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lublished by
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cover illustration: lama at machu licchu by Neele mueller


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copyright C 201!: Neele mueller. All rights reserved.
lkc Advanced orant to lieter muysken, 1races ol contact"
Tense, Aspect, Modality, and
Evidentiality Marking in South American
Indigenous Languages

Proefschrift
ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor
aan de ad!oud "niversiteit #ijmegen
op ge$ag van de rector magnificus prof% mr% S%&%'%'% (ortmann,
volgens !esluit van het college van decanen
in het open!aar te verdedigen op dinsdag )* maart
om +,%-, uur precies


door
#eele 'anna M.ller
ge!oren op )/ mei +0/)
te Leer

Promotor1 Promotor1 Promotor1 Promotor1 Prof% Prof% Prof% Prof% dr dr dr dr% Pieter Muysken % Pieter Muysken % Pieter Muysken % Pieter Muysken

&opromotore &opromotore &opromotore &opromotoren1 n1 n1 n1 2r% ik van 3ijn 2r% ik van 3ijn 2r% ik van 3ijn 2r% ik van 3ijn 4 44 4"niversit5t "niversit5t "niversit5t "niversit5t 6.rich 6.rich 6.rich 6.rich7 77 7
2r% Mily &revels 2r% Mily &revels 2r% Mily &revels 2r% Mily &revels

Manuscriptcommissie1 Manuscriptcommissie1 Manuscriptcommissie1 Manuscriptcommissie1 Prof% Prof% Prof% Prof% dr dr dr dr% % % % 8 88 8e ee elen len len len de 8oop de 8oop de 8oop de 8oop
Prof% Prof% Prof% Prof% dr dr dr dr% (ees % (ees % (ees % (ees 8e 8e 8e 8en nn ngeveld geveld geveld geveld 4"niversiteit 4"niversiteit 4"niversiteit 4"niversiteit
van van van van Amsterdam7 Amsterdam7 Amsterdam7 Amsterdam7
Prof% Prof% Prof% Prof% dr dr dr dr% % % % Pier Marco Pier Marco Pier Marco Pier Marco 9ertinetto 9ertinetto 9ertinetto 9ertinetto 4Scuola 4Scuola 4Scuola 4Scuola
#ormale Superiore, Pisa7 #ormale Superiore, Pisa7 #ormale Superiore, Pisa7 #ormale Superiore, Pisa7
Fr Mama un Papa. Fr Mama un Papa. Fr Mama un Papa. Fr Mama un Papa.
Fr Axel. Fr Axel. Fr Axel. Fr Axel.
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v vv vi ii i
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS vi vi vi vii ii ii ii i

1. 1. 1. 1. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 1 11 1

2. 2. 2. 2. TERMINOLOGY, FRAMEWORK, AND TOOLS TERMINOLOGY, FRAMEWORK, AND TOOLS TERMINOLOGY, FRAMEWORK, AND TOOLS TERMINOLOGY, FRAMEWORK, AND TOOLS 3 33 3
2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 3 33 3
2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 TERMINOLOGY TERMINOLOGY TERMINOLOGY TERMINOLOGY 3 33 3
2.2.1 Marki! 3
2.2.2 C"#"$a%iv& #'r()&#&* +
2.2.3 A#,i!"i%- .
2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 CONCE/TUAL FRAMEWORK CONCE/TUAL FRAMEWORK CONCE/TUAL FRAMEWORK CONCE/TUAL FRAMEWORK 0 00 0
2.3.1 /r'%'%-(& %)&'r- a1 %)& 2a'i2a$ a((r'2) 0
2.3.2 T)& 1'#ia2& (ara#&%&r 3
2.3.3 Gra##a%i2a$i4a%i' 5
2.3.6 O,$i!a%'ri&** 17
2.3.+ S-*%&#a%i2i%- 11
2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 T8E T8E T8E T8E MODUS OPERANDI MODUS OPERANDI MODUS OPERANDI MODUS OPERANDI OF T8IS STUDY OF T8IS STUDY OF T8IS STUDY OF T8IS STUDY 11 11 11 11
2.+ 2.+ 2.+ 2.+ TOOLS TOOLS TOOLS TOOLS 1+ 1+ 1+ 1+
2.+.1 T)& $a!"a!& *a#($& 1+
2.+.2 T)& 9"&*%i'air& 22

3. 3. 3. 3. TENSE TENSE TENSE TENSE 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+
3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+
3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS 2. 2. 2. 2.
3.2.1 /RESENT, /AST, a1 FUTURE T&*& 2.
3.2.2 R&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* 32
3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 TENSELESS LANGUAGES TENSELESS LANGUAGES TENSELESS LANGUAGES TENSELESS LANGUAGES 33 33 33 33
3. 3. 3. 3.6 66 6 TENSE SYSTEMS TENSE SYSTEMS TENSE SYSTEMS TENSE SYSTEMS 3. 3. 3. 3.
3.6.1 Ov&rvi&: 3.
3.6.2 Biar- *($i% FUTURE; NONFUTURE 33
3.6.3 Si#($& *($i% FUTURE; NONFUTURE 67
3.6.6 Biar- *($i% /AST; NON/AST 61
ii

3.6.+ T)r&&<:a- *($i% T&*& *-*%&#* 63
3.6.. FUTURE a1 /AST #arki! 66
3.+ 3.+ 3.+ 3.+ MA=IMUM TENSE MA=IMUM TENSE MA=IMUM TENSE MA=IMUM TENSE 6+ 6+ 6+ 6+
3.. 3.. 3.. 3.. REMOTENESS DEGREES REMOTENESS DEGREES REMOTENESS DEGREES REMOTENESS DEGREES 6. 6. 6. 6.
3...1 Ov&rvi&: 6.
3...2 O& r&#'%&&** 1&!r&& i %)& /AST 60
3...3 T:' r&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& /AST 63
3...6 T)r&& r&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& /AST 65
3...+ F'"r r&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& /AST +1
3.... Si> r&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& /AST +2
3...0 R&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& FUTURE +3
3...3 R&#'%&&** 1&!r&&* i %)& /AST a1 FUTURE +6
3...5 Di*2"**i' +0
3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE .3 .3 .3 .3
3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 G GG GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE EOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE EOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE EOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE .5 .5 .5 .5
3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE 03 03 03 03
3.5.1 I%r'1"2%i' 03
3.5.2 Ma2r'<G?a 03
3.5.3 Ara:aka 06
3.5.6 T"(@a 0+
3.5.+ Cari,a 03
3.5.. A"&2)"a 37
3.17 3.17 3.17 3.17 STABILITY OF TENSE STABILITY OF TENSE STABILITY OF TENSE STABILITY OF TENSE 33 33 33 33
3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11 SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+

6. 6. 6. 6. AS/ECT AS/ECT AS/ECT AS/ECT 30 30 30 30
6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 30 30 30 30
6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 /ERFECTIVE; /ERFECTIVE; /ERFECTIVE; /ERFECTIVE; IM/ERFECTIVE IM/ERFECTIVE IM/ERFECTIVE IM/ERFECTIVE 35 35 35 35
6.2.1 D&Bii%i'* 35
6.2.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 57
6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 8ABITUAL 8ABITUAL 8ABITUAL 8ABITUAL 53 53 53 53
6.3.1 D&Bii%i' 53
6.3.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 56
6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 CONTINUATIVE CONTINUATIVE CONTINUATIVE CONTINUATIVE 5+ 5+ 5+ 5+
6.6.1 D&Bii%i' 5+
iii

6.6.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 5.
6.+ 6.+ 6.+ 6.+ ITERATIVE ITERATIVE ITERATIVE ITERATIVE 50 50 50 50
6.+.1 D&Bii%i' 50
6.+.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 177
6.. 6.. 6.. 6.. COM/LETIVE; INCOM/LETIVE COM/LETIVE; INCOM/LETIVE COM/LETIVE; INCOM/LETIVE COM/LETIVE; INCOM/LETIVE 17+ 17+ 17+ 17+
6...1 D&Bii%i'* 17+
6...2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 170
6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 ANTERIOR ANTERIOR ANTERIOR ANTERIOR 111 111 111 111
6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION IN IN IN IN T8E T8E T8E T8E SAM/LE SAM/LE SAM/LE SAM/LE 116 116 116 116
6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 GEOGRA/8ICAL GEOGRA/8ICAL GEOGRA/8ICAL GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 113 113 113 113
6.17 6.17 6.17 6.17 GENEALOGICAL GENEALOGICAL GENEALOGICAL GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 123 123 123 123
6.17.1 I%r'1"2%i' 123
6.17.2 Ma2r'<G?a 123
6.17.3 Ara:aka 123
6.17.6 T"(@a 126
6.17.+ Cari,a 12+
6.17.. A"&2)"a 12.
6.11 6.11 6.11 6.11 STABILITY OF AS/ECT STABILITY OF AS/ECT STABILITY OF AS/ECT STABILITY OF AS/ECT 123 123 123 123
6.12 6.12 6.12 6.12 SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY 125 125 125 125

+. +. +. +. MODALITY MODALITY MODALITY MODALITY 131 131 131 131
+.1 +.1 +.1 +.1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 131 131 131 131
+.2 +.2 +.2 +.2 REALIS; IRREALIS REALIS; IRREALIS REALIS; IRREALIS REALIS; IRREALIS 133 133 133 133
+.2.1 D&Bii%i'* 133
+.2.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 13+
+.3 +.3 +.3 +.3 CERTAINTY; DUBITATIVE CE/ISTEMIC MODALITYD CERTAINTY; DUBITATIVE CE/ISTEMIC MODALITYD CERTAINTY; DUBITATIVE CE/ISTEMIC MODALITYD CERTAINTY; DUBITATIVE CE/ISTEMIC MODALITYD 161 161 161 161
+.3.1 D&Bii%i'* 161
+.3.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 163
+.6 +.6 +.6 +.6 INTENTIONAL INTENTIONAL INTENTIONAL INTENTIONAL 16. 16. 16. 16.
+.6.1 D&Bii%i' 16.
+.6.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 16.
+.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ /OTENTIAL /OTENTIAL /OTENTIAL /OTENTIAL 165 165 165 165
+.+.1 D&Bii%i' 165
+.+.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 1+7
+.. +.. +.. +.. /UR/OSIVE /UR/OSIVE /UR/OSIVE /UR/OSIVE 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+3
iv

+...1 D&Bii%i' 1+3
+...2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 1+6
+.0 +.0 +.0 +.0 FRUSTRATIVE FRUSTRATIVE FRUSTRATIVE FRUSTRATIVE 1+3 1+3 1+3 1+3
+.0.1 D&Bii%i' 1+3
+.0.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 1+5
+.3 +.3 +.3 +.3 DESIDERATIVE DESIDERATIVE DESIDERATIVE DESIDERATIVE 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3
+.3.1 D&Bii%i'* 1.3
+.3.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 1.3
+.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 COMMAND TY/ES COMMAND TY/ES COMMAND TY/ES COMMAND TY/ES 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
+.5.1 D&Bii%i'* 1.0
+.5.2 Di*%ri,"%i' i %)& *a#($& 107
+.17 +.17 +.17 +.17 TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE 137 137 137 137
+.11 +.11 +.11 +.11 GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 133 133 133 133
+.12 +.12 +.12 +.12 GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 153 153 153 153
+.12.1 I%r'1"2%i' 153
+.12.2 Ara:aka 153
+.12.3 T"(@a 271
+.12.6 Cari,a 272
+.12.+ A"&2)"a 276
+.13 +.13 +.13 +.13 STABILITY OF MODALITY STABILITY OF MODALITY STABILITY OF MODALITY STABILITY OF MODALITY 27+ 27+ 27+ 27+
+.12 +.12 +.12 +.12 SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY 27+ 27+ 27+ 27+

.. .. .. .. EVIDENTIALITY EVIDENTIALITY EVIDENTIALITY EVIDENTIALITY 270 270 270 270
..1 ..1 ..1 ..1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 270 270 270 270
..2 ..2 ..2 ..2 DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS DEFINITIONS 275 275 275 275
..2.1 FIRST8AND a1 VISUAL Evi1&%ia$i%- 275
..2.2 NON<FIRST8AND Evi1&%ia$i%- 217
..2.3 SECOND8AND a1 AUOTATIVE Evi1&%ia$i%- 217
..2.6 INFERRED a1 ASSUMED Evi1&%ia$i%- 212
..3 ..3 ..3 ..3 TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE TY/OLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE 213 213 213 213
..3.1 G&&ra$ 'v&rvi&: 213
..3.2 S-*%&#* 'B Evi1&%ia$i%- #arki! 210
..6 ..6 ..6 ..6 GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 220 220 220 220
..6.1 R&*"$%* 220
..6.2 T)& G"a('rE<Ma#'rE ar&a 236
v

..+ ..+ ..+ ..+ GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 23. 23. 23. 23.
..+.1 I%r'1"2%i' 23.
..+.2 Ara:aka 230
..+.3 T"(@a 235
..+.6 Cari,a 267
..+.+ A"&2)"a 261
... ... ... ... STABILITY OF EVIDENTIALITY STABILITY OF EVIDENTIALITY STABILITY OF EVIDENTIALITY STABILITY OF EVIDENTIALITY 263 263 263 263
..0 ..0 ..0 ..0 SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY 263 263 263 263

0. 0. 0. 0. DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS 26+ 26+ 26+ 26+
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 26+ 26+ 26+ 26+
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E GEOGRA/8ICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE SAM/LE SAM/LE SAM/LE 26. 26. 26. 26.
0.2.1 Ov&rvi&: 26.
0.2.2 A1&* v*. A#a4'ia 26.
0.2.3 T)& C)a2' 263
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION GENEALOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE IN T8E SAM/LE 2+7 2+7 2+7 2+7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 TAME /ROMINENCE TAME /ROMINENCE TAME /ROMINENCE TAME /ROMINENCE 2+. 2+. 2+. 2+.
0.+ 0.+ 0.+ 0.+ STABILITY STABILITY STABILITY STABILITY 2+3 2+3 2+3 2+3
0.. 0.. 0.. 0.. FUTURE RESEARC8 FUTURE RESEARC8 FUTURE RESEARC8 FUTURE RESEARC8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7

REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES REFERENCES 2. 2. 2. 2.3 33 3
SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY 20 20 20 203 33 3
SAMENVATTING IN 8ET NEDERLANDS SAMENVATTING IN 8ET NEDERLANDS SAMENVATTING IN 8ET NEDERLANDS SAMENVATTING IN 8ET NEDERLANDS 20 20 20 200 00 0
CURRICULUM VITAE CURRICULUM VITAE CURRICULUM VITAE CURRICULUM VITAE 2 22 231 31 31 31









vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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2'#($&> %)a %)& v&r, #'r()'$'!- i #- *a#($&, a1 i 2a*& I B'r!'% %' #&%i' *'#&'&
'v&r%$-, ,& a**"r&1 %)a% %)i* i* ra%)&r ,&2a"*& I %&1 %' 'v&r$''k %)i!* 2$'*&*% %' #&.
I 2'*i1&r #- %)&*i* %)& v&r,a$ *%&#, r''%, 'r %)&#& 'B %)i* (r'F&2%, :i%) %)& B'$$':i!
(&'($& )avi! *2'(& 'v&r i%G 2$'*&*% %' %)& r''% ar& #- *"(&rvi*'r*, /i&%&r M"-*k&, Mi$-
Cr&v&$*, a1 Rik va GiF. Wi%)'"% %)&#, %)& %)&*i* :'"$1 )av& ,&& "!ra##a%i2a$. T)&-
#ark&1 #- ar!"#&%*, *:i%2)&1 r&B&r&2&* iB &2&**ar-, a1 )&$(&1 #& %)r'"!) Hr!&r<%iv
%i#&*. I %)ak /i&%&r &*(&2ia$$- B'r !"i1i! #& %)r'"!) %)& riF*%&(a( %' %)& r'4iF&I M-
*i2&r&*% %)ak* B'r %)&ir ,&$i&B i #- a,i$i%i&*, B'r %)&ir '"%*%a1i! *"(('r% a1 (a%i&2&,
a1 B'r %)&ir !"i1i! #& %':ar1* ,&2'#i! '% '$- a ,&%%&r r&*&ar2)&r, ,"% a$*' 'r!ai4&r,
:ri%&r, %-('$'!i*%, &%2. I 2'"$1 '% )av& :i*)&1 B'r ,&%%&r *"(&rvi*'r*.
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M- !ra%i%"1& !'&* '"% %' &v&r- *i!$& r&*&ar2)&r :)'*& (a**i' *&rv&1 a* a &>a#($& %'
#& a1 #- %)ak* a$*' !' %' a$$ %)'*& :)' %''k %)& %i#& %' a*:&r #- 9"&ri&* :i%) !r&a%
1&%ai$. T)&ir i%&r&*% i $a!"a!&* i* *"r(a**&1 '$- ,- %)&ir F'- 'B *)ari! i%. F&&$ Br&& %'
a%%a2) a- 'B %)& 1&*2ri(%i'* Ci*(iri!, &2'"ra!i!, &$i!)%&i!, i*%r"2%iv&, iva$"a,$&D
%' a- 'B %)& (&'($& %)a% B'$$': Ci ' *(&2ia$ 'r1&rD, :)' :)&r& 'B #aF'r i#('r%a2& B'r
%)i* *%"1-G SEr!i' M&ira, Aa Vi$a2- Ga$"2i', Mar!'% va 1& B&r!, 8&i va 1&r V''r%,
8&$1&r /&rri, Si#' va 1& K&rk&, G&rri%<Ja K''%*%ra, Si#&' F$'-1, L'v& Erik*&,
S&,a*%ia Dr"1&, /a,$' Iri4arri va S"2)%&$&, S:i%)a Dai&$*&, A%F& M"%&1a#, K'Bi
Yak(', C&Ba* va R'**&#, 8O$-a Sa)i, R',,&r% va S$"iF*, Aa /a"$a Bra1P', L"2a Ci"22i,
C)ri*%ia B&r!#a, Fra2&*2a R'#aa, J&a<C)ri*%'()& V&r*%ra&%&, O$&*-a K)aia, Fi'a
J'r1a, A$&>a1ra Aik)&va$1, Wi$$&# A1&$aar, R'1'$B' C&rrQ /a$'#i',J'r!& /Er&4 Si$va,
J'a B-,&&, J&a&%%& Sak&$, Si#' Ov&ra$$, Sa1&r L&*%ra1&, A*ia K"$i!<B'r!&*, Frak S&iBar%,
A%'i& G"i$$a"#&, /a"$ Frak, %)& L&i(4i! S"##&r S2)''$ ,"2), %)& L&i1& Li!"i*%i2*
,"2), %)& M/I NiF#&!& ,"2), %)& Mar,"r! ,"2), a1 2'"%$&** #'r& :)' k': %)a% I
#&a %)&# iB %)&- &v&r #aa!&1 %' #ak& #& *#i$&.
N'% %' ,& B'r!'%%& ,&2a"*& 'B #aF'r i#('r%a2& i 1ai$- 'BBi2& $iB& a1 /).D #a%%&r*
:&r& 8&$$a, DirkF&, C)ri*%&$, a1 Li*&ka.







viii

ABBREVIATIONS AND SY ABBREVIATIONS AND SY ABBREVIATIONS AND SY ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS MBOLS MBOLS MBOLS
G$'**i!* ar& *i#($iBi&1 a22'r1i! %' %)& L&i(4i! !$'**i! r"$&*. I% :a* a%%&#(%&1 %' k&&( a*
2$'*& a* ('**i,$& %' %)& !$'**i! i %)& 'ri!ia$ :)i$& ,&i! 2'*i*%&%. I 2a*&* :)&r& '
!$'**i!* ar& !iv& i %)& 'ri!ia$ %)&- :&r& $&B% '"%.

< aBBi> ,'"1ar-
R 2$i%i2 ,'"1ar-
S a,*&2& 'B 'v&r% #ark&r
T Uk':

A A<(ar%i2i(a%U A<#arki!
ABL a,$a%iv&
ABS a,*'$"%iv&
ABSN a,*&%ia$
ACC a22"*a%iv&
ACT a2%iv&
ADD a11i%iv&
ADJ a1F&2%iv&
ADV a1v&r,Cia$D
ADVV a1v&r,ia$i4&r
AFF aBB&2%&1
AFM aBBir#a%iv&
AG a!&%
ALL a$$a%iv&
AN ai#a%&
ANA aa()'ri2 (r''"
ANC a2i&%
AN/ a%i(a**iv&
ANT a%&ri'r
A//L a(($i2a%iv&
ART ar%i2$&
AS a,*'$"%& *%a%&
ASM a**"#&1 &vi1&%ia$i%-
ASO a**'2ia%iv&
AS/C a*(&2%

ASSR a**&r%iv&
ATTR a%%ri,"%iv&
AUG a"!#&%a%iv&
AU= a">i$iar-
BEN ,&&Ba2%iv&
BM ,'"1ar- #ark&r
BR ,'"1 r''%
C 2'r&B&r&%ia$
CAUS 2a"*a%iv&
CD 2$a**iBi&r; 1ir&2%i'a$
CERT 2&r%ai%-
CLF 2$a**iBi&r
CMT 2'#i%a%iv& 2a"*a%iv&
CN 2'&2%iv&
CNT 2'%i"'"*, 2'%i"a%iv&
CNTRFC 2'"%&rBa2%"a$
CO 2''(&ra%iv& ',F&2%
COL 2'$$&2%iv&
COM 2'##a1
COM/ 2'#($&#&% 2$a"*&
COM/L 2'#($&%iv&
COND 2'1i%i'a$
CONJ 2'F"2%i'
CONT 2'%ra*%
CO/ 2'("$a
i>

C/ 2'#(ara%iv&
DAT 1a%iv&
DECL 1&2$ara%iv&
DEIC 1&i2%i2 r''%
DEL 1&$i#i%&r
DEM 1&#'*%ra%iv&
DE/ 1&(&1&% 2$a"*&
DE/M 1&(&1&% #ark&r, %'(i2 #ark&r
DES 1&*i1&ra%iv&
DEV 1ir&2% &vi1&%ia$
DEVLD 1&va$"&1
DIM 1i#i"%iv&
DIR 1ir&2%i'a$
DISC 1i*2'%i"a%iv&
DIST 1i*%a%, 1i*%a$
DISTR 1i*%ri,"%iv&
DR ,iva$&% 1ir&2%
DRF 1iBB&r&% r&B&r&2&
DSBJ 1iBB&r&% *",F&2%
DU 1"a$
DUB 1",i%a%iv&; 1'",%
DYN 1-a#i2
EDO &>%&ra$ 1ir&2% ',F&2%
EM/ &#()a%i2, &#()a*i*
ERG &r!a%iv&
EV &vi1&%ia$
E=CL &>2$"*iv&
E=TRAL &>%ra$'2a$
EYE &-&:i%&** &vi1&%ia$i%-
F B&#ii& !&1&r
FAC Ba2%"a$
FCT Ba2%i%iv&
FAM Ba#i$iar
FAR Bar
FRST Bir*%)a1 &vi1&%ia$i%-
FLR Bi$$&r B'r#
FM B'r#a%iv&
FNS Bia$ '#ia$ *"BBi>
FOC B'2"*
FRUST Br"*%ra%iv&
FUT B"%"r& %&*&
GEN !&i%iv&
GER !&r"1
GINF !&&ri2 iBii%iv&
GKN !&&ra$ k':$&1!&
GNR !&&ra$
GNRF !&&ra$ r&B&r&%
GO !', i%&%i'a$, 1ir&2%i'a$
8AB )a,i%"a$
8EA )&ar*a-
8IAF )i!) aBB&2%&1&** Ak%i'*ar%
8ORT )'r%a%iv&
8Y/ )-('%)&%i2a$
I i%&r#&1ia%&
IDR i1ir&2%
IMM i##&1ia%&
IM/ i#(&ra%iv&
IN i&**iv& r&$a%i'
INC8 i2)'a%iv&
INA iai#a%&
INCL i2$"*iv&
INC/ i2'#($&%iv&
IND i1i2a%iv&
INFR iB&rr&1 &vi1&%ia$i%-
INFL iB$&2%i'a$
INST i*%r"#&%a$
INT i%&%i'a$
INTER i%&r#&1ia%&
INTR i%ra*i%iv&
INTRG i%&rr'!a%iv&
>

INV iv&r*&
I/D i#(&1i%iv&
I/FV i#(&rB&2%iv&
I/S i#(&r*'a$
IRR irr&a$i*
ITE i%&ra%iv&
ITG i%a!i,$& C1&#.D
IVN i*%r"#&%a$ v&r,a$ '"
JUS F"**iv&
LCT $'2"%'r (&r*' #ark&r
LIG $i!a%"r&
LIM $i#i%a%iv&
LK $ik&r
L $'! B'r#
LM $'! B'r# #a$& *(&&2)
LOAF $': aBB&2%&1&** Ak%i'*ar%
LOC $'2a%iv&
L/M $'2"%'r (&r*' #ark&r
M #a*2"$i& !&1&r
MED #&1ia$ 1&i2%i2 a*(&2%
MNR #a&r
MOT #'%i'
N &"%r& !&1&r
N '< Ca* i N/ST R'<(a*%
NFR'<B&#ii&D
NCL '" 2$a**iBi&r
NEG &!a%iv&, &!a%i'
NMLV '#ia$i4&r
NOM '#ia$
NR *",F&2% '#ia$i4&r
NSA/ '<*(&&2) a2% (ar%i2i(a% v'i2&
NTR &"%ra$ B'r#
O O<(ar%i2i(a%U O<#arki!
OBJ ',F&2%
OBA ',$i9"&
/ASS (a**iv&
(.2. (&r*'a$ 2'##"i2a%i'
/ERI (&ri()&ra$ C(ar%i2i(a%D
/FV (&rB&2%iv&
/L ($"ra$
/L/F ($"(&rB&2%
/NC ("2%"a$
/OL ('$i%&
/OSS ('**&**iv&
/OST/ ('*%('*i%i'
/OT ('%&%ia$
/R (r''"
/RD (r&1i2a%iv& #ark&r
/RI (r'!r&**iv& i%ra*i%iv& #ark&r
/RO8 (r')i,i%iv&
/ROG (r'!r&**iv& a*(&2%
/RO/ (r'(ri&%iv&
/RO= (r'>i#a%&, (r'>i#a$
/R/S (r'!r&**iv& (&r*i*%&%
/RS (r&*&% %&*&
/RSN (r&*&%ia$
/ST (a*% %&*&
/ST/ ('*%('*i%i'
/TC (ar%i2$&
/TC/ (ar%i2i($&
/R/ ("r('*iv&, ("r('*&
/VN ($ai v&r,a$ '"
AUOT 9"'%a%iv&
R r&*(&2%B"$
RE r&*%'ra%iv&
REA r&a$i*
REAS r&a**"ra2&
REC r&2&%
REDU/ r&1"($i2a%i'
REF r&B&r&%ia$
>i

REFL r&B$&>iv&
REI r&i%&ra%iv&
REL r&$a%iv&
RELN r&$a%i'a$
REM r&#'%&
RE/ r&(&%i%iv&, r&(&%i%i'
RE/O r&('r%a%iv&, r&('r%&1
RES r&*"$%a%iv&
S S (ar%i2i(a%
S
A
S
A
(ar%i2i(a%, S
A
2$a** #ark&r
*
O
S
O
(ar%i2i(a%
SA S'"%) A#&ri2a
SAILC*D S'"%) A#&ri2a I1i!&'"*
La!"a!&C*D
SA/ *(&&2) a2% (ar%i2i(a% v'i2&
SBJ *",F&2%
SCND *&2'1)a1
SG *i!"$ar
SI *(&2iBi2 iB&rr&1
SIT *i%"a%i'a$
SM *)'r% B'r# #a$& *(&&2)
SML *i#i$a%iv&
SOC *'2ia%iv&
S/ *(&ak&r
S/C *(&2iBi&r
SR *:i%2) r&B&r&2&
SS *a#& *",F&2%
SSSS *i#"$%a&'"* &v&%, *a#&
*",F&2%, S<'ri&%a%i'
STA *%a%iv&
STV *%a%ivi4&r
SU *"(&r&**iv& r&$a%i'
SUB *",'r1ia%'r
SU/ *"(i&
SV *&ria$ v&r, #ark&r
TAME T&*&, M'1a$i%-, A*(&2%,
Evi1&%ia$i%-
TEL %&$i2
TEM/ %&#('ra$
TERM %&r#ia%iv&
T8EM %)&#a%i2 v':&$
T8I %)i%)&r
T8RD %)ir1)a1
TM/R %&#('rari$-
TO/ %'(i2Ca$D
TOT %'%a$i4&r
TR %ra*i%iv&
UN/OS "('**&**&1 '"
VAL va$i1a%i'a$
VBLV v&r,a$i4&r
VIS vi*"a$ &vi1&%ia$i%-
VLC $'2a%iv& v&r,a$i4a%i'
VM v&r,a$ *%&# #ark&r
VN v&r,a$ '"
VOC v'2a%iv&
V/L v&r,a$ ($"ra$
VS v&r,a$ *"BBi>
VSB vi*i,$&
1. Introduction 1
1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION
This study presents an analysis of morpho-syntactic Tense, Aspect, odality, and
!"identiality mar#in$ %henceforth& TA!' in a sample of () *outh American indi$enous
lan$ua$es %henceforth& *AI+s' ,ith re$ard to typolo$ical, $eo$raphical, and $enealo$ical
distri-utions.
1
This chapter introduces the study and ser"es to em-ed it in the current
research on *outh American lin$uistics. An o"er"ie, of the structure of the -oo# is $i"en at
the end of this chapter. The main $oals of this thesis are t,ofold&

%i' to present a typolo$ical profile of morpho-syntactic Tense, Aspect, odality,
and !"identiality mar#in$ in a sample of () *outh American indi$enous
lan$ua$es,
%ii' to unco"er $enealo$ical and $eo$raphical relationships of *AI+s accordin$ to
the TA! profile ,ith special focus on lan$ua$e contact.

This is the first comprehensi"e and comparati"e study of TA! in *outh American
lan$ua$es in a -road sample and it ,ill hopefully ser"e as a -asis for -oth detailed studies of
TA! cate$ories in *AI+s as ,ell as those of a $lo-al typolo$ical nature. A .uestionnaire
,as desi$ned for Tense, Aspect, odality, and !"identiality, and the data of () lan$ua$es
,ere entered in full, ,ith "arious additional lan$ua$es for specific su-topics %see section
/.0./'.
Until recently, there ,as a discrepancy -et,een the enormous ran$e of *AI+s and their
deficient documentation, -ut in the last decades the increasin$ num-er of hi$h-.uality
descriptions has made it possi-le to conduct lar$e scale research on *AI+s. A num-er of
research .uestions ha"e arisen, most prominently ,ith re$ard to the hi$h $enealo$ical
di"ersity and the spread of certain lan$ua$e families, -ut also to the typolo$ical
characteristics and ho, they contrast ,ith other parts of the ,orld. 1or instance, the most
recent count -y 2ammarstr3m %/445, appendi6' presents 111 lan$ua$e families %or isolates'
in *outh America. 1or comparison, there are only )) families in !urasia %i-id.'.
The nature of the topic, the methodolo$y, and the lan$ua$e sample present their o,n
sets of pro-lems, and it is important to list them here. 1irst, the cate$ories of Tense, Aspect,
odality, and !"identiality stand out -y their closely connected semantic relationships and
the difficulties to demarcate the cate$ories from each other. *econd, the lan$ua$e sample is
a con"enience sample and therefore any e6trapolation on the -asis of the results must -e
ta#en ,ith caution. Third, the "ery fact that there are at least () different sources ,ith
different opinions of terminolo$y -y the authors that ha"e I ha"e to reconcile ,ith my o,n
chosen definitions. 1ourth, e"en thou$h mostly ,ell documented lan$ua$es ,ere chosen,
the a"aila-le $rammatical descriptions are often not sufficiently precise.

1
I ac#no,led$e the financial support from the !RC pro7ect 8Traces of Contact9.

/ 1. Introduction

It -ecame apparent .uite early in the study that a full analysis of TA! systems in the
sample ,as not feasi-le in the defined time frame. :ecause I ,as inspired -y recent ,or# on
$rammaticali;ation %cf. :y-ee et al. 155<' and its rele"ance for -orro,in$ %cf. 2eine =
>ute"a /440' I decided to limit the study to morpho-syntactic mar#in$.
Recently, attempts ha"e -een made to infer population path,ays of the *outh American
continent -y relatin$ the distri-ution of lan$ua$es to archaeolo$ical, anthropolo$ical, and
data from similar research fields %cf. !ri#sen /411, 2orn-or$ = 2ill /411' -y applyin$ -oth
old and ne, research techni.ues. 1or e6ample, the study of phylo$enetics has -een adopted
from -iolo$y to re"eal relationships of lan$ua$es that ha"e yet to -e classified, and to
confirm lan$ua$e families %cf. Dunn et al. /44?'. Althou$h it is disputed ,hether
phylolin$uistics yields si$nificant results this is 7ust one e6ample of the ne, and e6citin$
possi-ilities to increase our #no,led$e of *AI+s ,here traditional methods fail.
!ach source ,as carefully chec#ed althou$h in the case of e.$. -ad data that ,as not
al,ays possi-le. In se"eral instances, my analysis de"iates from the sources. That, of course,
ris#s -rin$in$ the ,rath of the indi"idual lan$ua$e specialists upon me. As *tassen %155@,
preface' aptly puts it& 8Thus, the primary aim of my research pro7ect has -een theoretical
and uni"ersal in nature, -ut it is e"ident that it relies hea"ily on the descripti"e ,or# done
-y specialists on sin$ular lan$ua$es or lan$ua$e $roups. ABC As is al,ays the case ,ith $o-
-et,eens, this puts typolo$ists in a some,hat uncomforta-le position, in ,hich one runs
the ris# of -ein$ shot at from -oth sides9. I ,elcome any shots from any side as opportunity
to e6pand on my scholarly education.
This -oo# is structured as follo,s& 1irst, the frame,or# and methodolo$y are e6plained
in chapter /, to$ether ,ith presentin$ the lan$ua$e sample and the structure of the
.uestionnaire. Chapters ) to ( constitute the main -ody of the thesis and in"esti$ate in
detail the typolo$ical patterns and $eo$raphical and $enealo$ical distri-utions. The order is
Tense %chapter )', Aspect %chapter <', odality %chapter 0', and !"identiality %chapter ('.
!ach chapter -e$ins ,ith a definition of the respecti"e cate$ories. Chapter @ aims to
consolidate the results from the pre"ious chapters and e6amine their cate$ories in a
comprehensi"e manner, ,ith special focus on $eo$raphical and $enealo$ical distri-utions,
TA! prominence, and temporal sta-ility of TA! features.
2. Terminology, framework, and tools 3

2. TERMINOLOGY, R!M 2. TERMINOLOGY, R!M 2. TERMINOLOGY, R!M 2. TERMINOLOGY, R!ME"OR#, !N$ TOOL% E"OR#, !N$ TOOL% E"OR#, !N$ TOOL% E"OR#, !N$ TOOL%
2.& INTRO$'(TION 2.& INTRO$'(TION 2.& INTRO$'(TION 2.& INTRO$'(TION
T)e *resent st+dy fo,+ses on t)e o,,+rren,e of mor*)o-synta,ti, T!ME markers in .3
sele,ted %!ILs. It aims to ill+strate t)e ty*ologi,al T!ME lands,a*e of %!ILs in a
,om*arati/e *ers*e,ti/e and to ser/e as a starting *oint for )istori,al ling+isti, st+dies as
well as modeling lang+age ,onta,t s,enarios. T)is ,)a*ter *resents t)e met)odologi,al
fo+ndations of t)e st+dy. irst, t)e s*e,ifi, terminology of 0marking1 and w)at kinds of
markers o,,+r in t)e sam*le are dis,+ssed in se,tion 2.2. %e,tion 2.3 *resents t)e
frameworks ,entral to t)is st+dy2 t)e *rototy*e t)eory, t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,), and t)e
dominan,e *arameter. 3e,a+se t)is st+dy fo,+ses on grammati,ali4ed markers,
grammati,ali4ation is 5riefly dis,+ssed in se,tion 2.3.3 toget)er wit) its related notions of
o5ligatoriness 62.3.78 and systemati,ity 62.3.98. %e,tion 2.7 *resents t)e modus operandi of
t)is st+dy, 5ased on se,tion 2.3, and offers some general remarks a5o+t t)e le/els of
des,ri*tion in t)is st+dy and w)at is meant 5y 0mor*)o-synta,ti,1. T)e lang+age sam*le
and t)e str+,t+re of t)e :+estionnaire are *resented in se,tions 2.9. T)e definitions of t)e
indi/id+al T!ME ,ategories are gi/en in t)e res*e,ti/e se,tions in ,)a*ters 3 to ..
")en *ossi5le, e;am*les are gi/en to ill+strate t)e *oint in :+estion. E;am*les +s+ally
,onsist of t)ree lines2 mor*)eme 5y mor*)eme original in t)e first line, glossing in t)e
se,ond line, and t)e Englis) translation in t)e t)ird line. In ,ases w)ere t)e so+r,e
translation is not in Englis), an Englis) one is s+**lied. In some ,ases, t)e original e;am*les
do not )a/e glossing or mor*)eme se*arations< it was not attem*ted to s+5stit+te t)ese. In
general, t)ose e;am*les were a/oided 65+t see e.g. e;am*le 69.=.88. It was attem*ted to kee*
as tr+e to t)e e;am*les in t)e so+r,es as *ossi5le, 5+t wit) some alterations2 glossings were
+nified and sim*lified in a,,ordan,e wit) t)e Lei*4ig glossing r+les, and in some ,ases
e;isting glosses were re*la,ed for *+r*ose of ill+stration. or e;am*le, in 6..2&a8 t)e
*arti,le top is glossed 0>I%1 instead of t)e original gloss 05e.seen1 to signal t)at top 5elongs
to >I%'!L E/identiality as defined in t)is st+dy. In ,ases w)ere t)e original gloss seems to 5e
a mistake, it was re*la,ed 5y t)e most o5/io+s ,andidate. or e;am*le, in e;am*le 6..&8, t)e
glossing 0!'1 was re*la,ed 5y 0!'?1, 5e,a+se 0!'1 does not o,,+r in t)e list of a55re/iations,
5+t 0!'?1 does.

2.2 TERMINOLOGY 2.2 TERMINOLOGY 2.2 TERMINOLOGY 2.2 TERMINOLOGY
2.2.& Marking 2.2.& Marking 2.2.& Marking 2.2.& Marking
@as*elmat) 62AA., 2B8 arg+es t)at ling+ists s)o+ld refrain from +sing 0+nmarked, marked1
terminology, 5e,a+se t)ese terms Cde/elo*ed a m+lti*li,ity of sometimes widely di/erging
sensesD, and )e s+ggests to re*la,e t)em 5y 0o/ertly ,oded, +n,odedE 4ero ,oded1 6i5id, 3A8.
I agree t)at t)ere )as 5een ,onf+sion a5o+t t)ese terms, 5+t wo+ld like to add t)at 04ero
,oded1 is not ne,essarily t)e same as 0+n,oded1 and t)at one may +se 5ot) 0marking1 and
0,oding1 as long as t)ey are ,learly defined. In t)is t)esis, 5ot) sets of terms are +sed
inter,)angea5ly denoting t)e following ,on,e*ts2 0marking, ,oding1 means t)at a ,ategory
7 2.2 Terminology

)as a /isi5le marker ,ontaining *)onologi,alE mor*)ologi,al material. In t)at sense, a
,ategory ,an only 5e marked or +nmarked, 5+t not less or more marked. !n e;am*le w)ere
of degrees of marking are dis,+ssed is M+ysken 6&F=&8 w)o )as attem*ted to s)ow degrees
of Tense markedness. (o+nting t)e distan,es 5etween *oint of referen,e, *oint of s*ee,),
and e/ent moment, M+ysken ,on,l+des t)at t)e )ig)er t)e distan,e, t)e more marked t)e
,ategory in ,ase. or e;am*le, in t)e sim*le *resent all t)ree *oints o/erla*, and t)e
distan,e is 4ero. In t)e sim*le *ast, t)e *oints of referen,e and s*ee,) o/erla*, 5+t t)e
e/ent moment is remo/ed, so t)e distan,e is one. T)erefore, t)e sim*le *ast was ass+med to
5e more marked t)an t)e sim*le *resent 6i5id. &FAG&F&8 6for a dis,+ssion of t)e terms *oint
of referen,e, s*ee,), and moment of +tteran,e, see se,tion 3.2.&8. T)e *resent t)esis does
not attem*t to rank ,ategories a,,ording to markedness, 5+t rat)er sorts t)em into marked
/s. +nmarked. In #aro, a ,la+se ,an 5e marked wit) t)e H!%T *arti,le co or 5e +nmarked for
H!%T 5+t still )a/e *ast time referen,e. !dditionally, H!%T ,an 5e indi,ated 5y an ad/er5
60yesterday18, and 5e 5ot) marked 5y a *arti,le and indi,ated 5y an ad/er5 in t)e same
,la+se2

62.78 #aro 6T+*Ian< Ga5as Jr. &FFF, &B9, F=, &.F, &B98
6a8 p o=e-t co co co co
s)oot &%GK!'?-IN$ H%T
0I s)ot.1
658 o=ket-t c=tem
&%GKslee*-IN$ 5igK!$>L
0I sle*t a lot.
6,8 meganape n ameko top-ap matet matet matet matet
)ere &%G Mag+ar see-IN$ yesterday
0@ere I saw aE t)e Mag+ar yesterday.1
6d8 iym ket-t co co co co matet matet matet matet
fat)er slee*-IN$ H%T yesterday
0at)er sle*t yesterday.1

In my a**roa,), 62.7a8 and 62.7d8 are mor*)o-synta,ti,ally marked for H!%T, 5+t 62.758 and
62.7,8 are not. 62.7d8 is also not more marked 5e,a+se it )as 5ot) a ,liti, and an ad/er5.
Heri*)rasti, ,onstr+,tions and ad/er5s are not taken into a,,o+nt in t)is t)esis e;,e*t
w)en e;*li,itly stated ot)erwise. T)is t)esis fo,+ses on grammati,ali4ed T!ME marking,
alt)o+g) ot)er means of e;*ressing T!ME are dis,+ssed in a**ro*riate *la,es. T)e
o**osites of 0marked, ,oded1 are 0+nmarked, +n,oded1, w)en a ,ategory la,ks a /isi5le
marker.
+rt)ermore, a word a5o+t t)e terms 0+nmarked1 and 04ero-marker1 is in order. In t)is
st+dy, 5ot) +nmarked and 4ero-marked ,ategories are treated t)e same, alt)o+g) t)ey do
not denote t)e same ,on,e*ts. I follow 3y5ee 6&FF78 w)o arg+es t)at a 4ero-marker is a
marker wit) semanti, ,ontent, 5+t wit)o+t o/ert reali4ation in t)e form of a mor*)eme. It
2. Terminology, framework, and tools 9

is t)erefore t)e a5sen,e of an 6o5ligatory8 o/ert marker t)at e;*resses t)e e;isten,e of
anot)er, related meaning2 CNaOs an o/ert marker 5e,omes more fre:+ent, t)e )earer ,an
infer t)at its a5sen,e is intentional and meaningf+l, leading to t)e de/elo*ment of 4ero-
grams
&
D 6i5id. 2928. 3y5ee 6i5id. 27A8 ,laims t)at se/eral ,riteria m+st a**ly to a marker to
5e a real 4ero-marker, in,l+ding t)e in,rease of fre:+en,y of a marker t)at, additionally, is
o5ligatory and w)ose a5sen,e t)en ,an 5e inferred to 5e meaningf+l. ! ,ategory t)at is
+nmarked, on t)e ot)er )and, neit)er )as an o/ert marker nor does it lead t)e )earer to
infer a s*e,ifi, meaning. or e;am*le, in many lang+ages t)e HERE(TI>E )as 5e,ome 4ero-
marked after t)e IMHERE(TI>E 5e,ame o5ligatory 6i5id. 29A8. 'nfort+nately, d+e to different
+ses of t)e term 04ero-marker1 in t)e so+r,es and t)e tem*oral limitations of t)e *roMe,t it
was not *ossi5le to disting+is) 5etween 4ero-marked and +nmarked ,ategories in t)is
st+dy. It is es*e,ially diffi,+lt to infer o5ligatoriness and fre:+en,y of markers in referen,e
grammars. or t)at reason, in t)is t)esis an +nmarked ,ategory may well 5e 4ero-marked
5+t is +ndete,ted as s+,). @owe/er, T!ME 4ero-marking in %!ILs may 5e wort)
in/estigating in t)e f+t+re.

2.2.2 (+m+lati/e mo 2.2.2 (+m+lati/e mo 2.2.2 (+m+lati/e mo 2.2.2 (+m+lati/e mor*)emes r*)emes r*)emes r*)emes
In %!ILs, t)ere are often ,ases w)ere one marker e;*resses two or more T!ME ,ategories
sim+ltaneo+sly in an indi/isi5le +nit. 3a+er 62AA3, 33B8 ,alls t)is 0*ortmantea+12 C!
*ortmantea+ mor*) is a mor*) w)i,) reali4es P more t)an one mor*)emeD. 3i,kel Q
Ni,)ols 62AAB, &==8 refer to *ortmantea+ mor*)emes 6or *ortmantea+ formati/es8 as
,om5ining feat+res t)at also e;ist inde*endently. or e;am*le, ren,) du is a *ortmantea+
of de 0of1 and le 0t)e1. T)e *resent st+dy +ses 3i,kel Q Ni,)ols1 62AAB8 term 0,+m+lati/e1 for a
mor*)eme t)at ,om5ines two 6or more8 feat+res, 5+t wit)o+t ,oe;isting inde*endent
forms 6as wo+ld 5e t)e ,ase wit) *ortmantea+ mor*)emes8. ! *rototy*i,al ,+m+lati/e
marker )ere ,om5ines two or more meanings w)i,) always a**ly at t)e same time. or
e;am*le, in TiriyR, t)e s+ffi; -ja marks HRE%ENT Tense and IMHERE(TI>E !s*e,t, and in a ,la+se
t)is marker e;*resses 5ot). T)at means t)at if one a**lies, t)e ot)er o5ligatorily a**lies as
well.

62.98 TiriyR 6(ari5an< Meira &FFF, 2FF8
fevereiro po tarno-ton eperu p-ja-n
e5r+ary LO( TiriyR-(OL fr+it gat)er-HR%.IH>-$'3
0In e5r+ary, t)e TiriyR gat)er fr+its.1

(+m+lati/e markers 6)en,efort) also ,alled ,+m+lati/es8 ,an 5e ,ross-,ategorial, 5+t ne/er
intra-,ategorial2 a marker may )a/e two meanings from eit)er Tense, !s*e,t, Modality, or
E/identiality, for e;am*le H!%T and HERE(T, 5+t ne/er from t)e same s+*er-,ategory, e.g.

&
%)ort for Cgrammati,al mor*)emeD 63y5ee et al. &FF7, 28.

. 2.2 Terminology

H!%T and 'T'RE. ")en a marker e;)i5its two 6or more8 meanings from t)e same ,ategory,
s+,) as HRE%ENT and H!%T, t)is marker is defined as not ,+m+lati/e, 5+t am5ig+o+s 6see t)e
following se,tion8.

2.2.3 !m5ig+ity 2.2.3 !m5ig+ity 2.2.3 !m5ig+ity 2.2.3 !m5ig+ity
In T!ME, mor*)emes similar to ,+m+lati/es also o,,+r2 am5ig+o+s mor*)emes. !
,+m+lati/e mor*)eme always ,om*rises se/eral meanings at t)e same time, 5+t an
am5ig+o+s mor*)eme, alt)o+g) )a/ing se/eral meanings, only )as one meaning in a
s*e,ifi, ,onte;t. ! ty*i,al e;am*le is a 5inary Tense distin,tion, e.g. of t)e ty*e 'T'REE
NON'T'RE w)ere t)e NON'T'RE marker *oints to eit)er a HRE%ENT or H!%T inter*retation, i.e.
is am5ig+o+s 5etween HRE%ENT and H!%T. T)is is not a ,+m+lati/e mor*)eme, 5e,a+se in a
,la+se not 5ot), 5+t only one meaning a**lies. or e;am*le, in @i;karyana t)e marker -
yaha a**lies to NONH!%T, i.e. one marker ,odes for eit)er HRE%ENT or 'T'RE 6and it ,an also 5e
inter*reted as 0+ni/ersal18 6$er5ys)ire &FBF, &3=8. ")i,) Tense is a,t+ally a**li,a5le in t)e
,la+se )as to 5e esta5lis)ed 5y ,onte;t, 5+t it ,an ne/er 5e 5ot) at t)e same time.
!m5ig+ity is ty*i,ally intra,ategorial, i.e. +s+ally o,,+rs 5etween feat+res wit)in one
,ategory, in o**osition to ,+m+lati/es w)i,) are always ,ross-,ategorial.

62..8 @i;karyana 6(ari5an< $er5ys)ire &FBF, &3=8
namryekyaha yaha yaha yaha
0)e is going )+nting 6now81 or 0)e will go )+nting 6sometime soon81, or 0)e )+nts1
6i.e. )e is a man w)o )+nts8.

T)e :+estionnaire does not make a distin,tion 5etween ,+m+lati/e and am5ig+o+s markers
in t)e sense t)at 5ot) get a *ositi/e entry in all of t)e ,ategories t)ey en,ode. %*e,ifi,ations
are made in t)e ,omment se,tion.
(+m+lati/e and am5ig+o+s mor*)emes are interesting from a dia,)roni, *oint of /iew,
sin,e t)e *resen,e of s+,) mor*)emes in a lang+age *oints towards a )ig) degree of
grammati,ali4ation. T)is st+dy will dis,+ss t)e degree of e;*onen,e 6i.e. ,ategories t)at
form ,+m+lati/es8 w)ere rele/ant.
To o+tline t)e *ro5lemati, stat+s of T!ME regarding am5ig+ity I now dis,+ss a few
,om*li,ated e;am*les. or e;am*le, a HERE(TI>E marker ,an also e;*ress H!%T Tense, an
IMHERE(TI>E marker ,an )a/e @!3IT'!L f+n,tions, a 'T'RE Tense marker ,an 5e +sed to
e;*ress INTENTIONal, and a dire,t E/idential may )a/e E*istemi, +ndertones. It is im*ossi5le
to esta5lis) ,lear-,+t 5orders and instead one s)o+ld regard t)e ,ategories as ,l+sters t)at
s)are traits. T)e ,l+sters )a/e *rototy*i,al meanings t)at are ,entral to a s*e,ial feat+re,
e.g. H!%T Tense refers to a *oint in time *re/io+s to t)e *oint of s*ee,) andEor referen,e.
T)ere are feat+res t)at s)are t)is definition, e.g. t)e HERE(TI>E ,an )a/e H!%T Tense
meaning, 5+t is disting+is)a5le 5y stating t)at t)is is not t)e ,ore meaning of HERE(TI>E,
M+st a side effe,t, or se,ondary meaning. !,,ording to $a)l 6&F=98, t)e ,ore meaning is
0fo,+sing1, and t)e grey area in 5etween two feat+res 0im*re,ise1. @e ,laims t)at t)e fo,+s of
2. Terminology, framework, and tools B

a ,ategory e:+als a *rototy*e and assigns a maMor stat+s to t)e C,on,e*t of a dominant
*arameterD, i.e. a feat+re may )a/e se/eral traits, 5+t only one is dominant and t)erefore
t)e ,ore meaning. T)is a**roa,) is in a *osition to a,,o+nt more or less satisfa,torily for
T!ME relations)i*s and it will 5e followed )ere 6see following se,tions8.
T)ere is a differen,e 5etween ,+m+lati/e and am5ig+o+s mor*)emes and mor*)emes
t)at seemingly )a/e two f+n,tions 5+t +nder ,lose s,r+tiny M+st )a/e one dominant
meaning and anot)er one res+lting from it 6se,ondary meaning8. 'nfort+nately, it is not
always *ossi5le to dis,ern w)i,) is dominant and w)i,) is se,ondary. In ,ase one is not s+re
to w)i,) ,ategory a ,ertain marker 5elongs 6e.g. H!%T Tense or HERE(TI>E !s*e,t8, one s)o+ld
esta5lis) t)e ,ore meaning. ! marker t)at always )as *ast time referen,e, 5+t only
sometimes marks *resent rele/an,e of a *ast e/ent is *redominantly H!%T Tense marking
wit) a se,ondary !NTERIOR meaning. In ,ase t)e marker seems to always mark 5ot), refer to
t)e dis,+ssion a5o+t ,+m+lati/e mor*)emes a5o/e. In t)at way, one ,an make a list of
/al+es of a marker, e.g. a marker may )a/e t)e following /al+es2 NS%TEO, NSintentionalO,
NS+n,ertaintyO, 5+t not any of t)e ot)er definitions. T)+s, t)e rele/ant marker marks 'T'RE,
INTENTION, and 'N(ERT!INTY. Ideally, a so+r,e indi,ates t)e stat+s of t)ese meanings, 5+t t)at
is not always t)e ,ase. T)e 5iggest *ro5lem wit) t)is a**roa,) is t)at t)e s*e,ifi, lang+age
so+r,e ne,essarily )as to )a/e a fair amo+nt of e;am*les. T)ere is also t)e risk of 5eing
misg+ided 5y a translation.

