and record the two liquid column heights. 11. Change the ow rate and the components. 12. Calculate the head losses and compare them with the theory.

Experimental data
Component: Manometer: Manometer liquid density:
Flow rate (LPM) h1 (mm) h2 (mm)

kg/m3
h (mm) hL theory (mm)

## Component: Manometer: Manometer liquid density:

Flow rate (LPM) h1 (mm) h2 (mm)

kg/m3
h (mm) hL theory (mm)

## Component: Manometer: Manometer liquid density:

Flow rate (LPM) h1 (mm) h2 (mm)

kg/m3
h (mm) hL theory (mm)

## Component: Manometer: Manometer liquid density:

Flow rate (LPM) h1 (mm) h2 (mm)

kg/m3
h (mm) hL theory (mm)