2.3 (ON(EHT'!L R 2.3 (ON(EHT'!L R 2.3 (ON(EHT'!L R 2.3 (ON(EHT'!L R!ME"OR# !ME"OR# !ME"OR# !ME"OR#
2.3.& Hrototy*e t)eory and t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,) 2.3.& Hrototy*e t)eory and t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,) 2.3.& Hrototy*e t)eory and t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,) 2.3.& Hrototy*e t)eory and t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,)
T)e semanti, ,ategories of Tense, !s*e,t, Modality, and E/identiality are ,)allenging as
t)ey are not ,lear-,+t. In order to define lang+age-s*e,ifi, T!ME markers, 5+t also in order
to esta5lis) ,ross-ling+isti,ally /alid ,on,e*ts, I dis,+ss two ty*ologi,al a**roa,)es t)at are
im*ortant to str+,t+re and disting+is) t)e ,ategories2 6i8 t)e *rototy*e t)eory, w)i,) )as
already 5een a**lied to Tense and !s*e,t 5y $a)l 6&F=98, and 6ii8 t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,)
w)i,) was introd+,ed 5y (or5ett 62AA38 and a**lied to t)e *)enomenon of agreement.
2
T)e
following se,tion ill+strates )ow t)ese a**roa,)es a**ly to t)e st+dy of T!ME.
Originally de/elo*ed in t)e &FBAs 5y t)e ,ogniti/e *sy,)ologist Eleanor Ros,) and
,olleag+es, *rototy*e t)eory was first a**lied to Tense and !s*e,t in a ,ross-ling+isti,
st+dy 5y $a)l in &F=9. T)e most 5asi, *ro5lem in defining and disting+is)ing T!ME feat+res
is t)eir f+44y 5o+ndaries, and *rototy*e t)eory 6also ,alled *rototy*e semanti, t)eory8,
ado*ted to t)e s*e,ial needs of T!, offers t)e, in my o*inion, 5est s+ited a**roa,) to kee*
t)ese ,ategories a*art. T)e arg+ments of t)e standard *rototy*e t)eory are t)at, firstly,
t)ere are ,ategories and t)at, se,ondly, some s*e,imen of t)ese ,ategories ,an 5e arranged
into 5eing 05etter1 s*e,imen t)an ot)ers, e.g. an apple is a 5etter s*e,imen of t)e ,ategory
fruit t)an an olive is 6see #lei5er &FF= for e;am*les8. ! *rototy*e is t)en t)e 5est s*e,imen
of a ,ategory 5y /ote of t)e maMority2 CNtO)e term 0*rototy*e1 as 5est s*e,imen or rat)er

2
or t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,) 5eing a**lied to t)e MiraUa agreement system see %eifart 62AA98.
= 2.3 (on,e*t+al framework

e;am*le, 5est re*resentati/e or ,entral element of a ,ategory NPO. T)e *rototy*e is t)e
s*e,imen t)at is deemed most fitting 5y t)e s*eakers.D 6Translation N.M.8 6#lei5er &FF=,
3&8.
3
! *rototy*e is not an indi/id+al s*e,imen 6e.g. for ird t)e parrot of my neighor8 5+t a
s+5,ategory 6parrot8. Ros,) et al. 6&FB.8 esta5lis)ed t)e *rototy*es in e;*eriments 5y asking
*eo*le w)i,) s*e,imen of, for e;am*le, a series of ,)airs 5est re*resented t)e ,ategory
,)air. T)ey t)en formed a s,ale of ,)airs, t)e )ig)est of w)i,) was t)e *rototy*e. T)is
,annot 5e done for T!ME, )owe/er, so t)at we )a/e to esta5lis) t)e *rototy*es for T!ME
,ategories in a different way. T)e ad/antage of t)e *rototy*e t)eory is t)at it is fle;i5le, i.e.
allows for less *rototy*i,al mem5ers of a ,ategory. T)e disad/antage is t)at T!ME
*rototy*es ,annot 5e esta5lis)ed 5y /ote of maMority and t)at not e/en two s,)olars may
a,t+ally agree on t)em. ! f+rt)er general disad/antage of t)e *rototy*e t)eory is t)at it is
*ro5a5ly ,+lt+re-s*e,ifi,. $efining T!ME ,ategories for lang+age ,om*arison re:+ires
mo/ing from lang+age-internal feat+res to more a5stra,t ,on,e*ts, w)i,) t)e *rototy*e
t)eory ,annot gi/e +s. It is not s+ffi,ient to ,)oose e.g. Englis) 'T'RE as *rototy*e and
,om*are all ot)er lang+age s*e,ifi, 'T'RE% against it< an ideal ,on,e*t of 'T'RE is needed.
T)is is t)e to*i, of t)e ne;t *aragra*).
!not)er ty*ologi,al a**roa,), w)i,) to my knowledge )as not 5een a**lied to T!ME
5efore, is t)e ,anoni,al a**roa,) 5y (or5ett 62AA3, 2AAB8. ")ereas t)e *rototy*e t)eory
works wit) a 5ottom-+* a**roa,), i.e. draws definitions from em*iri,al data, t)e ,anoni,al
a**roa,) ,om5ines a to*-down and 5ottom-+* a**roa,) in t)at it *ro*oses a definition and
ma*s it against a,t+al data. It )as a ,ore definition t)at is t)e res+lt of CtakNingO definitions
to t)eir logi,al end*ointD and w)i,) allows Cto 5+ild t)eoreti,al s*a,es of *ossi5ilitiesD
6(or5ett 2AAB, F8. %o instead of ,)oosing a 5est e;em*lar *rototy*e 6e.g. Englis) 'T'RE8 t)e
,anon *ro/ides an ideal ,on,e*t 6t)e *oint of e/ent is after t)e *oint of s*ee,)8 t)at is t)en
ma**ed against lang+age-s*e,ifi, instan,es< t)is is w)at $a)l means wit) *rimary meaning.
3ot) *rototy*e t)eory and ,anoni,al a**roa,) allow for gradation. In a sense, a ,anoni,al
instan,e is t)e same as $a)l1s *rototy*e. $a)l1s *rototy*es de/iate from t)e original
*rototy*es in t)at t)ey are not t)e 5est e;am*le of a gro+*, 5+t rat)er an ideal, w)i,) is
meant 5y a ,anoni,al instan,e. T)+s, $a)l a5stra,ted t)e original *rototy*e t)eory and
en)an,ed t)e meaning of a *rototy*e to denote an ideal, w)i,) )as later 5een la5eled
0,anoni,al instan,e1 5y (or5ett.

2.3.2 T)e dominan,e *arameter 2.3.2 T)e dominan,e *arameter 2.3.2 T)e dominan,e *arameter 2.3.2 T)e dominan,e *arameter
! T!ME marker rarely )as only one meaning, 5+t in order to 5e a5le to sort it into a
,ategory one needs to de,ide w)i,) ,ategory it 5elongs to 5y esta5lis)ing its *rimary
meaning in terms of dominan,e. In a lang+age ? wit) a marker ,om5ining 'T'RE and e.g.
'N(ERT!INTY, one )as to look at a set of e;am*les to esta5lis) w)i,) one is dominant. ")en
all e;am*les )a/e 'T'RE meaning 5+t only sometimes a Modal meaning as well, 'T'RE is

3
Cder 3egriff des Hrototy*s als 5estes E;em*lar 54w. 3eis*iel, 5ester >erteter oder 4entrales Element
einer #ategorie NPO. $er Hrototy* ist das E;em*lar, das /on den %*re,)ern als 5estes anerkannt wirdD.
2. Terminology, framework, and tools F

t)e dominant meaning, and t)e marker is t)erefore a Tense marker. $a)l 6&F=9, F8 ,alls t)is
a C,on,e*t of dominant *arameterD w)i,) Cis often rele/ant in t)e des,ri*tion of T!ME
,ategories. or e;am*le, t)e ,ategory Herfe,ti/e will +s+ally 5e inter*reted as 0*erfe,ti/e1
and 0*ast1, alt)o+g) wit) t)e first feat+re ,learly dominantD. In relation to t)e ,anoni,al
a**roa,), t)is means t)at t)e ,anoni,al meaning is t)e dominant one. It is of ,o+rse
*ossi5le t)at markers )a/e se/eral meanings t)at always o,,+r in all instan,es, i.e. t)ey are
,+m+lati/e mor*)emes 6,.f. se,tion 2.2.28.

2 22 2.3.3 Grammati,ali4ation .3.3 Grammati,ali4ation .3.3 Grammati,ali4ation .3.3 Grammati,ali4ation
T)e in)erent semanti, *ro*erties of T!ME ,ategories s+ggest t)at T!ME feat+res are *art
of a ,ontin++m. T)ey are strongly related to ea,) ot)er, to t)e *oint of o/erla**ing. "it)in
t)is ,ontin++m, markers are *rone to s)ift meaning, some more easily t)an ot)ers, and also
to s)ift form and *osition in t)e ,la+se. It is t)is ,on,e*t+al linkage 5etween t)e ,ategories
t)at fa,ilitates grammati,ali4ation *ro,esses 5etween T!ME ,ategories. %)ift of meaning is
t)+s a *rominent ,)ara,teristi, of grammati,ali4ation or 0grammati,i4ation1 6,f. 3y5ee et al.
&FF7, @eine Q #+te/a 2AA9, Narrog Q @eine 2A&&, to name 5+t a few8. T)e following
*aragra*)s 5riefly introd+,e t)e ,on,e*t of grammati,ali4ation and w)y it is so im*ortant
in o+r +nderstanding of T!ME ,ategories.
Grammati,ali4ation is a *ro,ess in w)i,) a ,ertain le;eme +ndergoes ,)anges in
meaning and form, and e/ol/es to t)e stat+s of grammati,al element. ()anges in meaning
in,l+de a generali4ation of t)e original semanti, ,ontent, or red+,tion 6erosion, 5lea,)ing,
narrowing et,.8. ()anges in form in,l+de red+,tion of mor*)o-*)onologi,al material, i.e.
s)ortening or ,ondensing. T)e ,)ange of meaning and form s+5se:+ently leads to a ,)ange
of word ,lass as well, i.e. a formerly inde*endent le;eme is fo+nd in a m+,) more restri,ted
en/ironment s+,) as t)e affi; slot. T)e /ario+s ,)anges a le;eme +ndergoes to 5e,ome
more or less grammati,ali4ed are ,ommonly referred to as grammati,ali4ation *at) or
,line. T)is is a /ery general definition of grammati,ali4ation, 5ased on 3y5ee et al. 6&FF78
w)o in/estigated Tense, !s*e,t, and Modality regarding grammati,ali4ation *at)s in a
glo5al sam*le of B. lang+ages. !,,ording to t)em, a grammati,al marker e;ists on a s*e,ial
*oint along a grammati,ali4ation *at) and ,an only satisfa,torily 5e des,ri5ed
dia,)roni,ally in a way t)at allows for ,ross-ling+isti, ,om*arison2 CNsOyn,)roni, +ni/ersals
)a/e 5een el+si/e in t)e area of grammati,al meaning 5e,a+se at any gi/en time a gram1s
+ses stret,) o/er a se:+en,e of links in t)e grammati,ali4ation ,)ain. Only t)e dia,)roni,
*ers*e,ti/e ,an re/eal )ow t)ese +ses are related and )ow a gi/en gram ,om*ares to
similar grams in ot)er lang+agesD 6i5id. 2=&8. In ot)er words, for a marker to 5e ,om*ara5le
one s)o+ld know w)ere it ,ame from and at w)i,) *oint of grammati,ali4ation it e;ists
now, 5ot) in meaning and in form. T)is is, of ,o+rse, )ardly feasi5le for %!ILs, 5e,a+se for
most of t)e lang+ages we do not )a/e s+ffi,ient )istori,al data for dia,)roni, analyses.
@owe/er, 3y5ee et al. 6i5id.8 *ro/ide +s wit) a n+m5er of +ni/ersal grammati,ali4ation
*at)s t)at ena5le +s to infer *ro5a5le so+r,es of s*e,ifi, markers. In addition, a general
interest in grammati,ali4ation )as also res+lted in a n+m5er of st+dies of *arti,+lar
&A 2.3 (on,e*t+al framework

*)enomena in %!ILs 6e.g. E**s 2AA= a5o+t t)e grammati,ali4ation of a 'T'RE marker from
t)e le;eme for 0wood1 in @+*8. !lt)o+g) inferring grammati,ali4ation *at)s of T!ME
markers in %!ILs is not a maMor resear,) to*i, of t)is st+dy, t)ey are of ,onsidera5le )el*
w)en sorting and ,om*aring markers.
Grammati,ali4ation does not only ,ontri5+te to o+r +nderstanding of T!ME markers
and t)eir lang+age-internal de/elo*ment, it )as also 5een demonstrated t)at it ,an 5e
triggered 5y ,onta,t and t)+s re/eal ,onta,t in ,ontig+o+s regions wit) +nrelated
lang+ages. T)+s, ,onta,t of a lang+age wit) a ,ertain grammati,ali4ed marker ,an trigger
grammati,ali4ation of a mor*)eme in an adMa,ent lang+age, as arg+ed, among ot)ers, 5y
@eine Q #+te/a 62AA98. ! region t)at feat+res se/eral instan,es of transfer 5y
grammati,ali4ation of +nrelated lang+ages is ,alled 0grammati,ali4ation area12 N5Oy
grammati,ali4ation area NPO we +nderstand a gro+* of geogra*)i,ally ,ontig+o+s lang+ages
t)at )a/e +ndergone t)e same grammati,ali4ation *ro,ess as a res+lt of lang+age ,onta,tD
6i5id. &=28. @eine Q #+te/a *ro*ose se/eral grammati,ali4ation areas world-wide, and one
s*e,ifi,ally in %!. In t)e >a+*Vs, ,onta,t-ind+,ed grammati,ali4ation is known to )a/e
)a**ened 5etween T+,anoan and Tariana 6!rawakan8. or e;am*le, t)e ,ategory of a
%E(ON$@!N$ IMHER!TI>E 6C$o t)is 5e,a+se someone else told yo+WD8 was transferred from
T+,anoan to Tariana. Tariana did not originally )a/e a %E(ON$@!N$ IMHER!TI>E and instead
e;tended t)e meaning of t)e %E(ON$@!N$ marker -pida to IMHER!TI>E 6i5id. 2&78. It is 5eyond
t)e range of t)is st+dy to *ro*ose grammati,ali4ation areas in %!, 5+t ,onta,t-ind+,ed
grammati,ali4ation may e;*lain t)e distri5+tion of ,ertain T!ME markers, M+st like
lang+age internal grammati,ali4ation does.

2.3.7 O5 2.3.7 O5 2.3.7 O5 2.3.7 O5ligatoriness ligatoriness ligatoriness ligatoriness
Grammati,ali4ation, es*e,ially t)at w)i,) e/ent+ally leads to a 4ero-marker, is most likely
w)en one or more meanings are o5ligatorily e;*ressed in a s*e,ifi, lang+age 63y5ee &FF7,
2928. In general, any ,ategory is o5ligatory w)en a ,la+se +nmarked for t)at ,ategory
meaning is +ngrammati,al. T)at meaning is +s+ally tied to a s*e,ifi, marker or a *aradigm
of markers. or 3y5ee 6&F=9, 2A28, a ,ategory is o5ligatory w)en it is ,om*+lsory in e/ery
finite ,la+se regardless of w)et)er its meaning is red+ndant. 'nfort+nately, lang+ages are
not t)at *ersistent wit) regard to o5ligatoriness. or instan,e, in Tariana grammati,al
Tense marking is o5ligatory 5+t ,an 5e dro**ed, for instan,e, in narrati/es w)en t)e
tem*oral frame )as 5een esta5lis)ed 6!ik)en/ald 2AA3, 2=F8.
!**arently, t)ere is a differen,e 5etween o5ligatoriness of marker and o5ligatoriness of
meaning. ")en t)e meaning is e;*ressed solely 5y one marker, t)en 5ot) ,oin,ide, 5+t
w)en t)e meaning is *ossi5ly e;*ressed 5y alternati/e means, t)ey o/erla* only *artly.
T)at e;*lains w)y it is *ossi5le to dro* a Tense marker in narrati/es or s+5ordinate ,la+ses,
5e,a+se t)e meaning is still t)ere, alt)o+g) t)e o/ert marker is not.
In t)is st+dy, it )as not 5een *ossi5le to systemati,ally differentiate 5etween t)e
o5ligatory and o*tional marking of a ,ategory. T)is is d+e to t)e fa,t t)at many so+r,es
sim*ly do not refer to o5ligatoriness, and t)at w)en t)ey do, t)ey are not entirely
2. Terminology, framework, and tools &&

,onsistent in t)eir definitions. T)is is one of t)e fa,tors t)at led to t)e e;,l+sion of 4ero-
markers as well, 5e,a+se o5ligatoriness of one ,ategory is /ital for t)e grammati,ali4ation
of anot)er ,ategory into a 4ero-marker. T)erefore, t)is st+dy in,l+des markers w)ose
o5ligatoriness is +nknown.

2.3.9 %ystemati,ity 2.3.9 %ystemati,ity 2.3.9 %ystemati,ity 2.3.9 %ystemati,ity
T!ME markers, es*e,ially )ig)ly grammati,ali4ed ones, are strongly em5edded in
grammati,al systems, i.e. are *art of ,om*le; *aradigms. ! ,ategory is taken into a,,o+nt in
t)is st+dy regardless of w)et)er it is re*resented 5y markers in all instan,es in a *aradigm
or only *artially. Haradigms ,an 5e defe,ti/e. or e;am*le, @+allaga X+e,)+a )as a 'T'RE
*aradigm for *erson and n+m5er, 5+t t)e forms for t)e se,ond *erson are )omo*)ono+s
wit) t)ose of t)e HRE%ENT 6"e5er &F=F, &AA8. In TiriyR, t)e non-,olle,ti/e HRE%ENT IMHERE(TI>E
and 'T'RE IMHERE(TI>E )a/e a (ERT!INTYE $'3IT!TI>E distin,tion t)at is neit)er *resent in t)e
,olle,ti/e forms nor in t)e HRE%ENT HERE(TI>E, 'T'RE HERE(TI>E, or in t)e H!%T Tenses 6Meira
&FFF, 2F98. !s lang+ages ,an )a/e only *artial o5ligatoriness, t)ey also ,an )a/e *artial
*aradigms. Ne/ert)eless, markers of defe,ti/e *aradigms are still taken into a,,o+nt )ere.
or TiriyR, for e;am*le, t)at means t)at TiriyR is ,oded to )a/e marked E*istemi, Modality,
e/en t)o+g) only in HRE%ENT IMHERE(TI>E and 'T'RE IMHERE(TI>E.

2.7 T@E 2.7 T@E 2.7 T@E 2.7 T@E !"#$% "&'()*#+ !"#$% "&'()*#+ !"#$% "&'()*#+ !"#$% "&'()*#+ O T@I% %T'$Y O T@I% %T'$Y O T@I% %T'$Y O T@I% %T'$Y
T)is se,tion e;*lains t)e f+ndamental framework of t)is st+dy w)i,) was *artially
introd+,ed in se,tion 2.3.
In t)is st+dy, t)e definitions gi/en in t)e res*e,ti/e se,tions are t)e ideal, i.e.
,anoni,alE *rototy*i,al, meanings w)i,) were inferred from *re/io+s st+dies. Lang+age-
s*e,ifi, markers may more or less ,anoni,allyE *rototy*i,ally re*resent t)ese meanings.
or e;am*le, 'T'RE is generally a,,e*ted to 5e t)e grammati,ali4ed e;*ression of time
,onstit+ting t)at t)e *oint of s*ee,) is 5efore t)e *oint of e/ent. !,,ordingly, t)is is t)e
definition of 'T'RE +sed in t)is st+dy 6,f. se,tion 3.2.&8. 3+t markers e;*ressing 'T'RE are
not ne,essarily restri,ted to t)is ideal definition. or e;am*le, a 'T'RE marker may also
e;*ress $'3IT!TI>E. In t)at ,ase, one needs to esta5lis) w)i,) meaning is dominant, or
w)et)er t)ese meanings are e:+ally dominant 6i.e. a ,+m+lati/e mor*)eme8.
$a)l 6&F=9, 338 arg+es t)at t)ree le/els of des,ri*tion )a/e to 5e *resent in a s+,,essf+l
ty*ologi,al st+dy of T!ME2 one for +ni/ersal ,ategories, i.e. H!%T, followed 5y t)e le/el of
lang+age-s*e,ifi, ,ategories 6e.g. H!%T in Englis)8. T)e t)ird le/el denotes t)e dimensions of
,on,e*t+al s*a,e, i.e. t)e 0:+arks1 t)at make +* t)e s*a,e of a *rototy*e. or e;am*le, t)e
+ni/ersal ,ategory H!%T is reali4ed in t)e lang+age-s*e,ifi, ,ategory H!%T Tense in Englis),
and t)e meaning of Englis) H!%T is *ast time. 3+t *ast time is not restri,ted to H!%T Tense
and may in some lang+ages also 5e a *art of HERE(TI>E !s*e,t. Nat+rally, *ast time referen,e
and H!%T Tense ,oin,ide, as t)e semanti, ,ontent of H!%T Tense is *ast time, 5+t a ,ategory is
not restri,ted to )a/e only one :+ark. 'T'RE Tense often in,l+des not only f+t+re time
referen,e 5+t also Modal meanings like IMHER!TI>E, *lanning, desire et,., de*ending on t)e
&2 2.7 T)e mod+s o*erandi of t)is st+dy

indi/id+al lang+age. T)e :+arks are t)e ,om*onents t)at need to 5e semanti,ally defined,
as t)ro+g) t)em t)e )ig)er ,ategories get t)eir meaning.
T)is t)esis works wit) two 5asi, distin,tions2 s+*er,ategories and t)eir res*e,ti/e
s+5,ategories. %+*er,ategories are indi,ated 5y an initial ,a*ital, e.g. Tense, Modality,
!s*e,t, and E/identiality to disting+is) t)em from )omo*)ones s+,) as tense and mood, as
in CI walked into a 5ar and t)e mood was :+ite tenseD. %+5,ategories are formatted in small
,a*s, regardless of w)et)er t)ey also re*resent s+5,ategories of s+5,ategories, e.g.
IMHERE(TI>E and (ONTIN'!TI>E are not formally )ierar,)i,ally disting+is)ed alt)o+g)
(ONTIN'!TI>E is a s+5,ategory of IMHERE(TI>E 6,f. se,tion 7.&8. T)is is done in order to
esta5lis) /isi5le differen,es 5etween terms like H!%T and *ast, t)e former 5eing t)e
ling+isti, ,ategory and t)e latter referring to a general ,on,e*t of time, not 5eing restri,ted
to t)e ling+isti, definition. (ategories t)at are not dealt wit), and t)+s not defined, in t)is
st+dy re,ei/e no e;tra marking. or e;am*le, interrogati/e, negation, indi,ati/e, et,. are
re,ogni4a5le as not 5eing *art of t)e :+estionnaire. T)e s+*er,ategories are ass+med to 5e
lang+age +ni/ersals for t)e *+r*ose of ,ross-ling+isti, ,om*arison, alt)o+g) t)is st+dy does
not ,laim t)at t)ey are.

ig+re 2.&2 Le/els of des,ri*tion


!s *ointed o+t 5y @as*elmat) 62A&A8, indi/id+al lang+age des,ri*tions ne,essarily work
wit) des,ri*ti/e sets a**li,a5le to t)e res*e,ti/e lang+age, w)i,) means t)at t)ey are not
,om*ara5le ,ross-ling+isti,ally, as no *arti,+lar ,ategory )as an e;a,t one-to-one
,orres*onden,e to a ,ategory of anot)er lang+age. Instead, one needs to work wit)
,om*arati/e ,on,e*ts t)at are Cs*e,ifi,ally designed for t)e *+r*ose of ,om*arison t)at are
inde*endent of des,ri*ti/e ,ategoriesD 6@as*elmat) 2A&A, ..78. T)e *ro5lem of lang+age-
*arti,+lar ,ategories t)at denote different ,on,e*ts from lang+age to lang+age is dee*ly
rooted wit)in T!ME, not only 5e,a+se of different lang+age internal *ro,esses, 5+t also
5e,a+se of t)e tenden,y of resear,)ers to a**ly terminology t)at is not s+ffi,iently defined.
T)+s, two lang+age-s*e,ifi, IRRE!LI% markers may well 5e different in all 5+t terminology,
5+t t)at s)o+ld not *ose a *ro5lem as long as 5ot) +ses are defined. %ome a+t)ors of
des,ri*ti/e grammars first often do not make a distin,tion 5etween lang+age *arti,+lar and
+ni/ersal ,ategories, and se,ond do not always define t)eir terminology. T)is is aggra/ated
2. Terminology, framework, and tools &3

5y t)e fa,t t)at T!ME ,ategories are )ig)ly interrelated and wit)o+t definition one is
+na5le to disting+is) feat+res and ends +* ,om*aring two ,ategories t)at are not t)e same
at all, sim*ly 5e,a+se 5ot) )a/e 5een la5eled t)e same.
7

@as*elmat)1s ,om*arati/e ,on,e*ts a**roa,) offers a sol+tion for t)e way to find
ling+isti, +ni/ersals in ,om*aring not ling+isti, feat+res, 5+t ,on,e*ts. ! modified /ersion
of ,om*arati/e ,on,e*ts ,an 5e fo+nd in t)is t)esis. T)e 5ases for ,ross-ling+isti,
,om*arison are t)e ,ategories, w)i,) are defined 5y *rototy*i,alE ,anoni,al meanings 6see
5elow8. It s)o+ld 5e 5orne in mind t)at e.g. t)e ,ategory H!%T does not ne,essarily fit one-
to-one to lang+age s*e,ifi, H!%T markers.
T)is st+dy fo,+ses on T!ME ,ategories t)at are marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally. $+e to
t)e limits of t)e *roMe,t *eri*)rasti, ,onstr+,tions, ad/er5s, f+ll /er5s et,. are not taken
into a,,o+nt, alt)o+g) t)ey are *ro5a5ly not less interesting wit) regard to lang+age
,onta,t, lang+age ,)ange, grammati,ali4ation, and ty*ology. It is )o*ed t)at a
,om*lementing st+dy of non-mor*)o-synta,ti, T!ME of t)e same sam*le will 5e ,ond+,ted
in t)e f+t+re. Mor*)o-synta,ti, marking )ere in,l+des affi;es, ,liti,s, *arti,les, a+;iliaries,
and stem ,)angeE s+**letion 6and for some :+estions, also re*etitionEred+*li,ation8. T)ese
are *artially disting+is)ed 5y t)eir a5ility to o,,+r as 5o+nd or free mor*)emes and t)eir
a5ility to take mor*)ology2 affi;es and ,liti,s ,annot o,,+r on t)eir own, 5+t )a/e to 5e
atta,)ed to a )ost, w)ereas *arti,les and a+;iliaries are free mor*)emes, alt)o+g) *artly
restri,ted to ,ertain *ositions in t)e ,la+se 6lang+age-de*endent8. ! *arti,le ,annot take
affi;es or ,liti,s, w)ereas a+;iliaries are a5le to re,ei/e /er5al infle,tional mor*)emes. T)e
5o+ndaries are fl+id, w)i,) leads to ,lassifi,ation *ro5lems. or e;am*le, in 3a+re
6!rawakan8, se/eral ad/er5s and *arti,les are )omo*)ono+s and o5/io+sly t)e *arti,les
deri/e from t)e ad/er5s, e.g. t)e HERE(T *arti,le C)as 5een deri/ed from t)e ad/er5 ver
0already1, e/en t)o+g) t)e ad/er5ial +se is )ardly disting+is)a5le from t)e *arti,le +seD
6$anielsen 2AAB, 2B28. In general, t)e terms 0*arti,le1 and 0ad/er51 are often +sed
inter,)angea5ly 60*arti,le1 is also infamo+s for 5eing +sed for e/ery marker t)at ,o+ld not
5e sorted into any ot)er word ,lass8 and one )as to rely on t)e original so+r,e information.
! T!ME marker always )as s,o*e o/er t)e /er5 *)rase, regardless of its *osition in t)e
,la+se. or e;am*le, a marker t)at atta,)es to no+ns and )as no s,o*e o/er t)e /er5al
a,tion of t)e ,la+se is not a Tense marker. 3+t w)en t)at same marker also )as /er5al
s,o*e, t)en it is a Tense marker.
9
or e;am*le, in !*+rinY t)e 'T'RE marker -ko ,an o,,+r
on non-/er5al 5ases as well as on t)e /er5, 5+t it always )as s,o*e o/er t)e /er5al a,tion
6a,+ndes 2AAA, 7&A8. In MamaindZ t)ere is a set of tem*oral markers t)at e;,l+si/ely o,,+r
on no+ns 6i.e. nominal Tense markers8, in addition to a distin,t set of /er5al Tense markers
6E5er)ard 2AAF, 3738. 3ot) lang+ages are ,oded as )a/ing Tense markers, 5+t t)e MamaindZ

7
T)is *arti,+larly )a**ens wit) t)e terms 0*erfe,t1 and 0*erfe,ti/e1 6,f. se,tion 7.B8.
9
or a dis,+ssion of t)e nominal tense see Nordlinger Q %adler 62AA7, 2AA=8, Ton)a+ser 62AAB8, and
6M+ysken 2AA=8.
&7 2.7 T)e mod+s o*erandi of t)is st+dy

nominal Tense markers are not taken into a,,o+nt in t)is st+dy, 5e,a+se t)ey do not )a/e
/er5al s,o*e.

62.&8 !*+rinY 6a,+ndes 2AAA, 7&A, 9&78
6a8 kopiti-ka-ra-ko ko ko ko o-kama nominal 5ase
5+,ket-HR$-O(-'T 3-make
06It1s8 t)e 5+,ket t)at s)e1ll make.1
658 iye ,-oka-pe-no-na-ko ko ko ko /er5al 5ase
HT( 3M-kill-H>-&%G.O3J-3HL-'T
0%o, t)ey will kill me.1

62.28 MamaindZ 6Nam5ikwaran< E5er)ard 2AAF, 373, 72F8
6a8 ta--alek
h
an-le le le lei i i i-tu nominal Tense
HO%%&-,)ief-H%T-N%
0my *ast ,)ief1
658 jalak-atun-tu .n-let-,-n.n n.n n.n n.n--a /er5al Tense
)owler.monkey-N% s)oot-I.H%T-%3J3-H%T-$E(L
0@e s)ot a )owler monkey 6in intermediate *ast time8.1

Markers ,an o,,+r on a+;iliaries and also 5e a+;iliaries t)emsel/es2 in %)i*i5o-#oni5o t)e
main /er5s peo- 05egin1, keyo- 0finis)1 and jene- 0sto*1 ,an also f+n,tion as a+;iliaries wit)
!s*e,t+al meaning 6>alen4+ela 2AA3, 3&F8. In $[w, t)e HERE(TI>E marker is an a+;iliary
deri/ed from t)e /er5 j/t 0to kill1 6Martins 2AA7, 2FA82

62.38 $[w 6Nada)+*< Martins 2AA7, 2FA8
6a8 m

01 ja2 p34 j/t j/t j/t j/t m01


4
t /er5
one timeEMo+rney grand*arent kill ,+tia
0On,e t)e grandmot)er killed an ago+ti.1 6orig. 0'ma /e4 a a/R mato+ +ma ,+tia.18
658 tih po- j/t j/t j/t j/t 0-duh a+;iliary
3%G to.s*lit H> *lant-firewood
0@e s*lit firewood.1 6orig. 0Ele ra,)o+ len)a.18

To s+mmari4e, t)e *resent st+dy takes into a,,o+nt mor*)o-synta,ti, T!ME marker. T)e
definitions of t)e T!ME ,ategories in t)is ,)a*ter are idealsE *rototy*esE ,anoni,al
instan,es 5ased on *re/io+s st+dies. ! marker m+st )a/e t)e *rototy*i,al meaning as t)e
dominant one. In ,ase t)ere are two or more dominant meanings it is eit)er a ,+m+lati/e or
am5ig+o+s marker. It does not matter w)et)er a marker is ,+m+lati/e or am5ig+o+s,
5e,a+se in 5ot) instan,es t)e ,ategory is ,oded as marked. or f+rt)er information a5o+t
,oding strategies see se,tion 2.9.2.

2. Terminology, framework, and tools &9

2.9 TOOL% 2.9 TOOL% 2.9 TOOL% 2.9 TOOL%
2.9.& T)e lang+age sam*le 2.9.& T)e lang+age sam*le 2.9.& T)e lang+age sam*le 2.9.& T)e lang+age sam*le
T)e lang+age sam*le +sed in t)is st+dy was designed to 5alan,e geogra*)i,al and
genealogi,al di/ersity of %!IL% wit) a fo,+s on ,ertain families and regions, taking t)e
a/aila5ility of good des,ri*tions into a,,o+nt. T)e 5asis for t)e analysis is a :+estionnaire,
w)i,) is t)e to*i, of t)e following se,tion. In t)is se,tion I *resent t)e lang+age sam*le and
)ow it was ,om*iled.
T)e 5asis of t)is *arti,+lar sam*le is a list of .A lang+ages w)i,) was ,om*iled for t)e
ER( *roMe,t CTra,es of (onta,t 6To(8D. One of t)e main goals of t)e *roMe,t is to integrate
t)e growing 5ody of des,ri*ti/e work w)i,) )as 5e,ome a/aila5le in t)e last de,ades. or
t)is st+dy, t)ree additional lang+ages were ,)osen in order to e;*and t)e ,o/erage of
maMor lang+age families2 X+e,)+an 6(+4,o X+e,)+a8 and T+*Ian 6N)eengat\ and %aterV-
MawV8 so as to allow for more detailed genealogi,al analysis. T)e original To( lang+age
sam*le was ,om*iled 5ased on t)ree *rin,i*les2 first, to *rofile t)e known maMor lang+age
families as well as smaller ones and isolatesE +n,lassified lang+ages 6genealogi,al di/ersity8<
se,ond, to *resent a 5road geogra*)i,al ,o/erage 6geogra*)i,al di/ersity8< ty*ologi,al
di/ersity< and fo+rt), a/aila5ility of ade:+ate des,ri*tions 6,f. #rasno+k)o/a 2A&2, B-=8. T)e
additional lang+ages are also ,)osen a,,ording to t)ese *rin,i*les, 5+t wit) a small
s*e,ifi,ation2 t)e a/aila5le des,ri*tions s)o+ld in,l+de satisfa,tory information a5o+t
T!ME. !n ideal so+r,e s)o+ld ad)ere to all of t)e following *rin,i*les2

&. X+ality2 *refera5ly des,ri*ti/e grammars
2. X+antity2 detailed dis,+ssions and *resentation of e;am*les wit) glossing, also
annotated te;t e;am*les
3. (onta,t wit) lang+age s*e,ialist6s8
7. @it)erto +nder- or +ndes,ri5ed lang+ages

T)e so+r,es in t)e sam*le in,l+de a /ariety of t)e ,)ara,teristi,s a5o/e. or e;am*le, t)ere
are se/eral referen,e grammars e;,ellent in 5ot) :+ality and :+antity, e.g. Ma*+,)e
6%meets 2AA=8, Jarawara 6$i;on 2AA78, or N)eengat\ 6$a (r+4 2A&&8, w)i,) are
,om*lemented in some ,ases wit) *ersonal ,omm+ni,ation wit) t)e a+t)ors 6e.g. #wa4a,
MosetVn, TiriyR, Y+rakarV8. T)ere are also a few ,ases in w)i,) a so+r,e in,l+des only
arti,les, 5+t w)ere ,onta,t wit) lang+age s*e,ialists ,o+ld ,lose ga*s of information 6e.g.
Leko, Itonama8. If ,onta,t ,o+ld 5e esta5lis)ed wit) s*e,ialists, t)ey were +s+ally /ery
a**roa,)a5le and )el*f+l wit) *arti,+lar :+estions, 5+t often eno+g) t)e resear,)er ,o+ld
not 5e lo,ated or did not res*ond. 'nfort+nately, alt)o+g) it was e;*e,ted t)at a
,om*re)ensi/e grammar of Hanare wo+ld soon 5e *+5lis)ed, t)is did not )a**en d+ring
t)e ,o+rse of t)is st+dy.
.
It was re*la,ed 5y Gildea 6&FF2, &FF=, 2A&28. ! detailed list of t)e
lang+ages in t)e sam*le and t)e so+r,es ,an 5e fo+nd in ta5le 2.&. T)e following lang+age

.
It was finally *+5lis)ed at t)e end of 2A&2 6Hayne Q Hayne 2A&28.
&. 2.9 Tools

families are re*resented in t)e sam*le 6t)e n+m5er in 5ra,kets refers to t)e n+m5er of
mem5ers in t)e sam*le82

!rawakan 698, !rawan 6&8, !ra+,anian 6&8, !ymaran 6&8, 3ar5a,oan 628, 3oran 628,
(ari5an 638, ()a*a,+ran 6&8, ()i5,)an 628, ()o,oan 6&8, ()onan 628, G+ay,+r+an
628, Ji/aroan 6&8, Ma,ro-GZan 678, Nada)+* 628, Mata,oan 6&8, Mosetenan 6&8,
Nam5ikwaran 628, Hae4an 6&8, Hanoan 638, X+e,)+an 638, Ta,anan 6&8, T+,anoan
628, T+*Ian 6F8, Yanomaman 6&8, and +n,lassified lang+ages or isolates 6&&8.

!ll in all, t)e sam*le re*resents 29 lang+ages families in addition to && +n,lassified
lang+ages t)at *ossi5ly ,onstit+te t)eir own families. !,,ording to t)e most re,ent
,lassifi,ation of %!ILs in @ammarstr]m 62AAF8, t)ere are &&& well-attested lang+age families
6or isolates8 for %! 6w)ose affiliation is s+ffi,iently demonstrated in *+5li,ation8. T)is
s)ows t)at t)is sam*le ,o/ers only a small *art of t)e ling+isti, di/ersity and is t)erefore to
5e regarded as s+,). @owe/er, t)is sam*le does in,l+de mem5ers of @ammarstr]m1s largest
lang+age families2 !rawakan wit) .2 mem5ers, Hanoan 62=8, (ari5an 6328, X+e,)+an 67.8,
T+*Ian 6B.8, and T+,anoan 6298. It is t)erefore more *re,ise to say t)at alt)o+g) t)is sam*le
does not ,o/er t)e ,om*lete genealogi,al di/ersity of %!ILs, it does *resent t)e w)ole range
from t)e largest to t)e smallest families.
$enomination of lang+age families is differentiated from *ro*er lang+ages 5y adding
0-6a8n1, s+,) as in Nam5ikwaran, Nada)+*, or X+e,)+an. T)is is to *re/ent am5ig+ities, for
e;am*le 5etween !rawak, t)e lang+age 6Lokono $ian8, and !rawakan, t)e name of t)e
lang+age family of w)i,) !rawak is a mem5er. !n e;,e*tion is made wit) Nada)+*, w)i,)
)as 5een ,oined 5y E**s 62AA=, F-&A8 to re*la,e t)e tradionally +sed 5+t misleading term
0Mak+1.
To 5e ,onsistent, 0-6a8n1 is +sed as well w)ere t)ere is no danger of am5ig+ity, as in e.g.
X+e,)+an2 CNtO)e +se of t)e denomination CX+e,)+anD, wit) t)e ending 0-5a6n1, )as not 5een
,ommon, mainly 5e,a+se t)ere is no *arti,+larly /ariety of X+e,)+an more entitled to 5e
,alled CX+e,)+aD t)an any of t)e ot)ers. T)e name 7uechuan, ne/ert)eless, is +sef+l for
disting+is)ing referen,e to t)e w)ole family of X+e,)+an /arieties 6lang+ages and diale,ts8
from t)e +se of CX+e,)+aD in referen,e to indi/id+al /arietiesD 6!delaar 2A&2, 7, original
)ig)lig)ting8.
In addition to t)e s*e,ifi, lang+age data as s)own in ta5le 2.&, se/eral st+dies of families
and regions were ,ons+lted. or T+*Ian t)is in,l+des e.g. Rodrig+es 6&FFF8, Rodrig+es Q
(a5ral 62A&28, and Jensen 6&FF=, &FFF8< for (ari5an Gildea 6&FF=, 2A&28 and $er5ys)ire 6&FFF8<
for !rawakan "ise 6&F=.8, $er5ys)ire 6&F=.8, Hayne 6&FF&8, and !ik)en/ald 6&FFF8< for t)e
!ndes !delaar wit) M+ysken 62AA78, and !delaar 62AA=, 2A&28, for t)e G+a*orV-MamorV
(re/els Q >an der >oort 62AA=8< for t)e >a+*Vs !ik)en/ald 6&FFF8 and E**s 62AA98< for t)e
'**er ?ing\ %eki 6&FFF8. T)is is 5+t a s)ort list of a/aila5le so+r,es and t)e reader is
referred to t)e referen,es for more.
2. Terminology, framework, and tools &B

T)e :+estionnaire t)at was de/elo*ed for t)is st+dy 6see 5elow8, was f+lly ,oded for t)e
.3 lang+ages sam*le, 5+t for ,ertain ,ategories lang+ages were added w)en data were
a/aila5le. or e;am*le, t)e dis,+ssion a5o+t Modality in (ari5an in,l+des data from "ai
"ai and Mak+s)i 6se,tion 9.&2.78. T)e list of lang+ages for s*e,ifi, ,ategories is t)erefore
5igger t)an .3, alt)o+g) t)e additional lang+ages are not ,oded in t)e :+estionnaire.
@en,e, t)e *resent sam*le in,l+des .3 %!ILs t)at, 5esides geogra*)i,al, genealogi,al, and
ty*ologial di/ersity were also ,)osen for a/aila5ility and :+ality of so+r,es. It ,o+ld 5e
arg+ed t)at t)e lang+age sam*le is too small to yield signifi,ant res+lts, 5+t t)e n+m5er of
lang+ages ne,essary for a /alid ,ross-ling+isti, st+dy seems to /ary from *erson to *erson.
or e;am*le, !ik)en/ald 62AA7, ;ii8, in )er st+dy of E/identiality in a world-wide sam*le of
9AA lang+ages, goes as far as ,laiming t)at Cfi/e )+ndred is no more t)an one-tent) of all
)+man lang+ages NPO. It t)+s seems most M+di,io+s to follow a :+alitati/e a**roa,) at t)e
*resent time, *ost*oning :+antitati/e analysis +ntil more relia5le data is a/aila5le and ,an
5e assessedD. I agree t)at t)e o*timal lang+age sam*le indeed in,l+des as many lang+ages
as *ossi5le, 5+t I do 5elie/e t)at an a**roa,) wit) less t)an t)e ma;imally *ossi5le n+m5er
*oints at least towards tenden,ies, as for e;am*le done in 3y5ee et al. 6&FF78 wit) a sam*le
of B. lang+ages world-wide.
! word a5o+t t)e ma*s in t)is st+dy is in order. !ll ma*s o,,+rring in t)e following
,)a*ters were ,reated wit) R 6wit) t)e e;,e*tion of ma* 2.&8, an o*en-so+r,e *rogram for
gra*)i,al and statisti,al ,om*+ting.
B
T)ey are +sed solely for ill+strati/e *+r*oses. T)e
lang+ages are re*resented 5y *oints w)ose latit+de and longit+de /al+es were generated
a,,ording to Et)nolog+e 6Lewis 2AAF8 and information in t)e so+r,es. T)e latit+deE
longit+de /al+es are a**ro;imations to t)ose lo,ations. !lt)o+g) in some ,ases a lang+age
is on t)e 5rink of e;tin,tion 5y now 6e.g. Itonama8, it is ne/ert)eless in,l+ded in t)e ma*.
or an o/er/iew see ma*s 2.& and 2.2. Ma* 2.& ill+strates t)e *osition and s*read of
lang+ages in t)e sam*le at t)e *oint of ,onta,t, 5ased on 5ot) ling+isti, and et)no-)istori,
information 6,f. Eriksen 2A&&, &2-&38.
=
or a 5etter orientation, it additionally gi/es t)e
*oliti,al 5orders of today, as well as geogra*)i,al denominations +sed in t)is st+dy 6e.g.
!m4onia, !ndeas, ()a,o, et,.8. Ma* 2.2 is ,om*+ted wit) R and ill+strates t)e ro+g)
*osition of t)e lang+ages in t)e sam*le. !ll t)e ma*s of t)e following ,)a*ters are 5ased on
t)is model.






B
ree download at www.r-*roMe,t.org. My t)anks go to Jos)+a 3ir,)all, %ander Lestrade and t)e R
mailing list for )el* wit) ,reating ma*s.
=
I am gratef+l to Lo/e Eriksen w)o genero+sly *ro/ided me wit) t)is ma*.
&= 2.9 Tools

Ta5le 2.&2 List of lang+ages in t)e sam*le 6lang+ages not in,l+ded in t)e original To( sam*le
in itali,s8
L!NG'!GE L!NG'!GE L!NG'!GE L!NG'!GE !ILI!TION !ILI!TION !ILI!TION !ILI!TION HRIM!RY %O'R(E HRIM!RY %O'R(E HRIM!RY %O'R(E HRIM!RY %O'R(E6 66 6% %% %8 88 8
!*+rinY !rawakan a,+ndes 2AAA
3a+re !rawakan $anielsen 2AA., $anielsen *.,.
Tariana !rawakan !ik)en/ald 2AA3
Yanes)a1 !rawakan $+ff-Tri** &FFB
Haresi !rawakan 3randYo 2A&A, 3randYo 2A&&, 3randYo *.,.
Jarawara !rawan $i;on 2AA7
Ma*+,)e !ra+,anian %meets 2AA=
!ymara !ymaran @ardman 2AA&, (errRn-Halomino Q (ar/aMal (ar/aMal 2AAF
!wa Hit 3ar5a,oan (+rnow &FFB
Tsafiki 3ar5a,oan $i,kinson 2AA2
MiraUa 3oran %eifart 2AA9, %eifart *.,.
@i;karyana (ari5an $er5ys)ire &FBF, &F=9
Hanare (ari5an Gildea &F=F, &FF2, T)omas E. Hayne &FFA, &FF9
TiriyR (ari5an Meira &FFF, Meira *.,.
"ari1 ()a*a,+ran E/erett Q #ern &FFB
()imila ()i5,)an Trillos !maya &FF.
Ika ()i5,)an, !r+ak rank &F=9, rank &FFA, rank *.,.
Em5era ()o,oan Mortensen &FFF, !g+irre Li,)t &FFF
Te)+el,)e ()onan ern^nde4 Garay &FF=
Mo,o/I G+ay,+r+an Grondona &FF=
Hilag^ G+ay,+r+an >idal 2AA&
!g+ar+na Ji/aroan O/erall 2AAB, O/erall *.,.
3ororo Ma,ro-GZan (rowell &FBF, Nonato 2AA=
Rik5aktsa Ma,ro-GZan %il/a 2AA9, 2A&&
#aingang Ma,ro-GZan (a/al,ante &F=B
Tim5ira Ma,ro-GZan !l/es 2AA7
$[w Nada)+* Martins 2AA7
@+* Nada)+* E**s 2AA9, 2AA=
"i,)I Mata,oan Terra4a 2AAF
MosetVn Mosetenan %akel 2AA7, %akel *.,.
MamaindZ Nam5ikwaran E5er)ard 2AAF
%a5anZ Nam5ikwaran !nt+nes de !ra+Mo 2AA7
Nasa Y+we Hae4an J+ng 2AA=
Matses Hanoan le,k 2AA3
%)i*i5o-#oni5o Hanoan >alen4+ela 2AA35
Yamina)+a Hanoan a+st Q Loos 2AA2
@+allaga X+e,)+a X+e,)+an "e5er &FF.
Im5a5+ra X+e,)+a X+e,)+an (ole &F=2, &F=9
8u9co 7uechua X+e,)+an aller 2AA2, 2AA3
(a/ineUa Ta,anan G+illa+me 2AA=, G+illa+me *.,.
(+5eo T+,anoan Morse Q Ma;well &FFF
$esano T+,anoan Miller &FFF
#aritiana T+*Ian E/erett 2AA.
#aro T+*Ian Ga5as Jr. &FFF
Mekens T+*Ian Gal+,io 2AA&, Gal+,io *.,.
%ater:-!a-: T+*Ian %il/a 2A&A
2. Terminology, framework, and tools &F

EmVrillon T+*Ian, G+aranI Rose 2AA3
#amai+r^ T+*Ian, G+aranI %eki 2AAA
(o,ama-(o,amilla T+*Ian, G+aranI >alleMos Yo*^n 2A&A
Ta*iete T+*Ian, G+aranI Gon4^le4 2AA9
*heengat T+*Ian, G+aranI da (r+4 2A&&
Yanam Yanomaman Goodwin GRme4 &FFA
Itonama +n,lassified (re/els 2AA., (re/els *.,.
Leko +n,lassified >an de #erke 2AAF, >an de #erke *.,.
Mo/ima +n,lassified @a+de 2AA.
Y+rakarV +n,lassified >an GiMn 2AA., >an GiMn *.,.< Gi**er 2A&&
#anoZ +n,lassified 3a,elar 2AA7
#wa4a +n,lassified >an der >oort 2AA7, >an der >oort *.,.
Tr+mai +n,lassified G+irardello &FFF
M+ni,)i +n,lassified Gi5son &FF.
H+ina/e +n,lassified GirRn 2AA=
'rarina +n,lassified Olawsky 2AA.
"arao +n,lassified Romero-ig+eroa &FFB



























2A 2.9 Tools

Ma* 2.&2 !**ro;imate *osition of lang+ages in t)e sam*le at *oint of ,onta,t


2. Terminology, framework, and tools 2&

Ma* 2.22 Model ma* of t)e %!ILs sam*le


22 2.9 Tools

2.9.2 T)e :+estionnaire 2.9.2 T)e :+estionnaire 2.9.2 T)e :+estionnaire 2.9.2 T)e :+estionnaire
T)e 5asis for t)is st+dy is a :+estionnaire w)i,) was de/elo*ed a,,ording to t)e str+,t+re
of T!ME ,ategories as well as a,,ording to t)e ,onfig+ration of t)e ,om*lete Tra,es of
(onta,t data5ase. T)e final data5ase will 5e made *+5li, in 2A&3 and all t)e data will 5e
trans*arent. 3e,a+se t)e indi/id+al *ro*erties of t)e feat+res and w)y t)ey were ,)osen
are dis,+ssed in detail in t)e res*e,ti/e se,tions, t)is se,tion ,on,entrates on t)e str+,t+re
of t)e :+estionnaire. It s+ffi,es to say )ere t)at, gi/en t)e tem*oral limitations of t)e
*roMe,t, it was attem*ted to in,l+de a mi;t+re of t)e maMor ,ategories 6e.g. HRE%ENT for
Tense, HERE(TI>E for !s*e,t, RE!LI% for Modality, and IR%T@!N$ for E/identiality8 and t)ose
w)i,) may 5e ,onsidered more marginal, 5+t not less interesting 6e.g. $E%I$ER!TI>E,
R'%TR!TI>E, *olite (OMM!N$8.
T)ere are two ways to a**roa,) T!ME systems2 5ottom-+* or to*-down. T)e 5ottom-+*
a**roa,) looks at t)e indi/id+al markers and t)eir distri5+tion. It starts wit) t)e o5Me,t of
interest and e;amines its /al+es. T)is is t)e ideal ,ase if one attem*ts a des,ri*ti/e work,
5+t +nfeasi5le for a :+estionnaire. T)e /ery nat+re of a :+estionnaire is esta5lis)ing ,lear
5o+ndaries 5etween meanings, to demar,ate meaning ! from 3. T)e /ery nat+re of T!ME,
on t)e ot)er )and, is t)at ! and 3 6and ( and $ and E and P8 are related to ea,) ot)er and
,annot easily 5e se*arated. In order to esta5lis) some kind of ,ommon gro+nd as a 5asis for
,om*arison, t)e to*-down a**roa,) is ado*ted )ere2 a set of definitions f+n,tions as a
tem*late and is a**lied to t)e data. T)is )as t)e disad/antage of losing information a5o+t
markers, 5+t I )a/e ,ommented +*on t)is w)en ne,essary in 5ot) t)e st+dy and t)e
:+estionnaire.
T)e :+estionnaire )as fo+r to*i, se,tions, one ea,) for T!ME, amo+nting to a total of 39
:+estions. Ea,) :+estion asks for a s*e,ifi, feat+re and )as its own n+m5er w)i,) ,odes t)e
se,tion 6& for Tense, 2 for MoodEModality, 3 for !s*e,t, and 7 for E/identiality8 and t)e
de*enden,y to ot)er :+estions, e.g. :+estion &.2.& ,odes for Tense 6&8, it is de*endent of t)e
se,ond :+estion 628, and it is t)e first to ,ome in line 6&8. T)e order of t)e se,tions and
:+estions is not im*ortant< ea,) inde*endent :+estion ,an 5e answered wit)o+t ,ons+lting
ot)er :+estions. ! list of all :+estions is gi/en 5elow2

Tense
&.& Is *resent tense marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
&.2 Is f+t+re tense marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
&.2.& In terms of remoteness, )ow many f+t+re tenses are marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
&.3 Is *ast tense marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
&.3.& In terms of remoteness, )ow many *ast tenses are marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_

Modality
2.& Is realis mood marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.2 Is irrealis mood marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2. Terminology, framework, and tools 23

2.3 Is im*erati/e mood marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally wit) one marker for more t)an
one *erson and n+m5er_
2.7 Is im*erati/e for &st *erson only marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.9 Is im*erati/e for 2nd *erson only marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.. Is im*erati/e for 3rd *erson only marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.B Is *ro)i5iti/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.= Is a *oliteE mildE weak im*erati/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.F Is intentional marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.&A Is t)ere a *otential modal marker e;*ressing a *otential reality 65+t not ne,essarily
e;,l+ding *ast referen,e8_
2.&& Is ,ertainty marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.&2 Is d+5itati/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.&3 Is fr+strati/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.&7 Is *+r*osi/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
2.&9 Is desiderati/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_

!s*e,t
3.& Is *erfe,ti/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.2 Is im*erfe,ti/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.3 Is anterior marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.7 Is a )a5it+al a,tion marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.9 Is a ,ontin+ati/e a,tion marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.. Is an iterati/e a,tion marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_ 6single andEor m+lti*le
re*etition8_
3.B Is a ,om*leti/e a,tion marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
3.= Is an in,om*leti/e a,tion marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_

E/identiality
7.& Is first)and information marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
7.2 Is non-first)and information marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
7.3 Is se,ond)and information marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally 6may in,l+de t)ird-)and
information8_
7.7 Is :+otati/e marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
7.9 Is /is+al e/identiality marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
7.. Is inferred e/identiality marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_
7.B Is ass+med e/identiality marked mor*)o-synta,ti,ally_

T)e data5ase only s)ows 5inary /al+es, i.e. eit)er a lang+age e;)i5its a mor*)o-
synta,ti,ally marked feat+re, or not. @owe/er, for t)is *arti,+lar st+dy, m+lti*le /al+es are
gi/en. Ea,) :+estion )as an answer key w)i,) *ro/ides *ossi5le /al+es. T)ese /al+es differ
marginally from :+estion to :+estion, 5+t always )a/e a *ositi/e, a negati/e 60No18, and an
27 2.9 Tools

+nknown 60_18 /al+e. Hositi/e /al+es in,l+de t)e following o*tions2 affi;, ,liti,, *arti,le,
a+;iliary, stem ,)angeE s+**letion, im*erati/e marker and additional marker 6:+estion 2.=
only8, re*etition 6of *arts8 of t)e /er5 6!s*e,t :+estions only8, and n+m5ers in t)e ,ase of
:+estions &.2.& and &.3.& 6remoteness degrees8. ! :+estion re,ei/es a *ositi/e entry w)en
t)ere is mor*)o-synta,ti, marking of t)at feat+re, negati/e w)en t)ere is none, a,,ording
to so+r,e. T)e :+estionnaire ,odes for markers of t)e /al+e ty*es affi;es, ,liti,s, *arti,les,
a+;iliaries, and stem ,)ange in main, non-negati/e, non-interrogati/e ,la+ses. T)e *ossi5le
/al+es for ea,) answer differ, e.g. ITER!TI>E )as t)e additional /al+e of re*etition of 6*arts
of8 t)e /er5, and t)e Tense remoteness :+estion /al+es are n+m5ers 5eginning at 4ero 6i.e.
no remoteness degrees8. or ea,) :+estion it is also *ossi5le to answer wit) 0_1 in ,ases
w)ere t)e so+r,es do not mention t)at s*e,ifi, feat+re. (ertain Modalities are e;,e*tions to
t)e main ,la+se r+le, e.g. IRRE!LI% markers may a**ear in s+5ordinate ,la+ses, as do
HOTENTI!L markers. T)e HRO@I3ITI>E of ,o+rse o,,+rs in negati/e ,la+ses. or a more detailed
dis,+ssion look at t)e res*e,ti/e definition se,tions. !ll :+estions wit) a *ositi/e entry
s*e,ify t)e information so+r,e 6a+t)or, date and *age n+m5er8, and negati/e entries also
get a so+r,e entry w)en t)e a5sen,e of t)at feat+re is s*e,ifi,ally stated.
$+e to t)e final str+,t+re of t)e data5ase, t)e :+estionnaire allows for only one answer
*er :+estion, 5+t t)ere are ,ases of m+lti*le *ossi5le answers. or e;am*le, a lang+age t)at
e;*resses H!%T Tense 5y two markers, e.g. one s+ffi; and one *arti,le, ,annot )a/e 5ot)
answers in t)e /al+e ,ol+mn. T)e marker t)at is most grammati,ali4ed is entered, wit) t)e
*referen,e going from affi; 6most grammati,ali4ed8 o/er ,liti, to *arti,le and a+;iliary. I
)a/e ke*t tra,k of alternati/e ways of marking in t)e :+estionnaire in t)e ,omment se,tion.
One feat+re marked 5y two mor*)emes s)o+ld 5e rare, )owe/er. Often one marker )as a
slig)tly different meaning, so for t)e :+estionnaire one s)o+ld ,aref+lly ,onsider t)e
en/ironments 5ot) markers o,,+r in. ")at seems like two H!%T markers may 5e one H!%T
marker and one HERE(TI>E marker. Or one of 5ot) markers is t)e general one and t)e ot)er
only added to ,on/ey remoteness degrees. Or t)ey are in ,om*lementary distri5+tion, one
in asserti/e ,la+ses, and one in interrogati/e ,la+ses. T)e ,)oi,e made is in fa/or of degree
of grammati,ali4ation, dominan,e 6in terms of fre:+en,y or *rod+,ti/ity8, and o,,+rren,e
in asserti/e, *ositi/e main ,la+ses 6some Modal ,ategories 5eing e;,e*tions8.
T)e following fo+r ,)a*ters ,onstit+te t)e main 5ody of t)e st+dy. T)ey first *resent
t)e definitions of t)e T!ME ,ategories +sed in t)is st+dy and t)en *resent t)e res+lts, wit)
a fo,+s on geogra*)i,al and genealogi,al distri5+tions. T)ey are arranged as follows2 Tense
6,)a*ter 38, !s*e,t 6,)a*ter 78, Modality 6,)a*ter 98, and E/identiality 6,)a*ter .8. T)ey are
ordered to refle,t t)e order in t)e :+estionnaire and ,an 5e read se*arately wit)o+t )a/ing
to ,ons+lt t)e ot)ers, wit) t)e e;,e*tion of t)e sta5ility se,tions. %e,tion 3.&A introd+,es
t)e ,on,e*t of tem*oral sta5ility ne,essary to +nderstand t)e sta5ility se,tions in t)e ot)er
,)a*ters. In order to f+lly +nderstand t)e *oints of o/erla* I re,ommend reading all
,)a*ters in t)e order t)ey are gi/en.


3. Tense 25

3. TENS 3. TENS 3. TENS 3. TENSE EE E
3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1 INTRODUCTION
Klein (2009, 4041) clais !"a! lan#$a#es can e%&'ess !ie in si% (i))e'en! *a+s, !"'-$#"
Tense, .s&ec!, ./!i-nsa'!, !e&-'al a(0e'1ials, !e&-'al &a'!icles, an( (isc-$'se &'inci&les.
O) !"ese, !"e )-c$s -) !"is c"a&!e' is -n Tense, 23!4ense is a #'aa!ical ca!e#-'+ -) !"e 0e'1
in i!s !'a(i!i-nal $n(e's!an(in#, i! se'0es !- l-ca!e !"e si!$a!i-n in 'ela!i-n !- !"e 2n-*5 -)
!"e s&eec" ac!5 (i1i(. 40). .s&ec! *ill 1e (eal! *i!" in !"e )-ll-*in# c"a&!e', 1$! 1eca$se
Tense an( .s&ec! a'e "i#"l+ 'ela!e(, i! *ill 1e en!i-ne( *"e'e 'ele0an! "e'e. ./!i-nsa'!,
!e&-'al a(0e'1s, an( (isc-$'se &'inci&les a'e n-! c-(e( in !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e an(
!"e'e)-'e n-! -' -nl+ &a'!l+ (isc$sse( "e'e, 1$! in(ee( !"e'e *-$l( 1e en-$#" a!e'ial !-
all-* )-' se0e'al (isse'!a!i-ns -n eac" -) !"ese. Since &a'!icles (- )all $n(e' + (e)ini!i-n
-) -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic a'/in# (see c"a&!e' 2), !"e+ a'e incl$(e( in !"is s!$(+.
I) a lan#$a#e "as -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# (-1li#a!-'+ -' n-!) i! is Tense(, an( i)
i! (-es n-! i! is Tenseless (c). Si!" 2005, S!assen 1998, C-'ie 1995 e!c. )-' siila'
classi)ica!i-ns). T"is (-es n-! en!ail !"a! a lan#$a#e "as n- eans -) e%&'essin# !ie 1$!
si&l+ !"a! i! lac/s s$c" -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic a'/in#. Tense( lan#$a#es in !"is sa&le can 1e
(i))e'en!ia!e( acc-'(in# !- *"ic" (is!inc!i-ns !"e+ a/e,

1. T*-7*a+ (is!inc!i-ns (s$c" as :UTURE; NON:UTURE an( <.ST; NON<.ST),
2. T"'ee7*a+ (is!inc!i-ns *i!" !"e )$ll se! -) !"'ee -0e'!l+ a'/e( a1s-l$!e Tenses,
3. :UTURE; <.ST a'/in#.

T"e la!!e' is n-! a !+&e -) !*-7*a+ (is!inc!i-ns= :UTURE; NON:UTURE an( <.ST; NON<.ST incl$(e
!"e &-ssi1ili!+ !"a! <RESENT is a'/e( (in a c$$la!i0e -'&"ee *i!" ei!"e' :UTURE -'
<.ST), *"e'eas as :UTURE; <.ST a'/in# lan#$a#es ne0e' -0e'!l+ a'/ <RESENT. I) !"e+ *-$l(,
!"e'e *-$l( 1e a !"'ee7*a+ (is!inc!i-n. T"e sec!i-n a1-$! Tenseless lan#$a#es (3.3)
incl$(es a (isc$ssi-n -) !"-se lan#$a#es !"a! (- n-! s"-* an+ -0e'! a'/in# c"a'ac!e'is!ic
-) !"'ee #'-$&s a1-0e. Tense( lan#$a#es can als- 1e #'-$&e( acc-'(in# !- "-* an+
'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns !"e+ a/e= !"is is (isc$sse( in sec!i-n 3.>.
T"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-ns (isc$ss !"ese s+s!es in (e!ail, 1$! 1e)-'e a *-'( a1-$! !"e $se
-) !"e !e' 2s+s!e5 is necessa'+. . s+s!e (en-!es a #ene'al sean!ic c-nce&! an( (-es
n-! 'e)e' !- a s&eci)ic s+n!ac!ic s!'$c!$'e, s$c" as -'(e' -) a))i%es. I) a lan#$a#e "as -ne
0e'1al sl-! )-' Tense an( an-!"e' )-' ?-(ali!+, an( !"e :UTURE a'/e' is in !"e ?-(al sl-!, i!
is ne0e'!"eless !'ea!e( as Tense as l-n# as !"is is !"e &'ia'+ eanin# -) !"e eleen! ()-'
!"e &'-1lea!ic 'ela!i-ns"i& -) :UTURE *i!" ?-(ali!+ see 1el-* sec!i-n 3.8).
T"is c"a&!e' s!a'!s *i!" !"e *-'/in# (e)ini!i-ns -) Tense an( 'e-!eness (e#'ees
(sec!i-ns 3.2.1 an( 3.2.2). De!aile( anal+ses -) Tenseless lan#$a#es (3.3), !"e (i))e'en! Tense
s+s!es -cc$''in# in !"e sa&le (3.4), an( !"e lan#$a#es *"ic" a'/ !"e a%ial n$1e'
-) Tenses (3.5) )-ll-*. Sec!i-n 3.> )-c$ses -n 'e-!eness (e#'ees. Sec!i-ns 3.8 !- 3.9 &'esen!
)i's! !"e !+&-l-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le (3.8) an( !"en )-c$s -n !"e #e-#'a&"ical (3.9)
2> 3.2 De)ini!i-ns

an( #eneal-#ical (3.9) (is!'i1$!i-n -) Tense a'/in#. T"e !+&-l-#ical s!a1ili!+ -) Tense is
(isc$sse( in sec!i-n 3.10, an( a s$a'+ is #i0en in 3.11.

3.2 DE:INITIONS 3.2 DE:INITIONS 3.2 DE:INITIONS 3.2 DE:INITIONS
3.2.1 3.2.1 3.2.1 3.2.1 <RESENT <RESENT <RESENT <RESENT, ,, , <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST, an( , an( , an( , an( :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE Tense Tense Tense Tense
T"e a&&'-ac" !- Tense -$!line( "e'e 'elies -n !"e #'-$n(1'ea/in# s!$(+ -) @ans
Reic"en1ac" in !"e 1e#innin# -) !"e 20
!"
cen!$'+. Reic"en1ac" a&&'-ac"e( !"e n-!i-n -)
Tense )'- a &"il-s-&"ical, e&i'ical, an( l-#ical &-in! -) 0ie* an( &'esen!e( an accessi1le
as *ell as l-#ical !"e-'+ !"a! is c-ns$l!e( 1+ !+&-l-#ical lin#$is!s an( sc"-la's )'- -!"e'
(isci&lines $n!il !-(a+ (see e.#. .nne'ie/e A-lan( (200>, 52)).) )-' an in!'-($c!i-n !- Tense). T"e
a&&'-ac"es !- !ie an( Tense a'e ani)-l( an( n-! 'es!'ic!e( !- !"e )iel( -) lin#$is!ics. In
!"e &'esen! s$'0e+, I *ill )-ll-* a lin#$is!ic a&&'-ac" 1$! i! s"-$l( 1e 1-'ne in in( !"a!
!ie in lin#$is!ics is "a'(l+ se&a'a1le )'- !ie in -!"e' (isci&lines *"e'eas Tense is an(
!"a! Tense is a 0e'+ s&ecialiBe( an( a1s!'ac! c-nce&! *"ic" "el&s $s (ealin# *i!" !"e
#'aa!ical e%&'essi-n -) !ie in lan#$a#es 1$! (-es n-! 'e&'esen! an $l!ia!e -'
c-&le!e s-l$!i-n. T"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-ns in!'-($ce !"e 1asic &'inci&les nee(e( !-
lin#$is!icall+ (e)ine Tense= i! )i's! -$!lines <RESENT, <.ST, an( :UTURE an( !"en ill$s!'a!es
'e-!eness (e#'ees -) <.ST an( :UTURE (3.2.2).
Reic"en1ac" (1949) (isc$sses !"e e%is!ence -) !"e (en-ina!i-ns 2&-in! -) s&eec"5 (S),
i.e. !"e -en! an $!!e'ance is s&-/en, an( !"e 2&-in! -) e0en!5 (E), i.e. !"e -en! !"e
ac!i-n -) !"e $!!e'ance !a/es &lace. T-#e!"e' !"e+ s"-* a 'ela!i-ns"i& in !ie, !"e e0en!
!--/ &lace 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec" (<.ST), !a/es &lace si$l!ane-$sl+ (<RESENT), -' !a/es
&lace a)!e' i! (:UTURE), in Reic"en1ac"Cs !e's 1ein# an!e'i-', si&le, -' &-s!e'i-'
(Reic"en1ac" 1949, 298). C-nsi(e' !"e )-ll-*in# e%a&les !a/en )'- K*aBa,

(3.1) K*aBa ($nclassi)ie(= Dan (e' D--'! 2004, 102, 390, 400)
(a) h 'kui-da-ki
*a!e' ('in/71SE7DECF
GI a ('in/in#;('an/ *a!e'.C
(1) kukui'hy-da-da-ky-hy-ki
ill71SE71SE7<ST7N?FH7DECF
GI *as ill.C
(c) ja-'n-da-ki
ea!7:UT71SE7DECF
GIC #-in# !- ea!.C

K*aBa (-es n-! "a0e a -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic <RESENT a'/e' an( !"e <.ST a'/e' is n-!
-1li#a!-'+, !"e'e)-'e (3.1a) "as 1-!" <RESENT an( <.ST as &-ssi1le 'ea(in# (i#n-'e !"e
<ROERESSIDE "e'e). T"e )i's! e%a&le s"-*s a !+&ical <RESENT Tense, !"e sec-n( a <.ST Tense
an( !"e !"i'( a :UTURE Tense. In all !"ese e%a&les !"e &-in!s -) e0en! 'ela!e in a s&ecial
*a+ !- !"e &-in!s -) s&eec". . Tense al*a+s c-nsis!s -) !"e 'ela!i-ns"i&s 1e!*een !"ese
3. Tense 28

&-in!s, incl$(in# !"e &-ssi1ili!+ !"a! !"e+ -0e'la&. @-*e0e', !"is e%&lana!i-n )ails !-
&'-0i(e )-' Tenses ancilla'+ !- !"e &as!7&'esen!7)$!$'e c-n!in$$,

(3.2) I1a1$'a I$ec"$a (I$ec"$an= C-le 1992, 143)
Marya Agatu-pi kawsa-shka-ta kri-rka-ni
?a'Ja .#a!-7in li0e7<ST.NO?7.CC 1elie0e7<ST71
GI 1elie0e( !"a! ?a'Ja "a( li0e( in .#a!-.C

In (3.2), !"e'e a'e !*- (i))e'en! e0en!s in 'ela!i-n !- !"e s&eec" !ie, !"e 1elie0in# -) !"e
s&ea/e' an( !"e li0in# -) ?a'+ in .#a!-, an(, -s! i&-'!an!l+, !"e+ "a0e (i))e'en! <.ST
Tenses in 'ela!i-n !- !"e &-in! -) s&eec". T"e e%a&le e%&'esses !"a! !"e s&ea/e' 1elie0e(
a! a ce'!ain &-in! in !ie in !"e &as! !"a! a &e's-n calle( ?a'+ "a( li0e( in .#a!- a! a !ie
!"a! is e0en )$'!"e' 'e-0e( )'- !"e s&eec" -en!. S- )i's!l+, !"e'e sees !- e%is! -'e
!"an -ne <.ST, an( sec-n(l+, !"e )ac! !"a! !"e Tense -) !"e s$1-'(ina!e cla$se sees !- 1e in
s-e /in( -) 'ela!i-ns"i& *i!" !"e Tense -) !"e ain 0e'1 'a!"e' !"an *i!" !"e s&eec" !ie
s$##es!s a s"-'!c-in# -) !"e !*-7(iensi-nal a&&'-ac". Reic"en1ac" &'-&-ses !"a! a
!"i'( &-in! in !ie is nee(e( !- )$ll+ acc-$n! )-' !"e *"-le 'an#e -) Tenses, !"e &-in! -)
'e)e'ence (R). .&&lie( !- (3.2) !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence is !"e !ie -) 1elie0in# *"ic" !--/
&lace 1e)-'e !"e s&eec" !ie, a si&le <.ST, an( !"e &-in! -) e0en! !--/ &lace e0en 1e)-'e
!"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence, !"$s #ene'a!in# a <.ST in !"e <.ST. .n+ Tense a'/e' al*a+s 'e)e's !-
!"e 'ela!i-ns"i&s 1e!*een !"ese !"'ee &-in!s, incl$(in# !"e &-ssi1ili!+ !"a! !*- -) !"-se
&-in!s -0e'la&. In )ac!, !"e c-n#'$ence -) !*- &-in!s -)!en a/es !"e l--/ li/e -ne,
lea(in# !- !"e -$!(a!e( 1elie) !"a! !"e Tense c-n!in$$ is !*-7(iensi-nal. T"e )-ll-*in#
e%a&les a'e !a/en )'- Reic"en1ac" !- ill$s!'a!e !"is, In !"e sen!ence GI sa* K-"nC !"e
&-in!s -) 'e)e'ence an( e0en! a'e !"e sae, an( !"e+ a'e 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec",
#ene'a!in# si&le <.ST. In GI "a( seen K-"nC !"e &-in! -) e0en! is s!ill 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -)
s&eec", !"e'e)-'e <.ST, 1$! in 1e!*een !"e n-* !"e'e is an-!"e' e0en!, !"e &-in! -)
'e)e'ence. T"e s&ea/e' is &'-1a1l+ !al/in# a1-$! an e0en!, i.e. !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence, *"ic"
"a&&ene( 1e)-'e !"e -en! -) s&eec", an( in 'ela!i-n !- !"a! e0en! "e (i( see K-"n,
#ene'a!in# a <.ST in !"e <.ST. T"$s !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence (i))e's )'- !"e &-in! -) e0en!. In
GI *ill "a0e seen K-"nC !"e s&eec" -en! is 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence, an( !"e e0en! is
in 'ela!i-n !- R l-ca!e( in !"e &as!, )'- !"e &-in! -) S is s!ill in !"e )$!$'e, #ene'a!in# a <.ST
in !"e :UTURE. In )ac!, all !"'ee &-in!s a+ -0e'la&, an( !"en !"e+ in(ica!e !"e <RESENT, as in
GI see K-"nC. T"e &-in! -) s&eec", !"e 'e)e'ence &-in!, an( !"e &-in! -) e0en! -0e'la&.
T"e'e)-'e *e l-#icall+ (eal *i!" a !"'ee7(iensi-nal Tense s+s!e, *"e'e !"e 'ela!i-ns"i&s
-) &-in! -) s&eec" !- &-in! -) e0en!, -) &-in! -) e0en! !- &-in! -) 'e)e'ence, an( -) &-in! -)
'e)e'ence !- &-in! -) s&eec" all "a0e !- 1e !a/en in!- acc-$n! (see )i#$'e 3.1).
C-'ie (1995, 9) (e)ines Tense as 2#'aa!icaliBe( e%&'essi-n -) l-ca!i-n in !ie5. In
"is -&ini-n, siila'l+ !- Reic"en1ac", Tense 'ela!es !"e !ie -) !"e si!$a!i-n *i!" !"e !ie
-) !"e $!!e'ance, !"e !e' situation 'e)e''in# !- 2&'-cesses, e0en!s, s!a!es e!c.5 (i1i(. 5). Tie
can 1e 'e&'esen!e( as a s!'ai#"! line, )'- le)! !- 'i#"!, *i!" an a'1i!'a'+ &-in! 'e&'esen!in#
29 3.2 De)ini!i-ns

!"e &'esen!, an( &as! an( )$!$'e 1ein# le)! -' 'i#"! 'es&ec!i0el+. Tense n-* is !"e 'ela!i-n
1e!*een an+ !*- &-in!s al-n# !"is !ie line. (T"e'e a'e -10i-$s )la*s *i!" !"e
'e&'esen!a!i-n -) !ie in a s!'ai#"! line, as (isc$sse( in C-'ie (i1i(.), 1$! i! *ill 1e $se(
"e'e ne0e'!"eless )-' !"e sa/e -) 0is$al (e-ns!'a!i-n.) C-'ie $ses a 'e)e'ence &-in!
*"ic" "e calls (eic!ic cen!e'. @is a'#$en! is !"a! Tense is a (eic!ic ca!e#-'+, i.e. Tense
nee(s a cen!'al &-in! a'-$n( *"ic" !"e !e&-'al 'ela!i-ns 'e0-l0e. L"en !"e (eic!ic cen!e'
)alls in!- !"e &'esen! -en! an( !"is is n-! s&eci)icall+ e%&'esse(, i! #ene'a!es an a1s-l$!e
Tense. L"en !"e 'e)e'ence &-in! is n-! s&eci)icall+ lii!e( !- !"e &'esen! !ie, i.e. a+
"a0e &'esen! as -ne &-ssi1ili!+ ((e&en(in# -n c-n!e%!, in!e'&'e!a!i-n, e!c.), i! #ene'a!es
'ela!i0e Tense. I! is i&-'!an! !- 'ealiBe !"a! !"e 'e)e'ence &-in! "as !- 1e s&eci)icall+ s!a!e(
in 'ela!i0e Tense an( a+ 1e -n an+ l-ca!i-n -n !"e !ie line, incl$(in# !"e &'esen!
-en!, *"e'eas a1s-l$!e Tense "as an -0e'la& -) &'esen! -en! an( 'e)e'ence &-in!
*i!"-$! s&eci)icall+ a'/in# i!. T"e'e)-'e !"e a1s-l$!e;'ela!i0e Tense (is!inc!i-n is n-! -ne
-) "a0in# !"e 'e)e'ence &-in! c-inci(in# *i!" !"e &'esen! -' n-!, 1$! 'a!"e' *"e!"e' !"is is
e%&lici!l+ s!a!e( (i1i(. 59). T"e <.ST;<RESENT;:UTURE (is!inc!i-n !"e'e)-'e is 1asic a1s-l$!e
Tense as !"e 'e)e'ence &-in! is in"e'en!l+ &'esen!. C-'ie (i))e's )'- Reic"en1ac" in !"a!
)-' a si&le <.ST Tense Reic"en1ac" &$!s !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence a! !"e &-in! -) e0en!, 'a!"e'
!"an a! !"e &-in! -) s&eec". :-' C-'ie, an a1s-l$!e Tense al*a+s "as !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence
an( &-in! -) s&eec" c-inci(in#.
O!"e' 'esea'c"e's als- a/e a (is!inc!i-n 1e!*een a1s-l$!e an( 'ela!i0e Tense, 1$!
(e)ine i! sli#"!l+ (i))e'en!l+. :-' e%a&le, C"$n# M Ti1e'la/e (1995, 203) !a/e an -0e'la&
-) s&eec" -en! an( Tense l-c$s as a1s-l$!e, an( an+ -!"e' Tense *"e'e !"e Tense l-c$s
(-es n-! -0e'la& *i!" !"e s&eec" -en! is 'ela!i0e, 2Tense s+s!es (-' s$1s+s!es) in
*"ic" !"e s&eec" -en! se'0es as !"e !ense l-c$s a'e !'a(i!i-nall+ calle( a1s-l$!e !ense=
s+s!es (-' s$1s+s!es) in *"ic" s-e -!"e' &-in! is !"e !ense l-c$s a'e calle( 'ela!i0e
!ense5. A"a! (1999, 14) (-es !"e sae, la1elin# a1s-l$!e (eic!ic an( 'ela!i0e n-n7(eic!ic
Tense, an( (eic!ic Tenses "a0in# !"e $!!e'ance !ie as 'e)e'ence &-in! an( n-n7(eic!ic
"a0in# s-e -!"e' !ie as 'e)e'ence &-in!. A"a! seein#l+ (isa#'ees "e'e *i!" C-'ie *"-
a'#$es !"a! Tense is al*a+s (eic!ic, i.e. 2'ela!in# en!i!ies !- a 'e)e'ence &-in!5 (i1i(.),
incl$(in# 'ela!i0e Tenses. A"a!, "-*e0e', (e)ines (eic!ic as (en-!in# 2an e0en! *"ic" is
c-nnec!e( *i!" !"e s&eec" ac!5 (i1i(.), s- an+ e0en! !"a! "as a (i))e'en! 'e)e'ence &-in!
!"an !"e s&eec" -en! is n-n7(eic!ic in "is !e'in-l-#+.
Ei0Nn (2001, 29>) als- e&l-+s !"e !"'ee7&-in!s7c-nce&!, 1$! in!'-($ces an-!"e' !e',
!"e 2anc"-'in#5 -) !ie. T"e e0en! is anc"-'e(, i.e. )i%e(, -n a ce'!ain &-in! in !ie 1+ !"e
'e)e'ence &-in!, an( *"en !"a! -0e'la&s *i!" !"e s&eec" -en!, i! is a1s-l$!e Tense. On
!"e -!"e' "an(, 'ela!i0e Tense is *"en !"e 'e)e'ence &-in! is anc"-'e( in !"e &as! -) )$!$'e
!- !"e !ie -) s&eec". .s *e can see, C-'ie, Ei0Nn, an( A"a! a#'ee *i!" Reic"en1ac" !"a!
!"'ee &-in!s in !ie a'e necessa'+ )-' a c-&'e"ensi0e !"e-'+ -) Tense, an( !"is c-nce&! is
*i(el+ a#'ee( $&-n 1+ -!"e' sc"-la's as *ell. T"e K*aBa e%a&les (3.1a) 7 (3.1.c) a1-0e a'e
a1s-l$!e Tenses, an( (3.2) is 'ela!i0e Tense. T"e a1s-l$!e Tenses a'e )i%e( -n !"e !ie line.
T"e 'ela!i0e Tenses a'e n-! )i%e( as !"ei' anc"-' !ie can 1e (i))e'en! )-' eac" $!!e'ance.
3. Tense 29

A-!" can "a0e !"e <RESENT as !"e anc"-' !ie, 1$! as C-'ie (1995, 59) &-in!s -$!, 2!"e
(i))e'ence 1e!*een a1s-l$!e an( 'ela!i0e !ense is n-! !"a! 1e!*een !"e &'esen! -en!
0e's$s s-e -!"e' &-in! in !ie as 'e)e'ence &-in!, 1$! 'a!"e' 1e!*een a )-' *"-se
eanin# s&eci)ies !"e &'esen! -en! as 'e)e'ence &-in! an( a )-' *"-se eanin# (-es
n-! s&eci)+ !"a! !"e &'esen! -en! $s! 1e i!s 'e)e'ence &-in!. Rela!i0e !enses !"$s "a0e
!"e &'esen! -en! as -ne -) !"ei' &-ssi1le 'e)e'ence &-in!s5. Aeca$se !"e &'esen! s!$(+
-nl+ (eals *i!" a1s-l$!e Tense i! is n-! necessa'+ !- )$'!"e' (*ell -n 'ela!i0e Tense "e'e.
T"e (i))e'en! !e'in-l-#+ e&l-+e( 1+ (i))e'en! sc"-la's a((s !- a #ene'al c-n)$si-n
1$! e%&'esses !"e sae c-'e eleen!s. T"e -nl+ aO-' (i))e'ence is !"e -ne -) *"e!"e'
'ela!i0e !enses a+ -' $s! n-! "a0e !"e &'esen! as 'e)e'ence &-in!, an( !"a! is n-!
i&-'!an! "e'e as !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e -nl+ c-0e's a1s-l$!e Tense. I a#'ee *i!" C-'ie !"a!
Tense is a (eic!ic ca!e#-'+, as an+ Tense, *"e!"e' a1s-l$!e -' 'ela!i0e, is a 'e&'esen!a!i-n -)
!"e 'ela!i-ns"i& 1e!*een !"'ee &-in!s in !ie !"a! 'e0-l0e a'-$n( a cen!e'. T"is can 1e
s"-*n in !"e )-ll-*in# )i#$'e,

:i#$'e 3.1, Tense !'ian#le


Aeca$se !"is s!$(+ is c-nce'ne( *i!" a1s-l$!e Tenses, an( 1eca$se a1s-l$!e Tenses al*a+s
"a0e R an( S c-inci(in#, *e can i#n-'e !"e &-in! -) 'e)e'ence. S$1se6$en!l+, an+
'ela!i-ns"i& 1e!*een !"e &-in!s -) e0en! an( s&eec" c"a'ac!e'iBes an a1s-l$!e Tense. T"e
)-ll-*in# )i#$'e #i0es an -0e'0ie* -) !"ese 'ela!i-ns"i&s,

:i#$'e 3.2, .1s-l$!e Tense ill$s!'a!e( (1ase( -n Reic"en1ac" 1949 an( C-'ie 1995)


T"e Tense sec!i-n -) !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e is (esi#ne( !- #i0e in)-'a!i-n a1-$! a1s-l$!e Tense
a'/in#, 1$! n-! 'ela!i0e. S-e!ies, *"en -ne a'/e' can a'/ 1-!" a1s-l$!e an(
'ela!i0e Tense, !"en 'ela!i0e Tense is a$!-a!icall+ c-(e( as *ell. S$c" a a'/e' is )-'
30 3.2 De)ini!i-ns

e%a&le !"e s$))i% 7shta *"ic" a'/s :UTURE in P$'a/a'Q in a1s-l$!e as *ell as 'ela!i0e
Tense,

(3.3) P$'a/a'Q ($nclassi)ie(= Dan EiOn 200>, 191, 192)
(a) tishil mi-la-bobo-shta shta shta shta-tu :UTURE
n-* 2SE7.::.OAK7"i!;/ill7:UT71<F.SAK
GN-* *e a'e #-in# !- /ill "i -n +-$RC
(1) a-ushp-=w=ti ma-che-shta shta shta shta- :UTURE in !"e <.ST
INCF71a!"e73S<FSDSAK 3<F7ea!7:UT73
GL"en !"e+ *e'e 1a!"in#, "e *as #-in# !- ea! !"e.C

T"e !"'ee7&-in!s7in7!ie (e)ini!i-n is !"e -s! 1asic a&&'-ac" !- Tense as &-ssi1le an( i!
(eli1e'a!el+ (-es n-! a(('ess !"e &'-1les !"a! a'ise )'- !"e #'e+ B-ne 1e!*een Tense
an( .s&ec!, ?-(ali!+, an( E0i(en!iali!+. Ne0e'!"eless, !"ese &'-1les a'ise *"en c-(in#
!"e lan#$a#es. N-ne -) !"e Tenses is *i!"-$! ca!c"es -n !- *"ic" .s&ec!$al, ?-(al, -'
E0i(en!ial eanin#s a+ "--/, a/in# i! (i))ic$l! !- (eci(e *"ic" ca!e#-'+ !"e a'/e'
'eall+ 1el-n#s !-. In !"-se cases, -ne $s! #- 1ac/ !- !"e (-inance &'inci&le en!i-ne( in
c"a&!e' 2. :-' e%a&le, . a'/e' a+ l--/ !- 1e a &'-!-!+&ical :UTURE, (en-!in# e0en!s !"a!
!a/e &lace a)!e' !"e -en! -) $!!e'ance. A$! a! a sec-n( #lance, -ne (isc-0e's !"a! i! -nl+
a&&lies !- !"-se e0en!s in !"e )$!$'e !"a! a'e &lanne( -' in!en(e(. T"a! a/es i! a -(al
a'/e' -) INTENTION *i!" :UTURE as a sec-n(a'+ (in"e'en!) eanin#. .n-!"e' a'/e' a+
l--/ li/e a nice an( nea! <.ST a'/e' -nl+ !- 'e0eal !"a! i! is ac!$all+ c-(in# e0en!s !"a!
"a&&ene( in !"e &as! 1$! s!ill "a0e &'esen! 'ele0ance, e.#. 1ein# an .NTERIOR a'/e'. In !"a!
case i! is c'$cial !- 'ee1e' !"a! a'/e's a'e Tense a'/e's *"en !"ei' &'e(-inan!
)$nc!i-n is c-(in# !"e 'ela!i-ns"i& -) !"'ee &-in!s in !ie -n !"e !ie line.
.s "as 1een &-in!e( -$! in c"a&!e' 2, -1li#a!-'iness is n-! a necessa'+ c"a'ac!e'is!ic -) a
T.?E a'/e' in !"is s!$(+. T"is in in c-n!'as! !- !"e -&ini-n -) se0e'al a$!"-'s *"- clai
!"a! a #'aa!icaliBe( e%&'essi-n -) !ie is a$!-a!icall+ -1li#a!-'+, -' i! *-$l( n-! 1e
#'aa!icaliBe(. .(0-ca!es -) !"is -&ini-n a'e e.#. C-'ie (1995), Da"l (1995), Si!" (2009)
an( S!assen (1998). L"ile I a#'ee !"a! #'aa!icaliBe( a'/e's s"-* a ce'!ain !en(enc+ !-
1e -1li#a!-'+, !"e n-!i-n -) -1li#a!-'iness is !-- $ns&eci)ic !- 1e -) 0al$e "e'e. :-' e%a&le,
!"e 1-'(e' 1e!*een -1li#a!-'+ an( n-n7-1li#a!-'+ is a a!!e' -) (is&$!e, (-es an -1li#a!-'+
a'/e' "a0e !- -cc$' in e0e'+ &-ssi1le ins!anceT Is a a'/e' s!ill -1li#a!-'+ *"en i! -cc$'s
in ain, 1$! n-! in s$1-'(ina!e cla$sesT Is i! s!ill -1li#a!-'+ *"en i! -cc$'s -nl+ -nce in !"e
1e#innin# -) a &a'a#'a&" al!"-$#" i! clea'l+ "as sc-&e -0e' !"e *"-le &a'a#'a&"T T"ese
6$es!i-ns a'e n-! +e! ans*e'e( sa!is)ac!-'il+. .((i!i-nall+, i! is i&-ssi1le !- ca''+ -$!
-1li#a!-'iness s!$(ies -n all &-!en!ial T.?E a'/e's in !"e sa&le, an( !"e s-$'ces
!"esel0es 'a'el+ en!i-n -1li#a!-'iness a! all.
.((i!i-nall+ !- !"e 6$es!i-n *"e!"e' -' n-! a Tense a'/e' "as !- 1e -1li#a!-'+
an-!"e' &'-1le a'ises, !"a! -) !"e &-si!i-n -) a -'&"ee in !"e cla$se. Es&eciall+ *i!"
'e#a'( !- Tense !"is is a sensi!i0e !-&ic as !"e -n#-in# (is&$!e a1-$! n-inal Tense s"-*s
3. Tense 31

(c.). N-'(lin#e' M Sa(le' 2004 an( 2009, T-n"a$se' 2008, ?$+s/en 2009). Aeca$se !"e )-c$s
-) !"is !"esis is -n sean!ics !"e &-si!i-n -) !"e -'&"ee in 6$es!i-n (-es n-! a!!e' as
l-n# as !"e !e&-'al eanin# 'e)e's !- !"e 0e'1al ac!i-n s&eci)ie( in !"e sae cla$se.
In cases *"e'e -ne an( !"e sae a'/e' "as sc-&e -0e' a n-inal c-ns!i!$en! -' !"e ac!i-n
-) !"e cla$se i! is s!ill !'ea!e( as Tense a'/e', 1$! *"en a a'/e' -cc$'s e%cl$si0el+ *i!"
sc-&e -0e' a n-inal c-ns!i!$en! i! is n-!. :-' e%a&le, !"e <.ST encli!ic Sene in <a'esi can
a!!ac" !- 1-!" 0e'1s an( n-inals *i!" sc-&e -0e' !"e 'es&ec!i0e c-ns!i!$en!= 1eca$se i!
can "a0e sc-&e -0e' !"e 0e'1 i! is a Tense a'/e'. A$! in ?aain(U !"e'e is a se! -) s$))i%es
!"a! is 'es!'ic!e( !- -cc$' -n n-inals *i!" n- sc-&e -0e' !"e 0e'1al ac!i-n (E1e'"a'( 2009,
343) an( !"is se! is n-! c-nsi(e'e( Tense "e'e.

(3.4) <a'esi (.'a*a/an= A'an(V- 2011)
(a) ane maidyat-ita=ene ene ene ene
#- )is"7<ROES<ST
G@e *as )is"in#.C
(1) mama=ene ene ene ene atyo ka-eare-tya natyo no-oemi-nita
-!"e'S<ST TO< .TTR7nae7DAFH 1SE 1SE7c"il(7T
GI! *as + la!e -!"e' *"- #a0e e a nic/nae.C

(3.5) ?aain(U (Na1i/*a'an, E1e'"a'( 2009, 343, 381)
(a) ta-walek
h
an-le le le le! !! !i ii i-tu
<OSS17c"ie)7NO?.<ST7:NS
G+ &as! c"ie)C
(1) n"sa-jahon-sihatija sihatija sihatija sihatija-tu kajat-kan#n
<OSS1.<F7-l(.an7NO?.<ST7:NS c-'n7NCF.ROUND
ha!t$ in-je!--n#nta-wa
&lan!7E?<7SAK37EKN7DECF
GO$' ances!'al en &lan!e( c-'n see(s (as e0e'+-ne /n-*s).C

T"e )-ll-*in# !a1les &'esen! an -0e'0ie* -) !"e !e'in-l-#+ -) Tenses $se( in !"is in
c-&a'is-n !- -!"e' s!$(ies (!a1les 3.1 an( 3.2),

Ta1le 3.1, Te'in-l-#+ )-' !ie c-n!in$$,
.$!"-' Te'in-l-#+
Reic"en1ac" 1949 <-in! -) s&eec" <-in! -) 'e)e'ence <-in! -) e0en!
C-'ie 1995 S&eec" si!$a!i-n Re)e'ence &-in! Si!$a!i-n
Ti1e'la/e M C"$n# 1995 S&eec" -en! Tense l-c$s E0en! )'ae
A"a! 1999 U!!e'ance !ie Re)e'ence &-in! E0en! -' si!$a!i-n
Ei0Nn 2001 Tie -) s&eec" Re)e'ence !ie E0en! !ie
Ul!an 1989 ?-en! -) s&eec" Rela!i0e !ie ?-en! -) s&eec"
?$elle' (&'esen! 0-l$e) <-in! -) s&eec" <-in! -) 'e)e'ence <-in! -) e0en!

32 3.2 De)ini!i-ns

Ta1le 3.2, Te'in-l-#+ )-' a1s-l$!e Tenses,
.$!"-' <.ST <RESENT :UTURE
Reic"en1ac" 1949 Ae)-'e Si$l!ane-$s .)!e'
C-'ie 1995 Ae)-'e Si$l!ane-$s .)!e'
Ti1e'la/e M C"$n# 1995 .n!e'i-', &'i-' Si$l!ane-$s, -0e'la&&in# <-s!e'i-', s$1se6$en!
A"a! 1999 Ae)-'e Si$l!ane-$s .)!e'
Ei0Nn 2001 <'ece(es Ri#"! a! :-ll-*s
Ul!an 1989 .n!ece(en! C-inci(e S$1se6$en!
?$elle' (&'esen! 0-l$e) Ae)-'e Si$l!ane-$s .)!e'

3.2.2 Re-!eness 3.2.2 Re-!eness 3.2.2 Re-!eness 3.2.2 Re-!eness (e#'ees (e#'ees (e#'ees (e#'ees
.((i!i-nal !- O$s! c-(in# an e0en! !"a! is 'e-0e( )'- !"e &-in! -) s&eec" (:UTURE -' <.ST)
lan#$a#es a+ c-(e )-' !"e !ie len#!" ela&sin# 1e!*een !"e &-in! -) e0en! an( !"e &-in!
-) s&eec", i.e. !"e 'e-!eness (e#'ee. Na!$'all+, !"is a&&lies -nl+ !- <.ST an( :UTURE. T"ese
(is!inc!i-ns 'e&'esen! e0en!s !"a! a'e 'e-0e( )'- !"e &-in! -) s&eec", 0a'+in# )'-
'ecen! -' ie(ia!e -0e' 'e-!e !- "is!-'ical -' e0en +!"ical (in !"e case -) <.ST). :-'
e%a&le, Ka'- "as !*- (n-n7-1li#a!-'+) &a'!icles e%&'essin# <.ST, co )-' 'ecen! -' #ene'al
<.ST an( k%n )-' 'e-!e; +!"-l-#ical <.ST,

(3.>) Ka'- (T$&Jan= Ea1as K'. 1999, 185)
(a) p&' o=!e-t co co co co
s"--! 1SES.UWSIND <ST
GI s"-!.C
(1) (n #ri' ma-c)ri-t k%n k%n k%n k%n
1SE #i'l C.US7"eal7IND RE?.<ST
GI "eale( !"e #i'l (l-n# a#-).C

T"e 'ecen! <.ST in Ka'- can 'e)e' !- !ie len#!" 1e!*een a in$!e a#- !- a +ea' a#-, 'e-!e
!- an+!"in# )'- !en !- "$n('e( +ea's a#-. T"e c$!-)) &-in! 1e!*een *"en 'ecen! s!-&s an(
'e-!e 1e#ins is -)!en 1l$''e( an( (e&en(in# -n !"e O$(#en! -) !"e s&ea/e'. T"a! is *"+
!"e 6$es!i-nnai'e as/s )-' "-* an+ (is!inc!i-ns a'e a(e ins!ea( -) *"ic" e%ac!l+. I! *ill
1e s"-*n 1el-* (sec!i-n 3.>.9) (i) !"a! 'e-!eness (e#'ees a'e s$1Oec!i0e an( !"a! (ii)
'ecen!, 'e-!e, an( siila' !e's a'e $se( )-' a $l!i!$(e -) (i))e'en! !ie s&ans in
(i))e'en! lan#$a#es an( !"e'e)-'e n-! per se c-&a'a1le.
T- s$a'iBe, .1s-l$!e Tense as $se( in !"is s!$(+ is !"e #'aa!icaliBe( e%&'essi-n
-) !ie, 1$! n-! necessa'il+ -1li#a!-'+. I! is a (eic!ic ca!e#-'+ s"-*in# !"e 'ela!i-ns"i& -)
!*- &-in!s -n a !ie line (&-in! -) e0en!, &-in! -) s&eec"). :UTURE, <.ST, an( <RESENT can 1e
(e)ine( 1+ !"e c-1ina!i-n -) !"ese &-in!s, :UTURE is an e0en! !"a! is l-ca!e( a)!e' !"e &-in!
-) s&eec", <.ST is an e0en! !"a! is l-ca!e( 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec", an( <RESENT is an e0en!
si$l!ane-$s *i!" !"e &-in! -) s&eec". I! *as a'#$e( !"a! 1eca$se !"e n-!i-n -) a &-in! -)
'e)e'ence is n-! -) c-nse6$ence in a1s-l$!e Tense i! is n-! nee(e( in !"is s!$(+. E0en!s
3. Tense 33

'e-0e( )'- !"e <RESENT can c-0e' (i))e'en! !ie s&ans, )'- nea' -0e' 'e-!e !- )a'
(ei!"e' in !"e <.ST -' :UTURE).

3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 TENSEFESS F.NEU.EES TENSEFESS F.NEU.EES TENSEFESS F.NEU.EES TENSEFESS F.NEU.EES
. n$1e' -) lan#$a#es in !"e S.IFs 6$es!i-nnai'e "a0e a ne#a!i0e en!'+ )-' !"e Tense
6$es!i-ns= !"e+ see !- 1e Tenseless, i.e. (- n-! "a0e -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic a'/in# -) a1s-l$!e
<RESENT, :UTURE -' <.ST, -' 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e la!!e' !*-. T"ese a'e Aa$'e, Tsa)i/i,
<ila#X, ?-c-0J, Nasa P$*e, an( Pana. .((i!i-nall+, !"e'e a'e !"'ee 1-'(e'line cases,
U'a'ina, ?a&$c"e, an( T'$ai, *"ic" a'e !'ea!e( as 1ein# Tenseless, al!"-$#" !"e+
seein#l+ "a0e s-e -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in#. @-*e0e', !"e+ a'e n-! c-&a'a1le
!- !"e Tense a'/in# in !"e -!"e' S.IFs an( !"$s (isc$sse( in !"is sec!i-n as *ell.
C-'ie (1995, 52) al'ea(+ n-!ice( !"a! A$'ese an( D+i'1al lac/ #'aa!ical Tense
a'/in#, 'a!"e' "a0in# 2a 1asicall+ -(al -&&-si!i-n 3!"a!4 "as i&lica!i-ns )-' !"e !ie
'e)e'ence *i!"-$! !"is !ie 'e)e'ence 1ein# #'aa!icaliBe( in !"e lan#$a#e5. C-'ie als-
&-in!s -$! !"a! lan#$a#es *"ic" (- "a0e -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# all-* )-'
c-ns!'$c!i-ns *i!"-$! Tense (i1i(.). A-!" -) !"ese &"en-ena, "e'e calle( c-&le!e an(
&a'!ial Tenselessness, -cc$' in !"is sa&le an( a'e (isc$sse( in !"is se!i-n !-#e!"e' *i!" !"e
i&lica!i-ns )-' a #ene'al !"e-'+ -) Tense. Si!" (2005) &'-&-se( an essen!iall+ !"'ee7*a+
Tense classi)ica!i-n, )$ll+ Tense(, i%e(7!e&-'al, an( Tenseless lan#$a#es. T"e )i's! !*-
ca!e#-'ies (i))e' in *"e!"e' -' n-! !"e+ a'/ Tense -1li#a!-'il+= as !"is (is!inc!i-n is n-!
a(e in !"e &'esen! sa&le, all lan#$a#es !"a! a'e n-! (isc$sse( in !"is sec!i-n $s! 1el-n#
!- ei!"e' -ne -) !"e. :-ll-*in# is a !+&-l-#ical -0e'0ie* -) selec!e( Tenseless S.IFs an(
1-'(e'line cases, an( "-* !"e+ (- e%&'ess !e&-'al 'ela!i-ns ins!ea(.
<ila#X "as n- -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in#, 1$! a n$1e' -) le%ical e%&'essi-ns )-'
in(ica!in# !ie, e.#. sekaet G+es!e'(a+C (Di(al 2001, 229). Aesi(e !ie le%ees, <ila#X )ea!$'es
(eic!ic classi)ie's an( a la'#e n$1e' -) (i'ec!i-nali!+ s$))i%es, s-e -) !"e *i!" (eic!ic
'e)e'ence (i1i(. 235). Aeca$se Tense is a (eic!ic ca!e#-'+, i! c-$l( !"e-'e!icall+ 1e !"e case
!"a! s&a!ial 'e)e'ence als- e%&'esses !e&-'al 'e)e'ence, an( in(ee( !"is sees !- 1e !"e
case in <ila#X. T"e s&a!ial classi)ie' so* G#-in# a*a+C can n-! -nl+ 'e)e' !- !"e -0een! -)
!"e classi)ie( en!i!+, 1$! als- !- !"e )ac! !"a! !"e ac!i-n -) !"e sae cla$se is in !"e &as!
(i1i(. 119120). .s )-' !"e (eic!ic (i'ec!i-nal s$))i%es, Di(al &'esen!s e%a&les *i!" e.#.
(i'ec!i-nal 7ge* G!"i!"e'C an( &as! !ie 'e)e'ence, 1$! i! 'eains $nclea' *"e!"e' !"e
!e&-'al in!e'&'e!a!i-n 'elies -n !"e (i'ec!i-nal -' -n c-n!e%!.

(3.8) <ila#X (E$a+c$'$an= Di(al 2001, 33>, 120, 238)
(a) weta-ge* ge* ge* ge* sekaet sekaet sekaet sekaet da* +ormosa ,i -uan
1e7DIR.!"i!"e' +es!e'(a+ CF: :-'-sa.ci!+ CF: K-"n
GK-"n *as in :-'-sa ci!+ +es!e'(a+.C
(1) an-sa-nem so* so* so* so* paan
2OAK717#i0e CF:.#-in#.a*a+ 1'ea(
GI #a0e +-$ 1'ea(.C (T"e 1'ea( is n-! in 0ie* an+ -'e.)
34 3.3 Tenseless lan#$a#es

(c) na-.a-ge* ge* ge* ge*
37#-7DIR.!"i!"e'
G@e *en! a*a+.C

Siila'l+ !- <ila#X, Pana $!iliBes a n$1e' -) )ea!$'es )-' !e&-'al 'e)e'ence, 2Te&-'al
'e)e'ence 3Y4 is e%&'esse( 1+ a c-1ina!i-n -) as&ec!$al -'&"ees, !e&-'al a(0e'1s,
an( !"e c-n!e%!. 3Y4 T"e !ie *"en an e0en! -cc$'s -' -cc$''e( 1ec-es clea' -nl+ a)!e'
!e&-'al a(0e'1s an( !"e c-n!e%! a'e )$ll+ !a/en in!- c-nsi(e'a!i-n5 (ENeB 1990, 93).

(3.9) Pana (Pan-aan= ENeB 1990, 94)
hena th/h/ ora ham camak h0-0
ea'l+ *"en )-'*a'( DIR *e #-7I<D:
GT--''-* *e a'e #-in# $&s!'ea.C

Aa$'e e&l-+s a 'an#e -) !e&-'al a(0e'1s (Danielsen 2008, 303)).) as *ell as .s&ec!
a'/in# )-' in(ica!in# !ie. :-' e%a&le, !"e <ER:ECT &'e0e'1al &a'!icle 1er -cc$'s in
cla$ses *i!" 1-!" &'esen! an( &as! 'e)e'ence, (e&en(in# -n !"e 0e'1 (i1i(. 284). T"e
INTENTION s$))i% 7pa is -)!en $se( )-' )$!$'e 'e)e'ence, ei!"e' a1s-l$!e -' a'/in# a )$!$'e in
!"e &as! (i1i(. 2>4), as *ell as !"e INTENTION &a'!icle ka. (i1i(. 288), an( !"e !e'ina!i0e
&a'!icle eto sees !- 1e e%&'essin# e%cl$si0el+ &as! !ie 'e)e'ence. .cc-'(in# !-
K'asn-$/"-0a (2012, 241), Aa$'e is -ne -) !"e lan#$a#es in S. *"ic" enc-(e !ie in n-$n
&"'ases.
Tense a'/in# in !"e !"'ee 1-'(e'line cases U'a'ina, T'$ai, an( ?a&$c"e (- n-! )i!
!"e classi)ica!i-n se! $& in 3.2, 1$! !"e+ a'e n-! c-&le!el+ Tenseless ei!"e'. In U'a'ina,
)$!$'e !ie 'e)e'ence can 1e e%&'esse( 1+ !"e c-1ina!i-n -) !"e IRRE.FIS a'/e' an(
asse'!i0e. A$! U'a'ina "as an-!"e' *a+ !- e%&'ess !ie, i.e. 1+ !"e #ene'al 'e-!eness
encli!ic Sl2 !"a! $s$all+ a&&lies !- 'e-!e <.ST 1$! can als- 'e)e' !- 'e-!e :UTURE (e&en(in#
-n c-n!e%! an( )$'!"e' !e&-'al s&eci)ica!i-n in !"e cla$se. T"e 'e-!eness encli!ic is
a&&a'en!l+ n-! -1li#a!-'+ )-' an ac!i-n in !"e &as! !"a! is 'e-!e, as s"-*n 1el-*.

(3.9) U'a'ina ($nclassi)ie(= Ola*s/+ 200>, 492, 435)
(a) kaa d3a2ra4atane itahe-ri ri ri ri-t52=ni ni ni ni=t5a
!"is )les"Zlan( (es!'-+7IRR71SES.SSRSE?<
GI *ill (es!'-+ !"is ea'!".C
(1) nitoane# hetau=te kat5a lem2-e=l ll l2 22 2 lomaj6
li/e.!"a! @E.S:OC an sin/73Sl[ F-ai
edara ne-# k2-2r2-a=ne kuj7a
*a!e'.&e-&le 1e7<TC< #-7<F73SSUA s-.!"a!
GF-ai san/ !"e &e-&le li/e !"a!, s- !"a! !"e+ *-$l( 1ec-e *a!e' &e-&le.C

3. Tense 35

T"e 'e-!eness encli!ic can )-' a !e&-'al a(0e'1 !-#e!"e' *i!" !"e 'eass$'ance encli!ic
Stau, taul2 Gea'lie'C (Ola*s/+ 200>, 505). S- al!"-$#" U'a'ina "as -ne a'/e' !"a! (-es 'e)e'
!- !e&-'al 'e-!eness, i! is !'ea!e( "e'e as 1ein# Tenseless, 1eca$se i! is n-! a #ene'al
Tense a'/e'.
T'$ai is a siila' 1-'(e'line case. I! a'/s Tense 1+ s&ecial Tense; )-c$s &a'!icles. T"e
&a'!icles ka in an( chi in a'e Tense; )-c$s &a'!icles, e%&'essin# ne* in)-'a!i-n, e&"asis
e!c., 1$! ka in als- a'/s )-' <RESENT; 'ecen! <.ST, an( chi in a'/s )-' (is!an! <.ST
(E$i'a'(ell- 1999, 180)).). T"$s, T'$ai a'/s <RESENT an( <.ST, *i!" an -0e'la& 1e!*een
'ecen! <.ST an( <RESENT, 1$! n-! :UTURE. T"is s+s!e al-s! l--/s li/e a :UTURE; NON:UTURE
s+s!e, *i!" $na'/e( :UTURE. @-*e0e', T'$ai NON:UTURE is a1i#$-$s -nl+ 1e!*een
<RESENT an( 'ecen! <.ST, *"e'eas (is!an! <.ST is clea'l+ (is!in#$is"e(.
?a&$c"e a! )i's! #lance sees !- "a0e a <.ST; NON<.ST Tense s+s!e, 1$! a cl-se' l--/
'e0eals !"a! !"e'e is n- clea' -&&-si!i-n in Tense. ?a&$c"e -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/s
<.ST Tense an( &l$&e')ec!, 1$! a! leas! !"e )-'e' is n-! -1li#a!-'+. T"e <.ST &a'!icle nga
-cc$'s in cla$ses *i!" &as! !ie 'e)e'ence, 1$! als- e%&'esses sa(ness -' 'e#'e! (See!s
2009, 331). T"e &l$&e')ec!, *"ic" is n-! c-(e( in !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e, is a'/e( 1+ !*-
s$))i%es !"a! a'e in c-&leen!a'+ (is!'i1$!i-n, 7mu an( -89:wye. A-!" a'/ a &-in! in !ie
1e)-'e an-!"e' &-in! in !ie (<.ST) an( in(ica!e !"a! !"e s!a!e !al/e( a1-$! is n- l-n#e' !'$e
(i1i(. 331, 254). In #ene'al, Tense a'/in# &la+s a in-' '-le in ?a&$c"e, *"ic" !en(s !-
e%&'ess !e&-'al 'ela!i-ns"i&s 1+ .s&ec!$al an( ?-(al s$))i%es; &a'!icles an( !"ei'
in!e'ac!i-n. S- e0en *"en !"e'e is n- <.ST a'/e', !"e'e sees !- 1e n- necessi!+ !-
in!e'&'e! !"e cla$se as <RESENT -' :UTURE, 1$! i! can ne0e'!"eless 1e <.ST. Te&-'al eanin#
'a!"e' 'elies -n !"e &'esence -) ce'!ain .s&ec!$al an( ?-(al a'/e's, e.#. !"e $na'/e(
<ER:ECTIDE can in(ica!e <.ST, as in (3.10a).

(3.10) ?a&$c"e (.'a$canian= See!s 2009, 1>5, 230, 331)
(a: le;-9y
'$n7IND
G"e 'anC
(1) epu ant9-nge-y n<<i kutran-k9le-mu mu mu mu-m
!*- (a+7DAFH7IND73 <OSS.1SE illness7ST.7<F<:7IDN
GT*- (a+s a#- I *as ill (+ "a0in# 1een sic/ is !*- (a+s a#-).C
(c) may6 ch9m9l nge-me-n nga nga nga nga
+es, -nce 1e7T@I7IND.1.SE <TC
GPes, I "a0e 1een !"e'e -nce.C

L"ile s-e lan#$a#es a'e c-&le!el+ Tenseless, an+ S.IFs ac!$all+ a'e &a'!iall+
Tenseless. T"e+ a+ a'/ Tense (-1li#a!-'il+ -' n-!), 1$! s!ill all-* )-' c-ns!'$c!i-ns !"a!
(- n-! "a0e Tense a'/in#. C-'ie (1995, 5253) &-in!s -$! !"a! )-' e%a&le in En#lis" n-
Tense a'/in# is s"-*n -n (e'i0e( n-inals, -n in)ini!i0es a)!e' a )ini!e 0e'1, -' -n
a&&a'en!l+ 'e($n(an! 0e'1s. Siila'l+ La'iC, al!"-$#" "a0in# a 1asic :UTURE; NON:UTURE
3> 3.4 Tense s+s!es

1ina'+ s&li! (see sec!i-n 3.4.2), all-*s )-' cla$ses !"a! a'e a'/e( *i!" a se&a'a!e se! -)
Tenseless a'/e's (E0e'e!! M Ke'n 1998, 310). S-e -'&"ees cann-! 1e $se( *i!" Tense
a'/e's 1$! 'e6$i'e Tenseless 0e'1al in)lec!i-nal cli!ics, s$c" as !"e ne#a!i0e a*= >ara.

(3.11) La'iC (C"a&ac$'an= E0e'e!! M Ke'n 1998, 39)
?uerec * ** *a a a a tocwa wari*@
see NEE.SE <.SS.3SE.? &e's-n
GT"e &e's-n *as n-! seen.C

Tenselessness is n-! -nl+ 'es!'ic!e( !- ce'!ain c-ns!'$c!i-ns, 1$! Tense a'/in# can als- 1e
('-&&e( in c-ns!'$c!i-ns !"a! -!"e'*ise a'e a'/e(. In Ka'a*a'a, Tense a'/in# is n-!
-1li#a!-'+, an( -)!en a Tense a'/e( cla$se is 'e&ea!e( *i!"-$! -0e'! Tense a'/in#
(Di%-n 2004, 19>).

(3.12) Ka'a*a'a (.'a*an= Di%-n 2004, 195)
;aa mee wisa na-ra ra ra ra-ke ;ahi6
*a!e'.: 3N\SE.SAK 1ail.-$! .UW7I??.<ST.EPE.:7DECF.: T@ERE.N\DSA
;aa mee wisa na
*a!e'.: 3N\SE.SAK 1ail.-$! .UW.:
GT"e+ 1aile( -$! *a!e' ()'- !"e can-e) !"e'e, !"e+ 1ail -$! *a!e'.C

Ca0ine]a e0en all-*s )-' 1a'e s!es *i!"-$! Tense in)lec!i-n, al!"-$#" Tense a'/in# is
-1li#a!-'+ (E$illa$e 2009, 189). T"ese a'e O$s! a )e* e%a&les, an( a s!$(+ -) !"e
&"en-en-n -) Tense ('-&&in#, &e'"a&s als- in 'ela!i-n !- Tenselessness, *-$l( ce'!ainl+
1e 0e'+ )'$i!)$l.
Le "a0e seen !"a! Tenseless lan#$a#es a'e lac/in# -0e'! -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense
a'/e's, 1$! a'e n-! (e0-i( -) e%&'essin# !e&-'al 'e)e'ence. T"is (-es n-! -nl+ incl$(e
!e&-'al le%ees an( (eic!ic s&a!ial a'/e's, 1$! an-!"e' ca!e#-'+ !"a! is s!'$c!$'all+
cl-se !- Tense als- !a/es a "an( in e%&'essin# !e&-'al in)-'a!i-n, .s&ec!. Si!" (2005,
30) -1se'0es !"a! in lan#$a#es *i!"-$! -1li#a!-'+ Tense a'/in# 2!e&-'al l-ca!i-n is
in)e''e( )'- as&ec!$al in)-'a!i-n5. T"is is !'$e )-' !"is sa&le as *ell.

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 TENSE SPSTE?S TENSE SPSTE?S TENSE SPSTE?S TENSE SPSTE?S
3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.1 O0e'0ie* .1 O0e'0ie* .1 O0e'0ie* .1 O0e'0ie*
C-'ie (1995, 49) al'ea(+ n-!ice( !"a! an+ E$'-&ean lan#$a#es "a0e s&li! Tense s+s!es,
2an+ lan#$a#es in )ac! "a0e a 1asic !*-7*a+ s&li!, *i!" ei!"e' an -&&-si!i-n 1e!*een &as!
an( n-n7&as! -' 1e!*een )$!$'e an( n-n7)$!$'e2. T"e sae can 1e sai( )-' !"e S.IFs in !"is
sa&le, *i!" :UTURE; NON:UTURE s+s!es 1ein# -s! )'e6$en!. In!e'es!in#l+, !"e als-
!"e-'e!icall+ &-ssi1le s&li! 1e!*een <RESENT; NON<RESENT (-es n-! -cc$'. C-'ie $ses !"e
!e' G1ina'+ s&li!C )-' an+ /in( -) 1ina'+ -&&-si!i-n, 1$! !"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-n (i))e'en!ia!es
1e!*een a si&le an( a 1ina'+ s&li!, e%&laine( 1el-*. S&li! s+s!es can "a0e 0a'i-$s
3. Tense 38

inca'na!i-ns, a'/in# )-' :UTURE, i.e. a cla$se $na'/e( *i!" !"a! a'/e' is a$!-a!icall+
<RESENT -' <.ST= !"is a+ en!ail !"a! :UTURE a'/in# is -1li#a!-'+. O' a'/in# )-' :UTURE an(
)-' <.ST; <RESENT *i!" !*- (i))e'en! a'/e's. T"e sae "-l(s )-' <.ST; NON<.ST, ei!"e' -nl+
<.ST is -0e'!l+ a'/e(, *i!" <RESENT an( :UTURE 1ein# $na'/e(, -' 1-!" <.ST an( :UTURE;
<RESENT a'e a'/e(. T"is can 1e )$'!"e' (i0i(e( in!- s+s!es !"a! a'e 1ina'+= i.e. (is!inc!i-ns
a'e -0e'!l+ a'/e( )-' 1-!" &a'!s -) !"e s&li!, -' s+s!es !"a! a'/ -nl+ -ne &a'! an( !"e
-!"e' -ne is si&l+ $na'/e( an( a1i#$-$s. .n+ a&&a'en!l+ $na'/e( ca!e#-'+ 6$ali)ies
as Be'- a'/e' i) i! )$l)ills !"e c'i!e'ia -$!line( 1+ A+1ee (1994), !"e -s! i&-'!an! 1ein#
!"a! a'/in# is -1li#a!-'+, i.e. *"en !"e a1sence -) a a'/e' (i'ec!l+ &-in!s !-*a'(s !"e
a1sence -) a s&eci)ic eanin# an( !"e &'esence -) an-!"e'. Un)-'!$na!el+, !"e'e is -)!en
li!!le -' n- in)-'a!i-n !- 1e )-$n( in !"e s-$'ces, -' !"e !e's G$na'/e(C an( GBe'-
a'/in#C a'e $se( as s+n-n+s, a/in# i! (i))ic$l! !- es!a1lis" !"e s!a!$s -) an $na'/e(
ca!e#-'+. .((i!i-nall+, lan#$a#es a'e -)!en n-! s!'ic! a1-$! -1li#a!-'iness, a )ac!-' c'$cial
!- es!a1lis"in# Be'- a'/e's. T"e+ a+ "a0e an -1li#a!-'+ :UTURE a'/e' in(ica!in# a Be'-
<.ST; <RESENT -'&"ee, 1$! in !"e ac!$al $sa#e i! is 'e0eale( !"a! a sen!ence $na'/e( )-'
Tense is n-! -1li#a!-'il+ <.ST;<RESENT a'/e(, 1$! a+ *ell "a0e :UTURE 'e)e'ence. :-' !"e
&'esen! s!$(+ !"is eans !"a! lan#$a#es !"a! a&&a'en!l+ "a0e a si&le s&li! Tense s+s!e
a+ *ell !$'n -$! !- "a0e a 1ina'+ s&li!, 1$! !"a! 'e6$i'es )$'!"e' 'esea'c" an( is n-! (-ne
in !"is s!$(+.
T*- aO-' &a!!e'ns ca!c" !"e e+e, :i's!l+, n- lan#$a#e a'/s a si&le s&li! -) $na'/e(
:UTURE; a'/e( NON:UTURE -' $na'/e( <.ST; a'/e( NON<.ST, -' a si&le s&li! *i!"
$na'/e( NON<.ST; a'/e( <.ST. .ll <.ST Tense s+s!es -cc$' -nl+ as a 1ina'+ s&li!, i.e.
!"e'e a'e !*- -0e'! a'/e's )-' <.ST an( NON<.ST. A$! sec-n(l+, lan#$a#es *i!" :UTURE
si&le s&li! s+s!es (- -cc$' an( -$!*ei#" !"e :UTURE 1ina'+ s&li! 1+ 14,3 (see !a1le 3.3).
Ul!an (1989, 99) #'-$&e( !"e lan#$a#es in "is sa&le in!- &'-s&ec!i0e an( 'e!'-s&ec!i0e=
!"e )-'e' 1ein# siila' !- a <.ST;NON<.ST (is!inc!i-n an( !"e la!!e' !- a :UTURE; NON:UTURE
(is!inc!i-n, ^<'-s&ec!i0e, I) a &'esen! !ense a+ -'(ina'il+ a'/ 3Y4 )$!$'e -) !"e la!!e' a+
1e $na'/e( 3Y4. Re!'-s&ec!i0e, I) a &'esen! !ense a+ -'(ina'il+ a'/ 3Y4 &as! -' i) !"e
la!!e' a+ 1e $na'/e(5. T"e'e a'e sli#"!l+ -'e &'-s&ec!i0e !"an 'e!'-s&ec!i0e lan#$a#es
in "is sa&le, 1$! in!e'es!in#l+ -s! -) !"e 'e!'-s&ec!i0e lan#$a#es a'e .e'ican In(ian
lan#$a#es ("e (-es n-! sa+ *"ic") *"e'eas -s! In(-7E$'-&ean lan#$a#es a'e &'-s&ec!i0e
(i1i(.). T"is c-inci(es *i!" !"e &'esen! 'es$l!s *"e'e :UTURE; NON:UTURE Tense s+s!es (i.e.
siila' !- 'e!'-s&ec!i0e) -cc$' -s! )'e6$en!l+ *i!"in !*- *a+ s&li!s.
T"e )-ll-*in# &a'a#'a&"s &'esen! !"e -cc$''in# Tense s+s!es in !"e sa&le an( #i0e
ill$s!'a!i0e e%a&les.






39 3.4 Tense s+s!es

Ta1le 3.3, Tense s+s!es
Tenseless Tenseless Tenseless Tenseless

Aa$'e, Tsa)i/i, <ila#X, ?-c-0J, Nasa P$*e, Pana (U'a'ina, ?a&$c"e, T'$ai)









Tense( Tense( Tense( Tense(

















T*-7*a+ s&li!

si&le s&li!
:UTURE;
NON:UTURE
(a'/e(;
$na'/e()
.&$'inV, Panes"aC, C"iila, A-'-'-,
Kain#an#, Ti1i'a, Kaai$'X, I!-naa,
P$'a/a'Q, Kan-U, ?$nic"i, EQ'ill-n,
N"een#a!_, Sa!e'Q7?a*Q



1ina'+ s&li!
<.ST; NON<.ST
(a'/e(;
a'/e()
La'a-, @i%/a'+ana, ?a!ses, <ana'e,
?-0ia, Ri/1a/!sa
:UTURE;
NON:UTURE
(a'/e(;
a'/e()
.+a'a, Ka'i!iana, La'iC
!"'ee7*a+ s&li!
(a'/e(; a'/e(;
a'/e()
Ta'iana, Ti'i+N, Sa1anU, Desan-, E1e'a,
Fe/-, .#$a'$na, ?aain(U, C$1e-


:UTURE; <.ST
(a'/e(; a'/e()
<a'esi, Ka'a*a'a, .*a <i!, I/a, ?i'a]a,
Te"$elc"e, D`*, @$&, Lic"J, ?-se!Qn,
S"i&i1-7K-ni1-, Paina"$a, @$alla#a
I$ec"$a, C$Bc- I$ec"$a, I1a1$'a
I$ec"$a, Ca0ine]a, Ka'-, ?e/ens,
C-caa7C-cailla, Ta&ie!e, K*aBa,
<$ina0e

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.2 .2 .2 .2 Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE; ;; ; NON:UTUR NON:UTUR NON:UTUR NON:UTURA AA A
Fan#$a#es -0e'!l+ a'/e( )-' 1-!" :UTURE an( NON:UTURE (1ina'+ s&li!) a'e .+a'a,
Ka'i!iana, an( La'iC. .ll "a0e -0e'! a1i#$-$s <RESENT;<.ST (NON:UTURE) a'/e's an(
(is!inc! :UTURE a'/in#. Ka'i!iana a/es a (is!inc!i-n -) Tense a'/in# *i!"in a))i'a!i0e
cla$se !+&es, )-' a))i'a!i0e cla$ses -) !"e !+&es c-&$la' an( s&eec" ac! &a'!ici&an! 0e'1s
s!es en(in# in a 0-*el 'ecei0e s$))i% 7t )-' NON:UTURE e0en!s. I) !"e'e is an .s&ec!$al
a'/e' in !"e cla$se as *ell, !"e e0en! is $s$all+ <RESENT, i) n-!, $s$all+ <.ST. D-*el7)inal
0e'1s 'ecei0e s$))i% 7j )-' :UTURE e0en!s, an( 7i )-' c-ns-nan!7)inal 0e'1s. T"e'e is a (i))e'en!
se! -) s$))i%es )-' Tense a'/in# in 2De'17)-c$s5 cla$ses= c-ns-nan!7)inal 0e'1s 'ecei0e
s$))i% 7Bn, 0-*el7)inal 0e'1s s$))i%7n )-' NON:UTURE, an( s$))i% 7ndaki )-' :UTURE. T"$s,
al!"-$#" Ka'i!iana "as (i))e'en! se!s -) a'/e's acc-'(in# !- cla$se !+&e, !"e #ene'al
1ina'+ :UTURE; NON:UTURE s&li! is ain!aine( (E0e'e!! 200>, 2>5)).).



3. Tense 39

(3.13) Ka'i!iana (T$&Jan= E0e'e!! 200>, 2>9, 2>9)
(a) B-ta-seCB-t tt t
1SE..AS7S.<7('in/7N:UT
GI ('an/.C -' GIC ('in/in#.C
(1) B-taka-kaDBna-j jj j
1SE..AS7S.<7!$'n7:UT
GI *ill !$'n.C

T"e .+a'a T.?E s$))i% s+s!e "as a "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n, c-1inin# Tense an(
E0i(en!iali!+ *i!" n$1e' an( &e's-n in -1li#a!-'+ s$))i%es. T"e !e&-'al (is!inc!i-ns a'e
n-! as clea'l+ -$!line( as in Ka'i!iana. :IRST@.ND &ai's *i!" #ene'al, nea' 'e-!e, an( )a'
'e-!e <.ST, an( !"e'e a'e s$))i%es )-' IN:ERRED :UTURE an( 'e-!e IN:ERRED :UTURE. T"e
#ene'al <.ST s$))i% c-(es e0e'+ !ie $& !- !"e &'esen! -en!, s- incl$(es &as! an( &'esen!
eanin#, an( s!an(s in -&&-si!i-n !- !"e :UTURE s$))i% (@a'(an 2001, 104). T"e )$!$'e is
seen as n-! 0isi1le, 1e"in( !"e s&ea/e', an( !"e !ie )l-*s )'- 1e"in( -0e' !"e s"-$l(e' !-
!"e )'-n!, !"e 0isi1le &as!. T"e -en! i! is 0isi1le, !"e &'esen! se!s in (i1i(. 112). I! a+
see !"a! .+a'a is a lan#$a#e *i!" a !"'ee7*a+ (is!inc!i-n 1eca$se i! als- )ea!$'es
a'/e's )-' 2nea' 'e-!e5 an( 2)a' 'e-!e5, 1$! !"ese (- n-! 'e&'esen! a #ene'al &as!
eanin# an( 'a!"e' se'0e as s&eci)ie's in 'e-!eness.
T"e La'iC Tense s+s!e s"-*s a siila' "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n. <RESENT; <.ST an( :UTURE
a'e )$se( *i!" RE.FIS (1$! n-! IRRE.FIS) an( in ce'!ain cases *i!" &e's-n, n$1e', an( #en(e'.
<.ST; <RESENT RE.FIS -'&"ees als- enc-(e &e's-n an( n$1e' in a &a'a(i# -) 0e'1al
encli!ics in si&le sen!ences, an( <.ST; <RESENT RE.FIS als- enc-(es #en(e' in in)lec!i-nal
-'&"ees in (i))e'en! /in(s -) cla$ses. :UTURE is als- )$se( *i!" RE.FIS in 1-!" 0e'1al
encli!ics an( in)lec!i-nal -'&"ees (E0e'e!! M Ke'n 1998, 310). S- La'iC (is!in#$is"es !*-
se!s -) Tenses, <.ST;<RESENT an( :UTURE, 'e#a'(less -) *"e!"e' !"e+ a'e e%&'esse( 1+ 0e'1al
encli!ics -' in)lec!i-nal -'&"ees. T"ese Tense a'/e's cann-! 1e $se( in s-e
c-ns!'$c!i-ns, 1$! see -s!l+ -1li#a!-'+. La'iC )ea!$'es !"'ee -&!i-nal sen!ence )inal
&a'!icles )-' a 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-n in !"e <.ST, 1$! n-! !"e :UTURE, ne G'ecen! &as!C, pane
Gi(; 'e-!e &as!C, an( pacara pane G"is!-'ic &as!C (i1i(. 311). T"e :UTURE -'&"ees als-
e%&'ess INTENTION.F an( E&is!eic ?-(ali!+, an( E0e'e!! M Ke'n (1998, 313) a'#$e !"a!
1eca$se -) !"is !"e &'e)e''e( *a+ !- e%&'ess )$!$'e eanin# in La'iC is !"e $se -) a
0e'1aliBe( c-ns!'$c!i-n. ?-s! Tenses a'e a1s-l$!e, 1$! n-! !"e 0e'1aliBe( :UTURE Tense
c-ns!'$c!i-n (i1i(. 314).

(3.14) La'iC (C"a&ac$'an= E0e'e!! M Ke'n 1998, 311, 312).)
(a) Eain * ** *ina ina ina ina-in Eim ne@ ne@ ne@ ne@
"-! 1SE.RE..<RS; <ST73N ni#"! REC.<ST
GI "a( )e0e' las! ni#"!.C (s&-/en !"e ne%! -'nin#)


40 3.4 Tense s+s!es

(1) cao* *ac cacama-in tara tara tara tara mijac@
ea! !'a0el 3<F.:73N 3SE.RE..:UT &i#
GT"en !"e+ *ill ea! &i#.C

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.3 .3 .3 .3 Si&le s&li! Si&le s&li! Si&le s&li! Si&le s&li! :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE; ;; ; NON:UTURE NON:UTURE NON:UTURE NON:UTURE
Si&le s&li! lan#$a#es -0e'!l+ a'/in# :UTURE 1$! NON:UTURE 1ein# $na'/e( a'e,

Kan-U, .&$'inV, Panes"aC, C"iila, A-'-'-, Kain#an#, Ti1i'a, ?$nic"i, EQ'ill-n,
Kaai$'X, I!-naa, N"een#a!_, Sa!e'Q7?a*Q, an( P$'a/a'Q.

Kan-U (-es n-! a'/ )-' <RESENT -' <.ST -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+, 1$! "as a :UTURE s$))i% 7nu
(*"ic" als- enc-(es inc"-a!i0e). T"e (is!inc!i-n 1e!*een <RESENT an( <.ST is a'/e( 1+
&e's-n in)lec!i-n -n !"e a$%ilia'+ re *i!" ac!i0e 0e'1s in !"e <RESENT, *"ic" als- enc-(es
<ROERESSIDE= )-' !"e <.ST !"e a$%ilia'+ (-es n-! 'ecei0e !"is e%!'a &e's-n a'/in#= !"is als-
e%&'esses <ER:ECTIDE (Aacela' 2004, 221).

(3.15) Kan-U ($nclassi)ie(= Aacela' 2004, 211, 223)
(a) iriri-ro n-e-re &e's-n a'/in# (<RESENT)
'$n7CF: 37DECF7.UW
G@e is '$nnin#.C (-'i#. GEs!X c-''en(-.C )
(1) iriri-ro e-re n- &e's-n a'/in# (<.ST)
'$n7CF: DECF7.UW
G@e 'an.C (-'i#. GC-''e$.C)
(c) aj 8oj: 1ara-(-ro--to-nu nu nu nu k-e-re
1SE s&ea/717CF:737TR7:UT NEE7DECF7.UW
GI a n-! #-in# !- !al/; s&ea/ *i!" "i.C (-'i#. GE$ nV- 0-$ )ala' c- ele.C)

Fi/e Kan-U, .&$'inV (-es n-! "a0e <RESENT -' <.ST a'/in#, 1$! a :UTURE -'&"ee 7ko=
in(ee(, :UTURE is !"e -nl+ -0e'!l+ a'/e( Tense. I! $s$all+ 'e)e's !- a n-n7ie(ia!e !ie
in !"e )$!$'e, *"e'eas a cla$se $na'/e( *i!" 7ko 'e)e's !- <RESENT, <.ST, -' ie(ia!e
:UTURE. In!e'es!in#l+, !"e :UTURE a'/e' is n-! 'es!'ic!e( !- 0e'1s (:ac$n(es 2000, 513).

(3.1>) .&$'inV (.'a*a/an= :ac$n(es 2000, 513, 410, 514)
(a) p-imaka-ko ko ko ko
2SE7slee&7:UT
GP-$Cll slee&.C
(1) nhi-nhipoko-ta-ko ko ko ko
1SE7ea!7DAFH7:UT
GI *ill (- ea!in#.C


3. Tense 41

(c) apakata-ko ko ko ko kam(#-sawaku 8F: apakata-ko ko ko ko uw a-sa-ru
a)!e'7:UT s$e'7TE?< (Y) a)!e'7:UT !"e'e 1<F7#-73?.OAK
GFa!e' in !"e s$e' (Y) !"en *e #- !"e'e.C

N-! 1ein# 'es!'ic!e( !- 0e'1s is als- a )ea!$'e -) !"e Panes"aC :UTURE encli!ic. Nea' :UTURE
can 1e a'/e( 1+ an a$%ilia'+ (o*ch), :UTURE 1+ an encli!ic (7cha*= -ch= -G*ch)= <RESENT an( <.ST
a'e $s$all+ a'/e( 1+ !e&-'al a(0e'1s (D$))7T'i&& 1998, 118). T"e :UTURE a'/e' is
a&&a'en!l+ n-! 'es!'ic!e( !- !"e 0e'1, e.#. is a!!ac"e( !- tsapat >tomorrow* in (3.18a). T"e'e
a'e !*- s$))i%es *"ic" in(ica!e G!--''-*, ea'l+C (7a*m) an( Gla!e, ni#"!C (7a*n; 7n), *"ic" (-
n-! 6$ali)+ as Tense a'/e's 1$! 'a!"e' s&eci)+ a -en! -) !"e (a+. T"e+ $s! -cc$' *i!"
!"e .s&ec!$al s$))i%es )-' ($'a!i0e (7en) an( 'e#'essi0e (7err) (i1i(. 90),

(3.18) Panes"aC (.'a*a/an= D$))7T'i&& 1998, 118, 91)
(a) Hsapat cha* cha* cha* cha* ahuen@
GT--''-* ICll #-.C (-'i#. G?a]ana i'Q.C)
(1) Ierramu*en@
GLe ea! in !"e -'nin#.C (-'i#. GC-e-s &-' la a]ana.C)

T"e si&le s&li! -) :UTURE; NON:UTURE is !"e sec-n( -s! )'e6$en!l+ -cc$''in# Tense s+s!e
in !"e sa&le, -nl+ -$!'an/e( 1+ !"e :UTURE; <.ST (is!inc!i-n, 1$! c-nsi(e'a1l+ -'e
)'e6$en! !"an !"e :UTURE; NON:UTURE 1ina'+ s&li!. I! *-$l( 1e in!e'es!in# !- see "-* !"e
n$1e's *-$l( c"an#e i) -ne !--/ Be'- a'/e's !- 1e -0e'! a'/e's as *ell. ?-s! li/el+,
se0e'al -) !"e :UTURE; NON:UTURE si&le s&li! s+s!es *-$l( !"en 1ec-e 1ina'+ s&li!s.

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.4 .4 .4 .4 Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! Aina'+ s&li! <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST; ;; ; NON<.ST NON<.ST NON<.ST NON<.ST
Fan#$a#es *i!" <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li! s+s!es -cc$' !*ice as )'e6$en!l+ as :UTURE;
NON:UTURE 1ina'+ s&li! s+s!es, 1$! s!ill acc-$n! )-' -nl+ a1-$! a !en!" -) !"e S.IFs in !"e
sa&le. Fan#$a#es *i!" a <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li! s+s!e a'e La'a-, @i%/a'+ana, <ana'e,
Ri/1a/!sa, ?-0ia, an( ?a!ses.
T"e Tense s+s!e -) La'a- is "ea0il+ )$se( *i!" .s&ec! in !"e <.ST. I! "as !*- a'/e's
)-' <.ST, s$))i% 7i *"ic" als- enc-(es CO?<FETIDE an( <ER:ECTIDE, an( 7e )-' <.ST an(
I?<ER:ECTIDE. T"e NON<.ST s$))i% 7te a'/s <RESENT an( :UTURE Tense (in"e'en!l+ I?<ER:ECTIDE)
(R-e'-7:i#$e'-a 1998, 95). T"e NON<.ST s$))i% als- ca''ies an eleen! -) $nce'!ain!+
(R-e'-7:i#$e'-a 1998, 9>).

(3.19) La'a- ($nclassi)ie(= R-e'-7:i#$e'-a 2003, 99, 92)
(a) naba Jya ine naru-n-a-e ee e
'i0e'7.FF I #-7SE7<NC7<ST
GI *en! !- !"e 'i0e' )-' an ins!an!.C


42 3.4 Tense s+s!es

(1) noboto-ma saba rihaba kona-te te te te
c"il(7<F )-' s*ee! 1'in#7N<ST
G(@e) 1'in#s can(ies )-' !"e c"il('en.C

@i%/a'+ana Tense s$))i%es a'/ a #ene'al NON<.ST an( ie(ia!e, 'ecen!, an( (is!an! <.ST
(Des-n( C. De'1+s"i'e 1995, 13>). T"e NON<.ST can 'e)e' !- <RESENT, :UTURE, an( $ni0e'sal
Tense, !"-$#" De'1+s"i'e (-es n-! s&eci)+ *"a! "e eans *i!" $ni0e'sal. . (is!inc! s$))i%
se! )-' NON<.ST DUAIT.TIDE -cc$'s $s$all+ in in!e''-#a!i0e cla$ses (De'1+s"i'e 1995, 139).

(3.19) @i%/a'+ana (Ca'i1an= De'1+s"i'e 1995, 1907191., 190, 19>, 198)
(a) tB-nyahma-yatEhe yatEhe yatEhe yatEhe
1INCF.SAK.3OAK7s$&&l+.*i!".)--(7N<ST.COF
GLe (incl) *ill s$&&l+ !"e *i!" )--(.C
(1) tB-ake-noh-no no no no
1INCF.SAK.3OAK71$'n7C.US7I??.<ST
GLe (incl) 1$'ne( i!.C
(c) nB-nBkB-yako yako yako yako
3SAK7#-.!-.slee&7 REC.<ST.CO?<F
G@e *en! !- slee&.C
(() w-ama-ye ye ye ye
1SAK.3OAK7)ell7DIST.<ST.CO?<F
GI )elle( i!.C

@i%/a'+ana (i))e's )'- La'a- in !"a! i! "as n- #ene'al <.ST a'/e', 1$! !"a! !"e s&ea/e'
"as !- c"-se 1e!*een !"'ee 'e-!eness (e#'ees. In !"is case, !"e -&&-si!i-n is n-! 0isi1le as
s$c", as !"e'e is n- -&&-si!i-n 1e!*een !*- a'/e's, 1$! 1e!*een !*- )ea!$'es (!"e sae
a&&lies !- ?a!ses). Ne0e'!"eless, @i%/a'+ana "as a 1asic <.ST; NON<.ST s+s!e.

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.5 .5 .5 .5 T"'ee T"'ee T"'ee T"'ee7 77 7*a+ *a+ *a+ *a+ s&li! Tense s+s!e s&li! Tense s+s!e s&li! Tense s+s!e s&li! Tense s+s!es ss s
.((i!i-nall+ !- a !*-7*a+ s&li!, (isc$sse( in !"e sec!i-n a1-0e, s-e S.IFs s"-* a !"'ee7
*a+ s&li!, i.e. -0e'! a'/in# -) all !"'ee a1s-l$!e Tenses *i!" (i))e'en! a'/e's. N-ne -)
!"ese a'e $na'/e(, 1$! see e.#. Ti'i+N )-' a &-ssi1l+ Be'- a'/e( <RESENT <ER:ECTIDE a'/e'
1el-*. Fan#$a#es s+s!ea!icall+ a'/in# !"'ee a1s-l$!e Tenses (<RESENT, :UTURE, <.ST,
'e#a'(less -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees) a'e Ta'iana, Ti'i+N, Sa1anU, Desan-, E1e'a, Fe/-,
.#$a'$na, C$1e-, an( ?aain(U. T"e s+s!es -) !"e )i's! !"'ee lan#$a#es a'e ill$s!'a!e(
1el-*.
Ta'iana enc-(es <RESENT, 'ecen! <.ST, 'e-!e <.ST, an( :UTURE *i!" 0e'1al encli!ics.
<RESENT an( <.ST Tenses a'e )$se( *i!" E0i(en!iali!+ an( all Tenses a'e -1li#a!-'+ e%ce&! )-'
*"en c-n!e%! #-0e'ns !"e !e&-'al in!e'&'e!a!i-n -' *"en !"e !e&-'al )'ae "as al'ea(+
1een es!a1lis"e( (.i/"en0al( 2003, 299). :UTURE Tense is n-! )$se( *i!" E0i(en!iali!+, 1$!
!"e'e is a (is!inc!i-n -) E&is!eic ?-(ali!+ in !"e )i's! &e's-n. T*- 0e'1al encli!ics can 1e
3. Tense 43

$se( !- e%&'ess :UTURE, 7de, *"ic" is -nl+ a&&lica1le *i!" !"e )i's! &e's-n an( a((s a sense
-) (e)ini!eness, an( 7mhade, *"ic" e%&'esses a less (e)ini!e :UTURE in !"e )i's! &e's-n 1$!
a/es n- (e)ini!eness (is!inc!i-n )-' !"e -!"e' &e's-ns (i1i(. 320).

(3.20) Ta'iana (.'a*a/an= .i/"en0al(, 290, 298, 302, 320, 321)
(a) wa-whe-Di di-,ami-ka-naka naka naka naka
1<F7#'an(&a'en!7? 3SE.N.:7(ie7DECF7<RS.DIS
GO$' #'an()a!"e' is (+in#.C
(1) tKinu niwh-ka ka ka ka di-na
(-# 3SE.N.:Z1i!e7REC.<ST.DIS 2SE.N.:7OAK
GT"e (-# 1i! "i (*e "a0e seen i!).C
(c) wa-whe-Di-miki-Di hiwyasi-ne di-,ami-nhina nhina nhina nhina
1<F7#'an(&a'en!7?7N?FH.<ST7? &-is-n7INST 3SE.N.:7(ie7SI.RE?.<ST
GO$' la!e #'an()a!"e' "a( (ie( !"'-$#" &-is-n.C
(() kasina-way-nuku nu-wheni-de de de de nuhua nu-kale-nuku
n-*7EWTR.F7TO<.NSAK 1SE7'e0en#e7:UT.CERT I 1SE7"ea'!7TO<.NSAK
GN-* I *ill !a/e 'e0en#e )-' + "ea'! (*"ic" *as (e0-$'e( 1+ an e0il s&i'i!).C
(e) ha-ma-pe pedalie-ma-pe na-yami-mhade mhade mhade mhade-thuy naL
DE?.IN.7CF:.:7<F -l(7CF:.:7<F 3<F7(ie7:UT.NCERT7all 3<FZ#-
GT"ese -l( *-en *ill all (ie.C

Ti'i+N "as a 1asic (is!inc!i-n 1e!*een )ac!$al an( n-n7)ac!$al --(. Tense a'/in# -)
<RESENT, <.ST, an( :UTURE -nl+ -cc$'s in !"e )ac!$al --( *"ic" is )$'!"e' s&li! in!-
I?<ER:ECTIDE; <ER:ECTIDE a'/in# *"ic" in !$'n is a#ain s&li! in!- c-llec!i0e; n-n7c-llec!i0e.
<RESENT I?<ER:ECTIDE an( :UTURE I?<ER:ECTIDE )-'s als- enc-(e CERT.INTP; UNCERT.INTP (?ei'a
1999, 298)).), al!"-$#" CERT.INTP an( DUAIT.TIDE a'/e's can 1e a((e( as *ell. T"e -nl+
$na'/e( ca!e#-'ies a'e !"e <RESENT <ER:ECTIDE c-llec!i0e an( n-n7c-llec!i0e, *"ic" s$##es!s
!"a! !"is is a Be'- a'/e'.

(3.21) Ti'i+N (Ca'i1an= ?ei'a 1999, 304, 308, 304)
(a) konopo n-eh-ta-n kokoro
'ain 3S
.
7c-e7:UT.I<:D7DUA !--''-*
GI! *ill 'ain !--''-*.C
(1) suurinamMpo w-ei-ne ne ne ne6
S$'ina\FOC 1s
.
7CO<7<ST.<:D
wN-tn-ne ne ne ne serMp
1s
.
7#-7<ST.<:D 3IN..<ROW\.AF
GI *as in S$'ina (!"en, l-n# a#-), I *en! !"e'e )'- "e'e.C
(c) ji-npo kN-rN-ta ta ta ta-e
17-n.1ac/ 1Z2.7(-7:UT.I<:D7CERT
GI *ill &$! +-$ -n + 1ac/.C
44 3.4 Tense s+s!es

Sa1anU -1li#a!-'il+ a'/s Tense an( E0i(en!iali!+= <RESENT, <.ST, an( :UTURE als- enc-(e
sens-'+ an( ne$!'al E0i(en!iali!+ an( in)e'en!ial an( IN:ERRED ne$!'al -nl+ -cc$' in !"e <.ST.

(3.22) Sa1anU (Na1i/*a'an= .'a$O- 2004, 145, 142, 145)
(a) towali ilul-i- -- -dana dana dana dana
1.SAK !-.ea!7DS7<RS.E
GI ea!.C
(1) wayulu-mi ip-i-datinan datinan datinan datinan
(-#7RE: !-.'$n7DS7<ST.E
GT"e (-# 'an.C
(c) ilul-i-tapanal tapanal tapanal tapanal-i
!-.ea!7DS7:UT.N7.SSR
GS;"e *ill ea!.

.ll lan#$a#es *i!" an -0e'!l+ a'/e( !"'ee7*a+ Tense s&li! s"-* a "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n
*i!" .s&ec!, ?-(ali!+, -' E0i(en!iali!+ an( !"is )$si-n is &-ssi1l+ !"e 'eas-n )-' !"e 'ic"ness
-) !"ese Tense s+s!es.

3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4.> .> .> .> :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE an( an( an( an( <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST a'/in# a'/in# a'/in# a'/in#
. s&ecial Tense s+s!e is !"e -0e'! a'/in# -) <.ST an( :UTURE, 1$! n-! <RESENT. T"is is n-!
!"e sae as !"e !*-7*a+ s&li!s (isc$sse( a1-0e, as !"e'e is n- 1ina'+ -&&-si!i-n 1e!*een
!*- )ea!$'es; a'/e's, 1$! i! is n-! a !"'ee7*a+ s&li! ei!"e', as -ne ca!e#-'+, !"e <RESENT, is
$na'/e(. Ins!ea(, :UTURE an( <.ST 1-!" a'e a'/e( (is!inc! )'- eac" -!"e' an( <RESENT is
$na'/e(. T"is is !"e la'#es! Tense s+s!e in !"e sa&le, a'/e( 1+ 22 S.IFs,

<a'esi, Ka'a*a'a, .*a <i!, I/a, ?i'a]a, Te"$elc"e, D`*, @$&, Lic"J, ?-se!Qn, S"i&i1-7
K-ni1-, Paina"$a, @$alla#a, C$Bc- an( I1a1$'a I$ec"$a, Ca0ine]a, Ka'-, ?e/ens,
C-caa7C-cailla, Ta&ie!e, K*aBa, an( <$ina0e.

T"is #'-$& is n-! "--#ene-$s, s-e -) !"e lan#$a#es in )ac! -nl+ "a0e a'#inal Tense
a'/in# !"a! is an a((i!i-nal eans -) l-ca!in# !"e 0e'1al ac!i-n in !ie, 1$! n-! -1li#a!-'+.
O!"e' lan#$a#es (- "a0e -1li#a!-'+ Tense a'/in# an( a'e in(ee( 6$i!e cl-se !- a'/ !"'ee
Tenses, !"$s al-s! "a0in# a !"'ee7*a+ s&li!. .n e%a&le is .*a <i! *"e'e !"e a1sence -)
:UTURE -' <.ST a'/e's enc-(es <RESENT, 1$! -nl+ in c-ns!'$c!i-ns *i!" a ne#a!i0e a'/e' ki,
an( a)!e' ?-(al in)lec!i-n -) necessi!+. .((i!i-nall+, Tense a'/in# e%is!s -nl+ *i!" )ini!e
0e'1s, lea0in# s$1-'(ina!e cla$ses $na'/e( )-' Tense (C$'n-* 1998). .*a <i! !"e'e)-'e
a+ "a0e a !"'ee7*a+ Tense s&li! *i!" a <RESENT Be'- a'/e', 1$! $nless -'e is /n-*n
a1-$! -1li#a!-'iness -) Tense a'/in#, i! 'eains in !"e :UTURE; <.ST classi)ica!i-n. T"e
)-ll-*in# &a'a#'a&" ill$s!'a!es !"e :UTURE; <.ST Tense s+s!e in Ka'a*a'a as a !+&ical
e%a&le.
3. Tense 45

Ka'a*a'a -0e'!l+ a'/s 'ecen!, (is!an!, an( )a' <.ST, an( :UTURE, 1$! n-! <RESENT. .ll
-0e'!l+ a'/e( Tenses c-(e )-' #en(e' ()einine; asc$line) an( !"e 'ecen!, (is!an!, an(
)a' <.ST 0e'1al s$))i%es a'e )$se( *i!" E0i(en!iali!+ (e+e*i!ness; n-n7e+e*i!ness). ?a'/in#
-) E0i(en!iali!+ is -1li#a!-'+, s- <.ST Tense is a$!-a!icall+ a'/e( as *ell, 1$! in #ene'al,
Tense a'/in# is n-! -1li#a!-'+. :UTURE can 1e a'/e( 1+ !"e :UTURE s$))i% )-' &'e(ic!i-n -'
a "i#" (e#'ee -) ce'!ain!+, an( an INTENTION.F s$))i% *"ic" enc-(es &lannin# -' in!en!i-n=
!-#e!"e' *i!" a 1
s!
incl s$1Oec! i! "as !"e @ORT.TORP eanin# Gle! $sC. T"e :UTURE s$))i% is
!'ea!e( 1+ Di%-n (2004) as a ?-(al s$))i%, 1eca$se i! )ills !"e ?-(al s$))i% sl-! -n !"e 0e'1,
al!"-$#" i!s &'ia'+ )$nc!i-n is l-ca!i-n in !ie an( n-! ?-(ali!+. T"is a+ &-in! !-*a'(s
a ?-(al -'i#in -) !"e :UTURE s$))i%.

(3.23) Ka'a*a'a (.'a*an= Di%-n 2004, 209, 212, 213)
(a) o-kabe-ri ri ri ri-ka
1SE7ea!7REC.<ST.EPE.?7DECF.?
GI a!e i!C
(1) amo o-na-habone habone habone habone o-ke
slee& 1SE7.UW7INT.: 1SE7DECF.:
GI in!en( !-;nee( !- slee&.C
(c) amo o-na-habana habana habana habana o-ke
slee& 1SE7.UW7:UT 1SE7DECF.:
GI *ill slee&.C

Since Tense in Ka'a*a'a is n-! -1li#a!-'il+ a'/e(, !"e'e is n- (i'ec! -&&-si!i-n 1e!*een
<.ST an( :UTURE a'/in# an( <RESENT. T"e <RESENT is n-! a Be'- a'/e' in !"is case, 1$! a+
*ell 1e -n !"e 1-'(e' -) 1ec-in# -ne, O$s! li/e !"e .*a <i! <RESENT *"ic" al'ea(+ is a Be'-
a'/e' in ce'!ain c-ns!'$c!i-ns.

3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 ?.WI?U? TENSE ?.WI?U? TENSE ?.WI?U? TENSE ?.WI?U? TENSE
.cc-'(in# !- !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e, !"e a%iall+ &-ssi1le n$1e' -) Tense ca!e#-'ies a'/e(
is )i0e. . lan#$a#e *i!" 0al$e )i0e in Tense "as a'/e's )-' <RESENT, :UTURE, <.ST, an(
'e-!eness (e#'ees in 1-!" :UTURE an( <.ST. T"e'e a'e !*- lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le !"a!
"a0e 0al$e )i0e, C$1e- (T$can-an) an( E1e'a (C"-c-an). T"e C$1e- T.?E s+s!e is
c"a'ac!e'iBe( 1+ a "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n, *"e'eas E1e'a T.?E a'/in# !en(s !- 1e
anal+!ic. :-' a -'e (e!aile( s/e!c" -) E1e'a see sec!i-n 3.>.9 1el-*. In C$1e-, <RESENT,
'ecen! <.ST, E0i(en!iali!+, an( ce'!ain n-n7T.?E ca!e#-'ies (#en(e', &e's-n, n$1e', an(
aniac+) a'e e%&'esse( in &a'a(i#s -) c$$la!i0es. T"e 0e'1 s!a!$s (e!e'ines *"ic"
Tense a&&lies, 'ecen! <.ST *i!" (+naic 0e'1s, <RESENT *i!" s!a!i0e 0e'1s. In (3.24a) !"e
s$))i% 7b0 a'/s 'ecen! <.ST, :IRST@.ND in)-'a!i-n, an( !"i'( &e's-n sin#$la' asc$line, 1$!
i) i! *e'e a s!a!i0e 0e'1, !"e cla$se Tense *-$l( 1e <RESENT ins!ea(. In e%a&le (3.241) !"e
s$))i% 7w0 a'/s <RESENT (($'a!i0e), :IRST@.ND in)-'a!i-n, )i's!;sec-n(; !"i'( &e's-n, an(
inaniac+,
4> 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

(3.24) C$1e- (T$can-an= ?-'se M ?a%*ell 1999, 40, 41)
(a) dB-b0 b0 b0 b0
#-73SE.?.REC.<ST
G@e *en! 'ecen!l+.C (-'i#. Gal )$e 'ecien!een!e.C)
(1) oko da-0-w0 w0 w0 w0 @ @@ @
*a!e' c-e7STD7N3
GI! is 'ainin#.C (-'i#. GEs!X ll-0ien(-.C )

. )-'all+ (i))e'en! &a'a(i# e%is!s )-' n-n7'ecen! <.ST an( <RESENT @.AITU.F *"ic" a'e
c$$la!i0es *i!" #en(e', n$1e', &e's-n, an( aniac+, an( all )-'s a$!-a!icall+ s!a!e
:IRST@.ND in)-'a!i-n (*"e'eas in <RESENT ($'a!i0e an( 'ecen! <.ST &a'a(i# a c"-ice -)
E0i(en!iali!+ can e a(e) an( in(ica!i0e. T"e !e&-'al )'ae is a#ain (e!e'ine( 1+
*"e!"e' !"e 0e'1 is s!a!i0e (<RESENT @.AITU.F) -' ($'a!i0e (n-n7'ecen! <.ST). . "is!-'ical <.ST
is a'/e( 1+ !"e s$))i% 7OeEa6 *"ic" (en-!es a !ie a! leas! 20 +ea's in !"e &as!, 1$!
s-e!ies -nl+ 10 +ea's. T"is s$))i% is )-ll-*e( 1+ !"e a&&'-&'ia!e n-n7'ecen! <.ST s$))i%
(?-'se M ?a%*ell 1999, 4>).). <RESENT is als- e%&'esse( 1+ a &a'a(i# -) NON:UTURE
n-inaliBe' s$))i%es incl$(in# in)-'a!i-n a1-$! aniac+, n$1e', #en(e', an(
s!a!i0e;(+naic (i1i(. 48). :$!$'i!+ is e%&'esse( ei!"e' 1+ a se! -) 0e'1al s$))i%es )-' nea'
:UTURE, incl$(in# in)-'a!i-n a1-$! n$1e' an( #en(e' (i1i(. 49), -' 1+ 0e'1al s$))i%es )-'
in(e)ini!e :UTURE, incl$(in# in)-'a!i-n a1-$! &e's-n, n$1e', aniac+, an(
DUAIT.TIDE;CERT.INTP. L"e'eas !"e nea' :UTURE s$))i% is si&l+ a((e( !- !"e 0e'1al s!e, !"e
in(e)ini!e :UTURE is -'e c-&lica!e(. T"e 0e'1al s!e is )-ll-*e( 1+ !*- s$))i%es, )i's!, 1+ a
n-inaliBin# s$))i% *"ic" als- e%&'esses in(e)ini!e :UTURE an( a'/s )-' #en(e', n$1e',
aniac+ an( DUAIT.TIDE= !"is is )-ll-*e( 1+ an-!"e' s$))i% -) a se! a'/in# &e's-n, n$1e',
aniac+, DUAIT.TIDE, an( in(e)ini!e :UTURE (i1i(. 51). T"$s, C$1e- #'aa!icall+ a'/s
<RESENT, n-n7'ecen! <.ST, 'ecen! <.ST, nea' :UTURE, an( in(e)ini!e :UTURE in c-1ina!i-n *i!"
0a'i-$s E0i(en!ial eanin#s, @.AITU.F, E&is!eic ?-(ali!+, an( n-n7T.?E 'ela!e(
in)-'a!i-n s$c" as n$1e', &e's-n, an( aniac+.

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.> RE?OTENESS DEEREES RE?OTENESS DEEREES RE?OTENESS DEEREES RE?OTENESS DEEREES
3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.1 .1 .1 .1 O0e'0ie* O0e'0ie* O0e'0ie* O0e'0ie*
O$! -) !"e >3 lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le, 29 #'aa!icall+ a'/ 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in
Tense. Re-!eness (is!inc!i-ns 'e)e' !- a !e&-'al (is!ance 1e!*een S an( E, i.e. !"e
in!e'0al 1e!*een !"e &-in!s -) s&eec" an( !"e &-in! -) e0en!,

S 777777777777777777777777bE

T"e !e&-'al (is!ances as *ell as !"e n$1e' -) (is!inc!i-ns 0a'+ )'- lan#$a#e !-
lan#$a#e, 1$! !"e S.IFs can 1e a''an#e( in!- !"'ee #'-$&s acc-'(in# !- in *"ic" Tense !"e+
enc-(e 'e-!eness (e#'ees,

3. Tense 48

1. Re-!eness in !"e :UTURE, 1$! n-! <.ST
2. Re-!eness in !"e <.ST, 1$! n-! :UTURE
3. Re-!eness in 1-!" <.ST an( :UTURE

.((i!i-nall+, !"e+ can 1e #'-$&e( in!- "-* an+ 'e-!eness (e#'ees !"e+ enc-(e, 'an#in#
)'- -ne !- -'e !"an )-$', an( *"e!"e' !"e+ "a0e !"e sae a-$n! -) (is!inc!i-ns in <.ST
an( :UTURE (*"ic" (-es n-! necessa'il+ e6$al !"e sae (is!ances) (see !a1le 3.4).
S.IFs in !"e sa&le *i!" 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns 'an#e )'- "a0in# -nl+ -ne
'e-!eness (e#'ee in ei!"e' <.ST -' :UTURE !- "a0in# se0e'al in 1-!". .l!"-$#" s-e
lan#$a#es a'e 1alance( an( s"-* an e6$al n$1e' -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in 1-!" Tenses
!"e !'en( sees !- 1e in )a0-' -) "a0in# -'e <.ST 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns !"an :UTURE
-nes. T"e n$1e' -) lan#$a#es *i!" 'e-!eness in !"e <.ST 1$! n-! in !"e :UTURE is
si#ni)ican!l+ "i#"e' (19,3). ?-s! -) !"e lan#$a#es *i!" a 'e-!eness (e#'ee s"-* i! in !"e
<.ST. T"e a-$n! 'an#es )'- -ne !- si% (e#'ees ()i0e (e#'ees a'e issin#).
1
T"e )-ll-*in#
sec!i-ns (isc$ss !"e (i))e'en! /in(s -) 'e-!eness in (e!ail.

Ta1le 3.4, Tense 'e-!eness (e#'ees (n$1e's in 1'ac/e!s 'e)e' !-, (<.ST; :UTURE))
Re-!eness (e#'ees in
!"eY
Fan#$a#es
<.ST <$ina0e (2; 0), K*aBa (1; 0), ?-0ia (2; 0), Fe/- (1;0), Ta'iana (2; 0), Ka'a*a'a (3; 0),
.+a'a (2; 0), @i%/a'+ana (3; 0), Ti'i+N (1;0), La'iC (3; 0), Te"$elc"e (2; 0), .#$a'$na (4;
0), Lic"J (>; 0), ?aain(U (3; 0), ?a!ses (3; 0), Ca0ine]a (2; 0), Desan- (1; 0) , <ana'e (3;
0)
:UTURE D`* (0; 1), ?e/ens (0; 1), Panes"aC (0; 1)
<.ST an( :UTURE Ta&ie!e (2; 2), ?i'a]a (2; 1), N-'!"e'n E1e'a (1; 1), @$& (2; 2), Paina"$a (4; 1), C$1e-
(3; 2), C-caa7C-cailla (3; 2), Ka'- (2; 1), S"i&i1-7K-ni1- (5; 1)

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.2 .2 .2 .2 One 'e-!eness (e#'ee One 'e-!eness (e#'ee One 'e-!eness (e#'ee One 'e-!eness (e#'ee in !"e in !"e in !"e in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST
Fan#$a#es *i!" -ne 'e-!eness (e#'ee "a0e a -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic a'/e' )-' a <.ST Tense
!"a! s&eci)icall+ 'e)e's !- 'e-!eness an( !"a! e%is!s ei!"e' in(e&en(en!l+ )'- a #ene'al
<.ST a'/e' !"a! "as n- 'e-!eness s&eci)ica!i-n, -' is !"e -nl+ a'/e( <.ST.
T"e lan#$a#es *i!" -ne 'e-!eness (e#'ee all a'/ )-' <.ST !"a! is 'e-0e( )a' a*a+
)'- !"e <RESENT, K*aBa, Fe/-, an( Ti'i+N. K*aBa "as a <.ST a'/e' 7ky !"a! (-es n-! "a0e
s&eci)ic 'e-!eness 0al$es an( a 'e-!e <.ST a'/e' 7 #P# !"a! can 'e)e' !- an+ e0en! in !"e
<.ST 2)'- 'ela!i0el+ 'e-!e !- !"e )i's! (a+s -) an/in(5 (Dan (e' D--'! 2004, 3907391).
T"is a'/e' can -cc$' -n 0e'1s 1$! als- -n n-$ns, al!"-$#" s!ill 'e)e''in# !- !"e 0e'1 !ie,
an( a+ e0en "a0e sc-&e -0e' a n-$n,


1
:-' a lan#$a#e *i!" )i0e 'e-!eness (e#'ess see Pa#$a (<a+ne M <a+ne 1990).
49 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

(3.25) K*aBa ($nclassi)ie(= Dan (e' D--'! 2004, 392, 391, 392)
(a) segunQa;era-# ## #P PP P# ## #-'wy
?-n(a+7RE?.<ST7!ie
Glas! ?-n(a+C
(1) hako'ri isi-# ## #P PP P# ## #-'wy
--n (ie7RE?.<ST7!ie
G.! !"e !ie !"e'e *as an ecli&se -) !"e --n (-ne +ea' a#-).C
(c) ja a'nu-# ## #P PP P# ## #-hR-ki atEi'tEi
al'ea(+ &lan!7RE?.<ST7N?FH7DECF aiBe
G@e &lan!e( aiBe al'ea(+ 0e'+ l-n# !ie a#-.C
(() o'kja-# ## #P PP P# ## #- -- -nahere
"$n!7RE?.<ST7COF
G!"-se "$n!e's -) !"e &as! (-) -l(en !ies)C

In Ti'i+N, !"e 'e-!e <.ST is lii!e( !- e0en!s -) a G+!"icalC !ie, an( is )-$n( al-s!
e%cl$si0el+ in na''a!i0es (?ei'a 1999, 334).). I! cann-! a&&ea' in c-n!e%!s li/e Glas! ?-n(a+C
as in K*aBa a1-0e (3.25a).

(3.2>) Ti'i+N (Ca'i1an= ?ei'a 1999, 335)
kaikuki t-ntahka-e ee e akuriMja
Oa#$a' RE?.<ST7)--l7RE?.<ST a#-$!i\.E
GT"e a#-$!i )--le( !"e Oa#$a'.C

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.3 .3 .3 .3 T*- 'e-!eness (e#'ees T*- 'e-!eness (e#'ees T*- 'e-!eness (e#'ees T*- 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e in !"e in !"e in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST
Fan#$a#es *i!" !*- 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST a'e <$ina0e, ?-0ia, Ta'iana, .+a'a,
<ana'e, Te"$elc"e, Ca0ine]a, an( Desan-. T"ese all "a0e '-$#"l+ a 'ecen! 0s. 'e-!e <.ST
(is!inc!i-n 1$! 0a'+ acc-'(in# !- *"e'e a <.ST is s!ill 'ecen! an( *"e'e a 'e-!e <.ST 1e#ins.
T"a! !"is is a "i#"l+ s$1Oec!i0e eas$'e is seen 1+ s&ea/e' 0a'ia!i-n *i!"in -ne lan#$a#e,
)-' e%a&le in <$ina0e an( Ca0ine]a, T"e <$ina0e s$))i%es -ni an( 7di *i!" s-e s&ea/e's
in(ica!e an -&&-si!i-n 1e!*een *"a! "a&&ene( !"e sae (a+ (7ni) an( *"a! "a&&ene(
+es!e'(a+ an( -'e 'e-0e( (7di). T"is &-in!s !-*a'( a "-(ie'nal (sae (a+); &'e"-(ie'nal
(1e)-'e !-(a+) 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-n )-' <$ina0e <.ST (as c-ine( 1+ Da"l 1994, 112= see als-
Da"l M Del$&illai 20111), i) i! *e'e n-! )-' !"e )ac! !"a! s-e s&ea/e's acce&! 7ni )-' G+es!e'(a+C
as *ell (Ei'Nn 2009, 288).
Ca0ine]a als- "as 'ecen! an( 'e-!e <.ST a'/in#. .n e0en! s!a'!s 1ein# 'e-!e *"en
i! "a&&ene( a'-$n( a +ea' 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec"= in !"e in!e'0al 1e!*een !"e &-in! -)
s&eec" an( -ne +ea' a#- i! is 'ecen! (E$illa$e 2009, 1>>).). In Desan-, !"e c$!7-)) &-in! is
s-e*"e'e a'-$n( !*- *ee/s 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec", 2Recen! &as! is $se( a1-$! e0en!s
!"a! "a0e O$s! -cc$''e( -' *"ic" -cc$''e( ($'in# !"e &as! *ee/ -' !*-, an( 'e-!e &as!
'e)e's !- an+!"in# 1e)-'e !"a!5 (?ille' 1999, >9). In Ta'iana, 'ecen! <.ST 'e)e's !- e0en!s !"a!
s!a'!e( a )e* in$!es 1ac/ !- a )e* (a+s a#- an( 'e-!e <.ST 'e)e's !- e0en!s !"a! s!a'!e( a
3. Tense 49

l-n# !ie a#-, al!"-$#" !"e c$!7-)) &-in! is )l$en! (.i/"en0al( 2003, 299). Ka'-Cs 'ecen! an(
'e-!e; +!"ical <.ST &a'!icles co an( k%n a'e siila'l+ a1i#$-$s !- !"ei' c$!7-)) &-in!s.
T"e 'e-!e <.ST &a'!icle a&&ea's !- 1e $se( )-' !ie s&ans l-n#e' !"an 15720 +ea's a#-
(Ea1as K'. 1999, 184).

(3.28) Ka'- (T$&Jan= Ea1as K'. 1999, 185, 188)
(a) p&' o=Ce-t co co co co
s"--! 1SES.UW7IND REC.<ST
GI s"-!.C
(1) (n #ri' mac)ri g%n g%n g%n g%n
1SE #i'l C.US7"eal7IND RE?.<ST
GI "eale( !"e #i'l (l-n# a#-).C

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.4 .4 .4 .4 T"'ee 'e-!eness T"'ee 'e-!eness T"'ee 'e-!eness T"'ee 'e-!eness (e#'ees (e#'ees (e#'ees (e#'ees in !"e in !"e in !"e in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST
Fan#$a#es in !"e sa&le *i!" !"'ee 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST a'e Ka'a*a'a,
@i%/a'+ana, La'iC, ?aain(U, an( ?a!ses. Ka'a*a'a, ?aain(U, an( ?a!ses a'/ <.ST in
c$$la!i0e -'&"ees *i!" E0i(en!ial 0al$es= !"ese *ill 1e ill$s!'a!e( )i's!.
Ka'a*a'a "as !"'ee a'/e( 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST an( all -) !"e c-1ine
in c$$la!i0e -'&"ees *i!" e+e*i!ness an( n-n7e+e*i!ness (an( #en(e'). T"e
'e-!eness is (i0i(e( in!- ie(ia!e, 'ecen!, an( )a'. Ie(ia!e <.ST 'e)e's !- a -en!
a#- !- a )e* -n!"s a#-, 'ecen! !- a )e* -n!"s !- a )e* +ea's a#-, an( )a' !- an+ +ea's
a#-, al!"-$#" !"ese !ie s&ans a'e n-! a1s-l$!e 0al$es an( !"e a'/e's a'e 'ela!i0e !- eac"
-!"e' 'a!"e' !"an )i%e( -n !"e !ie line (Di%-n 2004, 208). T"e <.ST e+e*i!ness an( <.ST
n-n7e+e*i!ness )-'s (- n-! a!c" c-&le!el+, ie(ia!e <.ST n-n7e+e*i!ness -0e'la&s
*i!" 'ecen! <.ST e+e*i!ness (Di%-n 2004, 209). T"is is &-ssi1l+ !"e 'es$l! )'- a )ai'l+ 'ecen!
in!'-($c!i-n -) !"e ie(ia!e <.ST a'/e's in!- Ka'a*a'a an( !"a! 'ecen! <.ST "a(
-'i#inall+ c-0e'e( !"e ie(ia!e <.ST !ie s&an (Di%-n 2004, 209).

(3.29) Ka'a*a'a (.'a*an= (Di%-n 2004, 203, 209, 219)
(a) owa na-ta;i-are are are are-ka
1SE.OAK C.US7*a/e7I??.<ST.EPE.?7DECF.?
GI! (i( *a/en e.C
(1) o-kabe-ri ri ri ri-ka
1SE7ea!7REC.<ST.EPE.?7DECF.?
GI a!e i!C
(c) ee ta@tama to-he-hemete hemete hemete hemete-mone
1INCF REDU<.1e.an+ .L.P7.UW7:.R.<ST.NEPE.:7RE<O.:
GI! is sai( !"a! *e $se( !- 1e an+ (i.e. !"e !'i1e $se( !- 1e 1i##e' !"an i! is n-*).C

?aain(U a'/s !"'ee 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST, n-n7(is!an!, s$1(i0i(e( in!-
'ecen! an( in!e'e(ia!e, an( (is!an!. .ll <.ST Tenses a'e c$$la!i0e -'&"ees *i!"
50 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

E0i(en!iali!+. T"e n-n7(is!an! <.ST in(ica!es 'ecen! <.ST *"ic" a&&lies !- e0en!s -) !"e sae
(a+ (incl$(in# !"e &'e0i-$s ni#"!). In!e'e(ia!e <.ST c-0e's an+!"in# )'- +es!e'(a+ !-
(eca(es a#- $n!il !"e !ie *"en !"e (is!an! <.ST se!s in. T"e (is!an! <.ST 'e)e's !- !"e ea'l+
c"il("--( -) !"e s&ea/e' an( 1e)-'e. T"e n-n7(is!an! <.ST DISU.F s$))i% 7nn -n i!s -*n
'e)e's !- 'ecen! <.ST, 1$! *"en i! c-1ines *i!" !"e s$))i% 7let i! eans in!e'e(ia!e <.ST.
T"e (is!an! &as! s$))i% 7h#nC als- c-(es DISU.F E0i(en!iali!+ (E1e'"a'( 2009, 445)).). T"e'e is
an-!"e' se! -) Tense7E0i(en!ial s$))i%es !"a! c-(es NON7DISU.F 'ecen! <.ST, 1$! !"e )-'s )-'
in!e'e(ia!e an( (is!an! <.ST a'e "--&"-n-$s (E1e'"a'( 2009, 458). T"e !"'ee 'e-!eness
(is!inc!i-ns a'e als- a(e in IN:ERRED an( SECOND@.ND E0i(en!iali!+ (i1i(. 459, 4>9).

(3.29) ?aain(U (Na1i/*a'an= E1e'"a'( 2009, 448, 449)
(a) wa-taClohni nahohntoC het--nn nn nn nn-wa
2<OSS7-l(.*-an $c" an#'+73SAK7NDIST.<ST.DIS7DECF
GP-$' -!"e' *as e%!'eel+ an#'+ (ea'lie' !-(a+).C
(1) kanahaleCi-tu SesolaT-t
h
#n
+es!e'(a+7:NS sc"--l7NCF.@OUSE
kaCjainC-jeC-le le le le-a-nn nn nn nn-wa
*'i!e7E?<7INTER.<ST.DIS71SE7NDIST.<ST.DIS7DECF
GI *'-!e; s!$(ie( in sc"--l +es!e'(a+.C
(c) nahana-sihati-ijah-tu n"sa-jahon-nC suCton--h hh h#n #n #n #nC CC C-wa
!ie7.NC7DE?7:NS 1<F.<OSS7-l(.an7<F n-!./n-*73SAK-DIST.<ST.DIS7DECF
GIn ancien! !ie, -$' ances!-'s (i(nC! /n-* (!"a!).C

?a!ses c-(es 'ecen!, (is!an!, an( 'e-!e <.ST. Recen! <.ST :IRST@.ND 'e)e's !- an ac!i-n 1ac/
$n!il a -n!" a#-, (is!an! '-$#"l+ )'- a -n!" !- 50 +ea's a#-, an( 'e-!e )'- 50 !- 100
+ea's a#-. T"e 'e-!e <.ST is $se( 1+ -l( &e-&le !- 'e)e' !- !"ei' c"il("--( (:lec/ 2003, 399).
Recen! <.ST IN:ERRED 'e)e's !- an ac!i-n 1ac/ $n!il a -n!"s a#-, (is!an! )'- a1-$! a -n!"
a#- 1ac/ !- !"e s&ea/e'Cs in)anc+, an( 'e-!e !- an+!"in# 1e)-'e (is!an! (:lec/ 2003, 40>).
Recen! an( (is!an! <.ST .SSU?ED c-0e' '-$#"l+ !"e sae !ie s&ans as !"e 'ecen! an( (is!an!
<.ST :IRST@.ND an( IN:ERRED (:lec/ 2003, 418).
@i%/a'+ana a'/s !"'ee 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST, Ie(ia!e, 'ecen!, an(
(is!an!. T"e ie(ia!e <.ST 'e)e's !- !"e sae (a+ -' !"e &'e0i-$s ni#"!, !"e 'ecen! <.ST !-
!"e (a+ 1e)-'e !- se0e'al -n!"s a#-, an( (is!an! <.ST 'e)e's !- all ac!i-ns !"a! a'e n-!
c-0e'e( 1+ !"e 'ecen! <.ST an+ -'e (De'1+s"i'e 1989, 139139). .s Da"l (1994, 109) n-!es,
!"e @i%/a'+ana Tense 'e-!eness s+s!e is s!'i/in#l+ siila' !- !"a! -) Ka1a, a Aan!$
lan#$a#e.

(3.30) @i%/a'+ana (Ca'i1an= De'1+s"i'e 1989, 139)
(a) oy-otaha-tEow tEow tEow tEowB BB B
3SAK.2OAK7"i!7I??.<ST.COF
GT"e+ "i! +-$.C
3. Tense 51

(1) r-onye-yatEoko yatEoko yatEoko yatEoko
3SAK.1OAK7see7REC.<ST.<:D.COF
GT"e+ sa* e.C
(c) w-ama-ye ye ye ye
1S.EWCF.OAK7)ell7DIST.<ST.<:D.NCOF
GI )elle( i! (!'ee).C

La'iC )ea!$'es !"'ee -&!i-nal sen!ence )inal &a'!icles )-' 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e
&as!, 1$! n-! !"e )$!$'e, ne G'ecen!C, pane Gi(; 'e-!eC, an( pacara pane G"is!-'icC. T"e
'ecen! <.ST 'e)e's !- !"e las! 12 "-$'s, !"e i(; 'e-!e <.ST !- an ac!i-n -) !"e (a+ 1e)-'e
1ac/ !- an+ +ea's a#-, an( "is!-'ic <.ST !- an $ns&eci)ie( <.ST 1e)-'e i(; 'e-!e (E0e'e!!
M Ke'n 1998, 311).

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.5 .5 .5 .5 :-$' 'e-!eness (e#'ees :-$' 'e-!eness (e#'ees :-$' 'e-!eness (e#'ees :-$' 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e in !"e in !"e in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST
Onl+ -ne lan#$a#e in !"e sa&le -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/s )-$' 'e-!eness (e#'ees in
!"e <.ST, .#$a'$na. I! a'/s 'ecen!, in!e'e(ia!e, (is!an!, an( 'e-!e <.ST. T"ei' 0al$es
"a0e !- 1e seen in 'ela!i-n !- eac" -!"e', !"e 'ecen! <.ST s$))i% 7ma 'e)e's !- ea'lie' !"e
sae (a+ !- a )e* (a+s a#- an( !"e in!e'e(ia!e <.ST s$))i% 7maia 'e)e's !- a !ie l-n#e' a#-
!"an 'ecen! <.ST. I! is &'-1a1l+ a c-1ina!i-n -) 'ecen! &as! s$))i% 7ma an( 'e-!e &as!
s$))i% 7ia. T"e (is!an! <.ST s$))i% -amaia is )$'!"e' 'e-0e( )'- !"e <RESENT !"an
in!e'e(ia!e <.ST 1$! cl-se' !- i! !"a! !"e 'e-!e <.ST s$))i% -ia *"ic" 'e)e's !- a !ie an+
+ea's a#- T"e in!e'e(ia!e an( (is!an! <.ST s$))i%es a'e &'-1a1l+ #'aa!icaliBe( )'-
!"e 'ecen! an( 'e-!e <.ST s$))i%es, 1$! !"ei' $sa#e &-in!s !-*a'( in(e&en(en! a'/e's.
Recen! an( (is!an! <.ST als- enc-(e :IRST@.ND in)-'a!i-n. .#$a'$na a((i!i-nall+ "as a
na''a!i0e <.ST s$))i% 7haku, 1$! !"is c-0e's '-$#"l+ !"e sae !ie s&an as !"e 'e-!e <.ST
a'/e' (O0e'all 2008, 33>345).

(3.31) .#$a'$na (Ki0a'-an= O0e'all 2008, 33>, 339, 343, 344)
(a) ti-ma ma ma ma-ha-0 'ecen!
sa+ZFO.:7REC.<ST71SE7DECF
GI sai(.C
(1) Unu-na muunta auhumatu-inu aha-maia maia maia maia=nu-naV in!e'e(ia!e
.N.7.CC el(e' !ell7NR CO<.<ST7INTER.<ST.3S.N.7.CC
wi-Ka ta-ha-0
1SE7.DD sa+ZI<:D71SE7DECF
G!"a! (s!-'+) *"ic" !"e el(e's !-l(, I als- !ell i! (n-*)C
(c) ta-aw-amaia amaia amaia amaia-ha-0 (is!an!
c-e7@I.:7DIST.<.ST71SE7DECF
GI a''i0e(.C


52 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

(() tuna-na-Ka kahama-inu a-ia-ha-0 'e-!e
*a!e')all7.CC7.DD ('ea7NR CO<7RE? RE? RE? RE?. .. .< << <ST ST ST ST71SE7DECF
GI *as ('eain# -) a *a!e')all !--.C (i.e. GI sa* a 0isi-n -) s&i'i!s.C)

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.> .> .> .> Si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees Si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees Si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees Si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e in !"e in !"e in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST
Lic"J is !"e -nl+ lan#$a#e in !"e sa&le !"a! "as si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST, *"ic"
is als- !"e "i#"es! n$1e' -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in 1-!" <.ST an( :UTURE in !"e sa&le.
Lic"J "as s"-*s se0e'al cli!ics )-' <.ST Tense *"-se 'e-!eness 0al$es 'an#e )'-
ie(ia!e !- 'e-!e. T"ei' -'(e' 'ela!i0e !- eac" -!"e' is s"-*n 1el-*,

'e-!e &as!, )ai'+ !alesb"is!-'ical, +!"icalb+ea's a#-b+es!e'(a+b&'esen!
saEi p*ante te naEi mati6 ne
()'- Te''aBa 2009, 1>171>2)

T"e cli!ic saEi is n-! &'-($c!i0e an+ -'e 1$! s!ill 'ec-#niBe( 1+ s&ea/e's )-' a 'e-!e <.ST.
I! is n-! clea' *"e!"e' i! is in(ee( -'e 'e-!e !"an p*ante *"ic" is e&l-+e( )-' na''a!i0es
-) "is!-'ical an( +!"ical c-n!e%!. T"e cli!ic te 'e)e's !- a &as! -) se0e'al +ea's a#-. T"e'e
a'e !"'ee a'/e's !"a! 'e)e' !- a 'ecen! <.ST, naEi is $se( )-' e0en!s -) !"e (a+ 1e)-'e -' a!
leas! 24 "-$'s a#-, ne 'e)e's !- an ie(ia!e <.ST, an( mati 'e)e's !- an ie(ia!e <.ST -n
!"e -'nin# -) !"e sae (a+ (Te''aBa 2009, 1>2), al!"-$#" 7mati als- -cc$'s *i!" !"e
!'ansla!i-n -) Glas! ni#"!C. I! s"-$l( 1e n-!e( !"a! all &'-($c!i0e <.ST Tense cli!ics can als-
-cc$' -n n-$ns.

(3.32) Lic"J (?a!ac-an= Te''aBa 2009, 1>2,199)
(a) ha-la-nahyt-ne ne ne ne yelataE
INTRE727!e!"e'7<ST "-'se
GDi( +-$ !e!"e' !"e "-'se (O$s! n-*)TC (-'i#. Gc.!as!e el ca1all- ('eciQn)TC)
(1) Wam ta-yotsan-mat mat mat mat-nu8y:-a
<R.3SE 37as/7<ST7OAK17.<<F
G@e as/e( e (O$s! a *"ile a#-).C G(-'i#. Gal e &'e#$n!N.C ("ace $n 'a!-))
(c) sinoE y-uk
w
aE-naEi naEi naEi naEi to -i-hi tahy
(-# 371i!e7<ST SUA 371e7FOC )-'es!
GT"e (-# 1i! "i *"en "e *as in !"e )-'es!.C (-'i#. GEl &e''- l- -'(iN c$an(- es!a1a
en el -n!e.C)
(() n-i-8y:eE-te te te te n-?atela wet
171e7.<<F7<ST 1<OSS7#'an(-!"e' "-$se
GI li0e( in !"e "-$se -) + #'an(-!"e' (*i!" "e').C (-'i#. GPi 0i0J en la casa
(e i a1$ela (c-n ella).C)



3. Tense 53

(e) niEutas-p*ante p*ante p*ante p*ante i-lon-hen wik
y
i
s-l(ie's7<ST 37/ill7<F &e-&le
GT"e s-l(ie's (-) !"a! a#e) /ill !"e &e-&le.C (-'i#. GF-s s-l(a(-s ((e esa
Q&-ca) a!an a la #en!e.C)

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.8 .8 .8 .8 Re-!eness (e#'ees in !"e Re-!eness (e#'ees in !"e Re-!eness (e#'ees in !"e Re-!eness (e#'ees in !"e :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE
T"e'e a'e -nl+ !"'ee lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le !"a! s"-* 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e :UTURE,
1$! n-! in !"e <.ST, D`*, ?e/ens, an( Panes"aC. D`* in(ica!es a1s-l$!e :UTURE, ie(ia!e
:UTURE, an( Gs!'a!e#icC :UTURE. T"e ie(ia!e :UTURE a'/e's a'e s$))i% -!Xj an( &a'!icle n!
(?a'!ins 2004, 293)) *"ic" (- n-! see !- "a0e an+ (i))e'ence in eanin#. T"e+ e%&'ess an
in!e'0al in !ie !"a! "a&&ens ie(ia!el+ a)!e' !"e &-in! -) s&eec". .cc-'(in# !- c-n!e%!,
!"e+ can als- e%&'ess a (i'ec!i0e (le! $sY) -' an ac!i-n !"a! "as O$s! 1een ini!ia!e(.

(3.33) D`* (Na(a"$&= ?a'!ins 2004, 293, 199)
(a) me n! n! n! n! m
!
Y$ g wYjZ K&k- -- -[\
]
[\
]
[\
]
[\
]
j jj j
1<F.@ORT :UT "e'e a''i0e "$n!7I??.:UT
GLe a'e #-in# !- a''i0e an( s!a'! "$n!in# 'i#"! a*a+.C (-'i#. GDa-s c"e#a' e
c-enda' a cada' (a6$i es-.C)
(1) hid K&k-[\
]
[\
]
[\
]
[\
]
j jj j
3<F "$n!7I??.:UT
GT"e+ #- "$n!in# n-*.C (-'i#. GEles OX 0V- cada'.C)

?e/ens "as -ne &a'!icle kot !- si#nal ie(ia!e :UTURE. O!"e' &a'!icles si#nal a #ene'al
:UTURE an( IRRE.FIS :UTURE. ?e/ens &-ssi1l+ "as -'e !"an -ne 'e-!eness (e#'ee in !"e
:UTURE (Eal$ci- &.c.).

(3.34) ?e/ens (T$&Jan= Eal$ci- 2001, 151)
o-er-a kot kot kot kot
1SE7slee&7T@E? I??.:UT
GI *ill slee&.C

T"e s!a!$s -) Panes"aC a'/in# 'e-!eness in !"e :UTURE 'eains (-$1!)$l. . n-'al :UTURE
is a'/e( 1+ !"e encli!ic SchaC an( &'-%ia!e :UTURE 1+ !"e a$%ilia'+ o*ch (D$))7T'i&& 1998,
118), 1$! e%a&les a'e sca'ce an( a (isc$ssi-n in D$))7T'i&& (1998) is c-&le!el+ issin#.
I! is in!e'es!in# !"a!, )i's!l+, -nl+ !"'ee lan#$a#es (- "a0e 'e-!eness in !"e :UTURE 1$!
n-! <.ST, an( sec-n(l+, !"a! !"is is ie(ia!e, i.e. )-ll-*in# 'i#"! a)!e' !"e &-in! -) s&eec".
D`* is -) !"e Na(a"$& )ail+ -) *"ic" !"e'e is -ne -!"e' lan#$a#e in !"e sa&le, @$&,
*"ic" s"-*s 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in 1-!" <.ST an( :UTURE. . sea'c" -) Na(a"$& in
?a'!ins M ?a'!ins (1999) "as +iel(e( n- in)-'a!i-n a1-$! :UTURE in -!"e' Na(a"$&
lan#$a#es. Ee-#'a&"icall+, D`* is cl-se !- @$& an( Desan-, 1$! Desan- "as 'e-!eness -nl+
in !"e <.ST. N- c$''en!l+ /n-*n 'ela!i-ns"i&, ei!"e' #e-#'a&"icall+ -' #ene!icall+, can
54 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

!"e'e)-'e e%&lain !"e D`* Tense 'e-!eness s+s!e. T"e sae "-l(s )-' ?e/ens, *"ic" is
-) !"e T$&Jan )ail+. T"e -!"e' -'e T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le (- n-! s"-* a siila'
'e-!eness s+s!e.

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.9 .9 .9 .9 Re-!eness in !"e Re-!eness in !"e Re-!eness in !"e Re-!eness in !"e <.ST <.ST <.ST <.ST an( an( an( an( :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE :UTURE
Fan#$a#es *i!" -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/e( 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in 1-!" <.ST an(
:UTURE ei!"e' "a0e !"e sae a-$n! -) (e#'ees in 1-!" -' -'e in !"e <.ST, 1$! ne0e' -'e
in !"e :UTURE. Ta&ie!e, N-'!"e'n E1e'a, an( @$& "a0e a 1alance( 'e-!eness s+s!e,
Ta&ie!e c-(es ie(ia!e an( (is!an! <.ST an( :UTURE. T"e ie(ia!e :UTURE is in(ica!e( 1+
!*- s$))i%es, 7po an( 7pota, !"e la!!e' a((i!i-nall+ enc-(in# (esi'e (E-nBXleB 2005, 155).
2
T"e
(is!an! :UTURE s$))i% 7kwi can 1e c-1ine( *i!" an+ -) !"e ie(ia!e :UTURE s$))i%es )-' an
e0en -'e (is!an! :UTURE. Ie(ia!e an( (is!an! <.ST a'e als- a'/e( 1+ s$))i%es (E-nBXleB
2005, 15>). T"e'e is n- in(ica!i-n -) *"ic" !ie s&ans ei!"e' ie(ia!e an( (is!an! :UTURE
-' <.ST in"a1i!.
N-'!"e'n E1e'a a'/s ie(ia!e :UTURE an( ie(ia!e <.ST. T"e !*- e%a&les #i0en
in ?-'!ensen (1999) &-in! !-*a'(s $sa#e -) !"ese a'/e's 'e)e''in# !- ac!i-ns 0e'+ nea' !-
!"e &-in! -) s&eec", al!"-$#" !"is cann-! 1e claie( *i!" ce'!ain!+. . s!$(+ -) !"e !e%!s in
a&&en(ices . an( A in ?-'!ensen (1999) (i( n-! +iel( an+ )$'!"e' -cc$''ence -) !"ese
a'/e's.

(3.35) N-'!"e'n E1e'a (C"-c-an= ?-'!ensen 1999, 82)
(a) w-podo podo podo podo-a
#-7I??.:UT7DECF
G@e is a1-$! !- lea0e.C
(1) w-toko toko toko toko-a
#-7I??.<.ST7DECF
G@e O$s! le)!.C

T"ese ie(ia!e <.ST an( :UTURE a'/e's als- see !- 1e 'es!'ic!e( !- N-'!"e'n E1e'a, as
in !"e E1e'a #'aa' 1+ .#$i''e Fic"! (1999) a1-$! !"e C"aJ 0a'ian! (S-$!"e'n E1e'a)
n- Tense 'e-!eness (e#'ees a'e en!i-ne( a! all. I! is *-'!" en!i-nin# !"a! !"e
ie(ia!e <.ST s$))i% is "--&"-n-$s *i!" !"e 0e'1 toko G!- '$nC (c). ?-'!ensen 1999, 1>4,
e%a&les 84 an( 8>).
@$& "as -ne &a'!icle )-' !e&-'al &'-%ii!+ an( !*- &a'!icles )-' (is!an! :UTURE an(
<.ST 'es&ec!i0el+. I! is i&-'!an! !- 'ealiBe !"a! all !"e 'e-!eness &a'!icles 'e)e' !- a
c-n!'as! -) Tense *i!" 'e#a'( !- !"e <RESENT= !"e+ a'e !"e'e)-'e a1s-l$!e Tenses. T"e
&'-%ia!e &a'!icle p%h 'e)e's !- ac!i-ns ie(ia!el+ 1e)-'e -' a)!e' !"e &-in! -) s&eec" an(
e0en si$l!ane-$s ac!i-ns. I! cann-! 'e)e' !- a (is!an! Tense (E&&s 2009, >00). I! can c-7

2
.cc-'(in# !- Kensen (1999), (escen(an! -) !"e &'-!-7)-' epot%r -cc$' c--nl+ in E$a'anJ as :UTURE
-' DESIDER.TIDE (see als- ?$elle' 2013).
3. Tense 55

-cc$' *i!" !"e #ene'al :UTURE a'/e' (c). i1i(. >02, e%a&le 48). T"e (is!an! &as! &a'!icle
j*%m is c--n in na''a!i0es, 1$! can als- 'e)e' !- !"e !ie !"e s&ea/e' "ea'( !"e s!-'+
(i1i(. >04). T"e (is!an! :UTURE &a'!icle t%n e%is!s s+nc"'-nicall+ &a'allel as an in(e&en(en!
a(0e'1ial an( can als- in(ica!e a si&le :UTURE *"en !"e $s$al :UTURE a'/e's a'e
$n#'aa!ical (i1i(. >0>). I! can c-7-cc$' *i!" !"e #ene'al :UTURE a'/e's as *ell. T"$s,
al!"-$#" !"e 'e-!eness a'/e's in @$& a'e n-! 'es!'ic!e( !- l-ca!in# an ac!i-n -n !"e
!ie line, !"e+ (- a'/ ac!i-ns in c-n!'as! !- -!"e' ac!i-ns an( can !"e'e)-'e 1e c-nsi(e'e(
Tense a'/e's. T"e !ie s&ans a'e n-! )$'!"e' (e)ine(. T"e sae "-l(s !'$e )-' ?i'a]a,
*"ic" "as an ie(ia!e :UTURE an( 'ecen! an( 'e-!e <.ST encli!ics (T"iesen 199>, 9899)
*"-se !e&-'al (is!inc!i-ns a'e n-! clea'.
S"i&i1-7K-ni1- is !"e lan#$a#e *i!" &'-1a1l+ !"e -s! 'e-!eness (e#'ees -) !"e
sa&le, !-#e!"e' *i!" Lic"J. T"e <.ST (e#'ees incl$(e, a <.ST s$))i% -) !"e sae (a+ 7wan, a
<.ST s$))i% )-' !"e (a+ -' a )e* (a+s 1e)-'e 7ibat ^ ib%, a <.ST s$))i% )-' s-e -n!"s; +ea's
a#- 7yantan6 a <.ST s$))i% )-' a1-$! nine -n!"s !- !"'ee +ea's a#- -rabe, a (is!an! <.ST s$))i%
)-' an+ +ea's a#- 7kati8t:6 an( a 'e-!e <.ST s$))i% 7ni (DalenB$ela 2003, 294295). T"e
s$))i%es 7yantan an( 7rabe '-$#"l+ c-0e' !"e sae !ie s&ans, 1$! !"e )-'e' a((i!i-nall+
c-(es I?<ER:ECTIDE an( !"e la!!e' <ER:ECTIDE. T"e -nl+ clea'l+ !e&-'all+ (e)ine( Tense is !"e
<.ST s$))i% 7wan )-' an ac!i-n -) !"e sae (a+= !"e -!"e' s$))i%es a'e 'ela!i0e !- !"e s&ea/e'
an( eac" -!"e' an( als- -0e'la&.

(3.3>) S"i&i1-7K-ni1- (<an-an= DalenB$ela 2003, 295, 29>, 298, 299)
(a) rama bariapan-ra ka-wan wan wan wan-ke
n-* a!.n--n7DED #-7<ST7CO?<F
G@e le)! !-(a+ a! n--n.C
(1) ikaEbi bakisha e-n maEaman kaw%ti
1$! -ne.(a+.a*a+.DED 17ERE an%aan /a*X!i
ao-bo icha oin-iba iba iba iba-ke
/.!'ee7<F $c"..AS see7<ST7CO?<F
GA$! +es!e'(a+ I sa* a l-! -) an%aan /a*X!i !'ees.C
(c) e-n-ra oin-yantan yantan yantan yantan-ke rab) bene-ya yoEan
17ERE7DED see7<ST7CO?<F !*- "$s1an(7<RO< a($l!.*-an..AS
G. )e* +ea's a#- I e! a *-an *"- "a( !*- "$s1an(sYC
(() pek%o kirika wisha-rabe rabe rabe rabe-ke
a)!e' le!!e'..AS *'i!e7<ST.I<:D7CO?<F
GFas! s$e' a)!e' !"e -'nin# eal + 1'-!"e' ($s$all+) *'-!e
le!!e's.C
(e) moa-tian nawa-baon chop a no-n bi-ama-katit katit katit katit-ai
al'ea(+7TE?< es!iB-7<F.EEN cl-!" 1<F7ERE #e!7NEE7<ST7INC<
GF-n# !ie a#-, *e (i( n-! 1$+ &ieces -) cl-!" in !"e s!-'e.C


5> 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

()) moa-tian-ronki i-pao-ni ni ni ni-ke jema-bo yama
al'ea(+7TE?<7@E. (-.INTR7@.A7RE?.<ST7CO?<F 0illa#e7<F..AS e%is!.n-!
GI! is sai( !"a! in 'e-!e !ies !"e'e *e'e n- 0illa#es.C

S- S"i&i1-7K-ni1- "as si% -'&"ees )-' 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST, al!"-$#" !*-
-) !"e c-(e !"e sae !ie s&an, 1$! (i))e' in !"ei' .s&ec!$al 0al$e.
Ka'- "as !*- 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST an( -ne in !"e :UTURE. Ka'-Cs 'ecen!
an( 'e-!e; +!"ical <.ST &a'!icles co an( k%n a'e a1i#$-$s *i!" 'es&ec! !- !"ei' c$!7-))
&-in!s. T"e 'e-!e <.ST &a'!icle a&&ea's !- 1e $se( )-' !ie s&ans l-n#e' !"an 15720 +ea's
a#- (Ea1as K'. 1999, 184). In!e'es!in#l+, 1-!" &a'!icles can c-1ine !- ean Gl-n# a#-C,
al!"-$#" !"e sae eanin# is al'ea(+ c-0e'e( 1+ !"e 'e-!e <.ST &a'!icle. :UTURE in Ka'-
can 1e e%&'esse( 1+ !"e &a'!icles iga an( yat, *"ic" (- n-! s&eci)+ an+ 'e-!eness, an( !"e
a$%ilia'+ kap, *"ic" 'e)e's !- ie(ia!e :UTURE. 0ga is $se( e%cl$si0el+ in in!e''-#a!i0e,
ne#a!i0e cla$ses (Ea1as 1999, 193). T"e &a'!icle yat can als- -cc$' -n n-$ns.

(3.38) Ka'- (T$&Jan= Ea1as K'. 1999, 185, 188, 189)
(a) p&' o=Ce-t co co co co
s"--! 1SES.UW7IND REC.<ST
GI s"-!.C
(1) (n #ri' mac)ri g%n g%n g%n g%n
1SE #i'l C.US7"eal7IND RE?.<ST
GI "eale( !"e #i'l (l-n# a#-).C
(c) (n o=pi-t m_y mm co co co co k%n k%n k%n k%n
1SE 1SES&e')-'a!e7IND l-n# W REC.<ST RE?.<ST
GI !--/ !"e 0accine l-n# a#-.C
(() o=wBy-a o=kap kap kap kap-t
1SESlea0e7EER 1SES.UW.:UT7IND
GI a #-in# !- lea0e.C

Paina"$a <.ST a'/e's a'e &a'!l+ c$$la!i0e -'&"ees *i!" <ER:ECTIDE; <ROERESSIDE
.s&ec!, <ER:ECTIDE <.ST -) sae (a+ s$))i% 7a an( I?<ER:ECTIDE <.ST -) sae (a+ s$))i%
7;aiyamea a'e )-' !"e sae !ie s&an. :-' s-e s&ea/e's, 7;aiyamea in(ica!es <.ST -)
+es!e'(a+ *i!"-$! .s&ec!$al eanin#, an( 7ita a <.ST a )e* (a+s !- !*- *ee/s a#-. :-' s-e
s&ea/e's, -ita si#nals a <ER:ECTIDE <.ST -) +es!e'(a+ -' a )e* (a+s a#-. Re-!e <ER:ECTIDE <.ST
s$))i% -ti c-(es ac!i-ns a *ee/ $& !- se0e'al +ea's a#-, as (-es !"e 'e-!e <.ST <ROERESSIDE
s$))i% 7yamea. :-' s-e s&ea/e's, !"e'e is n- as&ec!$al (is!inc!i-n 1e!*een !"e !*-. T"e'e is
n- .s&ec!$al (is!inc!i-n in !"e )a' <.ST s$))i% 7ni (:a$s! M F--s 2002, 119122) *"ic" als-
-cc$'s as a 'e-!e <.ST s$))i% in S"i&i1-7K-ni1-. T"e <ROERESSIDE :UTURE s$))i% 7;ainaka c-(es
an ac!i-n !"e (a+ a)!e' !"e &-in! -) s&eec" an( &'-1a1l+ c-nsis!s -) !"e s$))i%es 7;ai an(
7naka, eanin# Ga (a+ )'- n-*C an( :UTURE <ROERESSIDE 'es&ec!i0el+ (i1i(. 123). T"e s$))i%
3. Tense 58

7;ai &'-1a1l+ is als- a &a'! -) !"e <.ST -) +es!e'(a+ s$))i% 7;aiyamea, !-#e!"e' *i!" !"e 'e-!e
<.ST <ROERESSIDE s$))i% 7yamea (i1i(. 120).
C$1e- an( C-caa7C-cailla a'e siila' in !"a! !"e+ 1-!" a'/ !"'ee 'e-!eness
(is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST an( !*- in !"e :UTURE. C$1e- s"-*s a "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n, nea'
:UTURE -'&"ees a'e c$$la!i0es *i!" #en(e' an( n$1e'= 'e-!e :UTURE -'&"ees
a'e c$$la!i0es *i!" #en(e', n$1e', aniac+, an( (-$1!. T"e 'ecen! an( n-n7'ecen! <.ST
s$))i%es a'e c$$la!i0es *i!" &e's-n, n$1e', an( s-e als- *i!" #en(e' an( aniac+,
*"ile a! !"e sae !ie 1ein# a1i#$-$s 1e!*een <.ST an( <RESENT (ei!"e' ($'a!i0e -'
@.AITU.F) acc-'(in# !- *"e!"e' !"e+ a'e a))i%e( !- a (+naic -' s!a!i0e s!e. Recen! <.ST
'e)e's !- an ac!i-n !"a! "a&&ene( *i!"in a *ee/ 1e)-'e an( n-n7'ecen! <.ST !- a !ie 1e)-'e
!"a!, al!"-$#" n-n7'ecen! can als- ean a )e* (a+s 1e)-'e, 1ein# in !"e s&"e'e -) 'ecen!
<.ST. .n+!"in# 1e)-'e n-n7'ecen! <.ST is a'/e( *i!" !"e "is!-'ic <.ST s$))i% -OAEa *"ic" is
a((e( !- !"e n-n7'ecen! <.ST s$))i% (?-'se M ?a%*ell 1999, 39)).). C-caa7C-cailla c-(es
ie(ia!e an( 'e-!e :UTURE an( ie(ia!e, e(ia!e, an( 'e-!e <.ST 1+ cli!ics (DalleO-s
P-&Xn 2010, 1>1). In !"e :UTURE Tenses, !"e'e is an a((i!i-nal ?-(al 0al$e, T"e ie(ia!e
:UTURE encli!ic als- i&lies 'ela!i0e ce'!ain!+, !"e 'e-!e :UTURE in c-n!'as! i&lies
&'-1a1ili!+ -) an e0en! an( *is"es an( "-&es. T"e'e is n- s$c" ?-(al 0al$e in !"e <.ST
Tenses. T"e ie(ia!e <.ST 'e)e's !- ac!i-ns 'i#"! 1e)-'e !"e &-in! -) s&eec" !- a )e* (a+s
a#-, !"e e(ial <.ST )'- !"e (a+ 1e)-'e $n!il !"e 'e-!e <.ST se!s in )-' e0en!s l-n# a#-
(c"il("--( an( e0en +!"ical !ies). T"e e0en!s 'an#e )'- 1ein# 0i0i( !- less s!'-n# in
!"e s&ea/e'Cs e-'+ (i1i(. 481). T"e c"-ice -) Tense is &'ia'il+ (e&en(en! -n *"e!"e'
!"e s&ea/e'Cs 'ec-llec!i-n -) !"e ac!i-n is s!ill 0i0i( -' less s!'-n#, 'a!"e' !"an -n e%ac!l+
*"en !"e ac!i-n "a&&ene(, *"ic" e%&lains !"e !e&-'al -0e'la& -) !"e Tense a'/e's.
U'a'ina &'esen!s a s&ecial case. I! (-es n-! a'/ #ene'al a1s-l$!e Tense, 1$! i! (-es
"a0e an encli!ic )-' 'e-!eness. T"e encli!ic Sl2 a'/s ac!i-ns in !"e &as! !"a! a'e 6$i!e
'e-0e(, al!"-$#" !"is (e&en(s -n s&ea/e'sC &e'ce&!i-n, 1$! als- 'e-!eness in !"e )$!$'e
(Ola*s/+ 200>, 501). T"e'e is n- #ene'al Tense a'/e' i! c-$l( c-n!'as! *i!", an( n- Tense
a'/e' 'e)e''in# !- a -'e ie(ia!e !ie (see als- sec!i-n 3.3).

3.> 3.> 3.> 3.>.9 .9 .9 .9 Disc$ssi-n Disc$ssi-n Disc$ssi-n Disc$ssi-n
.l!"-$#" a! )i's! #lance 6$i!e "e!e'-#ene-$s, !"e S.IFs 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns !en( !-
a("e'e !- !"e sae &'inci&les, !"e+ (i))e' acc-'(in# !- *"ic" Tense an( "-* an+
'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns !"e+ a/e, 1$! /ee& *ell *i!"in ce'!ain 1-$n(a'ies. T"e aO-'i!+
c-(es an a0e'a#e -) a1-$! !*- (is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST an( -ne in !"e :UTURE, Lic"J an(
S"i&i1-7K-ni1- 1ein# !"e e%ce&!i-ns. S"i&i1-7K-ni1- an( Lic"J a'/ !"e "i#"es! n$1e'
-) 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns, S"i&i1-7K-ni1- a'/s )i0e in !"e <.ST an( -ne in !"e :UTURE, an(
Lic"J si% in !"e <.ST. S"i&i1-7K-ni1- ac!$all+ "as si% -'&"ees )-' 'e-!eness
(is!inc!i-ns in !"e <.ST, 1$! !*- -) !"e c-(e !"e sae !ie s&ans an( (i))e' -nl+ in !"ei'
.s&ec!$al 0al$e. S!'i/in#l+, -nl+ !"'ee -) !"e S.IFs "a0e -'e (is!inc!i-ns in !"e :UTURE
!"an in !"e <.ST, D`*, Panes"aC, an( ?e/ens, *"ic" "a0e -ne 'e-!eness (e#'ee in !"e
:UTURE 1$! n-ne in !"e <.ST. .s a '$le, all lan#$a#es !"a! -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/
59 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in 1-!" Tenses "a0e ei!"e' -'e in !"e <.ST -' a'e a! leas! 1alance(.
. sec-n( '$le is !"a! !"e n$1e' -) (e#'ees in !"e <.ST is "i#"e' !"an in !"e :UTURE, L"e'e
Lic"J "as as an+ as si% <.ST (is!inc!i-ns= !"e "i#"es! &-ssi1le n$1e' -) :UTURE
(is!inc!i-ns is !*- (in Ta&ie!e, @$&, C$1e-, an( C-caa7C-cailla). Da"l (1994, 108) al'ea(+
&-in!e( -$! !"a! !"e <.ST 'e-!eness s+s!es a'e -'e (e0el-&e( !"an !"-se in !"e :UTURE,
23I4n #ene'al, !"e (is!inc!i-ns in !"e &as! a&&ea' !- 1e -'e *ell (e0el-&e( !"a! is, !- 1e
-'e n$e'-$s an( *ell (e)ine( !"an !"-se in !"e )$!$'e5. C-'ie (1995, 95) siila'l+
n-!es, 2i! !$'ns -$! !"a! !"e -'e &'-li)ic se!s -) (is!inc!i-ns a'e -'e *i(es&'ea( in !"e
&as! !"an in !"e )$!$'e, in acc-'( *i!" !"e #ene'al !en(enc+ -) lan#$a#es !- "a0e a 1e!!e'
(e0el-&e( &as! !"an )$!$'e s+s!e= !"e'e a'e, "-*e0e', s-e lan#$a#es *"ic" "a0e
s+e!'ical s+s!es *i!" se0e'al -&&-si!i-ns -) !e&-'al (is!ance in 1-!" &as! an(
)$!$'e5. Da"lCs sa&le c-nsis!s -) >0 lan#$a#es (is!'i1$!e( -0e' !"e #l-1e, an( a! leas! "is
clai !"a! !"e (is!inc!i-ns a'e -'e n$e'-$s in !"e <.ST !"an in !"e :UTURE is s$&&-'!e(
)-' !"e S.IFs sa&le as *ell= !"e !"'ee e%ce&!i-ns 1ein# D`*, Panes"a, an( ?e/ens. Ael-*,
a -'e (e!aile( s!$(+ *ill 1e #i0en -) !"e (is!ances an( 2(e)ine(ness5, in Da"lCs !e's.
S- )a' *e l--/e( a! !"e n$1e', 1$! n-! a! !"e &'-&e'!ies -) !"e (is!inc!i-ns. T"e sa&le
s$##es!s !"a! !"e (is!ance eas$'es -) 0al$es s$c" as Cie(ia!e, 'ecen!, 'e-!e, )a'C e!c.
a'e n-! a1s-l$!e an( !"a! s&ea/e's 0a'+ in !"ei' s$1Oec!i0i!+ a1-$! *"en an e0en!
"a&&ene(; *ill "a&&en. T"is als- 'ela!es e.#. !- !"e a#e -) !"e s&ea/e' *"- a+ 'e)e' !- an+
&as! in "is -*n li)es&an as 1ein# 'eas-na1l+ in!e'e(ia!e, *"e'eas an+ !ie 1e)-'e "is 1i'!"
is 1e+-n( ia#ina!i-n, i.e. )a' a*a+. T"e sae &-in!s in !ie can 1e seen (i))e'en!l+ 1+
an-!"e' &e's-n -) a (i))e'en! a#e, an( s- !"e sae !ie can 1e 'e)e''e( !- 1+ (i))e'en!
'e-!eness (e#'ees. T"is is n-! &-ssi1le, -) c-$'se, *"en a 'e-!eness (e#'ee is clea'l+ an(
*ell (e)ine(, i.e. is -1Oec!i0e an( in(e&en(en! -) s$1Oec!i0e eas$'es. S$c" (e#'ees al*a+s
'e)e' !- a ce'!ain &-in! in !ie. In !"e S.IFs, s-e lan#$a#es (- "a0e s$c" (e)ine(
'e-!eness (e#'ees an( !"ese s!'i/in#l+ c-nce'n !ie s&ans 0e'+ cl-se !- !"e &-in! -)
s&eec". ?aain(U, <$ina0e, @i%/a'+ana, Lic"J, S"i&i1-7K-ni1-, Paina"$a, an( &'-1a1l+
N-'!"e'n E1e'a an( @$& "a0e a'/e's !"a! 'e)e' !- &as! e0en!s -) !"e sae (a+, incl$(in#
!"e &'e0i-$s ni#"!. T"ese a'e calle( "-(ie'nal Csae (a+C. <$ina0e, Lic"J, Paina"$a, an(
&'-1a1l+ S"i&i1-7K-ni1- als- a'/ &as! e0en!s 'es!'ic!e( !- !"e (a+; a )e* (a+s 1e)-'e,
calle( "es!e'nal (Da"l 1994, 113). <lease n-!e !"a! !"is lis! is n-! e%"a$s!i0e as an+
lan#$a#es "a0e n-! 1een 'esea'c"e( cl-sel+ en-$#". T"e 'es!'ic!i-n -) a'/e's !-*a'(s
(e)ini!e !ie s&ans &-in!s !- -1Oec!i0e 0al$es, al!"-$#" !"e'e is s!ill 0a'ia!i-n a-n#
s&ea/e's. Da"lCs (i1i(. 112) #ene'aliBa!i-n 23i)4 !"e'e a'e -ne -' -'e (is!inc!i-ns -'
'e-!eness in a !ense7as&ec! s+s!e, an( 'e)e'ence can 1e a(e !- -1Oec!i0e !ie
eas$'es, -ne -) !"e (is!inc!i-ns *ill 1e 1e!*een G-'e !"an -ne (a+ a*a+C an( Gn-! -'e
!"an -ne (a+ a*a+C5 (n$1e' 1280 in T"e Uni0e'sals .'c"i0e) "-l(s )-' S.IFs as *ell.
Fan#$a#es *i!" s$c" -1Oec!i0e eas$'es a'e, "-*e0e', in !"e in-'i!+ c-&a'e( !-
lan#$a#es *i!" s$1Oec!i0e eas$'es. I! als- sees !"a! )i's!l+, !"e )e*e' 'e-!eness
(is!inc!i-ns a lan#$a#e "as, !"e -'e !"e+ !en( !- 1e s$1Oec!i0e, an( sec-n(l+, -1Oec!i0e
!ie eas$'es see !- a&&l+ -s!l+ !- !ie s&ans l-ca!e( ie(ia!el+ a'-$n( !"e &-in! -)
3. Tense 59

s&eec". . l--/ a! Lic"J s"-*s !"a! !"e 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns ie(ia!el+ 1e)-'e !"e
&-in! -) s&eec" a'e $c" -'e (i))e'en!ia!e( !"an !"-se )$'!"e' a*a+. T"'ee -) !"e si% <.ST
'e-!eness a'/e's 'e)e' !- !"e !ie s&ans Gsae (a+C, G24 "-$'s a#-C, an( e0en G-'nin# -)
!"e sae (a+C, *"e'eas !"e -!"e' !"'ee a'/e's c-0e' $c" 1i##e' !ie s&ans. N- lan#$a#e
a/es a (is!inc!i-n -) e.#. G-'nin# -) a (a+ a "$n('e( +ea's a#-C (n-!e !"a! 0al$es li/e G(a+C
an( G+ea'C a+ n-! a&&l+ !- e0e'+ c$l!$'e an( a'e 'es$l!s -) a 'esea'c"e'Cs in!e'&'e!a!i-n).
.l!"-$#" -s! lan#$a#es *i!" 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns in 1-!" <.ST an( :UTURE (- "a0e
a -'e ela1-'a!e s+s!e in !"e <.ST, !"e'e a'e !"'ee lan#$a#es *i!" a 1alance( s+s!e,
Ta&ie!e, N-'!"e'n E1e'a, an( @$&. Ta&ie!e an( @$& a'/ a <.ST; :UTURE !"a! is 6$i!e nea'
!- !"e &-in! -) s&eec" an( in c-n!'as! !- !"a! an-!"e' !"a! is -'e (is!an!. N-'!"e'n E1e'a
a'/s ie(iac+ in 1-!" Tenses. .l!"-$#" n- (e)ini!e !ie s&ans a'e (e($c!i1le )'- !"e
s-$'ces, i! can 1e claie( !"a! lan#$a#es !"a! "a0e a 1alance( 'e-!eness s+s!e als-
i''-' !"e 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns *i!" !"e <RESENT 1ein# !"e &i0-!al &-in!.
L"ile a'/in# )-' ie(iac+ is 6$i!e c--n, s-e lan#$a#es a'/ )-' a <.ST
(esc'i1e( as +!"ical -' "is!-'ical. T"e ac!i-ns a'/e( 1+ !"-se Tenses a'e -)!en -$!si(e
!"e s&ea/e'sC &e's-nal 'ec-llec!i-n an( 'e)e' !- +!"s, )a1les, -' c'ea!i-n s!-'ies. .! !"e
sae !ie, !"-se a'/e's can "a0e a s&ecial na''a!i0e 0al$e, T"e Lic"JC cli!ic p*ante is $se(
)-' +!"ical; "is!-'ical <.ST an( a! !"e sae !ie in(ica!es !"a! !"e s&ea/e' is na''a!in# a
s!-'+= @$& e&l-+s !"e (is!an! <.ST &a'!icle j%m )-' na''a!i0es. .#$a'$na e0en "as an
a((i!i-nal s$))i% )-' na''a!i0e <.ST, *"ic" c-0e's !"e sae !ie s&an as !"e #ene'al 'e-!e
<.ST. Ti'i+N, .+a'a, La'iC, an( C$1e- "a0e )-'s )-' e%&'essin# a "is!-'ic <.ST. .&&a'en!l+
s&ea/e's -) lan#$a#es *i!" !"-se "is!-'ical -' +!"ical <.ST Tenses )eel !"e nee( !- (i))e'
1e!*een e0en!s !"a! a'e n-! -nl+ )a' 'e-0e( '- !"e <RESENT 1$! als- !"a! !"ese e0en!s a'e
na''a!e( an( "a0e n-! 1een e%&e'ience( 1+ !"e s&ea/e'. T"is in(ica!i-n -) "-* !"e
in)-'a!i-n *as ac6$i'e( is c--nl+ /n-*n as 'e&-'!e( -' sec-n(7"an( E0i(en!iali!+ an(
*ill 1e (eal! *i!" in c"a&!e' >.
S-e lan#$a#es all-* )-' a c-1ina!i-n -) 'e-!eness a'/e's, al!"-$#" !"is (-es n-!
necessa'il+ 'es$l! in a (i))e'en! !ie s&an, i.e. is n-! ic-nic. In Ta&ie!e, !"e (is!an! :UTURE
s$))i% !-#e!"e' *i!" !"e ie(ia!e :UTURE 'e)e's !- an e0en -'e (is!an! :UTURE, 1$! in
Ka'-, !"e c-1ina!i-n -) 'e-!e an( 'ecen! <.ST a'/e's si&l+ 'e)e's !- !"e sae !ie
s&an as !"e 'e-!e <.ST, an( in C$1e-, !"e "is!-'ic <.ST s$))i% !-#e!"e' *i!" !"e n-n7'ecen!
<.ST 'e)e's !- n-n7'ecen! <.ST as *ell. Cl-se' ins&ec!i-n s$##es!s !"a! in Ka'- an( C$1e- a
(-$1le a'/in# "as e&"asis 0al$e 'a!"e' !"an inc'easin# !"e 'e-!eness (e#'ee.
T"e s!$(+ -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e S.IFs sa&le all-*s )-' !"e )-ll-*in#
#ene'aliBa!i-ns (a((i!i-nall+ !- !"-se al'ea(+ s!a!e( 1+ Da"l (1994) an( C-'ie (1995)
a1-0e),

L"en a lan#$a#e "as 'e-!eness (e#'ees in <.ST an( :UTURE, !"e n$1e' -) !"-se in
!"e <.ST is "i#"e' -' i(en!ical !- !"-se -) !"e :UTURE.

>0 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

L"en a lan#$a#e "as !"e sae a-$n! -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in <.ST an( :UTURE,
!"ese 'e)e' !- !"e sae !ie s&ans.

Fan#$a#es (i))e'en!ia!e 1e!*een s$1Oec!i0e an( -1Oec!i0e !ie eas$'es. L"en a
lan#$a#e "as -1Oec!i0e !ie eas$'es, !"e+ a&&l+ !- !ie s&ans cl-se !- !"e &-in!
-) s&eec". T"e -'e (is!an! a !ie s&an, !"e less -1Oec!i0e i! is. .n(, 0ice 0e'sa,
T"e -'e 'ecen! a !ie s&an, !"e -'e (e)ine( (an( -1Oec!i0e) i! is.

I) -ne c-&a'es !"e lan#$a#es acc-'(in# !- !"ei' Tense s+s!e an( *"ic" 'e-!eness
(e#'ees !"e+ s"-*, 'e-!eness (e#'ees -cc$' -s! )'e6$en!l+ in lan#$a#es *i!" a :UTURE;
<.ST s+s!e an( leas! in <.ST; NON<.ST an( :UTURE;NON:UTURE s+s!es. T"is is n-! s$'&'isin#,
1eca$se :UTURE; <.ST is !"e -s! )'e6$en!l+ a'/e( s+s!e in !"e c-&le!e sa&le. L"en
*e l--/ in (e!ail a! !"e 'e-!eness (e#'ees in <.ST;NON<.ST an( :UTURE; NON:UTURE, *e see
n- si#ni)ican! (i))e'ences, !"'ee lan#$a#es *i!" a <.ST; NON<.ST Tense s+s!e "a0e -'e
'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST !"an in !"e :UTURE an( n-ne -'e in !"e :UTURE= !*-
lan#$a#es *i!" a :UTURE; NON:UTURE s+s!e "a0e -'e 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST an(
-ne -'e in !"e :UTURE (see !a1le 3.5). In Ul!anCs (1989) !e's, !"e'e is n- si#ni)ican!
(i))e'ence 1e!*een 'e-!eness a'/in# in &'-s&ec!i0e an( 'e!'-s&ec!i0e lan#$a#es. T"is is,
"-*e0e', n-! in line *i!" Ul!anCs (i1i(. 92) 'es$l!s *"ic" s"-* !"a! ei#"! 'e!'-s&ec!i0e
lan#$a#es "a0e -'e 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST !"an in !"e :UTURE c-n!'a'+ !- Be'-
&'-s&ec!i0e lan#$a#es (in a sa&le -) a1-$! 50 lan#$a#es Ul!an $n)-'!$na!el+ (-es n-!
s&eci)+ )$'!"e'). T- s$a'iBe, !"e'e is n- si#ni)ican! c-''ela!i-n 1e!*een Tense s+s!e
an( 'e-!eness (e#'ees.

Ta1le 3.5, C'-ss7c-&a'is-n -) Tense s+s!es *i!" 'e-!eness (e#'ees
N- 'e-!eness (e#'ees ?-'e 'e-!eness (e#'ees in
!"e <.ST
?-'e
'e-!eness
(e#'ees in
!"e :UTURE
1alance(
<.ST; NON<.ST
(&'-s&ec!i0e)
La'a-, Ri/1a/!sa @i%/a'+ana, ?a!ses,
?-0ia, <ana'e
7 7
:UTURE;
NON:UTURE
('e!'-s&ec!i0e)
Ka'i!iana, .&$'inV, C"iila,
A-'-'-, Kain#an#, Ti1i'a,
Kaai$'X, I!-naa ,
P$'a/a'Q, Kan-U, EQ'ill-n,
N"een#a!_, Sa!e'Q7?a*Q
.+a'a, La'iC Panes"aC 7
T"'ee7*a+ s&li! Sa1anU Ta'iana, Ti'i+N, Desan-,
Fe/-, .#$a'$na, ?aain(U,
C$1e-
7 N-'!"e'n
E1e'a
:UTURE; <.ST <a'esi, I/a, .*a <i!,
?-se!Qn, @$alla#a I$ec"$a,
C$Bc- I$ec"$a, I1a1$'a
I$ec"$a,
Ka'a*a'a, ?i'a]a,
Te"$elc"e, Lic"J, S"i&i1-7
K-ni1-, Paina"$a,
Ca0ine]a, Ka'-, C-caa7
C-cailla, K*aBa, <$ina0e
D`*, ?e/ens @$&, Ta&ie!e
3. Tense >1

T"e sa&le 'e0eals n- clea' #e-#'a&"ical &a!!e'n as !- a'/in# -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees (c).
a& 3.1). Re-!eness (e#'ee a'/in# is s&'ea( all -0e' !"e c-n!inen! an( )ailies, i! is
a'/e( in T$&Jan, T$can-an, .'a*a/an, A-'an, Ca'i1an, C"-c-an, C"-nan, Ki0a'-an,
Na(a"$&, ?a!ac-an, Na1i/*a'an, <an-an, Tacanan, T$can-an, an( T$&Jan, 1$! a1sen! in
Aa'1ac-an, C"i1c"an, ?ac'-7EUan, ?a&$c"e, ?-sQ!enan, <aeBan, I$ec"$an, an(
Pan-aan. In !-!al, 30 lan#$a#es -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/ a! leas! -ne 'e-!eness
(is!inc!i-n. T"e'e is, "-*e0e', e0i(ence )-' 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-ns 1ein# &a'!ic$la'l+
&'-n-$nce( in S.IFs in c-&a'is-n !- !"e 'es! -) !"e *-'l(. In Da"l M Del$&illaiCs (20111)
#l-1al sa&le -) 222 lan#$a#es, -nl+ 40 lan#$a#es "a0e 'e-!eness (e#'ees an( -nl+ !*- -)
!"e "a0e )-$' -' -'e. T"ese 40 lan#$a#es cl$s!e' es&eciall+ in S-$!" .e'ica (an( <a&$a
Ne*7E$inea) an( !"e !*- lan#$a#es *i!" !"e "i#"es! n$1e' -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees
a'/in# a'e als- )-$n( in S. (C"Xc-1- an( Pa#$a). .l!"-$#" -s! S.IFs in !"e sa&le (-
n-! "a0e a 0e'+ "i#" n$1e' -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees, !"e -0e'all !en(enc+ -) S.IFs !- a'/
(an+) 'e-!eness (e#'ees as )-$n( 1+ Da"l M Del$&illai (20111) is c-n)i'e(.
C-nsi(e'in# !"e (is!'i1$!i-n -) lan#$a#es *i!" a "i#" n$1e' -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees a
sall cl$s!e' -cc$'s. L"e'eas Lic"J (si% 'e-!eness (e#'ees) an( C$1e- (5) a'e is-la!e(
ins!ances, S"i&i1-7K-ni1- (>), Paina"$a (5), an( C-caa7C-cailla (5) )-' a
#e-#'a&"ical cl$s!e'. S"i&i1-7K-ni1- an( Paina"$a a'e <an-an lan#$a#es, 1$! C-caa7
C-cailla is T$&Jan (E$a'anJ). L"e!"e' !"e la!!e' "as ac6$i'e( an ela1-'a!e 'e-!eness
(e#'ee s+s!e 1+ c-n!ac! *i!" <an-an "as !- 1e seen, 1$! i! is ce'!ainl+ !"e case !"a! a la'#e
'e-!eness (e#'ee s+s!e is a <an-an c"a'ac!e'is!ic.
?a& 3.1 ill$s!'a!es !"e (is!'i1$!i-n -) lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le *i!" n- 'e-!eness
(e#'ees, (e#'ees in !"e :UTURE -' <.ST, -' 1-!".







>2 3.> Re-!eness (e#'ees

?a& 3.1, Dis!'i1$!i-n -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e sa&le


3. Tense >3

3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 TP<OFOEIC.F DISTRIAU TP<OFOEIC.F DISTRIAU TP<OFOEIC.F DISTRIAU TP<OFOEIC.F DISTRIAUTION IN T@E S.?<FE TION IN T@E S.?<FE TION IN T@E S.?<FE TION IN T@E S.?<FE
T"e Tense a'/in# -) S.IFs is n-! "--#ene-$s, 1$! all-*s )-' a '-$#" classi)ica!i-n in!-
!"e )-$' #'-$&s !*-7*a+ s&li!, !"'ee7*a+ s&li!, :UTURE; <.ST an( Tenseless, as s"-*n in !"e
sec!i-n 3.4. I) -'e (e!aile( in)-'a!i-n a1-$! s-e lan#$a#es 1ec-es a0aila1le, )$!$'e
s!$(ies a+ lea( !- (i))e'en! anal+ses in s-e cases. Aase( -n !"e #'-$&in#s, se0e'al
6$es!i-ns can n-* 1e l--/e( a! in -'e (e!ail, *"a! (- Tense s+s!es !ell $s a1-$!
#e-#'a&"ical an(; -' #eneal-#ical 'ela!i-nsT L"a! a'e !"e i&lica!i-ns )-' $ni0e'sals -'
$ni0e'sal !en(encies in TenseT T"e )i's! 6$es!i-n *ill 1e (isc$sse( n-* an( !"e la!!e' la!e'
in !"is sec!i-n.
O$! -) !"e >3 lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le, se0en (- n-! a'/ an+ Tense, 12 a'/ -ne, 11
a'/ !*-, 15 a'/ !"'ee, 1> a'/ )-$', an( !*- a'/ )i0e Tenses. T"e -s! )'e6$en!l+
a'/e( ca!e#-'+ is :UTURE *"ic" is a'/e( 1+ 54 lan#$a#es, )-ll-*e( 1+ <.ST (44),
'e-!eness in !"e <.ST (29), <RESENT (1>), an( 'e-!eness in !"e :UTURE (11) (see !a1le 3.8).
T"e )-ll-*in# #ene'aliBa!i-ns can 1e a(e,

1. L"en a lan#$a#e -'&"-7s+n!ac!icall+ a'/s Tense, i! a'/s a! leas! :UTURE (!"e
!*- e%ce&!i-ns a'e ?a&$c"e an( T'$ai).
2. L"en <RESENT is a'/e(, <.ST is al*a+s a'/e( as *ell.
3. N- lan#$a#e a'/s -nl+ <RESENT -' <.ST.
4. Re-!eness in !"e :UTURE is al*a+s a'/e( *"en :UTURE is a'/e(= 'e-!eness in
!"e <.ST is al*a+s a'/e( *"en <.ST is a'/e(.

T"e 'es$l!s can 1e )-'e( in!- a "ie'a'c"+ -) Tense a'/in#, :UTURE a'/in# -cc$'s -'e
)'e6$en!l+ !"a! <.ST -cc$'s -'e )'e6$en!l+ !"an <RESENT. T"e 'a!"e' l-* n$1e' -)
lan#$a#es a'/in# <RESENT is &'-1a1l+ ($e !- !"e e%cl$si-n -) Be'- a'/e's in !"is s!$(+= in
6$i!e a l-! -) !"-se lan#$a#es !"a! (- n-! -0e'!l+ a'/ <RESENT i! is $n(e's!--( as !"e
a1sence -) -!"e' Tense a'/in# -' si&l+ as (e)a$l!. T"is in !$'n lea(s !- !"e c-ncl$si-n
!"a! :UTURE is $n(e's!--( !- 1e )$'!"es! 'e-0e( )'- !"e (e)a$l!. . s!$(+ siila' !- !"is
-ne *as ca''ie( -$! 1+ Ul!an (1989, 11>) *"- als- )-$n( !"a! :UTURE is 2-'e a'/e(5.
@-*e0e', Ul!an nei!"e' &'esen!s a lan#$a#e lis! (2a&&'-%ia!el+ )i)!+ lan#$a#es5 (i1i(. 95))
n-' (-es "e e%&lain sa!is)ac!-'il+ *"a! "e $n(e's!an(s 1+ Ga'/in#C, 2an+ #'aa!ical
)-' (a))i%, &a'!icle, a$%ilia'+, e!c.)5 (i1i(. 98). In c-n!'as! !- s!$(ies 1+ e.#. C-'ie (1995),
S!assen (1998), Si!" (2009), an( A+1ee e! al. (1994) -1li#a!-'iness is n-! a (e)inin# )ea!$'e
)-' Tense "e'e. I! *-$l( 1e in!e'es!in# !- in0es!i#a!e *"e!"e' !"e a%i !"a! :UTURE is
a'/e( -'e )'e6$en!l+ !"an <.ST an( <RESENT s!ill "-l(s *"en a&&lie( -nl+ !- -1li#a!-'+
Tense a'/e's.
.ll lan#$a#es *i!"-$! -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# "a0e -!"e' eans -) e%&'essin#
!e&-'al 'ela!i-ns, 1+ !e&-'al le%ees an(; -' c-n!e%! an(; -' 1+ -'&"ees -) .s&ec!,
?-(ali!+, -' E0i(en!iali!+ e!c. N- lan#$a#e lac/s !"e eans -) in(ica!in# !ie as s$c", 1$! i!
is s$'&'isin# !"a! -$! -) a sa&le -) >3 -nl+ se0en S.IFs (- n-! "a0e an+ -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic
Tense a'/in#, es&eciall+ *i!" 'e#a'( !- !"e 'a!"e' 1'-a( (e)ini!i-n -) -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic
>4 3.8 T+&-l-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

a'/in# in !"is s!$(+. On !"e -!"e' "an(, !"is eans !"a! Tense a'/in# is n-! a $ni0e'sal
in !"e sa&le, *"ic" *as al'ea(+ s"-*n *i!" sli#"!l+ (i))e'en! (e)ini!i-ns -) Tense 1+ e.#.
C-'ie (1995) an( S!assen (1998) )-' #l-1al sa&les.
Eene'aliBa!i-ns 1. an( 2. can 1e e%&laine( 1+ !"e (esi#n -) !"e 6$es!i-nnai'e an( !"e
-cc$''ence -) c$$la!i0e Tense a'/e's, i.e. NON:UTURE -' NON<.ST. T"ese $s$all+ -cc$' in
s+s!es *i!" an -0e'! a'/e' an( an $na'/e( (e)a$l!.
T"e -s! )'e6$en! Tense s+s!es in !"e sa&le a'e :UTURE; <.ST an( !*-7*a+ s&li!s=
li/e*ise, !"'ee7*a+ s&li!s an( Tenseless s+s!es a'e leas! )'e6$en!. Li!"in !"e !*-7*a+
s&li!s, :UTURE; NON:UTURE -$!n$1e' <.ST; NON<.ST. T"e !"e-'e!icall+ als- &-ssi1le <RESENT;
NON<RESENT s&li! (-es n-! -cc$', s$##es!in# !"a! n- (a1s-l$!e) Tense a'/e' can 'e)e' !- a
(isc-n!in$-$s !ie, i.e. cann-! 'e)e' !- n-n7a(Oacen! Tenses. T"is "as als- 1een -1se'0e( 1+
C-'ie (1995, 50), 2a &-ssi1le $ni0e'sal -) !ense s+s!es, in a !ense s+s!e, !"e !ie
'e)e'ence -) eac" !ense is a c-n!in$i!+. I) !"is $ni0e'sal can 1e ain!aine( in #ene'al, !"en i!
*-$l( e%cl$(e !"e &-ssi1ili!+ -) (isc-n!in$-$s !enses5. T"is &-ssi1le $ni0e'sal is !"$s !'$e
)-' !"e >3 S.IFs in !"is sa&le as *ell, 1$! is &-ssi1l+ n-! a&&lica1le !- 'e-!eness (e#'ees.
T"e case -) !"e 'e-!eness encli!ic Sl2 in U'a'ina (see sec!i-n 3.3) s"-*s !"a! -ne a'/e'
can 'e)e' !- ei!"e' 'e-!e :UTURE -' <.ST, i.e. !"is is a (isc-n!in$-$s Tense a'/e'. A$! !"e
)ac! !"a! !"is is !"e -nl+ 'e-!eness a'/e' in !"e sa&le a1i#$-$s 1e!*een <.ST an(
:UTURE s$##es!s !"a! !"is 'a!"e' an e%ce&!i-n an( !"a! !"e c-n!in$i!+ &'inci&le "-l(s )-'
'e-!eness (e#'ees as *ell.
<RESENT Tense in #ene'al is leas! a'/e( in !"e sa&le= i! -0e'!l+ s"-*s -nl+ in !"'ee7
*a+ s&li!s an( is a! 1es! a Be'- a'/e' in -!"e' ins!ances, 1$! -s!l+ 1ein# a1i#$-$s *i!"
ei!"e' <.ST -' :UTURE. T"is 'aises an in!e'es!in# 6$es!i-n a1-$! !"e &'esence -) !"e <RESENT
Tense in !"e "$an in( an( i!s s!a!$s as a (e)a$l! ca!e#-'+, as *ell as !"e i&-'!ance -)
-ne a1s-l$!e Tense -0e' an-!"e', -' !"e &e'cei0e( i''e#$la'i!+ 0s. (e)a$l!. I! is (i))ic$l! !-
assi#n i&-'!ance !- a1s!'ac! )ea!$'es s$c" as T.?E, 1eca$se i! a+ (e&en( -n s&ea/e'7
in!e'nal 'a!"e' !"an lan#$a#e7in!e'nal '$les an( !"$s c'-sses !"e 1-'(e' )'- !+&-l-#+ !-
&s+c"-lin#$is!ics. A$! in(e&en(en! )'- *"+ !"e <RESENT Tense is leas! a'/e(, i! is a )ac!
!"a! !"e S.IFs s"-* a &'e)e'ence !-*a'(s a'/in# :UTURE -0e' <.ST -0e' <RESENT. L"en a
lan#$a#e a'/s -ne ca!e#-'+ an( is a1i#$-$s a1-$! !"e -!"e' !*-, i! is $s$all+ :UTURE !"a!
is a'/e( an( <RESENT an( <.ST -cc$' in a c$$la!i0e -'&"ee. T"is a+ 1e e%&laine( 1+ a
!en(enc+ -) s&ea/e's !- assi#n :UTURE a /in( -) $n'eal &e'ce&!i-n !"a! is -s! 'e-0e( )'-
n-'ali!+, -' (e)a$l!, an( *"ic" !"e'e)-'e -1!ains e%!'a a'/in#, in c-n!'as! !- !"e less
'e-0e( an( -'e Gn-'alC &e'ce&!i-n -) <RESENT. A$! !"is a+ als- 1e ($e !- !"e )ac! !"a!,
(es&i!e !"e ca'e)$l in0es!i#a!i-n -) eac" a'/e', s-e -' an+ -) !"e :UTURE a'/e's a'e
?-(als in (is#$ise an( s"-$l( n-! 1e enc-(e( as Tense a! all. Ul!an (1989), A+1ee M <a#li$ca
(1998), an( A+1ee e! al. (1994), 1esi(es -!"e's, s"-*e( !"a! :UTURE a'/e's a'e acc-&anie(
1+ ?-(al )la0-'s -) e.#. (esi'e, in!en!i-n, -1li#a!i-n, necessi!+, iinence, E&is!eic
?-(ali!+, c-an(s e!c. .l!"-$#" !"is is !"e case )-' an+ i) n-! all :UTURE a'/e's in !"is
s!$(+ !"ese &'e(-inan!l+ 'e&'esen! a !e&-'al eanin# (see !"e (-inance &a'ae!e' in
sec!i-n 2.3.2), an( a'e !"e'e)-'e n-! ?-(als.
3. Tense >5

I! "as 1een &'e0i-$sl+ s$##es!e( !"a! :UTURE in(ee( is n-! e0en a Tense a! all, 1$! 'a!"e'
a ?-(al. Aesi(e !"e sean!ic a'#$en! (see &a'a#'a&" a1-0e) !"e -ne -) 2)-'al
as+e!'+5 is 1'-$#"! )-'!", -)!en :UTURE a'/e's a'e enc-(e( (i))e'en!l+ !"an <RESENT an(
<.ST in !"e sae lan#$a#e, i.e. (- n-! )-' a -'&"-l-#icall+ c-nsis!en! s+s!e. Ul!an
(1989, 91) *as &'-1a1l+ !"e )i's! !- -1se'0e !"is as+e!'+ -) )-'al a'/in# -) :UTURE in
Tense s+s!es, 23)4$!$'e !ense a'/e's a+ 1e less 1-$n( !"an &'esen! -' &as! 1$! ne0e'
-'e s-5 (n$1e' 1398 in !"e Uni0e'sals .'c"i0e). T"$s, a lan#$a#e s"-$l( n-! 1e a1le !-
"a0e a &e'i&"'as!ic <.ST an( a :UTURE s$))i%, 1$! !"e -!"e' *a+ '-$n( is &-ssi1le. :-' !"is
s!$(+, !"is eans !"a! !"e'e s"-$l( 1e n- lan#$a#e *i!" a -'e 1-$n( :UTURE !"an <RESENT
-' <.ST= !"e scale e%!en(in# )'- leas! 1-$n( !- -s! 1-$n(,

a$%ilia'ies b &a'!icles b cli!ics b a))i%es

In !"is sa&le, -s! lan#$a#es *i!" :UTURE an( ei!"e' <RESENT -' <.ST -' 1-!" a'/e's "a0e
!"e sae )-'al class -) a'/in#, i.e. all a'e s$))i%es -' &'e)i%es -' encli!ics -' &a'!icles.
S$))i%a!i-n -cc$'s -s! )'e6$en!l+, &'-1a1l+ 1eca$se s$))i%a!i-n is in #ene'al !"e -s!
)'e6$en! )-' -) Tense a'/in# in !"e sa&le. .n e%a&le )-' a'/in# 1-!" :UTURE an( <.ST
1+ !"e sae )-'al eans (encli!ics) is )-$n( in C-caa7C-cailla,

(3.39) C-caa7C-cailla (T$&Jan, E$a'anJ= DalleO-s P-&Xn 2010, 48>, 489)
(a) ay ikuachi r=ichari=ta=ikua ikua ikua ikua
al'ea(+ +es!e'(a+ 3SE.?Slea0eS1SE.?S<ST
G.l'ea(+, +es!e'(a+, "e le)! e.C
(1) r=eyu=utsu utsu utsu utsu ra tsai=kBra=pu
3SE.?Sea!S:UT 3SE.? !--!"SDI?SINST
G@e *ill ea! *i!" "is li!!le !ee!".C

Fan#$a#es *i!" a :UTURE a'/e' !"a! is less 1-$n( !"an a <RESENT -' <.ST (-' 1-!") a'/e's
a'e 'a'e in !"e sa&le= -s! lan#$a#e "a0e a 1alance( )-'al a'/in#. .n e%a&le *"e'e
:UTURE is less 1-$n( is )-$n( in ?e/ens, *"e'e !"e :UTURE is a'/e( 1+ &a'!icles an( !"e
<.ST 1+ s$))i%a!i-n (<RESENT is n-! a'/e(),

(3.39) ?e/ens (T$&Jan= Eal$ci- 2001, >2, 91)
(a) paroray at paat paat paat paat (t k` $ rap masopi=b(
a'a(ill- #e! :UT I !-(a+ ni#"!SD.T
GI *ill "$n! .'a(ill- !-ni#"!.C
(1) o-kwe-a-r rr r=(t kBpkBba=b(
1SE7cli17T@E?7<STSI !'eeSD.T
GI cli1e( -n !"e !'ee.C

>> 3.8 T+&-l-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

L"e'eas in(ee( in -s! lan#$a#es *i!" :UTURE an( <RESENT an(; -' <.ST a'/e's in !"e
sa&le Ul!anCs &'-&-se( $ni0e'sal "-l(s, !"e'e a'e a )e* e%ce&!i-ns, ?i'a]a, @$&, Lic"J,
an( Kan-U. :-' e%a&le, in ?i'a]a :UTURE is -1li#a!-'il+ a'/e( 1+ !"e s$))i% 7i -' 0-*el
len#!"enin# ((e&en(in# -n !"e 0e'1 s!e) (Sei)a'! 2005, >2) an( <.ST 1+ a se! -) -&!i-nal
encli!ics !"a! a!!ac" !- !"e )i's! cla$se c-ns!i!$en! (i1i(. 82). A-!" Tenses -cc$' as se&a'a!e
s+s!es in ?i'a]a *"ic" a+ e%&lain *"+ :UTURE is -'e 1-$n(. :$'!"e' 'esea'c" is
necessa'+ !- c-&a'e !"e s+s!es -) ?i'a]a, @$&, Lic"J, an( Kan-U.
Aesi(es #i0in# :UTURE &'e)e'ence -) a'/in#, !"e sa&le als- s"-*s !"a! -1li#a!-'+
Tense a'/in# is in #ene'al 'es!'ic!e( !- ce'!ain s+n!ac!ic c-ns!'$c!i-ns an( als- 'elies -n
sean!ic c-nsi(e'a!i-ns. Tense a'/in# can 1e 6$i!e 'es!'ic!e( (c). .*a <i!, *"e'e Tense is
n-! a'/e( in s$1-'(ina!e cla$ses), an( al!"-$#" in lan#$a#es *"e'e Tense a'/in# is sai(
!- 1e -1li#a!-'+ i! can 1e ('-&&e( -nce !"e !e&-'al )'ae is es!a1lis"e( (c). La'iC,
Ca0ine]a, Ta'iana). One a+ a'#$e !"a! Tense is s!ill -1li#a!-'+ 1eca$se !"e !e&-'al
eanin# is !"e'e, e0en !"-$#" !"e )-'al a'/in# is n-!.
Klein (2009, 41) *-n(e's 2*"e!"e' !ense an( as&ec! a'e n-! c-&le!el+ s$&e')l$-$s in
0ie* -) *"a! !e&-'al a(0e'1ials all-* $s !- (-5. Fan#$a#es s"-$l( sa!is)ac!-'il+ 1e a1le !-
c-&ensa!e !"e lac/ -) -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# *i!" !"e $se -) a(0e'1ials, i.e. i! is
e%&ec!e( !"a! in Tenseless lan#$a#es !"e'e a'e -'e !ie a(0e'1ials !"an in Tense( -nes.
T"is is a&&a'en!l+ n-! !'$e. A-"nee+e' (2009, 114) &-in!s -$! !"a! in P$ca!ec, a Tenseless
lan#$a#e, !ie can 1e an( in(ee( is $s$all+ e%&'esse( *i!"-$! $sin# an+ !ie a(0e'1ials.
A$! !"e essen!ial a'#$en!, nael+ !"a! i) Tense a'/in# is n-! per se necessa'+ !- e%&'ess
!e&-'al 'ela!i-ns *"+ s-e lan#$a#es (-1li#a!-'il+) (- "a0e i! 'eains $nans*e'e(.
A-"nee+e' (i1i(. 123) &-in!s -$! !"a! Tense a'/in# se'0es !- 2(isa1i#$a!e an( !-
)acili!a!e 'e)e'ence 'es-l$!i-n5 an( !"a! 2!"e'e is a ce'!ain (i0isi-n -) la1-' 1e!*een
&'a#a!ics an( !"e )$nc!i-nal ca!e#-'+ s+s!e an( a !'a(e-)) 1e!*een e%&'esse( an(
$ne%&'esse( ca!e#-'ies5, 1$! !"is +e! "as !- 1e &'-0en )-' Tenseless S.IFs.
:$si-n, i.e. c$$la!i0e a'/e's, -cc$'s $c" -'e )'e6$en!l+ in !"-se lan#$a#es *i!"
a%i$ -' nea'7a%i$ Tense a'/in# !"an in !"-se *i!" less Tense a'/e's= !"is
a&&lies !- ca!e#-'ies 1-!" insi(e an( -$!si(e (e.#. &e's-n, n$1e', aniac+ e!c.) !"e 'eal
-) T.?E.
.s (e-ns!'a!e( in sec!i-n 3.3, (eic!ic s&a!ial a'/e's an( &-ssi1l+ als- (i'ec!i-nals
c-n!'i1$!e !- !"e e%&'essi-n -) !e&-'al 'ela!i-ns in <ila#X, *"ic" (-es n-! "a0e -'&"-7
s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# (c). als- K'asn-$/"-0a 2012, 245). Since s&a!ial 'e)e'ence can 1e
e%!en(e( !- e%&'ess !e&-'al 'e)e'ence, i! *-$l( 1e in!e'es!in# !- see *"+ !"is c-nnec!i-n
1e!*een !"e c-nce&!s -) s&ace an( !ie is a(e in a s&ea/e'Cs in( an( i) i! *-'/s 1-!"
*a+s. C-nce'nin# !"e la!!e' &-in!, e0i(ence )'- c-#ni!i0e e%&e'ien!s 2s"-*e( !"a!
en!al 'e&'esen!a!i-n -) ($'a!i-n an( (is&laceen! a'e as+e!'icall+ (e&en(en! -n -ne
an-!"e'. K$(#en!s -) !e&-'al ($'a!i-n (e&en(e( -n in)-'a!i-n a1-$! s&a!ial e%!en!,
1$! n-! !"e -!"e' *a+ a'-$n(5 (Casasan!- M A-'-(i!s/+ 2009, 591). T"is s$##es!s a c-#ni!i0e
"ie'a'c"+ -) s&ace -0e' !ie, *"ic" is lin#$is!icall+ i''-'e( 1+ !"e )ac! !"a! !"e'e is n-
3. Tense >8

e0i(ence )-' a lan#$a#e !"a! "as !e&-'al a'/e's e%&'essin# s&a!ial 'ela!i-ns. T"is
"+&-!"esis ce'!ainl+ nee(s )$'!"e' anal+sis.
Onl+ !"'ee lan#$a#es cann-! 1e acc-$n!e( )-' 1+ !"e Tense s+s!es -$!line( in sec!i-n
3.4 (U'a'ina, T'$ai, an( ?a&$c"e). T"is s$&&-'!s !"e i(ea !"a! #'-$&in# S.IFs in!-
Tenseless, :UTURE 0s. <.ST, :UTURE 0s. NON:UTURE, <.ST 0s. NON<.ST, an( a !"'ee7*a+ (is!inc!i-n
is in #ene'al a 0ali( -ne an( can se'0e as a 1asis )-' )$'!"e' !+&-l-#ical s!$(ies. I! is n-!
claie( !"a! !"e #'-$&s a1-0e 'e&'esen! !"e -nl+ *a+ !- #'-$& lan#$a#es acc-'(in# !-
Tense, 1$! )-' !"e sa&le c"-sen i! &'esen!s !"e -s! na!$'al -ne since i! (e'i0es (i'ec!l+
)'- lan#$a#e7&a'!ic$la' -1se'0a!i-ns. I! s"-$l( 1e 1-'ne in in( !"a! !"e (a!a is in(ee(
)la!!ene( !- ac"ie0e a le0el -) c-&a'is-n an( !"a! !"e in(i0i($al lan#$a#e Tense s+s!es
a+ n-! a!c" !"e #'-$&in#s c-&le!el+.
T"e 'eain(e' -) !"is c"a&!e' (isc$sses !"e #eneal-#ical an( #e-#'a&"ical i&lica!i-ns
an( "-* !"e+ 'ela!e !- &'e0i-$s s!a!een!s. Sec!i-n 3.8.3 ais !- #i0e a !en!a!i0e
e%&lana!i-n )-' !"e "e!e'-#enei!+ -) Tense a'/in#, an( sec!i-n 3.9 s$a'iBes !"e 'es$l!s.

:i#$'e 3.3, Tense ca!e#-'ies a'/e( 1+ S.IFs


:i#$'e 3.4, N$1e' -) S.IFs a'/in# n$1e' -) Tense ca!e#-'ies




>9 3.8 T+&-l-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

Ta1le 3.8, O0e'! Tense a'/in# in !"e S.IFs ((a'/S a'/e()
F.NEU.EE F.NEU.EE F.NEU.EE F.NEU.EE :.?IFP :.?IFP :.?IFP :.?IFP :UT :UT :UT :UT <ST <ST <ST <ST <ST <ST <ST <ST
RE? RE? RE? RE?
<RES <RES <RES <RES :UT :UT :UT :UT
RE? RE? RE? RE?
TOT.F TOT.F TOT.F TOT.F
1 Aa$'e .'a*a/an 0
2 Tsa)i/i Aa'1ac-an 0
3 ?-c-0J E$a+c$'$an 0
4 <ila#X E$a+c$'$an 0
5 Nasa P$*e <aeBan 0
> Pana Pan-aan 0
8 U'a'ina Unclassi)ie( 0
9 .&$'inV .'a*a/an 1
9 C"iila C"i1c"an 1
10 A-'-'- ?ac'-7EUan 1
11 Kain#an# ?ac'-7EUan 1
12 Ti1i'a ?ac'-7EUan 1
13 Sa!e'Q7?a*Q T$&Jan 1
14 Kaai$'X T$&Jan, E$a'anJ 1
15 ?$nic"i Unclassi)ie( 1
1> N"een#a!_ T$&Jan, E$a'anJ 1
18 I!-naa Unclassi)ie( 1
19 P$'a/a'Q Unclassi)ie( 1
19 ?a&$c"e .'a$canian 1
20 EQ'ill-n T$&Jan, E$a'anJ 2
21 ?-se!Qn ?-se!enan 2
22 I/a C"i1c"an, .'$a/ 2
23 <a'esi .'a*a/an 2
24 .*a <i! Aa'1ac-an 2
25 @$alla#a
I$ec"$a
I$ec"$an 2
2> I1a1$'a
I$ec"$a
I$ec"$an 2
28 C$Bc- I$ec"$a I$ec"$an 2
29 Kan-U Unclassi)ie( 2
29 Panes"aC .'a*a/an 2
30 T'$ai Unclassi)ie( 2
31 <$ina0e Unclassi)ie( 3
32 Ri/1a/!sa ?ac'-7EUan 3
33 Ka'a*a'a .'a*an 3
34 Te"$elc"e C"-nan 3
35 .#$a'$na Ki0a'-an 3
3> Lic"J (?a!ac-) ?a!ac-an 3
38 Ca0ine]a Tacanan 3
39 ?-0ia Unclassi)ie( 3
39 Ka'- T$&Jan 3
40 K*aBa Unclassi)ie( 3
41 Sa1anU Na1i/*a'an 3
42 Ka'i!iana T$&Jan 3
43 La'a- Unclassi)ie( 3
44 D`* Na(a"$& 3
45 ?e/ens T$&Jan 3
3. Tense >9


3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 E EE EEOER.<@IC.F DISTRIAU EOER.<@IC.F DISTRIAU EOER.<@IC.F DISTRIAU EOER.<@IC.F DISTRIAUTION TION TION TION IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE
T"e'e a'e s- )a' n- (e!aile( c-&a'a!i0e Tense s!$(ies )-' S. lan#$a#e )ailies, 'e#i-ns, -'
!"e *"-le S. c-n!inen! !"a! I a a*a'e -).
3
In !"is sec!i-n I a!!e&! !- #i0e a )i's!
i&'essi-n -) *"e!"e' !"e'e a'e (is!inc! Tense &a!!e'ns #e-#'a&"icall+, *"ic" is
c-&leen!e( 1+ !"e #eneal-#ical s!$(+ in 3.9. Aeca$se i! is n-! al*a+s &-ssi1le !- se&a'a!e
#e-#'a&"ical an( #eneal-#ical 'ela!i-ns"i&s, !"e'e is a ce'!ain -0e'la& in !"ese sec!i-ns.
I! *as al'ea(+ s!a!e( in sec!i-n 3.>.9 !"a! 'e-!eness (e#'ee a'/in# -cc$'s
si#ni)ican!l+ "i#"e' in S. !"an in !"e 'es! -) !"e *-'l(= 1$! !"e'e is n- si#ni)ican! )'e6$enc+
-) ei!"e' <.ST -' :UTURE c-&a'e( !- a #l-1al sa&le, !"e s!$(+ -) in)lec!i-nal :UTURE in a
#l-1al sa&le -) 222 lan#$a#es 1+ Da"l M Del$&illai ( 2011a) +iel(s 110 a'/e( an( 222
lan#$a#es $na'/e( )-' :UTURE. In !"e &'esen! s!$(+, !*- !"i'(s -) !"e lan#$a#es -0e'!l+
a'/ :UTURE *"ic" a+ lea( !- !"e c-ncl$si-n !"a! :UTURE is a'/e( -'e )'e6$en!l+ in S.
!"an else*"e'e, 1$! !"is a+ 1e ($e !- a *i(e' (e)ini!i-n -) Ga'/e'C= Da"l M Del$&illaiCs
s!$(+ -nl+ incl$(es a))i%es an( !"e+ (is'e#a'( cli!ics, &a'!icles, an( a$%ilia'ies. . cl-se' l--/
'e0eals !"a! -) !"e 44 lan#$a#es a'/in# :UTURE in S., 38 lan#$a#es $!iliBe a))i%es
(&'e(-inan!l+ s$))i%es) *"ic" -cc$' in -nl+ sli#"!l+ -'e !"an "al) -) !"e sa&le. T"$s,
al!"-$#" :UTURE is !"e -s! )'e6$en!l+ a'/e( Tense in !"e sa&le, i!s n$1e' in 'ela!i-n
!- !"e n$1e' -) #l-1all+ a'/e( :UTURE is n-! si#ni)ican!l+ "i#"e'.
:-' !"e <.ST Tense, a #l-1al sa&le s"-*s 99 lan#$a#es !"a! (- n-! a'/ <.ST 1+
in)lec!i-n an( 134 !"a! (- a'/ <.ST. In S., si% lan#$a#es (- n-! "a0e <.ST a'/in#, an( 15

3
T"e L.FS )ea!$'es >5, >>, >8, an( >9 &'esen! a -s! *elc-e )i's! 1'-a( -0e'0ie*, !"-$#" *i!"-$!
(e!aile( (isc$ssi-n.
4> Ta'iana .'a*a/an 4
48 <ana'e Ca'i1an 4
49 .+a'a .+a'an 4
49 @i%/a'+ana Ca'i1an 4
50 Ti'i+N Ca'i1an 4
51 La'iC C"a&ac$'an 4
52 ?aain(U Na1i/*a'an 4
53 ?a!ses <an-an 4
54 Desan- T$can-an 4
55 Fe/- Unclassi)ie( 4
5> S"i&i1-7K-ni1- <an-an 4
58 ?i'a]a A-'an 4
59 @$& Na(a"$& 4
59 Paina"$a <an-an 4
>0 C-caa7
C-cailla
T$&Jan, E$a'anJ 4
>1 Ta&ie!e T$&Jan, E$a'anJ 4
>2 C$1e- T$can-an 5
>3 E1e'a C"-c-an 5
54 44 29 1> 11
80 3.9 Ee-#'a&"ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

(- (Da"l M Del$&illai 20111). O) !"e >3 lan#$a#es in !"e &'esen! sa&le, 28 a'/ <.ST
!"'-$#" a))i%a!i-n an( 3> (- n-! a'/ <.ST in)lec!i-nall+. S- *"e'eas in Da"l M Del$&illaiCs
(20111) sa&le <.ST in #ene'al an( in S. s&eci)icall+ is a'/e( 1+ !*- !"i'(s -) all
lan#$a#es, in !"e &'esen! sa&le i! is a'/e( 1+ less !"an "al). T"is a+ 1e ($e !- !"e )ac!
!"a! in !"e &'esen! sa&le Be'- a'/e's a'e n-! !a/en in!- c-nsi(e'a!i-n, an(; -' !- a
(isc'e&anc+ in !"e (e)ini!i-ns -) <.ST an( <ER:ECTIDE.

Ta1le 3.9, :UTURE an( <.ST in)lec!i-nal a'/in# in L.FS (2011) an( ?$elle' (&'esen!;a1sen!
(!-!al n$1e' -) lan#$a#es anal+Be())
:UTURE <.ST
s!$(+ S. #l-1al S. #l-1al
Da"l M Del$&illai 2011a,
20111
10;11 (21) 110;112 (222) 15;> (21) 134;99 (222)
?$elle' (&'esen!
0-l$e)
38;2> (>3) 7 28;3> (>3) 7

T"e #e-#'a&"ical (is!'i1$!i-n -) !"e !"'ee Tense ca!e#-'ies <RESENT, <.ST, an( :UTURE is
-s!l+ inc-ncl$si0e. T"e (is&e'sal -) :UTURE in S-$!" .e'ica is *i(es&'ea( an( -cc$'s
al-s! e0e'+*"e'e= !"e sae "-l(s !'$e )-' <.ST an( Tense a'/in# in #ene'al. O0e'!
<RESENT a'/in# is sca!!e'e( in !"e n-'!"e'n "al) -) !"e c-n!inen!. .l!"-$#" i! is sca'ce
e0e'+*"e'e, i! is c-ns&ic$-$sl+ a1sen! al-n# !"e .n(ean 'an#e.
De'+ )e* clea' &a!!e'ns -) Tense a'/in# ee'#e. . &-ssi1le e%&lana!i-n -) !"is
"e!e'-#enei!+ is (isc$sse( in 3.10, 1$! )i's! I *ill !$'n !"e )-c$s !-*a'(s #eneal-#ical
'ela!i-ns"i&s -) Tense a'/in# in !"e sa&le. T"e )-ll-*in# &a'a#'a&"s &'esen! an
-0e'0ie* an( (e!aile( (isc$ssi-n -) Tense in ?ac'-7EUan, .'a*a/an, T$&Jan, Ca'i1an, an(
I$ec"$an.
















3. Tense 81

?a& 3.2, Dis!'i1$!i-n -) Tense a'/in# in !"e sa&le



82 3.9 Ee-#'a&"ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

?a& 3.3, Dis!'i1$!i-n -) <RESENT a'/in# in !"e sa&le


3. Tense 83

3.9 EENE.FOEIC.F DIS 3.9 EENE.FOEIC.F DIS 3.9 EENE.FOEIC.F DIS 3.9 EENE.FOEIC.F DISTRIAUTION TRIAUTION TRIAUTION TRIAUTION IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE IN T@E S.?<FE
3.9.1 In!'-($c!i-n 3.9.1 In!'-($c!i-n 3.9.1 In!'-($c!i-n 3.9.1 In!'-($c!i-n
In !e's -) #eneal-#+, Tense a'/in# *i!"in lan#$a#e )ailies is s-e!ies 0a'ie( an(
s-e!ies "--#ene-$s. T"e E$a+c$'$an, Na1i/*a'an, Na(a"$&, an( I$ec"$an
lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le a'e 'ela!i0el+ "--#ene-$s in !e's -) *"ic" Tense ca!e#-'ies
!"e+ a'/. T"is a+ 1e islea(in# as !"e'e a'e -nl+ !*- lan#$a#es -) eac" )ail+ (!"'ee )-'
I$ec"$an) in !"e sa&le, an( !"e 0a'ie!+ a+ 1e c-nsi(e'a1l+ "i#"e' -nce lan#$a#es a'e
a((e(. I! s"-$l( 1e 1-'ne in in(, !"a! !"e Tense s+s!es a'e n-! per se i(en!ical, 1$! !"a!
s"a'in# Tense s+s!es eans a ce'!ain a-$n! -) s"a'e( $n(e'l+in# Tense s!'$c!$'es.
I$ec"$an an( !- a ce'!ain (e#'ee T$&Jan an( ?ac'-7EUan s"-* siila'i!ies !"a! a+ 1e
($e !- c--n ances!'+. Es&eciall+ Tense a'/in# in I$ec"$an sees !- 1e 0e'+ &e'sis!en!
(see sec!i-n 3.9.5 1el-*). T"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-ns &'esen! Tense a'/in# as -cc$''in# in !"e
sa&le -) selec!e( lan#$a#e )ailies, ?ac'-7EUan (3.9.2), .'a*a/an (3.9.3), T$&Jan (3.9.4),
Ca'i1an (2.9.5), an( I$ec"$an (3.9.>).

3.9.2 3.9.2 3.9.2 3.9.2 ?ac'- ?ac'- ?ac'- ?ac'-7 77 7EUan EUan EUan EUan
S!assen (1998, 4>0) al'ea(+ -1se'0e( )-' A-'-'- !"a! 2i! sees sa)e !- ass$e !"a!
ca!e#-'ies -) !ie 'e)e'ence &la+ a s$1-'(ina!e '-le in !"e 0e'1al s+s!e5, an( !"is
&'inci&le "-l(s )-' !"e -!"e' ?ac'-7EUan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le as *ell. ?ac'-7EUan
Tense -'&"-l-#+ is &--' an( $s$all+ -nl+ :UTURE is a'/e( (see .'a*a/an )-' a siila'
(is!'i1$!i-n), *i!" !"e e%ce&!i-n -) Ri/1a/!sa, *"ic" a'/s <.ST. T*- -) !"e )-$' ?ac'-7
EUan lan#$a#es in !"e S.IFs sa&le "a0e !"e sae Tense s+s!es, A-'-'- an( Kain#an#
"a0e :UTURE (a'/e(); NON:UTURE ($na'/e()= Ri/1a/!sa "as as <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li!,
an( Ti1i'a "as a :UTURE; <.ST s+s!e. .l!"-$#" .l0es (2004) (-es n-! #i0e a <.ST a'/e'
)-' Ti1i'a, R-('i#$es (1999) lis!s se0e'al e%a&les -) Ti1i'a !"a! s"-* a a'/e' t[
#l-sse( *i!" Ge'#a!i0e <.STC. T"e sae a'/e' is #l-sse( -nl+ as G<.STC la!e' -n,

(3.40) Ti1i'a (?ac'-7EUan, R-('i#$es 1999, 191)
(a) i t tt t[ [[ [ pi<@co j-u<<Ck
h
br
1SE ERE.<ST !'ee.)'$i! CNT71$+
GI 1-$#"! )'$i!.C
(1) i t tt t[ [[ [ amji pBtcD
1SE <ST RE:F (e)en(
GI (e)en(e( +sel).C

.l0es (2004) #l-sses !"e sae )-' as Ge'#a!i0eC *i!" n- 'e)e'ence !- Tense,

(3.41) Ti1i'a (?ac'-7EUan= .l0es 2004, 109)
ta t tt t[ [[ [ kuhB pi<<r
'ain ERE )i'e .AS !-.&$!.-$!
GT"e 'ain &$! -$! !"e )i'e.C (-'i#. Ga c"$0a a&a#-$ - )-#-C)
84 3.9 Eeneal-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

T"a! t[ is a <.ST a'/e' is s$&&-'!e( 1+ !"e :UTURE; <.ST s+s!e )-$n( in Canela7K'a"f
*"ic" "as )-'s al-s! i(en!ical *i!" Ti1i'a, 'ecen! <.ST a'/e' te, :UTURE a'/e' ha=
-kra an( a (is!an! <.ST a'/e' pd (<-&Oes M <-&Oes 1999, 1897190).

Ta1le 3.9, Tense in ?ac'-7EUan
Fan#$a#es Tense s+s!e Re-!eness
(e#'ee(s)
:-'s
A-'-'- :UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :UTURE encli!ic (T) mod9
Ti1i'a :UTURE; <.ST 7 :UTURE IRRE.FIS &a'!icle ha6 (is!an! <.ST pe, <.ST t[ (T)
Kain#an# :UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :UTURE s$))i% 7j; 0e'1al en(in# in 0-*el= :UTURE
&a'!icles kej6 ke6 j); 0e'1al '--! en(in# in c-ns-nan!
Ri/1a/!sa <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+
s&li!
7 NON<.ST !'ansi!i0e sin#$la' -1Oec! -' 2n( &l$'al, pi7
gp7= NON<.ST !'ansi!i0e -1Oec! 1s! -' 3'( &l$'al, m-

3.9.3 3.9.3 3.9.3 3.9.3 .'a*a/an .'a*a/an .'a*a/an .'a*a/an
Tense s+s!es in !"e .'a*a/an lan#$a#e )ail+ a'e 0e'+ c-nsi(e'a1l+ 0a'ie(, Aa$'e is
Tenseless, .&$'inV an( Panes"aC "a0e :UTURE (a'/e(); NON:UTURE ($na'/e(), Ta'iana "as
a !"'ee7*a+ s&li!, an( <a'esi "as :UTURE; <.ST. .cc-'(in# !- .i/"en0al( (1999, 93794), an+
N-'!"7.'a*a/an lan#$a#es -nl+ (is!in#$is" 1e!*een <.ST an( NON<.ST *i!" !"e e%ce&!i-n -)
Ta'iana, *"ic" -1li#a!-'il+ a'/s )-' E0i(en!iali!+ as a 'es$l! -) c-n!ac! *i!" T$can-an. .s
Ta'iana is !"e -nl+ N-'!"7.'a*a/an lan#$a#e in !"e sa&le, !"is cann-! 1e c-n)i'e(, 1$!
Ta'iana ce'!ainl+ is e%ce&!i-nal in !"is sa&le as *ell.
.cc-'(in# !- De'1+s"i'e (199>, 529), A'aBilian .'a*a/an lan#$a#es 2(- n-! e%"i1i! an+
e0i(ence -) a !ense ca!e#-'+ in *"ic" &as!, &'esen! an( )$!$'e (is!inc!i-ns a'e )-$n(5 an(
Lise (1999, 59>) siila'l+ s!a!es !"a! 2a&a'! )'- )$!$'e 3Y4 !ense (is!inc!i-ns a'e 'ela!i0el+
$ni&-'!an!5. I! is !'$e !"a! !"e .'a*a/an lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le a'e 'a!"e' &--' in Tense
-'&"-l-#+ an( !"a! i) a lan#$a#es a'/s Tense i! is a! leas! :UTURE. Aa$'e is c-&le!el+
Tenseless, an( *i!" !"e e%ce&!i-n -) Ta'iana n-ne -) !"e "a0e -'e !"an !*- Tense
a'/e's, <a'esi "as a :UTURE; <.ST (is!inc!i-n *i!" -ne :UTURE encli!ic Site= te an( -ne <.ST
encli!ic Sene= =n (c). als- i1i(. 531). Panes"aC an( .&$'inV 1-!" "a0e a'/e(
:UTURE;$na'/e( NON:UTURE Tense s+s!es, al!"-$#" !"e )-'s a'e n-! !"e sae, .&$'inV
"as a n-n7ie(ia!e :UTURE s$))i% 7ko, an( Panes"aC encli!ic SchaC (an( all--'&"s 7ch;
7G*ch) &l$s an al!e'na!i0e nea' :UTURE a$%ilia'+ o*ch *"ic" a+ 1e 'ela!e( !- 7cha*.

(3.42) .&$'inV (.'a*a/an= :ac$n(es 2000, 410)
nhi-nhipoko-ta-ko ko ko ko
1SE7ea!7DAFH7:UT
GI *ill (- ea!in#.C

3. Tense 85

(3.43) <a'esi (.'a*a/an= A'an(V- 2011)
(a) ha-;idya halia ite ite ite ite
3S7clean.$& a'-$n(7<ROE :UT
G@e *ill 1e cleanin# $& !"e )iel(.C
(1) ane maidyat-ita=ene ene ene ene
#- )is"7<ROES<ST
G@e *as )is"in#.C

Panes"aC "as 1een "ea0il+ in)l$ence( 1+ I$ec"$an as e0i(en! in n$e'-$s l-ans, !"e
c"an#e )'- an .'a*a/an )-$'70-*el s+s!e !- a I$ec"$an !"'ee70-*el s+s!e an(
ce'!ain &"-n-l-#ical c"an#es (.(elaa' *i!" ?$+s/en 2004, 424). T"is is &-ssi1l+ als-
-1se'0e( in !"e Tense s+s!e. .l!"-$#" Panes"aCs Tense s+s!e is in acc-'(ance *i!" !"e
-!"e' .'a*a/an s+s!es in !"e sa&le *i!" -0e'!l+ a'/in# -nl+ )$!$'e, !"e Panes"aC
)$!$'e a'/e' Scha* l--/s s!'i/in#l+ li/e !"e I$ec"$an )$!$'e a'/e's. Aeca$se !"e -!"e'
.'a*a/an )$!$'e a'/e's in !"e sa&le (- n-! e%"i1i! a siila' )-' i! is 0e'+ li/el+ !"a!
Panes"aC ac6$i'e( i!s )$!$'e a'/e' )'- I$ec"$an. I! is $n/n-*n, "-*e0e', *"e!"e' i!
'e&lace( an-!"e' )$!$'e a'/e' -' *as an inn-0a!i-n.
T"e .'a*a/an lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le s"-* (i0e'si!+ in Tense s+s!e a'/in# 1$! a'e
-0e'all &--' in Tense -'&"-l-#+. L"en Tense is a'/e(, i! is a! leas! :UTURE= i) a sec-n(
Tense is a'/e(, i! is <.ST. Ta'iana (-es n-! )i! in!- !"is &a!!e'n an+ -'e ($e !- c-n!ac!
*i!" T$can-an. T"e a'/e's a'e a&&a'en!l+ n-! 'ela!e( !- &'-!-7)-'s, 1$! all "a0e !"e
)-' -) s$))i%es.

Ta1le 3.10, Tense in .'a*a/an
Fan#$a#e Tense s+s!e Re-!eness
(e#'ee(s)
:-'s
Aa$'e Tenseless 7 7
.&$'inV :UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :UTURE s$))i% 7ko
<a'esi :UTURE; <.ST 7 :UTURE encli!ic Site= te= <.ST encli!ic Sene= ne
Ta'iana T"'ee7*a+ s&li! 2 in !"e <.ST :$se( &a'a(i# -) <RESENT, <.ST an(
E0i(en!iali!+= :UTURE s$))i%es
7mhade an( 7de
Panes"aC :UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
1 in !"e :UTURE :UTURE encli!ic Scha* (an( all--'&"s 7ch=
-G*ch), ie(ia!e a$%ilia'+ o*ch

3.9. 3.9. 3.9. 3.9.4 44 4 T$&Jan T$&Jan T$&Jan T$&Jan
.l!"-$#" T$&Jan "as 'ecei0e( e!ic$l-$s a!!en!i-n an( is -ne -) !"e 1es! (esc'i1e( lan#$a#e
)ailies in S-$!" .e'ica, !"e'e "as 1een n- (e!aile( s!$(+ -) !"e Tense &'-)ile -) T$&Jan s-
)a' (c). E0e'e!! 200>, 2>8). T"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-n #i0es an -0e'0ie* -) Tense -cc$''in# in !"e
8> 3.9 Eeneal-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le, an( a+ se'0e as a s!a'!in# &-in! )-' an e%"a$s!i0e T$&Jan
Tense &'-)ile.
T"e'e a'e nine T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le, *i!" )i0e -) !"e E$a'anJ s$1 1'anc" (see
!a1le 3.11). T"e -s! )'e6$en!l+ a'/e( Tense ca!e#-'+ is :UTURE )-ll-*e( 1+ <.ST= -nl+
Ka'i!iana -0e'!l+ a'/s <RESENT (in a c$$la!i0e -'&"ee *i!" <.ST). Tense a'/in#
'an#es )'- )ai'l+ si&le (e.#. Kaai$'X *i!" -ne :UTURE &a'!icle) !- 6$i!e ela1-'a!e (e.#.
C-caa7C-cailla *i!" 'e-!eness (e#'ees in <.ST an( :UTURE). :-$' lan#$a#es s"-*
'e-!eness a'/in#. T"-se lan#$a#es *i!" a -'e ela1-'a!e Tense s+s!e (i.e. a )ai'
n$1e' -) a'/e's) $s$all+ s"-* a 1-$n( Tense s+s!e, 1$! !"-se *i!" a l-* n$1e' -)
a'/e's "a0e $n1-$n( a'/e's. :-' e%a&le, in Ka'i!iana (si% a'/e's) an( Ta&ie!e ()-$'
a'/e's) all a'/e's a'e s$))i%es, *"e'eas in Sa!e'Q7?a*Q (!*- a'/e's), N"een#a!_ (-ne
a'/e'), an( Kaai$'X (-ne a'/e') all a'e &a'!icles. T"e e%ce&!i-ns a'e Ka'- an( ?e/ens
as !"e+ 1-!" a'/ Tense 1+ a1-$! )i0e &a'!icles.
T"e'e is a 0e'+ l-* (e#'ee -) c-''es&-n(ence a-n# !"e a'/e's= -nl+ a )e* Tense
a'/e's see !- 1e 'ela!e(, *"ic" *ill n-* 1e (isc$sse(. I) a! s-e &-in! !"e'e "a0e 1een
&'-!-7T$&Jan Tense )-'s, !"e+ "a0e (i0e'#e( !- a (e#'ee !"a! a/es i! i&-ssi1le !-
'ec-ns!'$c! !"e. @-*e0e', !"e'e is sli#"! e0i(ence )-' a T$&Jan <.ST s$))i%.
In Ka'i!iana an( ?e/ens a s$))i% 7t -cc$'s. In ?e/ens, !"is (n-n7-1li#a!-'+) a'/e'
e%&'esses <.ST in !'ansi!i0e an( in!'ansi!i0e ain cla$ses (i! c"an#es !- 7r *"en )-ll-*e( 1+
a 0-*el) (Eal$ci- 2001, 9091). T"e si!$a!i-n in Ka'i!iana is -'e c-&lica!e(, 7t e%&'esses
NON:UTURE *"en &'ece(e( 1+ a 0-*el in c-&$la c-ns!'$c!i-ns, s&eec"7ac!7&a'!ici&an!
c-ns!'$c!i-ns, 0alence c-ns!'$c!i-ns *i!" in!'ansi!i0e 0e'1s, an( is -1li#a!-'+ (i!s all--'&"
7n; 7Bn -cc$'s in 0e'1 )-c$s c-ns!'$c!i-ns (E0e'e!! 200>, 2>5). T"e'e is n- siila' <.ST -'
NON:UTURE a'/e' in !"e -!"e' T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le. @-*e0e', R-('i#$es (1999,
11>) ci!es Ea1as K'. (1994) in !*- e%a&les *i!" an -in-$s .s&ec!$al s$))i% 7t. L"en
l--/in# a! !"ese e%a&les, i! is clea' !"a! !"e 7t s$))i% 'a!"e' e%&'esses a NON:UTURE !"an
.s&ec!$al 0al$e,

(3.44) Ka'- (T$&Jan= R-('i#$es 1999, 11>, ci!in# Ea1as K'.)
(a) na!to to-wirap !o-t tt t
!a&i' 3SE.C7)--( ea!7.S<ECT
GT"e !a&i' a!e i!s -*n )--(.C
(1) na!to a!-wirap !o-t tt t
!a&i' 3SE.NC7)--( ea!7.S<ECT
GT"e !a&i' is ea!in# i!s 3s-e!"in# elseCsC4 )--(.C

@-*e0e', Ea1as K'. (1999, 83) (-es n-! en!i-n !"is s$))i% in !"e Tense, 1$! 'a!"e' in !"e
?-(ali!+ sec!i-n, !'ea!in# i! as INDIC.TIDE. In!e'es!in#l+, !"e all--'&" -) INDIC.TIDE 7t is 7n
()-ll-*in# nasals), *"ic" a#ain 'ese1les !"e all--'&" -) !"e Ka'i!iana NON:UTURE
all--'&" 7n (in 0e'1 )-c$s c-ns!'$c!i-ns). S-e s$&&-'! )-' !"e "+&-!"esis !"a! !"e Ka'-
s$))i% 7t is a Tense a'/e' c-es )'- ?--'e (1994),
3. Tense 88

(3.45) Ka'- (T$&Jan= ?--'e 1994, 159)
iyBt w-e-t t t t a-ma-wiy-a
s6$eeBe 1SE7.UW7<ST(T) 3SE7C.US7#-.-$!7<TC<
GI s6$eeBe( i! -$! ('e)e''in# !- a )--! *-').C

O!"e' T$&Jan lan#$a#es !"a! "a0e a <.ST s$))i% 7t a'e La+-'- (*i!" all--'&" 7n) an( .+$'$,

(3.4>) La+-'- (T$&Jan= Eal$ci- M N-#$ei'a 2011, 23, 24)
(a) (n kBei pikara'-k-a-t
1SE s!ic/ c'--/e(7DAFH7T@E?7<ST
GI 1en! !"e s!ic/.C
(1) 'gwaijkBp Beoj-t` $ kwa-p 7(---n nn n te-ndaBp ma
an )is"(N)7)is"(D)7NO? #i0e7DAFH7T@E?7<ST 37s-n <S<T
GT"e an #a0e a )is"in# ne! !- "is s-n.C

(3.48) .+$'$ (T$&Jan= ?--'e 1994, 153)
o-kip agwa gora-t tt t
1SE71'-!"e' ca'X l--/.)-'7<ST
G?+ 1'-!"e' l--/e( )-' ca'X.C

.l!"-$#" &'-1a1l+ !"e 'e)le% -) a T$&Jan NON:UTURE; <.ST &'-!-7)-' !"e s$))i% 7t in ?e/ens,
La+-'-, Ka'-, .+$'$, an( Ka'i!iana nee(s )$'!"e' s!$(+.
T"e :UTURE a'/e's -) !"e T$&Jan lan#$a#es a&&a'en!l+ a'e n-! 'ela!e(, 1$! Kensen
(1999, 53>) clais !"a! )-' !"e E$a'anJ 1'anc" -) T$&Jan !"e 0e'1 epot%r G*an!C is c--nl+
$se( )-' :UTURE (an( DESIDER.TIDE). T"is is e0i(en! in !"e Ta&ie!e ie(ia!e :UTURE s$))i%
7pota an( i! a+ als- -cc$' in !"e EQ'ill-n :UTURE a'/e' 7tal (R-se 2003, 42>), 1$! n-! in
!"e -!"e' E$a'anJ lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le (?$elle' 2013).
T"e Tense s+s!es -) !"e T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le a'e :UTURE a'/in#, ei!"e' in
c-1ina!i-n *i!" <.ST -' NON:UTURE, 1$! 1esi(es !"a! s"-* li!!le c-''es&-n(ence. Aesi(es a
&-ssi1le NON:UTURE; <.ST s$))i% e7t in ?e/ens, Ka'i!iana, an( Ka'-, an( !'aces -) epotal in
:UTURE a'/e's in Ta&ie!e an( EQ'ill-n, !"e Tense a'/e's -) !"e T$&Jan lan#$a#es in !"e
sa&le see !- 1e $n'ela!e(.
In c-n!'as!, Kensen (1999, 129) n-!es E$a'anJ lan#$a#es a'e 2n-!e( )-' a "i#" (e#'ee -)
le%ical an( -'&"-l-#ical siila'i!+ a-n# i!s e1e' lan#$a#es in s&i!e -) !"ei' e%!ensi0e
#e-#'a&"ical se&a'a!i-n5. T"is is n-! !'$e )-' Tense as R-('i#$es (1999, 119) "as s!a!e( !"a!
2!"e lan#$a#es 0a'+ a #--( (eal in "-* !"e+ a'/ ca!e#-'ies -) as&ec!, !ense an( --(5.
Tense a'/in# in T$&Jan is !"$s la'#el+ "e!e'-#ene-$s *i!" !"e e%ce&!i-n -) "a0in# -s!l+
:UTURE; NON:UTURE (is!inc!i-ns.
4


4
T"is als- is !'$e )-' .*e!J (-nl+ Tense a'/e' is !"e :UTURE &a'!icle tut) (D'$(e 2009, 81).
89 3.9 Eeneal-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

Ta1le 3.11, Tense in T$&Jan
Fan#$a#e :ail+ Tense s+s!e Re-!eness
(e#'ee(s)
:-'s
Sa!e'Q7
?a*Q
T$&Jan :UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :UTURE &a'!icles aru6 wuat
Ka'i!iana T$&Jan :UTURE; NON:UTURE
1ina'+ s&li!
7 c$$la!i0e s$))i%es <RESENT an( <.ST
(NON:UTURE) 7t6 -n6 -Bn, :UTURE S$))i%es 7i6
-j, 7ndaki
Ka'- T$&Jan :UTURE; <.ST 2 in !"e <.ST, 1 in
!"e :UTURE
2 :UTURE &a'!icles yat, iga= 1 :UTURE
a$%ilia'+ kapf 2 <.ST &a'!icles co6 k%n
('ecen! an( 'e-!e) (<.ST s$))i% 7tT)
?e/ens T$&Jan :UTURE; <.ST 1 in !"e :UTURE :UTURE &a'!icles pek6 pa6 paat6 kot=
c$$la!i0e :UTURE &a'!icle *i!" i''ealis
8p:egatf <.ST S$))i% 7t= -r
EQ'ill-n T$&Jan,
E$a'anJ
:UTURE; <.ST 7 :UTURE s$))i% 7tal6 ie(ia!e <.ST s$))i%
7o!u
Kaai$'X T$&Jan,
E$a'anJ
:UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :UTURE &a'!icle korin
C-caa7
C-cailla
T$&Jan,
E$a'anJ
:UTURE; <.ST 3 in !"e <.ST, 2 in
!"e :UTURE
ie(ia!e <.ST encli!ic Suy, e(ia!e
<.ST encli!ic =iku%, 'e-!e <.ST encli!ic
Stsuri, ie(ia!e CERT.IN :UTURE
encli!ic Sutsu, e(ia!e; 'e-!e :UTURE
encli!ic S%
Ta&ie!e T$&Jan,
E$a'anJ
:UTURE; <.ST 2 in !"e <.ST, 2 in
!"e :UTURE
ie(ia!e :UTURE s$))i% 7pota; 7po,
(is!an! :UTURE s$))i% 7kwi, ie(ia!e
<.ST s$))i% 7ye g 7e, (is!an! <.ST s$))i%
7kwe
N"een#a!_ T$&Jan,
E$a'anJ
:UTURE (a'/e();
NON:UTURE
($na'/e()
7 :$!$'e &a'!icle kuri
g


3.9.5 3.9.5 3.9.5 3.9.5 Ca'i1an Ca'i1an Ca'i1an Ca'i1an
In !"is sa&le, Ca'i1an lan#$a#es a'e c"a'ac!e'iBe( 1+ !"ei' "i#" (e#'ee -) )$si-n 1e!*een
Tense, .s&ec!, ?-(ali!+, an( n$1e'. :-' e%a&le, in Ti'i+N !"e in(ica!i0e 0e'1 'ecei0es
a))i%es -) !*- (i))e'en! se!s, ei!"e' )ac!$al -' n-n)ac!$al. T"e )ac!$al se! is (i0i(e( in!-
I?<ER:ECTIDE an( <ER:ECTIDE *"ic" is )$'!"e' s$1(i0i(e( in!- c-llec!i0e; n-n7c-llec!i0e an(
eac" "as (i))e'en! )-'s )-' <RESENT, <.ST, :UTURE. .((i!i-nall+, !"e'e is a DUAIT.TIDE 0s.
CERT.INTP (is!inc!i-n in !"e <RESENT an( :UTURE. T"e n-n)ac!$al se! is (i0i(e( in!- c-llec!i0e
an( n-n7c-llec!i0e, as is !"e (is!inc! se! -) )-'s )-' I?<ER.TIDE (?ei'a 1999, 291). T"e

5
<-ssi1l+ 'ela!e( !- kury Gac!i-n -' s!a!e a! &-in! -) c"an#eC in E$aOaOX'a (Kensen 1999, 554), an( kuri
G'ecen! &as!, a!!es!e(C in Kai*X (i1i(.).
3. Tense 89

si!$a!i-n in @i%/a'+ana is siila', al!"-$#" *i!"-$! !"e )ac!$al; n-n7)ac!$al (is!inc!i-n,
NON<.ST ins!ea( -) (is!inc! <RESENT an( :UTURE, an( !"'ee 'e-!eness (e#'ees ins!ea( -) -ne
(De'1+s"i'e 1995, 19>). .ll !"'ee Ca'i1an lan#$a#es "a0e an .s&ec!$al (is!inc!i-n in -s!
<.ST )-'s 1e!*een CO?<FETIDE; CONTINU.TIDE -' I?<ER:ECTIDE; <ER:ECTIDE an( a ?-(al
(is!inc!i-n in NON<.ST; <RESENT an( :UTURE )-'s (c). De'1+s"i'e 1999, 39 an( Eil(ea 1992,
2829).
.cc-'(in# !- De'1+s"i'e (1999, 39), Ca'i1an lan#$a#es "a0e 'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e
<.ST 1$! n-! in !"e :UTURE, an( !"is is c-n)i'e( )-' !"e &'esen! sa&le. @i%/a'+ana, <ana'e,
an( Ti'i+N all "a0e 'e-!eness (e#'ees -nl+ in !"e <.ST.
In c-n!'as! !- an+ -!"e' lan#$a#e )ailies in S. 'ela!i0el+ $c" is /n-*n a1-$! Tense
in ?-(e'n Ca'i1an an( <'-!-7Ca'i1an, n-! leas! 1eca$se -) Eil(ea (1999). Eil(ea (i1i(. 99)
'ec-ns!'$c!s se0e'al <'-!-7Ca'i1an T.? )-'s, 'e)le%es -) *"ic" can als- 1e seen in !"is
(a!a, an( a'#$es !"a! (es&i!e s-e 0a'ia!i-n !"e+ (escen( )'- a &'-!-7s+s!e,

5@a0in# c-&a'e( !"e s+n!a%, 0e'1al &e's-nal &'e)i%es, T.? s$))i%es, an( n$1e'
s$))i%es; &a'!icles !"a! c-ns!i!$!e !"e Se!1 s+s!e in 19 -(e'n lan#$a#es, (es&i!e
s-e lan#$a#e7s&eci)ic 0a'ia!i-n *e can see !"a! !"e -0e'all -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic
&a!!e'ns a'e s- c-nsis!en! !"a! !"e+ can -nl+ 1e e%&laine( as "a0in# (escen(e( )'-
a sin#le &'-!-s+s!e5 (i1i(. 101).

.s can 1e seen in !a1le 3.12, @i%/a'+ana is &'-1a1l+ s!ill -s! )ai!")$l !- !"e &'-!-7)-'s
an( Ti'i+N "as c"an#e( !"e -s! (!"e (a!a )-' !"e !"'ee lan#$a#es )-$n( in Eil(ea (i))e' !- a
in-' (e#'ee )'- !"a! &'esen!e( "e'e). T"e'e is n- (is!inc!i-n an+ -'e 1e!*een 'ecen!
an( 'e-!e <.ST, 1$! *"e'eas @i%/a'+ana an( <ana'e "a0e c$$la!i0e NON<.ST )-'s, Ti'i+N
"as se&a'a!e a'/e's )-' :UTURE an( <RESENT. .n inn-0a!i-n sees !- 1e !"e &'e)i%; s$))i%
c-1ina!i-n te7 7se in Ti'i+N !"a! a'/s 'e-!e <.ST, an( *"ic" is -s!l+ $se( in na''a!i0es
-) +!"s an( le#en(s. T"is is n-! an E0i(en!ial, 1eca$se i! a'/s !"a! !"e e0en! is )a'
'e-0e( )'- !"e &-in! -) s&eec" 'a!"e' !"an in(ica!in# "-* !"e in)-'a!i-n *as
-1!aine(. . c-&-nen! *"ic" all !"'ee lan#$a#es s"a'e is an .s&ec!$al (is!inc!i-n in !"e
<.ST. Aeca$se Eil(eaCs s!$(+ (a!es 1ac/ al-s! 20 +ea's, i! *-$l( 1e in!e'es!in# !- see
*"e!"e' !"e 'ec-ns!'$c!e( &'-!-7)-'s s!an( $& *"en -'e 'ecen! (a!a a'e a((e(.










90 3.9 Eeneal-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

Ta1le 3.12, Tense (is!inc!i-ns in Ca'i1an (&'esen! sa&le) an( <'-!-7Ca'i1an (Eil(ea 1999)

Tense )-'s in !"e &'esen! sa&le
6

@i%/a'+ana <ana'e Ti'i+N
Eil(eaC (1999)
Tense &'-!-7
)-'s
'ecen! <.ST e7wB;7i;
7no
7no, tEowB,
7yako, 7yatEoko,
7yaknano,
7yatEkenano
7ya, 7i67e 7(ja)k(ne), 7ne6 (te7 7
se)
(is!an! <.ST e7ne 7ye, tEownB,
7yakonB, 7yatEkonB
7ya(ke)
NON<.ST e7ya-ce 7yaha, 7yatEhe 7n, 7,e 7(ja)7e, 7(ja)7n, 7ta7e,
7ta7(ne), 7(ja)7k(mN)
NON<.ST
$nce'!ain
e7ya-no 7yano, 7yatEowB T

Ta1le 3.13, Tense s+s!es in Ca'i1an
Fan#$a#e Tense s+s!e Re-!eness (e#'ee(s)
@i%/a'+ana <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li! 3 in !"e <.ST
<ana'e <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li! 3 in !"e <.ST
Ti'i+N T"'ee7*a+ s&li! 1 in !"e <.ST

3.9.> 3.9.> 3.9.> 3.9.> I$ec"$an I$ec"$an I$ec"$an I$ec"$an
T"e !"'ee I$ec"$an lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le a'e 0e'+ c-nsis!en! in !"ei' Tense a'/in#.
@$alla#a, I1a1$'a, an( C$Bc- I$ec"$a all "a0e :UTURE; <.ST Tense s+s!es an( siila'
)-'s *i!" -nl+ s-e 0a'ia!i-n in !"e :UTURE &a'a(i#. T"e'e is n- -0e'! a'/in# )-'
<RESENT. . 0e'1 *i!" &e's-n a'/in# an( *i!"-$! :UTURE -' <.ST a'/in# is in!e'&'e!e( as
<RESENT. T"e <.ST Tense s$))i%es 7ra (@$alla#a), 7rka (I1a1$'a), an( 7rka (C$Bc-) (see !a1le
3.14) -10i-$sl+ (e'i0e )'- e7r?a (c). .(elaa' *i!" ?$+s/en 2004, 223, c). Le1e' 1999, 99)
()-' !"is )-' as <ER:ECTIDE a'/e' see 4.8.2). C$Bc- I$ec"$a a((i!i-nall+ "as a s$))i% 7s?a
!"a! als- "as &as! !ie 'e)e'ence. :alle' (2002, 30) (isisses ea'lie' anal+ses -) !"e !*-
C$Bc- <.ST a'/e's c-(in# an E0i(en!ial (is!inc!i-n, 1$! 'a!"e' i(en!i)ies 7rka as n-'al
<.ST a'/e' an( 7s?a as 2&e')ec! -) e0i(en!iali!+5 al!"-$#" s"e s!a!es !"a! !"e la!!e' a'/e'
is n-! E0i(en!ial. .l!"-$#" i! -cc$'s la'#el+ in na''a!i0es *i!" 'e&-'!a!i0e 0al$es i! is n-!
-1li#a!-'+ in all na''a!i0es an( -cc$'s als- *i!"-$! 'e&-'!a!i0e, 1$! can "a0e -nl+ &e')ec!
7

eanin# (as *ell as i'a!i0e an( e0en NON7:IRST@.ND eanin#) (i1i(. 30732).

6
:-' ease -) 'ea(in# !"e (i))e'en! s$))i%es )-' n$1e', !'ansi!i0i!+, an( .s&ec!$al (is!inc!i-ns a'e lis!e(
1$! n-! )$'!"e' s&eci)ie(. NON<.ST in Ti'i+N incl$(es a'/e's )-' <.ST an( )-' :UTURE= !"e Ti'i+N )-'s
$n(e' 'ecen! <.ST a'e n-! s&eci)ic )-' an+ 'e-!eness.
8
:alle'Cs an( Le1e'Cs !e' 2&e')ec!5 is c-n)-' !- .NTERIOR as $se( in !"is !"esis.
3. Tense 91

(3.49) C$Bc- I$ec"$a (I$ec"$an= :alle' 2002, 30, 31)
(a) para-sha-s?a s?a s?a s?a n-! e%&e'ience( 1+ s&ea/e'
'ain7<ROE7s6a
GI! *as 'ainin#.C
(1) Marya-?a hamu-s?a s?a s?a s?a <ER:ECTIDE
?a'+a7TO< c-e7s6a
G?a'+a "as c-e.C
(c) pisi-lla-,a ya?a tawa saku-cha s!-'+7!ellin#
li!!le7FI?7DISC al-s! )-$' sac/7DI?
hin-lla-,a muhu ka-s?a s?a s?a s?a
li/e7FI?7DISC see( 1e7s6a
GT"e'e *as -nl+ a li!!le, al-s! -nl+ )-$' sac/s -) see(s.C
(() kay-pi-m% ka-sha-s?a s?a s?a s?a Marya-?a@ i'a!i0e (s$'&'ise)
!"is7FOC7X 1e7<ROE7s6a ?a'+a7TO<
G?a'+a is "e'e.C

@$alla#a I$ec"$a "as a siila' a'/e' 7sha= -shka *"ic" Le1e' (1999, 19>) classi)ies as
2&e')ec!5 Tense, an( *"ic" #'a($all+ !a/es -0e' as a #ene'al <.ST a'/e', *"e'eas 7ra is
$se( as a na''a!i0e a'/e'. Le1e' (i1i(. 10>, )--!n-!e 8) )$'!"e' a'#$es !"a! 7shka an( 7sha
s!e )'- an -'i#inal &a'!ici&leZa$%ilia'+ c-ns!'$c!i-n (7sh?a7ka) *"ic" si#nale( &e')ec!
an( c-lla&se( in!- 7sha; 7shka. S- *"e'eas in @$alla#a I$ec"$a 7ra is in !"e &'-cess -)
s"i)!in# !-*a'(s a a'/e' *i!" E0i(en!ial 0al$e an( !"e -'i#inal &e')ec! a'/e' !a/es -0e'
<.ST )$nc!i-ns, in C$Bc- I$ec"$a !"e -'i#inal <.ST a'/e' 7rka 'e!ains i!s &as! !ie
'e)e'ence an( !"e &e')ec! a'/e' 7s?a "as E0i(en!ial 0al$es. T"is is in!e'es!in#, 1eca$se i!
(e-ns!'a!es !"a! !*- 'ela!e( lan#$a#es "a0e !"e sae sean!ic s"i)! al!"-$#" *i!"
(i))e'en! s-$'ce a'/e's. N- s$c" s"i)! is -1se'0e( in I1a1$'a I$ec"$a, *"e'e !"e s$))i%
7shka 'eains a &e')ec! an( 7ra a <.ST a'/e' (C-le 1992, 144145), 1$!, acc-'(in# !- @in!B
(2008), !"e )-'e' &e')ec! ("e'e, .NTERIOR) s$))i% 7sh?a in S-$!" C-nc"$c-s I$ec"$a als-
c"an#e( in!- a 'ecen! <.ST a'/e'.

(3.49) @$alla#a I$ec"$a (I$ec"$an= Le1e' 1999, 100)
(a) aywa-ra ra ra ra-n na''a!i0e <.ST
#-7<ST73
G@e *en!.C
(1) aywa-sha sha sha sha 2e0e'+(a+5 <.ST
#-73<:TD
G@e *en!.C

S-$!" C-nc"$c-s I$ec"$a e%"i1i!s a 'e-!eness (is!inc!i-n in !"e <.ST, *"ic" is n-!
-1se'0e( )-' !"e -!"e' !"'ee I$ec"$an lan#$a#es (acc-'(in# !- !"e s-$'ces). T"e )-'e'
92 3.9 Eeneal-#ical (is!'i1$!i-n in !"e sa&le

&e')ec! a'/e' 7sh?a n-* c-(es 'ecen! <.ST an( !"e -'i#inal <.ST a'/e' 7r?a (e&ic!s a -'e
'e-!e <.ST. T"e'e a'e ac!$all+ !*- 'ecen! <.ST a'/e's *"ic" -cc$' in c-&leen!a'+
(is!'i1$!i-n acc-'(in# !- &e's-n, 7sh?a an( 7r?u (@in!B 2008, 39).
:UTURE in !"e I$ec"$an lan#$a#es (-es n-! "a0e a sin#le a'/e' li/e <.ST, 1$! $ses a
(is!inc! &e's-n &a'a(i# *i!" al-s! i(en!ical )-'s in all !"'ee lan#$a#es. T"e :UTURE
&a'a(i#s a'e (e)ec!i0e, i.e. !"e'e is n- (i))e'ence 1e!*een <RESENT an( :UTURE &e's-n
a'/in# in !"e sec-n( &e's-n. In @$alla#a I$ec"$a, a :UTURE )-' is -)!en acc-&anie( 1+
!"e s$))i% 7pa? *"ic" eans Ga! s-e )$!$'e !ieC, 1$! !"is (-es n-! see !- 1e -1li#a!-'+
(Le1e' 1999, 100).

(3.50) @$alla#a I$ec"$a (I$ec"$an= Le1e' 1999, 100)
(a) aywa-nki
#-72SE
GP-$ #-.C an( GP-$ *ill #-.C
(1) aywa-sha? sha? sha? sha?-kuna-pa? pa? pa? pa?
#-71:UT7<F7:UT
GLe (e%cl.) *ill #-.C

T"e 'ela!i-n 1e!*een C$Bc- I$ec"$a )i's! &e's-n :UTURE 7s?a an( !"e <ER:ECTIDE a'/e' 7s?a
is $n/n-*n. I! is li/el+ !"a! !"e :UTURE s!es )'- &'-!-7I$ec"$an )-', 1eca$se i! is s-
siila' !- !"e )i's! &e's-n :UTURE in @$alla#a an( I1a1$'a I$ec"$a, 1$! i! 'eains !- 1e
seen *"e!"e' !"e <ER:ECTIDE a'/e' is s-e"-* (e'i0e( )'- !"is -' an in(e&en(en!
(e0el-&en!.
I! a+ see ill-#ical !- anal+Be :UTURE as -0e'!l+ c-(e(, 1$! n-! <RESENT as 1-!" (- n-!
"a0e (is!inc! s$))i%es li/e !"e <.ST 1$! 'a!"e' a &e's-n &a'a(i#. L"+ !a/e !"e :UTURE
&e's-n &a'a(i# as c$$la!i0e a'/e's 1$! !"e <RESENT -ne as $na'/e(T T"e ans*e' is
!"a! 1eca$se !"e sae &e's-n a'/e's in !"e <RESENT a'e $se( in !"e <.ST an( !"$s (- n-!
ca''+ <RESENT Tense 0al$e as s$c". .((i!i-nall+, !"e &e's-n a'/e's -) !"e :UTURE &a'a(i#
al*a+s 'e)e' !- )$!$'e !ie 'e)e'ence.
T"e I$ec"$an lan#$a#es a'e 6$i!e "--#ene-$s in Tense a'/in#. Nei!"e' a'/s
<RESENT, 1$! (-es a'/ <.ST an( :UTURE, an( !"a! *i!" al-s! !"e sae se!s -) a'/e's. T"e+
$n(-$1!e(l+ s!e )'- &'-!-7I$ec"$an )-'s *i!" 0e'+ li!!le 0a'ia!i-n.

Ta1le 3.14, Tense a'/in# in I$ec"$an (@$alla#a, I1a1$'a, C$Bc-)
Fan#$a#e <RESENT <.ST :UTURE
1
s!
s#;&l 2
n(
s#;&l 3
'(
s#;&l
@$alla#a 7 -ra= 8-sha= -shka: -sha? -shun 7 7 -n?a -n?a
84 -pa?:
I1a1$'a 7 -rka -sha -shun 7 7 -nga -nga
C$Bc- 7 -rka= 8-s?a: -s?a -s?a 7 7 -n?a -n?a
3. Tense 93

3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 ST.AIFITP O: TENSE ST.AIFITP O: TENSE ST.AIFITP O: TENSE ST.AIFITP O: TENSE
. aO-' )ea!$'e -) Tense a'/in# in !"e S.IFs is !"e #'ea! "e!e'-#enei!+ -) !"e Tense
a'/e's in !"e sa&le. T"e'e a'e -nl+ a )e* ins!ances *"e'e Tense a'/e's 'ese1le eac"
-!"e' *i!"in lan#$a#e )ailies. One &-ssi1le e%&lana!i-n is a "i#" 'a!e -) c"an#e an( !"e
'ela!e( &'-&e'!+ -) ins!a1ili!+, *"ic" "as 1een &'-&-se( -n !"e 1asis -) an anal+sis -) !"e
L.FS )ea!$'es 1+ Lic"ann M Ka"-lB (2009) an( Lic"ann M @-lan (2009). T"e 1asic
ass$&!i-n 1e"in( #'a(in# s!a1ili!+ -) !+&-l-#ical )ea!$'es ('a*s -n !"e a&&a'en!
inc-n#'$i!+ -) c"an#e -) (i))e'en! )ea!$'es.
8
S!a1ili!+ i!sel) 'e)e's !- !"e s$sce&!i1ili!+ -) a
)ea!$'e !- c"an#e an( c"an#e 'e)e's !- !"e !'ans)-'a!i-n -) &"-n-l-#ical a!e'ial -) a
)ea!$'e. I) !"e'e is a (i))e'ence in !*- a'/e's )-' !"e sae )ea!$'e -) !*- 'ela!e( lan#$a#es
!"en c"an#e $s! "a0e "a&&ene(. Re#a'(in# !"e &'esen! (a!a, es!a1lis"in# Tense &'-!-7
)-'s is 0e'+ (i))ic$l! )-' -s! )ailies as !"e a'/e's (i0e'#e 0e'+ $c" (e%ce&! )-'
I$ec"$an) *"ic" &-in!s !-*a'(s a "i#" 'a!e -) c"an#e. T"is in !$'n &-in!s !-*a'( l-*
s!a1ili!+. T"e )-ll-*in# sec!i-n in!'-($ces !"e eas$'in# -) s!a1ili!+ -) !+&-l-#ical )ea!$'es
an( "-* !"is 'ela!es !- !"e &'esen! s!$(+. In a s!$(+ -) L.FS (a!a !"e 'ela!i0e s!a1ili!+ -)
<.ST an( :UTURE *e'e eas$'e( 1+ Lic"ann M @-lan (2009) an( !"e 'es$l!s a'e n-*
c-&a'e( !- !"e &'esen! (a!a.
.cc-'(in# !- Lic"ann M @-lan (2009, 45), Tenses in !"e L.FS sa&le 0a'+
acc-'(in# !- !"ei' (iac"'-nic s!a1ili!+, !"e )ea!$'e 2&as! !ense5 is 0e'+ s!a1le, 1$! 2)$!$'e
!ense5 $ns!a1le. T"is is 1ase( -n a !es!e( s!a1ili!+ e!'ic !"a! is 1ase( -n !"e (is!inc!i-n
1e!*een 'ela!e( an( $n'ela!e( lan#$a#es. T"e a$!"-'s !a/e s!a1ili!+ -) a )ea!$'e 2(e)ine( as
!"e &'-1a1ili!+ !"a! a #i0en lan#$a#e 'eains $nc"an#e( *i!" 'es&ec! !- !"e )ea!$'es
($'in# 1000 +ea's5 (i1i(. 12). :-' !"e !*- )ea!$'es a1-0e !"is i&lies !"a! in !"e L.FS
sa&le <.ST is 0e'+ $nli/el+ !- c"an#e *i!"in 1000 +ea's an( :UTURE li/el+ !- c"an#e. .
&'e0i-$s !es! 1+ Lic"ann M Ka"-lB (2009) 'e0eale( !"a! <.ST Tense 'an/s in !"e l-*e'
"al) -) s!a1ili!+ -) (L.FS) )ea!$'es, an( :UTURE Tense 0e'+ l-*. T"e'e seein#l+ is a
(isc'e&anc+ in !"e 'an/in# -) <.ST in 1-!" s!$(ies, 1$! 1eca$se Lic"ann M @-lan
c-nsi(e' !"e e!'ic -) !"e )i's! s!$(+ &e')-'in# 1e!!e' !"an !"e sec-n( -ne I *ill n-!
(isc$ss !"e sec-n( -ne "e'e.
T"e 'an/in# -) s!a1ili!+ 'ela!es !- !"e &'-1a1ili!+ -) c"an#e, 1$! !"e s!$(+ s"-*s !*-
-'e 'e)ine( 'es$l!s !"a! a'e in!e'es!in# )-' !"e &'esen! (isc$ssi-n. I! is n-! -nl+ in!e'es!in#
!- /n-* !- *"ic" (e#'ee )ea!$'es a'e &'-ne !- c"an#e, 1$! als- *"ic" c"an#es a'e in0-l0e(.
:ea!$'e c"an#es can 1e in!e'nal, i.e. ($e !- !+&-l-#ical lan#$a#e in!e'nal (e0el-&en!s, -'
e%!e'nal, i.e. ($e !- c-n!ac!7in($ce( c"an#e. T"e la!!e', calle( 2(i))$si-n5 1+ Lic"ann M
@-lan, -cc$'s in !"e -s! s!a1le )ea!$'es an( in !$'n in!e'nal c"an#e (-es n-! a))ec! !"e
-s! s!a1le )ea!$'es as $c" as 'ela!i0el+ less s!a1le -nes, 2s!a1le )ea!$'es a'e -'e
'esis!an! !- in!e'nal c"an#e 1$! n- -'e 'esis!an! !- (i))$si-n !"an a'e $ns!a1le
)ea!$'es.3Y4 !"e -s! s!a1le )ea!$'es c"an#e al-s! en!i'el+ 1+ (i))$si-n, *i!" ne#li#i1le

8
See Lic"ann M @-lan (2009, 5) )-' a "is!-'ical acc-$n! -) s!a1ili!+ in !+&-l-#+.
94 3.10 S!a1ili!+ -) Tense

in!e'nal c"an#e5 (Lic"ann M @-lan 2009, 42, 39). T"$s, i) !"is is !'$e, !"en <.ST an(
:UTURE in !"is sa&le s"-$l( 1-!" 1e a))ec!e( 1+ (i))$si-n, 1$! :UTURE -'e !"an <.ST 1+
in!e'nal c"an#e. .c!in# -n !"e ass$&!i-n !"a! !"e s!a1ili!+ s!$(+ -) Lic"ann M @-lan
(2009) is 0ali(, *e can c-ncl$(e !*- *-'/in# "+&-!"eses )-' !"is sa&le,

1. <.ST s"-$l( s"-* a 'ela!i0el+ "i#" s!a1ili!+, i.e. a l-* (e#'ee -) c"an#e *i!"in
lan#$a#e )ailies, an( *"en !"e'e is c"an#e, i! s"-$l( 1e c-n(i!i-ne( 'ela!i0el+
-'e )'e6$en!l+ 1+ (i))$si-n !"an in!e'nal c"an#e.
2. :UTURE s"-$l( s"-* a "i#" (e#'ee -) c"an#e, i.e. :UTURE a'/in# is 'ela!i0el+
"e!e'-#ene-$s in lan#$a#es -) !"e sae )ail+, an( !"is c"an#e is ($e !- 1-!"
(i))$si-n an( in!e'nal c"an#e.

T"e (an#e' *i!" s!a!een!s a1-$! &'-!-7)-'s is !"a! !"e'e is n- &-ssi1ili!+ !- &'-0e !"e,
1$! !"is is i''ele0an! !- !"e a'#$en! -) s!a1ili!+. L"en 'ela!e( lan#$a#es a'/ !"e sae
ca!e#-'ies an( !"e a'/e's (- n-! s"a'e si#ni)ican! &"-n-l-#ical a!e'ial, !"e+ a'e ei!"e'
in!e'nal; e%!e'nal inn-0a!i-ns -' "a0e c"an#e( !- a (e#'ee !"a! !"e -'i#inal cann-! 1e
'e!'ace( an( a'e !"$s n-! s!a1le. In !"e )-ll-*in# &a'a#'a&"s, lan#$a#e )ailies *i!" -'e
!"an -ne e1e' in !"e sa&le a'e !es!e( acc-'(in# !- !"e !*- "+&-!"eses a1-0e.
T"e a'/in# -) !"e ca!e#-'+ <.ST in Ca'i1an is s!a1le, 1$! !"e )-'s a&&ea' !- 1e -nl+
-(e'a!el+ s!a1le. .cc-'(in# !- !"e (a!a #a!"e'e( 1+ De'1+s"i'e (1999, 39, !a1le 2.8), !"e'e
a'e 'e7-cc$''in# <.ST )-'s !"'-$#"-$! .&alaJ, Aa/ai'J, Ca'iO-na, De/*ana, @i%/a'+ana,
<ana'e, Ti'i+N, Lai Lai, an( La+ana, al!"-$#" n-! !- a sa!is)+in# (e#'ee. :-' e%a&le,
.&alaJ, @i%/a'+ana an( De/*ana a'/ <.ST -' ie(ia!e <.ST *i!" 0a'ia!i-ns -) 7no, 1$!
Aa/ai'J *i!" 7da an( <ana'e *i!" 7yah. On !"e -!"e' "an(, NON<.ST is a'/e( *i!" 0a'ia!i-ns
-) 7ya in al-s! all -) !"ese lan#$a#es, *"ic" s$##es!s !"a! NON<.ST is -'e s!a1le in Ca'i1an
!"an <.ST.
T"e sec-n( "+&-!"esis is s$&&-'!e( 1+ !"e (a!a in ?ac'-7EUan an( T$&Jan, ?ac'-7EUan
(-es n-! a'/ <.ST, 1$! all lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le (- a'/ :UTURE. T"e )-'s s$##es! !"a!
a c--n ances!-' )-' is $nli/el+, A-'-'- mod9, Ri/1a/!sa m7;p7, Kain#an# 7j, kej; ke; k)=
Ti1i'a ha. .l!"-$#" a sin#le &'-!-7)-' a+ "a0e e%is!e(, !"e a'/e's "a0e c"an#e( !- a
0e'+ "i#" (e#'ee. T$&Jan :UTURE )-'s a'e siila'l+ (i0e'se, Ka'- yat, iga, kap= ?e/ens pek,
pa, paat, kot, Sa!e'Q7?a*Q aru, wuat= EQ'ill-n 7tal= Kaai$'X korin= C-caa7C-cailla Sutsu,
S%, Ta&ie!e 7pota; 7po, kwi= N"een#a!_ kuri. Aesi(es !"e a1-0e en!i-ne( s-$'ce epotar G*an!C
)-' :UTURE in s-e E$a'anJ lan#$a#es (Ti1i'a an( EQ'ill-n) !"e T$&Jan :UTURE a'/e's
a'e n-! 'ela!e(.
T"e (a!a )'- T$&Jan an( ?ac'-7EUan s$&&-'!s !"e clai !"a! :UTURE is 0e'+ $ns!a1le,
an( )'- Ca'i1an !"a! in c-&a'is-n <.ST IS -(e'a!el+ s!a1le. .n e%ce&!i-n !- 1-!"
"+&-!"eses is Tense in I$ec"$an *"ic" is 0e'+ s!a1le= !"e <.ST as *ell as :UTURE )-'s a'e
al-s! i(en!ical in all !"'ee lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le (see sec!i-n 3.9.>). T- !es! *"e!"e' !"e
"e!e'-#ene-$s a'/e's a'e ($e !- (i))$si-n -' in!e'nal c"an#e -'e 'esea'c" nee(s !- 1e
(-ne -n !"e in(i0i($al a'/e's *"ic" is 1e+-n( !"e sc-&e -) !"is s!$(+. I! can 1e c-ncl$(e(
3. Tense 95

!"a! !"e "i#" "e!e'-#enei!+ in Tense a'/e's a+ 1e e%&laine( 1+ i!s 'ela!i0e s!a1ili!+ -'
lac/ !"e'e-) as &'-&-se( 1+ Lic"ann M @-lan (2009).
A$! !"e "e!e'-#enei!+ a+ als- 1e ($e !- !"e )ac! !"a! T.?E a'/e's e%is! in a
c-n!in$$, i.e. a'/e's a'e &'-ne !- s"i)! )'- -ne ca!e#-'+ !- an-!"e'. In !"e 'eal -)
Tense, !"is is es&eciall+ !"e case )-' :UTURE an( E&is!eic ?-(ali!+, -' <.ST an( <ER:ECTIDE.
:-' s!a1ili!+ -) .s&ec! see sec!i-n 4.11, )-' ?-(ali!+ 5.13, )-' E0i(en!iali!+ >.>, an( )-' a )inal
(isc$ssi-n see sec!i-n 8.5.

3.11 3.11 3.11 3.11 SU??.RP SU??.RP SU??.RP SU??.RP
T"is c"a&!e' in0es!i#a!e( !"e !+&-l-#ical, #e-#'a&"ical, an( #eneal-#ical &a!!e'ns -) Tense
a'/in# in !"e sa&le. T"e lan#$a#es *e'e anal+Be( acc-'(in# !- :UTURE, <RESENT, <.ST, an(
'e-!eness (e#'ees in !"e <.ST an( :UTURE in >3 S.IFs. Tense *as (e)ine( as !"e
#'aa!icaliBe( e%&'essi-n -) !ie an( eac" ca!e#-'+ *as )$'!"e' (e)ine( as !"e
'ela!i-ns"i& 1e!*een !"e &-in!s -) e0en! an( s&eec". I! *as (e-ns!'a!e( !"a! -'&"-7
s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# in !"e S.IFs sa&le can 1e (i0i(e( in!- Tense( an( Tenseless
lan#$a#es. Tense( lan#$a#es )all in!- !"e classes -) !*-7*a+ s&li!s (:UTURE; NON:UTURE
si&le s&li!, :UTURE; NON:UTURE 1ina'+ s&li!, <.ST; NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li!), !"'ee7*a+ s&li!s
(:UTURE, <RESENT, <.ST), an( a :UTURE; <.ST (i0isi-n. T"e la!!e' -cc$'s -s! )'e6$en!l+ *i!" 22
e1e's, )-ll-*e( 1+ :UTURE; NON:UTURE si&le s&li! (14), !"'ee7*a+ s&li! (nine), <.ST;
NON<.ST 1ina'+ s&li! (si%), an( :UTURE; NON:UTURE 1ina'+ sli! (!"'ee).
?-s! -) !"e lan#$a#es in !"e sa&le "a0e -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in#, -nl+ se0en
a'e Tenseless (an( !"'ee a'e 1-'(e'line cases). O) !"e &-ssi1ili!+ !- a'/ $& !- )i0e Tense
(is!inc!i-ns (<RESENT, :UTURE, <.ST 'e-!e <.ST, 'e-!e :UTURE), 12 lan#$a#es a'/ -ne, 11
a'/ !*-, 15 a'/ !"'ee, 1> a'/ )-$', an( !*- a'/ )i0e Tenses. T"e -s! )'e6$en!l+
a'/e( ca!e#-'+ is :UTURE, *"ic" is a'/e( 1+ 54 lan#$a#es, )-ll-*e( 1+ <.ST (44),
'e-!eness in !"e <.ST (29), <RESENT (1>), an( 'e-!eness in !"e :UTURE (11). T"is all-*s )-' a
"ie'a'c"+ -) Tense a'/in# in !"e sa&le, :UTURE b <.ST b <RESENT. T"e'e is n- si#ni)ican!
)'e6$enc+ -) a'/in# -) <.ST -' :UTURE c-&a'e( !- a #l-1al sa&le in Da"l M Del$&illai
(20111)= "-*e0e', !"e a'/in# -) 'e-!eness (e#'ees in S. is c-nsi(e'a1l+ "i#"e' !"an in
!"e 'es! -) !"e *-'l(. N- si#ni)ican! c-''ela!i-n 1e!*een Tense s+s!es an( 'e-!eness
(e#'ees -' an+ #e-#'a&"ical &a!!e'n c-$l( 1e )-$n(.
. aO-' c"a'ac!e'is!ic -) -'&"-7s+n!ac!ic Tense a'/in# in !"e S.IFs is i!s
"e!e'-#enei!+ -) )-'s *"ic" a+ 1e e%&laine( 1+ !"e 'ela!i0el+ l-* s!a1ili!+ -) :UTURE an(
<.ST a'/in# as calc$la!e( in a &'e0i-$s s!$(+. T"$s, all Tense ca!e#-'ies a'e a&&a'en!l+
"i#"l+ s$sce&!i1le !- c"an#e, 1$! in #ene'al :UTURE -'e s- !"an <.ST. Tense a'/in# in all
ca!e#-'ies is 0a'ie( in all lan#$a#e )ailies (*i!" -'e !"an !*- e1e's) in !"e sa&le
*i!" !"e n-!icea1le e%ce&!i-n -) I$ec"$an. T"e I$ec"$an lan#$a#es a'e 6$i!e
"--#ene-$s in !"ei' Tense a'/in#, nei!"e' a'/s <RESENT, 1$! all a'/ <.ST an( :UTURE
*i!" c-#na!es. In c-n!'as!, .'a*a/an, ?ac'-7EUan an( T$&Jan lan#$a#es, al!"-$#"
e%"i1i!in# siila' s+s!es, a'e *i(el+ inc-nsis!en! in !"ei' Tense a/e's. Ca'i1an Tense
9> 3.11 S$a'+

a'/in# is in #ene'al is -'e "--#ene-$s !"an in .'a*a/an, T$&Jan an( ?ac'-7EUan, 1$!
less !"an in I$ec"$an.

4. Aspect 87

4. ASPECT 4. ASPECT 4. ASPECT 4. ASPECT
4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.1 INTRODUCTION
In contrast to Tense, which sitates e!ents on a ti"e#ine, Aspect is concerne$ with the
interna# strctre o% the e!ent. Ths, Aspect e&presses the 'how( o% an e!ent rather than the
'when() *+a,spect is not concerne$ with re#atin- the ti"e o% the sitation to an. other point
in ti"e, /t rather with the interna# te"pora# constitenc. o% the one sitation0 1Co"rie
1273, 45. 6#ein 1see section 7.15 #ists Aspect as one "eans to e&press te"pora# $istinctions in
#an-a-es, an$ whi#e it is tre that Tense an$ Aspect are re#ate$ 1c%. Dah# 1284, Co"rie 1273,
8hat 1222 etc.5 this chapter %ocses on the !iewpoint o% actions rather than their te"pora#
sitation. This is not a#wa.s separa/#e as e.-. c"#ati!e "ar9ers o% Tense an$ Aspect show
1e.-. PAST in Tiri.: is $i!i$e$ into PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E5, so Tense wi## /e $iscsse$
when re#e!ant as we##.
Un$er Aspect I n$erstan$ the interna# characteristics o% actions as *!iewpoint0 in
contrast to sitation t.pes, a#so ca##e$ *A9tionsart0. The #atter is not part o% the present
in!esti-ation, which wi## %ocs on !iewpoint. Ths, the ter" Aspect as se$ here re%ers to
!iewpoint on#.. A9tionsart re%ers to the inherent Aspecta# properties o% !er/s. >i!:n 1?@@1,
?87A?885 c#assi%ies A9tionsart !er/s as short $ration 1a#so ca##e$ pncta#5 !er/s,
acco"p#ish"ent !er/s, acti!it. 1a#so ca##e$ $.na"ic5 !er/s, an$ stati!e !er/s. These
properties are re#ati!e#. sta/#e, i.e. sa##. a !er/ within a #an-a-e $oes not chan-e its
inherent stats an$ is not $epen$ent on !iewpoint. <iewpoint on the other han$ !aries
%ro" spea9er to spea9er, $epen$in- on his !iew, an$ can ths in theor. /e app#ie$ to a##
A9tionsart !er/s. Ne!erthe#ess, #an-a-es apparent#. ha!e certain restrictions as to which
!iewpoint can /e se$ with which c#ass o% A9tionsart, which co"p#icates the ana#.sis o%
!iewpoint Aspect. Bst as Aspect is not co"p#ete#. separa/#e %ro" Tense, !iewpoint cannot
/e co"p#ete#. 9ept separate %ro" A9tionsart, which "eans that in this chapter A9tionsart
p#a.s a ro#e as we##, a#tho-h the %ocs is on !iewpoint Aspect.
Di%%erent %ro" the Tense cate-ories ot#ine$ in chapter 7, Aspecta# cate-ories are not
that easi#. $e#i"ite$ %ro" each other. PRESENT, PAST, an$ ;UTURE intiti!e#. are $i%%erent
concepts an$ can /e separate$ %ro" each other /. the %or"#as /ase$ on Reichen/ach
112475, /t in or$er to arri!e at $e%initions to 9eep Aspecta# "ar9ers apart, it is necessar.
to re%er to the protot.peC canonica# theor. 1see chapter ?5. As a startin- point, a "o$e# wi##
/e $e!e#ope$, /ase$ on pre!ios st$ies, which wi## /e se$ as a wor9in- h.pothesis. It is
/ase$ on the st$. o% 8./ee et a#. 112245, who in trn /ase$ their st$. on the wor9s o%
Co"rie 112735, Dah# 112845, an$ >i!:n(s contine$ wor9 a/ot Tense an$ Aspect. Dhereas
Co"rie(s an$ >i!:n(s wor9 is "ore o% a theoretica# natre 1/t ne!erthe#ess /ase$ on
-enine $ata5, 8./ee et a#.(s an$ Dah#(s st$ies represent -#o/a# Eantitati!e ana#.ses. This
has the a$!anta-e that the $e%initions are /ase$ on two "aFor Eantitati!e st$ies, an$ that
the. re%#ect acta# $ata a-ainst which the present $ata can /e "appe$. Another a$!anta-e
is that the DAGS chapter a/ot PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E is a#so /ase$ on Dah# 112845 an$
8./ee et a#. 112245, ena/#in- a co"parison with e!en "ore #an-a-es.
88 4.1 Intro$ction

The Aspecta# cate-ories chosen %or the Eestionnaire are PER;ECTI<E, I=PER;ECTI<E,
ANTERIOR, HA8ITUAG, CONTINUATI<E, ITERATI<E, CO=PGETI<E, an$ INCO=PGETI<E. These cate-ories ha!e
/een chosen /ecase the. represent the "aFor Aspecta#s as %on$ in t.po#o-ica# #iteratre
so %ar. HA8ITUAG an$ ANTERIOR ha!e so"eti"es /een cate-oriIe$ as Tense in pre!ios st$ies,
/t are ne!erthe#ess pt n$er Aspect here, /ecase their protot.pica# "eanin-s, ot#ine$
in the re#e!ant sections /e#ow, re#ate "ore to Aspect than to Tense.
Co"rie 11273, ?45 ass"es a /inar. opposition o% PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E an$ /rea9s
I=PER;ECTI<E %rther $own into the oppositions HA8ITUAG an$ CONTINUOUS, an$ CONTINUOUS into
PRO>RESSI<E an$ NONPRO>RESSI<E. Co"rie 11273, ?4%.5 #i9ewise o/ser!es that *whi#e "an.
#an-a-es $o ha!e a sin-#e cate-or. to e&press i"per%ecti!it., there are other #an-a-es
where i"per%ecti!it. is s/$i!i$e$ into a n"/er o% $istinct cate-ories, an$ .et others
where there is so"e cate-or. that correspon$s to part on#. o% the "eanin- o%
i"per%ecti!it.0. 8./ee et a#. 11224, 1725 *a$opte$ this !iew o% i"per%ecti!e an$ ha!e co$e$
as i"per%ecti!e on#. those %or"s with ses in /oth ha/ita# an$ continos conte&ts0. The
#atter approach is %o##owe$ here with the %o##owin- "o$i%ications) I=PER;ECTI<E is in$ee$ a
spercate-or., co"prisin- HA8ITUAG, CONTINUATI<E, ITERATI<E, an$ INCO=PGETI<E. ;or a %or" to
/e I=PER;ECTI<E, it nee$s to ha!e at #east the "eanin- o% two o% the %or possi/#e
s/cate-ories. PER;ECTI<E is in opposition to I=PER;ECTI<E, CO=PGETI<E is a s/cate-or. o%
PER;ECTI<E, an$ CO=PGETI<E an$ INCO=PGETI<E are /inar. oppositions. ANTERIOR is a cate-or.
separate %ro" PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E. This wor9in- "o$e# $oes not c#ai" to /e ni!ersa#
or e&hasti!e, /t it ser!es as a startin- point to c#assi%. an$ ana#.Ie the Aspecta#s o% the
#an-a-es in the sa"p#e.

;i-re 4.1) Aspect "o$e#


Each section /e#ow -i!es a #ist o% characteristics that ha!e to /e "et in or$er %or a "ar9er to
/e c#assi%ie$ as enco$in- the respecti!e Aspecta# !a#es. The Aspect "o$e# entai#s that
"ost o% the Aspecta#s st$ie$ here share "eanin-s to a certain e&ten$, so it is necessar. to
inc#$e ne-ati!e characteristics, sch as '$oes not inc#$e a ha/it or csto"( %or
CONTINUATI<E an$ ITERATI<E to /e separate$ %ro" HA8ITUAG. 8./ee et a#. 11224, 1785 re-ar$
4. Aspect 82

ne-ati!e #ists as inappropriate, *since the $iachronic $e!e#op"ent o% -ra"s shows that the.
ha!e rea# se"antic content0. I a-ree, an$ that is wh. the $e%initions o% the $i%%erent Aspects
inc#$e ne-ati!e an$ positi!e characteristics.
The present ana#.sis c#ose#. re#ies on $escripti!e -ra""ars an$ artic#es, /t so"eti"es
$e!iates %ro" the ana#.sis -i!en in those sorces, e.-. in Tsa%i9i) accor$in- to Dic9inson
1?@@?, ?775, Tsa%i9i e&presses PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E with s%%i&es that %or" re#ati!e
c#asesJ in "ain c#ases there is no 1I=5PER;ECTI<E "ar9in-. 8ecase this st$. %ocses on
Aspecta#s in "ain c#ases, Tsa%i9i $oes not ha!e 1I=5PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- in this st$..
The SAIGs show a !ariet. o% Aspect "ar9ers. A## SAIGs "ar9 at #east one o% the %o##owin-)
PER;ECTI<E, I=PER;ECTI<E, PER;ECT, HA8ITUAG, CONTINUATI<E, ITERATI<E, CO=PGETI<E, or INCO=PGETI<E .
The #an-a-es $i%%er in the $e-ree to which cate-or. is "ar9e$, how it is "ar9e$ %or"a##.,
an$ which co"/inations o% "ar9in- occr within a #an-a-eJ ne!erthe#ess, it is possi/#e to
"a9e a %ew -enera#iIations which wi## /e $iscsse$ in 4.8.
This chapter is strctre$ as %o##ows) Section 4.? %ocses on the PER;ECTI<ECI=PER;ECTI<E
$istinction. The sections a%ter that e&a"ine in "ore $etai# the "ar9in-, "eanin- an$ %or"
o% HA8ITUAG 14.75, CONTINUATI<E 14.45, ITERATI<E 14.45, CO=PGETI<EC INCO=PGETI<E 14.35, an$ ANTERIOR
14.75. Sections 4.8 to 4.1@ ai" to conso#i$ate the %in$in-s an$ $iscss the i"p#ications %or
Aspect t.po#o-. 14.85, -eo-raphica# 14.25, an$ -enea#o-ica# 14.1@5 re#ationships. The
i"p#ications o% the res#ts with re-ar$ to t.po#o-ica# sta/i#it. o% Aspect are $iscsse$ in
4.11. Section 4.1? s""ariIes the res#ts. Dhere re#e!ant, the points o% contact /etween
Tense, Aspect, A9tionsart, an$ =o$a#it. wi## /e "entione$.

4.? PER;ECTI<ECI=PER 4.? PER;ECTI<ECI=PER 4.? PER;ECTI<ECI=PER 4.? PER;ECTI<ECI=PER;ECTI< ;ECTI< ;ECTI< ;ECTI<E E E E
4.?.1 De%initions 4.?.1 De%initions 4.?.1 De%initions 4.?.1 De%initions
PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E are two opposin- !iewpoints. Dhereas PER;ECTI<E re%ers to an
action !iewe$ a sin-#e who#e, I=PER;ECTI<E a##ows %or interna# strctrin-. *The ter"
'per%ecti!e( contrasts with 'i"per%ecti!e(, an$ $enotes a sitation !iewe$ in its entiret.,
withot re-ar$ to the interna# te"pora# constitenc.0 1Co"rie 1273, 1?5 whereas
I=PER;ECTI<E is *!iewin- a sitation %ro" within0 1i/i$. ?45. Dah# 11284, 785 speci%ies
PER;ECTI<E to *$enote a sin-#e e!ent, seen as an nana#.Ie$ who#e, with a we##A$e%ine$ res#t
or en$Astate. =ore o%ten than not, the e!ent wi## /e pncta#, or at #east, it wi## /e seen as a
sin-#e transition %ro" one state to its opposite, the $ration o% which can /e $isre-ar$e$0.
An e!ent "ar9e$ with PER;ECTI<E is sa##. interprete$ as /ein- te"pora##. /on$e$, as in
AprinK)

14.15 AprinK 1Arawa9anJ ;acn$es ?@@@, 4175
oposo uwa-kata su-pe pe pe pe o-txa htako-ro
a%ter 7S>.=AASO -oAP;< 7;AAUL .othA;
'Then the .on- wo"an went with the tapir.(

2@ 4.? per%ecti!eCi"per%ecti!e

PER;ECTI<E can inc#$e the "eanin- o% CO=PGETI<E, i.e. that the %ocs is on the ter"ination o%
the action 1see section 4.35.
I=PER;ECTI<E re%ers to an action that is not !iewe$ in its entiret. /t with s/parts. These
s/parts can ha!e HA8ITUAG, INCO=PGETI<E, ITERATI<E, an$C or CONTINUATI<E "eanin-. An
I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9er can ha!e a## o% these /t "st at #east ha!e two "eanin-s. ;or e&a"p#e,
in Awa Pit the s%%i& Atu can "ar9 CONTINUATI<E or HA8ITUAG)

14.?5 Awa Pit 18ar/acoanJ Crnow 1227, ??4, ??75
1a5 profesora=ta ttizh-tu tu tu tu-s
teacherMACC wait.%orAIP;<AGCT
'I a" waitin- %or the teacher.(
1/5 mes=ayzhpa Ricaurte=ta puz-tu tu tu tu-s
"onthMe!er. RicarteMin -o.otAIP;<AGCT
'E!er. "onth I -o ot to Ricarte.(

4.?.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.?.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.?.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.?.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e
In the sa"p#e, 11 o% the #an-a-es "ar9 PER;ECTI<E, 1@ I=PER;ECTI<E, an$ 17 "ar9 /oth
1re-ar$#ess o% which other Aspects are "ar9e$5 1see ta/#e 4.15. Gan-a-es in the sa"p#e that
"orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9 PER;ECTI<E, /t not I=PER;ECTI<E 1re-ar$#ess o% other Aspect
"ar9in-5 are) I"/a/ra Necha, CIco Necha, Darao, Tr"ai, =iraOa, Desano, SaterPA
=awP, AprinK, 8are, DQw, an$ Hp. Gan-a-es in the sa"p#e that "orphoAs.ntactica##.
"ar9 I=PER;ECTI<E, /t not PER;ECTI<E 1re-ar$#ess o% other Aspect "ar9in-5 are) E"/era,
6anoR, DichS, A-arna, Awa Pit, Pina!e, Paresi, Nasa Twe, an$ Ca!ineOa. Gan-a-es
which "ar9 /oth are) Chi"i#a, Tana", =nichi, 6ain-an-, Hi&9ar.ana, Panare, Nheen-atU,
Tra9arP, Ta"inaha, Shipi/oA6oni/o, Tiri.:, Ge9o, an$ Ha##a-a Necha.
The %or" o% "ar9in- ran-es %ro" s%%i&es o!er to partic#es an$ a&i#iaries, with a
pre%erence %or s%%i&es. On#. Tra9arP is pre%i&in-. Dhen /oth cate-ories are "ar9e$, the
"ar9ers sa##. appear in the sa"e c#ase position, i.e. PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E are /oth
"ar9e$ /. s%%i&es, or /. partic#es, or e#se, an$ "ta##. e&c#si!e 1re-ar$#ess o% what other
"eans that #an-a-e has to e&press 1I=5PER;ECTI<E5
1
. ;or e&a"p#e, in =nichi PER;ECTI<E is
"ar9e$ /. the s%%i& Ame an$ I=PER;ECTI<E /. s%%i& Am)

14.75 =nichi 1nc#assi%ie$J >i/son 1223, 47, 445
1a5 tname mansesana
arri!eAP;<A1S> chrchAGOC
'I ha!e a#rea$. arri!e$ at the chrch.( 1ori-. 'Ta he ##e-a$o a #a i-#esia.(5
1/5 usamra
$ar9AIP;<A7S>
'It is a#rea$. $ar9.( 1ori-. 'Ta estV oscro.(5

1
See chapter 7.7 %or a $iscssion o% i"/a#ance in %or"a# Tense "ar9in-.
4. Aspect 21

Tra9arP is the on#. #an-a-e in the sa"p#e pre%i&in- 1I=5PER;ECTI<E 1or an. other Aspect5.
A$$itiona##., the PER;ECTI<E pre%i& iA is connecte$ to !er/a# n"/er. It o%ten coAoccrs with
$istri/tion "ar9in- 1Auma or re$p#ication o% %ina# !er/ s.##a/#e5, /t sti## "ar9s e!ents
that are te"pora##. /on$e$. In 14.4/5, the action o% searchin- is $one repeate$#. in
$i%%erent p#aces, e!er. sin-#e instance /ein- /on$e$.

14.45 Tra9arP 1nc#assi%ie$J <an >iFn ?@@3, 188, 182J <an >iFn p.c.5
1a5 a-bobo-
IP;<AhitJ9i##A7
'He is %i-htin-.(
1/5 i-bbb-
P;<AsearchWDISTRA7
'He searche$ e!er.where.(

A n"/er o% #an-a-es "ar9 PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E in certain Tenses, /t not in others.
;or e&a"p#e, Tiri.: has a PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E opposition in a## its "ar9e$ Tenses, i.e.
;UTURE, PRESENT, PAST 1a#tho-h PRESENT PER;ECTI<E is n"ar9e$5, /t in Hi&9ar.ana PER;ECTI<EC
I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- is restricte$ to recent an$ $istant PAST.

14.45 Tiri.: 1Cari/anJ =eira 1222, 14?, 7@@, 181, 7@4, 7@75
1a5 me!p n-turu-"a "a "a "a-n
7AN.PROLXa/ot 7S
A
Ata#9APRS.IP;<ADU8
'SChe is ta#9in- a/ot this one.(
1/5 t-pi ipahka-
7Aseat /rea9APRS.P;<
'SChe has Fst /ro9en hisCher seat.(
1c5 remina-n w-eta-ne ne ne ne
sin-A>IN; 1AAhearAPST.P;<
'I hear$ sin-in-.(
1$5 "i-npo k#-r#-ta ta ta ta-e
IAon./ac9 1Y?AA$oA;UT.IP;ACERT
'I wi## pt .o on ". /ac9.(
1e5 suurinam!po w-ei-ne$ w#-tn-ne ne ne ne ser!p
Srina"AGOC 1S
A
ACOPAPST.P;< 1S
A
A-oAPST.P;< 7INA.PROLXA8G
'I was in Srina" 1then, #on- a-o5, I went there %ro" here.(

14.35 Hi&9ar.ana 1Cari/anJ Der/.shire 1272, 1735
1a5 r-otaha-yako yako yako yako
7S8B.1O8BAhitAREC.PST.P;<.NCOG
'He hit "e.(

2? 4.? per%ecti!eCi"per%ecti!e

1/5 oy-owakrye-yatxkon yatxkon yatxkon yatxkon
7S8B.?O8BA"a9e happ.ADIST.PST.IP;<.COG
'The. "a$e .o happ..(
1c5 n-emen-yakon yakon yakon yakon
7S8BAstea#ADIST.PST.IP;<.NCOG
'He se$ to stea#.(
1$5 r-otaha-yaha yaha yaha yaha
7S8B.1O8BAhitANPST.NCOG
'He wi## hit "e.(

It is not nsa# %or a #an-a-e in the sa"p#e to ha!e a "ar9e$ PER;ECTI<E, an n"ar9e$
I=PER;ECTI<E an$ a#so a "ar9er %or a cate-or. that is in -enera# consi$ere$ n/on$e$, i.e.
/e#on-in- to the I=PER;ECTI<E sphere. AprinK, Panare, Hp, Desano, Tr"ai, an$ Darao a##
ha!e an n"ar9e$ I=PER;ECTI<E, /t $o "ar9 at #east HA8ITUAG. It is there%ore "ore precise to
sa. that a -enera# I=PER;ECTI<E in those #an-a-es "a. /e n"ar9e$, howe!er there $oes
e&ist "ar9in- %or certain I=PER;ECTI<E inherent cate-ories.
In AprinK, PER;ECTI<E IS "ar9e$ with the s%%i& Ape. It e&presses te"pora# /on$e$ness
an$ !arios secon$ar. "eanin-s o% PER;ECTI<E) CO=PGETI<E, RESUGTATI<E, an$ INCHOATI<E
1chan-e o% state5. In a$$ition, Ape can coAoccr with the ;UTURE "ar9er. ;acn$es 1?@@@,
414%%.5 a#so c#ai"s that Ape "ar9s anterior 1PER;ECT5. I=PER;ECTI<E, on the other han$, is
n"ar9e$, an$ it see"s that in or$er to %i## this -ap AprinK e"p#o.s HA8ITUAG an$
INCO=PGETI<E s%%i&es 1/t not CONTINUATI<E5.
The DAGS "ap %or PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E Aspect 1%eatre 345 presents ?1 #an-a-es %or
the Soth A"erican continent. Gan-a-es co$e$ either ha!e -ra""atica# "ar9in- o%
PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E or not. In contrast to the present st$., periphrastic constrctions
are inc#$e$ 1Dah# Z <e#pi##ai ?@11a5. Ta/#e 4.? presents the #an-a-es co$e$ %or
PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E in DAGS an$ the -i!en !a#es, an$ which !a#es were co$e$ %or this
st$.. ;ro" ?1 #an-a-es in DAGS, nine are a#so present in the SAIGs sa"p#e. Two #an-a-es
ha!e con%#ictin- $ata) DichS an$ Tcano.
The ratio o% PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- !s. no "ar9in- is 4)13 %or the DAGS $ata in
SA, an$ 77)7@ %or ". $ata. Consi$erin- the tota# n"/er o% #an-a-es co$e$ %or this %eatre
in DAGS 1???5, a#"ost ha#% o% the" 11@15 "ar9 PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "orpho#o-ica##. an$C
or periphrastica##.. The ratio o% the wor#$(s PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- is there%ore
a/ot the sa"e %or Soth A"erica, /t /ecase ". $ata $oes not inc#$e periphrastic
4. Aspect 27

constrctions, it is e&pecte$ that the ratio is e!en hi-her in the SAIGs i% one a$$s
periphrastic constrctions.

Ta/#e 4.1) PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- in the SAIGs
PER;ECTI<E PER;ECTI<E PER;ECTI<E PER;ECTI<E on#. on#. on#. on#. I=PER;ECTI<E I=PER;ECTI<E I=PER;ECTI<E I=PER;ECTI<E on#. on#. on#. on#. 8oth 8oth 8oth 8oth
G GG Gan-a-es an-a-es an-a-es an-a-es I"/a/ra Necha, CIco
Necha, Darao, Tr"ai, =iraOa,
Desano, SaterPA=awP, AprinK,
8are, DQw, Hp
E"/era, 6anoR, DichS,
A-arna, Awa Pit,
Pina!e, Paresi, Nasa Twe,
Ca!ineOa
Chi"i#a, Tana", =nichi,
6ain-an-, Hi&9ar.ana,
Panare, Nheen-atU,
Tra9arP, Ta"inaha,
Shipi/oA6oni/o, Tiri.:,
Ha##a-a Necha, Ge9o

Ta/#e 4.?) PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- !s. no "ar9in- in SAIGs




















4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 HA8ITUAG HA8ITUAG HA8ITUAG HA8ITUAG
4.7.1 De%inition 4.7.1 De%inition 4.7.1 De%inition 4.7.1 De%inition
HA8ITUAG "ar9ers e&press an action that ta9es p#ace re-#ar#. o!er a perio$ o% ti"e, i.e. a
csto" or ha/it. HA8ITUAG sho#$ not /e con%se$ with ITERATI<E which e&presses repetition,
/t not csto" 1Co"rie 1273, ?75. The action in Eestion "a. /e csto"ari#. repeate$Cor
/e in a state o!er a certain a"ont o% ti"e) *the. $escri/e a sitation which is characteristic
o% an e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e, so e&ten$e$ in %act that the sitation re%erre$ to is !iewe$

?
;ro" Dah# Z <e#pi##ai ?@11a.
Gan-a-e P;<CIP;< in DAGS
?
P;<CIP;< in =e##er
Darao No Tes
San"a No A
Tcano No No 1C/eo5
Tes 1Desano5
Awa Pit Tes Tes
I"/a/ra Necha No No
Bi!aro No A
Ta-a No A
8arasano No A
Hi&9ar.ana Tes Tes
PirahK Tes A
AprinK Tes Tes
ChVco/o Tes A
Araona No A
Dari( No No
Cane#a A6rah[ No A
Cocha/a"/a Necha No A
DichS No Tes
A/ip:n No A
>aranS No A
=apche No No
Coca"a No A
24 4.7 ha/ita#

not as an inci$enta# propert. o% the "o"ent /t, precise#., as a characteristic o% a who#e
perio$0 1i/i$. ?7\?85, e.-. in Pi#a-V)

14.75 Pi#a-V 1>a.cranJ <i$a# ?@@1, ?325
%o-ya-sona-pe&a pe&a pe&a pe&a
IPS.S8BA7Astic9AHA8
'The. se$ to stic9 it /. the %ire.( 1e.-. "eat or %ish, to /e roaste$5

4.7.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.7.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.7.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e 4.7.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e
O% the 37 #an-a-es in the sa"p#e, 7? "orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9 HA8ITUAG)

Barawara, =apche, Tapiete, 8ororo, =e9ens, C/eo, Pi#a-V, Tanesha(, Urarina,
I"/a/ra Necha, Pina!e, =a"ain$R, Darao, Tr"ai, 6waIa, =iraOa, E"/era,
6ain-an-, Nasa Twe, Desano, SaterPA=awP, Panare, AprinK, Nheen-atU, Tra9arP,
Ta"inaha, Shipi/oA6oni/o, Tiri.:, Tariana, DQw, an$ Hp.

;or"a# "ar9in- ran-es %ro" a si"p#e s%%i& 1e.-. =apche5, c"#ati!e s%%i&es 1e.-. C/eo5
o!er c#itics 1e.-. Tariana5 to partic#es 1e.-. =e9ens5. =an. o% the SAIGs withot HA8ITUAG
"ar9in- ha!e an I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9er that e&presses HA8ITUAG, an$ e!en those with HA8ITUAG
"ar9ers can ha!e a$$itiona# I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9ers that e&press HA8ITUAG. It is certain#. not
nco""on to %in$ "ore than one "eans to e&press HA8ITUAG "orphoAs.ntactica##. in one
#an-a-e in the sa"p#e.
Ha/ita#it. can /e e&presse$ /. an I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9er, as in e.-. Ca!ineOa an$ Awa Pit.
In Ca!ineOa, the I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9er can e&press 1/esi$es others5 HA8ITUAG, /t e&c#si!e#.
with past ti"e re%erenceJ Awa Pit $oes not restrict HA8ITUAG to the past)

14.85 Ca!ineOa 1TacananJ >i##a"e ?@@8, 1775
yawa="u=shana ekana ani-ya ya ya ya.
-ron$MGOCMPITT 7PG sitAIP;<
'The. wo#$ sit 1$irect#.5 on the -ron$, the poor wo"en.(

14.25 Awa Pit 18ar/acoanJ Crnow 1227, ??75
mes=ayzhpa Ricaurte=ta puz-tu tu tu tu-s
"onthMe!er. RicarteMin -o)otAIP<;AGOCUTOR.PERSON.=AR6ER
'E!er. "onth I -o ot to Ricarte.(

It has /een note$ /e%ore that HA8ITUAG %or"s can a#so /e se$ in -eneric sentences 1c%. Dah#
1284, 225. This is con%ir"e$ %or the SAIGs as we##, %or e&a"p#e in Tariana, C/eo, an$
Barawara. The Tariana enc#itic Ahyuna 'ha/ita# prescri/e$( "ar9s -eneric state"ents 1on#.
occrs in i"persona# constrctions5 1Ai9hen!a#$ ?@@7, 7?35. In C/eo, the PRESENT HA8ITUAG
4. Aspect 24

%or"s a#so "ar9 %or -enera# trths 1=orse Z =a&we## 1222, 415. In$ee$, "an. o% the
HA8ITUAG "ar9ers in the sa"p#e e&ten$ their "eanin- to a -eneric one.

14.1@5 Tariana 1Arawa9anJ Ai9hen!a#$ ?@@7, 7?75
'iha pusa(u-ne hyuka'e-mha
ART s#othA;OC.S8B not.appearAPRS.N<IS
'i-pitana-mia phema-hyuna hyuna hyuna hyuna-mha
7S>.N;Ana"eAONGT IPSYhearAHA8APRS.N<IS
'The s#oth $oes not appear, one on#. hears his na"e.(

14.115 C/eo 1TcanoanJ =orse Z =a&we## 1222, 445
aru -)"-*b+ *b+ *b+ *b+ ,k--w*-R.
an$ eatAST<APRS.HA8CNREC.PST.=.S> wor"APGAO8B
'An$ he 1a %ish5 ha/ita##. eats wor"s.(

4.4 CONTINUATI<E 4.4 CONTINUATI<E 4.4 CONTINUATI<E 4.4 CONTINUATI<E
4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition
The %o##owin- characteristics ha!e to /e "et /. a "ar9er to /e CONTINUATI<E)

1. The !er/a# action is on-oin-, sa##., /t not necessari#., $rin- the point o%
re%erence.
?. No csto" or ha/it is in!o#!e$.
7. In contrast to HA8ITUAG, when happenin- %or an e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e, a
CONTINUATI<E action "st ta9e p#ace $rin- the who#e ti"e, whereas HA8ITUAG
actions $rin- that ti"e wo#$ occr with interrptions.

These points ha!e to /e "et re-ar$#ess o% the A9tionsart o% the !er/, a#tho-h the. "a. /e
restricte$ to a certain Aspect c#ass. ;or e&a"p#e, in AprinK the CONTINUATI<E s%%i& Ananu
cannot occr on $escripti!e !er/s, /t sti## is consi$ere$ a CONTINUATI<E "ar9er. Barawara is
an e&a"p#e %or a #an-a-e where the CONTINUATI<E "ar9er Ane 1so"eti"es rea#iIe$ as Iero
"orphe"e5 can occr on /oth $.na"ic an$ stati!e !er/s.

14.1?5 AprinK 1Arawa9anJ ;acn$es ?@@@, 4?45
1a5 n-umaka-nanu nanu nanu nanu-ta
1S>As#eepACNTA<8G]
'I(" s#eepin-.(
1/5 /here-nanu nanu nanu nanu-ta
/e.prett.ACNTA<8G]
'He(s /ein- han$so"e.(


23 4.4 continati!e

14.175 Barawara 1ArawanJ Di&on ?@@4, 187, 1885
1a5 moto waka na na na na
"otor1=5 /e./ro9en AULYCNT.=
'The "otor is /ro9en.(
1/5 tera noki o-ne ne ne ne o-ke
?NS>.O8B wait.%or 1S>.S8BACNT.; 1S>ADECG.;
'I a" waitin- %or a## o% .o.(

4.4.? 4.4.? 4.4.? 4.4.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e
O% the 37 #an-a-es in the sa"p#e, 74 show "orphoAs.ntactic CONTINUATI<E "ar9in-)

=oco!S, 6aritiana, Barawara, =apche, Tsa%i9i, Dari(, Itona"a, Tehe#che, Sa/anR,
I9a, 8ororo, =e9ens, C/eo, Pi#a-V, Tanesha(, Urarina, I"/a/ra Necha, Pina!e,
Ri9/a9tsa, E"Pri##on, Coca"aACoca"i##a, =osetPn, Paresi, Ti"/ira, =nichi, CIco
Necha, Nasa Twe, Desano, SaterPA=awP, Panare, AprinK, A."ara, 8are, DQw,
an$ Ge9o.

;or"a# "ar9in- ran-es %ro" s%%i&es 1e.-. I"/a/ra Necha5, c"#ati!e s%%i&es 1e.-.
C/eo5, o!er c#itics 1e.-. =oco!S5 to partic#es 1e.-. Ti"/ira5 an$ a&i#iaries 1e.-. DQw5. =ost
o% the SAIGs $o not o!ert#. "ar9 Tense $istinctions with CONTINUATI<E "eanin-. This "a. /e
$e to the %act that an on-oin- action is not inherent#. i"possi/#e in either ;UTURE, PRESENT,
or PAST. In #an-a-es which $o not o!ert#. or o/#i-atori#. "ar9 Tense it is si"p#. i"possi/#e
to esta/#ish a restriction, /t it "a. a#so /e $e to e.-. constitent strctre) in 6aritiana,
the CONTINUATI<E s%%i& -0a1ri is not restricte$ to Tense, /ecase $e to constitent or$er
Tense c#itics an$ -0a1ri rare#. coAoccr 1<a##eFos TopVn ?@1@, 74?5. The s%%i& is a#so a *rea#0
CONTINUATI<E in Co"rie(s sense as it occrs on a## t.pes o% !er/sJ "enta# processes, states,
an$ /oth te#ic an$ ate#ic !er/s.
In Dari(, CONTINUATI<E "ar9in- is restricte$ to PAST Tense. A#tho-h it is possi/#e to
e&press PRESENT PRO>RESSI<EC CONTINUATI<E /. e.-. the n"ar9e$ !er/, the on#. CONTINUATI<E
partic#e in Dari( is restricte$ to PAST)

14.145 Dari( 1ChapacranJ E!erett Z 6ern 1227, 7135
%uep nana-in xirim , ,, ,ira ira ira ira
$o 7PG.REA.PSTCPRESA7N hose PST.CNT
'The. were "a9in- the hose.(

Pi#a-V "a9es a $istinction o% "ar9in- HA8ITUAG on #e&ica##. $rati!e !er/s an$ states. The
%irst is "ar9e$ /. the PRO>RESSI<E s%%i&es AtakC Ata 1a##o"orphs5 an$ Atape 1thir$ person
PRO>RESSI<E5 1<i$a# ?@@1, ?3@5. Dhen a stati!e !er/ is reEire$ to /eco"e on-oin-, the
$rati!e s%%i& Atapi2iC Atapiyi is a$$e$ to the !er/. <i$a# 1i/i$. ?375 ar-es that the $rati!e
s%%i& has a $i%%erent "eanin- %ro" PRO>RESSI<E, *since "an. acti!it. !er/s can a#ternati!e#.
4. Aspect 27

ta9e Atak an$ Atapi2i, an$ the $i%%erence in "eanin- is /ase$ on whether the e!ent is
concepta#iIe$ as e%%ecti!e#. -oin- on 1i.e., with Atak5, or as ha!in- a certain $ration,
withot re%erence to a ti"e %ra"e 1i.e., with Atapi2i50.

14.145 Pi#a-V 1>a.cranJ <i$a# ?@@1, ?345
1a5 na-3osos-tapi2i tapi2i tapi2i tapi2i
7ArnADUR
'He rnsC ran an$ rnsCran.(
1/5 2a-3osos-tak tak tak tak
7ArnAPRO>
'He is rnnin-.(

4.4 ITERATI<E 4.4 ITERATI<E 4.4 ITERATI<E 4.4 ITERATI<E
4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition 4.4.1 De%inition
The ter" ITERATI<E as se$ in this st$. co"prises se!era# "eanin-s that to-ether %or" the
ITERATI<E protot.pe. Un#i9e e.-. PRESENT, there is not a sin-#e se"antic characteristic, /t it is
possi/#e to i$enti%. a "ost i"portant one, i.e. the "eanin- o% an action that is repeate$. An
action that is not repeate$ $isEa#i%ies %or ITERATI<E, /t actions that are repeate$ are not
ato"atica##. ITERATI<E. DISTRI8UTI<E an$ HA8ITUAG a#so "ar9 actions that are repeate$, /t
these can ta9e p#ace o!er an e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e with re#ati!e#. #on- inter!a#s /etween
the". An ITERATI<E "ar9er app#ies to actions that are repeate$ instant#.. Dhen a "ar9er
on#. "ar9s repetitions happenin- o!er a #on-er ti"e perio$ with e&ten$e$ inter!a#s this
points towar$ HA8ITUAG or DISTRI8UTI<E "eanin-. ;or e&a"p#e, the s%%i& A'yi in =osetPn on#.
re%ers to repetitions with re#ati!e#. #on- perio$s o% ti"e /etween the" an$ there%ore $oes
not "atch the $e%inition o% ITERATI<E, a#tho-h in e!er. other wa. it /eha!es #i9e it)

14.135 =osetPn 1=osetenanJ Sa9e# ?@@4, ?7@5
kaph-kaph-'yi" 'yi" 'yi" 'yi"4
c#apAREDUPAITE.=.S8B
'He c#aps 1constant#.5.(

The %o##owin- characteristics "st /e present %or a "ar9er to ha!e ITERATI<E "eanin-)

1. The !er/a# action is repeate$ 1re-ar$#ess o% how "an. ti"es5.
?. The sa"e s/Fect1s5 carries ot the action.
7. There is no csto" in!o#!e$.
4. There is no chan-e in "eanin- o% the !er/a# action.
4. The repetitions happen i""e$iate#. a%ter each other 1e!entAinterna#5.

Points one to %i!e constitte a protot.pica# ITERATI<E. 8ecase this $e%inition is !er. speci%ic
an$ $etai#e$, it is e&pecte$ that there are #ess "ar9ers e&c#si!e#. "ar9in- ITERATI<E an$
28 4.4 iterati!e

co"para/#. "ore "ar9ers that ha!e ITERATI<E as possi/#e "eanin-, /t a#so e&tensions) I
wi## now $iscss each o% the points in "ore $etai#.
Point one is the "ost i"portant an$ "ost o/!ios characteristic o% an ITERATI<E "ar9er
an$ it a#so re#ates to point %i!e. Repetitions can ta9e p#ace on#. once or se!era# ti"esJ the
e&act n"/er $oes not "atter as #on- as the. %o##ow one another i""e$iate#. 1i.e. withot
inter!enin- actions5. Se!era# SAIGs %eatre "ar9ers that are sa##. trans#ate$ into En-#ish
as 'a-ain(J these can /e pit%a##s. In =apche, the s%%i& Atu apparent#. "ar9in- a sin-#e
repetition, /t a#wa.s re%ers to an action that restores a %or"er state, or the retrn o% a
re%erent to a %or"er stateC #ocation. This s%%i& is not ITERATI<e, /ecase it i"p#ies a retrn.
It is not the sa"e action that is $one a-ain, as e.-. in 14.17a5 the settin- %ree is not repeate$,
an$ in 14.17/5 the retrnin- is not repeate$)

14.175 =apche 1AracanianJ S"eets ?@@8, ?44, ?445
1a5 ne3-5m-tu tu tu tu-fi-n
/eco"e.#ooseACAUSAREAO8BAIND.1S>
'I set hi" %ree a-ain.(, 'I restore$ his %ree$o" to hi".(
1/5 amu-pe-tu tu tu tu-3a-y
-oAPROLAREANE>AINDA7
'He pro/a/#. went /ac9.(

So"eti"es, an action that #oo9s repeate$ is Fst a chain o% ninterrpte$ actions. In 14.185,
the chi#$ren wa#9e$ %or an e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e, /t the wa#9in- cannot /e /ro9en $own
to repetitions o% $oin- the sa"e wa#9in-. The. $i$ not wa#9 the sa"e path o!er an$ o!er
a-ain 1which in an. case wo#$ i"p#. that the. a#so retrne$, an$ this "eanin- is e&c#$e$
%ro" ITERATI<E, see a/o!e5.

14.185 8are 1Arawa9anJ Danie#sen ?@@7, ??25
no=ka6-po-wo to powor ahi-ne7 ka6
7PGM-oAP;<.RE;GACOP ART poor chi#$APG -o
no=yono-po no=yono-po no=yono-po
7PGMwa#9AP;<.RE;G 7PGMwa#9AP;<.RE;G 7PGMwa#9AP;<.RE;G
'The poor chi#$ren went awa., the+., wa#9e$ an$ wa#9e$ an$ wa#9e$.(

Point two) The repeate$ action "st /e carrie$ ot /. the sa"e s/Fect or s/Fects. This is
not necessari#. the case with e.-. the s%%i& Aua in =atses, which "ar9s an action that can /e
repeate$ /oth /. the sa"e or s $i%%erent s/Fect. In 14.?1h5 /e#ow a $i%%erent wo"an than
that who $i$ the %irst strain repeats the strainin-. Howe!er, as there are e&a"p#es where
Aua a#so re%ers to actions repeate$ /. the sa"e s/Fect an$ %#%i##s a## o% the other
characteristics a/o!e, this is "ere#. a case o% !a-eness an$ Aua is an ITERATI<E "ar9er.
Point three) This e&c#$es an. action that is carrie$ ot /. csto" an$ there%ore is
protot.pica##. HA8ITUAG. ;or "an. e&a"p#es it is not eas. to $eri!e whether the action is
4. Aspect 22

$one csto"ari#. or not, /ecase conte&t is the /est wa. to esta/#ish the rea# "eanin- an$
e&a"p#es are "ost#. -i!en ot o% conte&t. Howe!er, the presence o% e.-. a$!er/ia#s sch as
'sa##., csto"ari#.( 1not in the trans#ation, /t the ori-ina#5, or the presence o% a$$itiona#
HA8ITUAG "ar9ers in the sa"e c#ase he#p.
Point %or) ITERATI<ITT $oes not inc#$e a chan-e in "eanin-. So"e !er/s, when
recei!in- a "ar9er %or repetition, chan-e their "eanin-, e.-. in Coca"aA Coca"i##a itika
"eans 'throw( an$ to-ether with the iterati!e s%%i& 1itika-ka5 "eans 'separate, -et
$i!orce$(, instea$ o% 'throw a-ainCrepeate$#.( 1<a##eFos TopVn ?@1@, 7425. Ne!erthe#ess, Aka
is sti## co$e$ as ITERATI<E /ecase it a#so has the 'nor"a#( %nction 1see /e#ow5.
Another "eanin- $eri!in- %ro" points one, two, an$ %i!e, is that the repetition ta9es
p#ace at ro-h#. the sa"e #ocation. This is sa##. a -i!en, /ecase one person can on#.
"o!e so %ar awa. /e%ore instant#. repeatin- an action. Howe!er, /ecase it is possi/#e %or
certain actions to /e repeate$ whi#e "o!in- 1hittin- so"e/o$. whi#e in a p#ane, where a
consi$era/#e $istance is co!ere$ $rin- the action5, it is not a characteristic. It is he#p%# to
9eep in "in$, tho-h, to $istin-ish ITERATI<E %ro" DISTRI8UTI<E. DISTRI8UTI<E "eans that the
repetition is carrie$ ot /. se!era# s/Fects an$C or on se!era# o/Fects at $i%%erent #ocations
an$ o!er ti"e, an$ this is not the case with ITERATI<E, where the action is carrie$ ot /. the
sa"e s/Fect1s5 an$ i""e$iate#. %o##owin- each other. The Tra9arP s%%i& Auma, a#tho-h
e&pressin- p#ra# actions an$ there%ore repetitions as in 14.?@a5, a#so "ar9s one action $one
/. se!era# re%erents 14.12/5)

14.125 Tra9arP 1nc#assi%ie$J <an >iFn ?@@3, 12@5
1a5 a-ushp-wma wma wma wma-
INCPA/atheADISTRA7
'He is /athin- a## the ti"e.(
1/5 otto-=w="a i-ba3i-wma wma wma wma-=w
-o.otA7MPGMSS <PGA-o.PGADISTRA7MPG
'A%ter the. ca"e ot 1o% the water5 the. each went.(

The "ost $i%%ic#t part o% ana#.sis is the re#ationship o% ITERATI<E "eanin-s with HA8ITUAG,
CONTINUATI<E, an$ DISTRI8UTI<E. Co"rie 11273, ?75 points ot that HA8ITUAG $oes in!o#!e a
certain 9in$ o% repetition o% an action, /t that there are two i"portant %acts separatin-
ITERATI<E an$ HA8ITUAG) HA8ITUAG inc#$es a5 a csto" or ha/it that /5 is characteristic %or an
e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e, which /oth are not tre %or ITERATI<E. In 14.?@5, the $i%%erent
instances o% /eatin- ta9e p#ace i""e$iate#. a%ter each other an$ possi/#. e!en
si"#taneos#., %or"in- an action that is concei!e$ as a sin-#e entit. a#tho-h it can
contine %or a whi#e. The /eatin- is a#so not $one ha/ita##., i.e. not repeate$ a%ter $a.s,
"onths, .ears, with inter!a#s where no /eatin- ta9es p#ace.



1@@ 4.4 iterati!e

14.?@5 Hp 1Na$ahpJ Epps ?@@8, 48@5
',89 th t:t:'-',;<-;y=mah mah mah mah
ti"/: 7PG /eat1REDUP5Ata9eADTN=MREP
'The. /eat timb; 1rapi$#.5.(

In cases where the $escriptions are too !a-e an$ e&a"p#es too scarce to sccess%##.
$istin-ish /etween HA8ITUAG, ITERATI<E, an$ DISTRI8UTI<E, the "ar9er in Eestion is ta9en as
!a-e, i.e. "ar9in- a## or a s/set o% the". Nasa Twe ser!es as an e&a"p#e. Bn- 11272, 345
"entions the e%%ect o% re$p#ication o% the #ast s.##a/#e o% a !er/) in !er/s whose action
in$icates a sin-#e action, this "eans that action is repeate$. Un%ortnate#., no e&a"p#es in
%## c#ases are -i!en an$ I "st ta9e the athor /. her wor$ an$ co$e re$p#ication as
ITERATI<E.
R/ino 1?@@4, 115 points ot that there are two possi/#e t.pes o% re$p#ication) *%## !s.
partia#. ;## re$p#ication is the repetition o% an entire wor$, wor$ ste" 1root with one or
"ore a%%i&es5, or root +^,. Partia# re$p#ication "a. co"e in a !ariet. o% %or"s, %ro" si"p#e
consonant -e"ination or !owe# #en-thenin- to a near#. co"p#ete cop. o% a /ase0. The
Eestionnaire $oes not "a9e a $istinction /etween these t.pes, e.-. as #on- as the
phono#o-ica# "ateria# o% a !er/ is either partia##. or %##. re$p#icate$, an$ this
re$p#ication "ar9s the repetition o% the "eanin- o% the re$p#icate$ !er/, it conts as
ITERATI<E. In or$er to /e speci%ic when re%errin- to ITERATI<E the ter" 're$p#ication( app#ies
to the %or" 1phono#o-ica# "ateria#5 an$ 'repetition( to the "eanin- o% a !er/.

4.4.? 4.4.? 4.4.? 4.4.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e
O% the 37 #an-a-es in the sa"p#e, 7? "orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9 ITERATI<E)

6aro, Tsa%i9i, Dari(, Itona"a, Tehe#che, Sa/anR, Tapiete, 6a"airV, A-arna,
=atses, 8ororo, =e9ens, C/eo, Ri9/a9tsa, E"Pri##on, Coca"aACoca"i##a, =osetPn,
=a"ain$R, Darao, Tr"ai, 6waIa, Nasa Twe, A."ara, Nheen-atU, Tra9arP,
Ta"inaha, 8are, Hp, Tariana, Ha##a-a Necha, Ca!ineOa, an$ Ge9o.

O% these, 14 "ar9 ITERATI<E on#. /. re$p#ication o% the !er/, ei-ht /. a%%i&es an$C or
partic#es, an$ ei-ht ha!e /oth %or"s o% "ar9in-. The %o##owin- $iscssion presents
e&a"p#es %or each t.pe an$ i##strates se!era# in$i!i$a# cases o% ITERATI<E "ar9in-.
A case st$. o% ITERATI<E "ar9in- in =atses is now presente$ to i##strate how the
consi$erations a/o!e ha!e /een app#ie$ to the $ata. =atses was chosen, /ecase it has
se!era# %or"s that are can$i$ates %or ITERATI<E, it $e"onstrates the $i%%ic#ties o%
$istin-ishin- /etween Aspecta# cate-ories, an$ /ecase the sorce 1;#ec9 ?@@75 pro!i$es
a"p#e $ata.
=atses has two $i%%erent "orphoAs.ntactic wa.s o% "ar9in- a possi/#e ITERATI<E)
s%%i&ation 1s%%i&es A'e', Aban, Aua5 an$ re$p#ication, an$ within these $istin-ishes as
"ch as three "eanin-s that a## ha!e in co""on that the. "ar9 repetition. The three
4. Aspect 1@1

s%%i&es are a## -#osse$ ITERATI<E in 14.?1aAh5 %or the rea$er to /etter i$enti%. the", a#tho-h
the. "a. /e -#osse$ $i%%erent#. thro-hot the thesis.
In =atses, re$p#ication o% the !er/a# root 1to-ether with certain s%%i&es5 re%ers to an
action that is repeate$ i""e$iate#. or o!er an e&ten$e$ perio$ o% ti"e an$ has a#"ost
CONTINUATI<E or HA8ITUAG appearance 14.?1a5. In$ee$, it is not possi/#e to c#ear#. $istin-ish
/etween ITERATI<E, HA8ITUAG, an$ CONTINUATI<E hereJ /ecase re$p#ication o%ten points
towar$ ITERATI<E, it is possi/#e that this "eanin- was once the ori-in an$ that CONTINUATI<E
an$ HA8ITUAG $e!e#ope$ %ro" this. This is certain#. an interestin- point o% o!er#ap /etween
the se"antic %ie#$s o% Aspecta#s 1in Tapiete, partia# !er/ root re$p#ication a#so "ar9s an
on-oin- action 1>onIV#eI ?@@4, 13@55. Interestin-#., re$p#ication o% a !er/ $oes not
necessari#. "ean repetition o% an actionJ it can a#so "ean that the action is $eAintensi%ie$,
as in 14.?1/5. This is interestin- /ecase one wo#$ e&pect re$p#ication to "ean the e&act
opposite, i.e. intensi%.in- o% the action in Eestion.
Consi$erin- 14.?1a5 an$ 14.?1/5, re$p#ication $oes %#%i## points one to %or in the #ist o%
characteristics o% ITERATI<E a/o!e. 14.?1a5 "a. /e interprete$ /oth as a ha/it o% pic9in-
%rits, or as repeate$#. pic9in- %rits on one occasion, there%ore /ein- a"/i-os to point
three. In 14.?1c5, howe!er, the re$p#ication o% posh 1poshca '"a9e ho#e(5 points towar$
i""e$iate repetition, tho-h a HA8ITUAG "eanin- see"s to /e there 1note that the !er/ in
the "ain c#ase is "ar9e$ with the HA8ITUAG s%%i& A%ui'5. Ths, re$p#ication in =atses
%#%i##s a## points o% the #ist /t is a"/i-os to point three. ;#ec9 1?@@7, 4445 points ot that
the e&act "eanin- o% re$p#ication !aries accor$in- to !er/ transiti!it. an$ se"antics, the
presence o% certain $irectiona# s%%i&es an$ conte&t. It see"s that re$p#ication in =atses is
!a-e accor$in- to HA8ITUAG, ITERATI<E, an$ DISTRI8UTI<E, /t /ecase it inc#$es a## o% the
points in the #ist a/o!e, it is treate$ as ITERATI<E "ar9er here.
The s%%i&es s%%er %ro" si"i#ar !a-eness. The s%%i&es Aban an$ A'e' %#%i## points one,
two, an$ %or, /t are !a-e to /ein- csto"ar.. The s%%i& Aua is !a-e accor$in- to the
i""e$iate or nonAi""e$iate repetition. The s%%i& A'e' "st coAoccr with a re$p#icate$
root or the s%%i& Ane, which "eans $istri/ti!e, HA8ITUAG, or p#ra#. The s%%i& Aban can, /t
sa##. $oes not, coAoccr with the s%%i& Ane, an$ can coAoccr with re$p#ication o% the
!er/. The s%%i&es A'e' an$ Aban $i%%er in their ITERATI<E "eanin-) A'e' i"p#ies that there are
re#ati!e#. #on- inter!a#s o% ti"e /etween the repeate$ actions, whereas Aban re%ers to
actions that are repeate$ instant#., sa##. on "#tip#e o/Fects. Dhen it coAoccrs with
re$p#ication o% the !er/, it a#so "eans that there are "#tip#e s/Fects 1i/i$. 742%.5. The
s%%i& Aua 1ho"ophonos with the !er/a#iIin- s%%i&5 "eans that the repetition can /e
carrie$ ot /. a $i%%erent s/Fect, tho-h that $oes not ha!e to /e the case. In 14.?1-5, the
s/Fect is the sa"e, /t in 14.?1h5 Aua "ar9s that the strainin- is $one /. a $i%%erent wo"an.
It is co"pati/#e with the a$!er/ pa'pi'e 'a-ain( 1i/i$. 737%.5.
To conc#$e, none o% the three s%%i&es or the re$p#ication are na"/i-os#.
ITERATI<E. It is possi/#e to e&c#$e the s%%i& A'e', /ecase it $oes not %#%i## point %i!e
1i""e$iate repetition5, /t re$p#ication an$ Aban are !a-e accor$in- to HA8ITUAG stats,
1@? 4.4 iterati!e

an$ Aua is !a-e accor$in- to i""e$iate repetition an$ sa"eC $i%%erent s/Fect. Ths,
re$p#ication, Aban, an$ Aua are co$e$ as "ar9in- ITERATI<E 1/esi$e others5, an$ A'e' is not.

Ta/#e 4.7) =atses "ar9ers o% repetition
De%initionC %or" re$p#ication Aban A'e' Aua
<er/a# action is repeate$ Tes Tes Tes Tes
Sa"e s/Fect carries ot
the action
Tes Tes Tes TesCno
No csto" <a-e <a-e <a-e Tes
No chan-e in "eanin- Tes Tes Tes Tes
Repetitions happen
i""e$iate#.
TesCno Tes No <a-e
ITERATI<E Tes Tes No Tes

14.?15 =atses 1PanoanJ ;#ec9 ?@@7, 44?, 447, 73@, 734, 7375
1a5 chiuish bacu che'o custan custan custan custan cus cus cus cus-tan-e-c4
%i- %rit etc. REDUP -atherA-oANPSTAIND
'The. 9eep on -oin- to pic9 %i- %rits an$ si"i#ar %rits.(
1/5 ush ush ush ush ush ush ush ush-o-sh4
REDUP 1hasti#.5 s#eepAPSTA7
'He s#ept on#. a short ti"e.(
1c5 'mush usun-%ui' a'-en 'biate
nose.whis9er insertAHA8 #i9e.that.=NR)TR nose
shcu-n posh posh posh posh poshca-shun4
ho#eAGOC REDUP "a9e.ho#eAa%ter)S8B
'The. insert the nose whis9ers, a%ter repeate$#. piecin- "an. ho#es in their noses
#i9e that.(
1$5 cuesban-n opa pe pe pe pe- -- -'e' 'e' 'e' 'e' pe pe pe pe- -- -'e' 'e' 'e' 'e'-e-c4
/atAER> $o- REDUPAITE /iteAITEANPSTAIND
'The /at1s5 9eeps on /itin- the $o-1s5 e!er. ni-ht 1the sa"e $o- or $o-s5.(
1e5 cuesban-n opa pe pe pe pe- -- -ban ban ban ban pe pe pe pe- -- -ban ban ban ban-e-c.
/atAER> $o- REDUPMITE /iteAITEANPSTAIND
'=an. /ats /ite "an. $o-s, /itin- one an$ then the ne&t.(
1%5 chu-ua-ua ua ua ua-o-sh4
hotA<8G]AITEAPSTA7
'He heate$ it p a-ain.(
1-5 ashumbic pisi' pa'pi'e-en be'- -- -ua ua ua ua-%ui'4
then wo!en."at a-ainA=NR)TR -ra/AITEAHA8
'Then, the. pic9 p the "at a-ain.(



4. Aspect 1@7

1h5 ashumbic sica-shun utsi-n-tsen a'a min secte
then strainAa%ter)S8B otherAER>Ane&t DU8 ?>EN strainer
ic-tsc-e-c %ue-%uin be'-uan-shun
/eADI=ANPSTAIND sa.Awhi#e)S8B -ra/Aco"eAa%ter)S8B
ai'-n secte-n sica-ua ua ua ua-%ui'4
that.oneAER> strainerAINST strainAITEAHA8
'A%ter that, a%ter she strains, another +wo"an, co"es an$ as9s, *Do .o ha!e a
strainer_0 an$ then ta9es it an$ then she a#so strains with the strainer.(

The st$. o% =atses a/o!e has shown that a #an-a-e can ha!e "#tip#e "ar9ers %or
ITERATI<E that these interact with other ASPECTUAG !a#es. Other SAIGs !ar. across a ran-e o%
ha!in- no ITERATI<E "ar9in- at a## an$ ran-in- %ro" !er. si"p#e wa.s o% "ar9in- repeate$
actions to the co"p#e&it. o% =atses.
Re$p#ication is the "ost co""on wa. to "ar9 ITERATI<E in the sa"p#e, either occrrin-
on its own or in a$$ition to another ITERATI<E "ar9er. ;or e&a"p#e, Coca"aACoca"i##a
"ar9s ITERATI<E /. /oth re$p#ication an$ s%%i&ation. The s%%i& Aka can ha!e the %o##owin-
"eanin-s) repetition o!er a perio$ o% ti"e, with inter!a#s or happenin- i""e$iate#.,
happenin- on#. once or "an. ti"es, in $i%%erent #ocations, an$ /.C on "an. s/FectsC
o/Fects si"#taneos#. 1<a##eFos TopVn ?@1@, 78?%.5. It can a#so $eri!e !er/s %ro" nons
14.?1c5. Apart %ro" s%%i&ation, Coca"aACoca"i##a "ar9s ITERATI<E /. re$p#ication o% either
the %irst two s.##a/#es or on#. the secon$ s.##a/#e o% the !er/J the $i%%erence in %or" is not
"irrore$ in "eanin-. 8oth Aka an$ re$p#ication can, an$ in so"e cases "st, coAoccr
1i/i$. 7325.

14.??5 Coca"aACoca"i##a 1TpSanA>aranSJ <a##eFos TopVn, ?@1@, 7445
1a5 raepetsui ta era tkta-ka ka ka ka=ura ikia-ka-tika
a%ter 1S>.= /e.-oo$ tieAITEM7=.O8B thisMGOCACER?
'Then I tie it !er. we## 1tie "#tip#e ti"es5, p to here.(
1/5 ra yupuni yauki urkuru umi umi umi umi- -- -umi umi umi umi- -- -ka ka ka ka
7S>.= start "a9e /as9et seeAseeAITE
'She starts to "a9e the /as9et #oo9in- an$ #oo9in- at the /ase o% pacar 1RssetA
/ac9e$ oropen$o#a5(s hose.(
1c5 y=ipu-ta-ka ka ka ka
7S>.;Mson$ACAUAITE
'He "a9es noiseC%ss.( 1'He "a9es consecti!e son$s that /eca"e noise.(5

In A-arna, it see"s to /e the interaction o% partia# re$p#ication an$ the s%%i& AkawaC
Akua that "ar9s ITERATI<E. The s%%i& cannot occr on its own, /t "st /e acco"panie$ /.
re$p#ication. On#. one e&a"p#e in O!era## 1?@@7, ??3, e&. 735 shows re$p#ication o% the
!er/ withot the s%%i&.

1@4 4.4 iterati!e

14.?75 A-arna 1Bi!aroanJ O!era## ?@@7, 7875
buu buu buu buu buuta buuta buuta buuta-kaw kaw kaw kaw w-u
REDUP cr.YIP;<AITEY7)SS -o)P;<AREG
'Cr.in- an$ cr.in- he went.(

=osetPn "ar9s a c#ear $istinction /etween repetitions that happen i""e$iate#. a%ter
another an$ %ast 1!er/ root re$p#ication5, o!er a #on-er ti"e an$ with inter!a#s /etween
the repetitions 1s%%i& A'yi5, an$ -enera# repetition withot speci%ic re%erence to ti"e
inter!a#s /etween the repetitions 1in%i&5 1Sa9e# ?@@4, ?335.

14.?45 =osetPn 1=osetenanJ Sa9e# ?@@4, ?7@, ?7@, ?7@5
1a5 kaph kaph kaph kaph- -- -kaph kaph kaph kaph-yi4
c#apAREDUPA<=.=.S8B
'He c#aps his han$s 1se!era# ti"es, rather %ast5.(
1/5 kaph kaph kaph kaph- -- -kaph kaph kaph kaph- -- -'yi"4 'yi"4 'yi"4 'yi"4
c#apAREDUPAITE.=.S8B
'He c#aps 1constant#.5.(
1c5 ka-= == =-b-e-=4
c#apAITEAc#apA<=A7;.O8B
'He c#aps at her 1se!era# ti"es, -enera#, transiti!e5.(

In two #an-a-es, Dari( an$ 6waIa, it can /e o/ser!e$ that re$p#ication o% the !er/ root
can ta9e p#ace "ore than once. It is n9nown whether the n"/er o% re$p#ications
"irrors the e&act n"/er o% repetitions, e.-. whether in 14.?4/5 the #i-htnin- happene$
e&act#. twice.

14.?45 6waIa 1nc#assi%ie$J <an $er <oort ?@@4, 4475
1a5 aru=o aru=o aru=o aru=o>n nn n? ?? ?=aru= o =aru= o =aru= o =aru= o>n nn n? ?? ?=aru=o =aru=o =aru=o =aru=o>n nn n? ?? ?-'a-ki
crossMco"eMcrossMco"eMcrossMco"eA1S>ADECG
'I(" F"pin- to an$ %ro.(
1/5 w ww w? ?? ?ro=w ro=w ro=w ro=w? ?? ?>ro ro ro ro-tse
#i-htnin-M#i-htnin-ADECG
'It is #i-htnin-.(

14.?35 Dari( 1ChapacranJ E!erett Z 6ern 1227, 7135
@o, ,ac xucucun na$ to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to, to,$ nama4
hit tra!e# RE;G.7PG.= 7S>.REA.PSTCPRS hit hit hit hit stop
'Then the. hit each other, the. hit 1each other5 repeate$#. 1or 9ept on hittin- each
other5, an$ stoppe$.(

4. Aspect 1@4

ITERATI<E is a cate-or. which shows a re#ati!e#. hi-h $e-ree o% a#ternati!e wa.s o% "ar9in-
the sa"e %nction. Ei-ht #an-a-es in the sa"p#e e&hi/it re$p#ication, /t a#so a$$itiona#
"ar9ers %or ITERATI<E. Gitt#e is 9nown a/ot whether in these #an-a-es the. rea##. are
se"antic a#ternati!es or e&hi/it so"e %nctiona# $i%%erences, i% the. ha!e to coAoccr or
acta##. e&c#$e each other. In A-arna at #east, the ITERATI<E s%%i& AkawaC Akua a#wa.s coA
occrs with re$p#ication 1O!era## ?@@7, 7845 1see 14.?75 a/o!e5.
It is to /e e&pecte$ that when two "ar9ers %or ITERATI<E occr in one #an-a-e, the. $o
not ha!e e&act#. the sa"e %nction, /t that their $iachronic $e!e#op"ent is $iscri"inate.
8./ee et a#. 112245 co""ent pon possi/#e -ra""atica#iIation paths %or re$p#ication, /t
$o not "ention the coAe&istence o% re$p#ication an$ other ITERATI<E "ar9in- in one
#an-a-e. Their o/ser!ation that ITERATI<E is "ost#. "ar9e$ /. re$p#ication an$ a%%i&ation
1i/i$. 1315 can /e con%ir"e$ %or the present st$..

Ta/#e 4.4) ;or"a# "ar9in- o% ITERATI<E in the SAIGs
1partia#5 re$p#ication o% !er/ 1partia#5 re$p#ication o% !er/ 1partia#5 re$p#ication o% !er/ 1partia#5 re$p#ication o% !er/ A%%i&es, partic#es, c#itics A%%i&es, partic#es, c#itics A%%i&es, partic#es, c#itics A%%i&es, partic#es, c#itics 8oth 8oth 8oth 8oth
Tsa%i9i, Dari(, Hp, Nasa Twe,
Ta"inaha, C/eo, 6aro,
Nheen-atU, E"Pri##on, 6a"airV,
Tapiete, Ge9o, Tra9arP, 6waIa,
Tr"ai
8are, Tariana, A."ara, Tehe#che,
Ri9/a9tsa, =a"ain$R, Sa/anR,
Darao
A-arna, =osetPn, =atses,
Ha##a-a Necha, Ca!ineOa,
=e9ens 1_5, Coca"aA
Coca"i##a, Itona"a

4.3 CO=PGETI<EC INCO 4.3 CO=PGETI<EC INCO 4.3 CO=PGETI<EC INCO 4.3 CO=PGETI<EC INCO=PGETI<E =PGETI<E =PGETI<E =PGETI<E
4.3.1 De%initions 4.3.1 De%initions 4.3.1 De%initions 4.3.1 De%initions
CO=PGETI<E an$ INCO=PGETI<E $epict !er. speci%ic Aspecta# "eanin-s with "an. crossAo!ers
to the other Aspects an$ a#so =o$a#it. an$ Tense, so it is necessar. to ha!e especia##. %ineA
-raine$ $e%initions. The %o##owin- %eatres characteriIe a CO=PGETI<E "ar9er)

1. The e"phasis is on an action that is %inishe$ at the point o% re%erence.
?. It is not a PER;ECTI<E 1i.e. re-ar$in- the action as a who#e withot %ocsin- on the
ter"ination5.
7. =a. inc#$e a "eanin- o% an action /ein- $one co"p#ete#., who##., thoro-h#..

A CO=PGETI<E "ar9er re%ers to an action whose %ocs is that is %inishe$ or ter"inate$, an$
"a. a#so or on#. "ean that the ter"ination was $one co"p#ete#.. A#tho-h these "eanin-s
are so"eti"es $i%%erentiate$ /. $i%%erent "ar9ers, in the present st$. the. are consi$ere$
as one. CO=PGETI<E is not to /e con%on$e$ with A9tionsart !er/s which ha!e an inherent
en$point 1te#ic5. Dith a CO=PGETI<E the spea9er stresses that the action has /een %inishe$,
an$ e!en %inishe$ thoro-h#.) *to $o so"ethin- thoro-h#. an$ to co"p#etion, e.-. to shoot
someone 'ea'$ to eat up0 18./ee et a#. 1224, 7185. It is a#so easi#. con%on$e$ with PER;ECTI<E,
/t *the se o% the per%ecti!e pts no "ore e"phasis, necessari#., on the en$ o% a sitation
than on an. other part o% the sitation0 1Pa#"er ?@@1, 185. Gi9e the PER;ECTI<E, the CO=PGETI<E
can ha!e an interna# strctre, e.-. the CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Apa in Coca"aACoca"i##a 1<a##eFos
1@3 4.3 co"p#eti!eC inco"p#eti!e

TopVn ?@1@, 7375) erutsu-ka-pa 'carr. so"ethin- awa. co"p#ete#.(. The CO=PGETI<E can app#.
to e!ents that Fst starte$, so a#tho-h the e!ent is sti## in pro-ress, the startin- o% it is
co"p#ete, #i9e in Awa Pit)

14.?75 Awa Pit 18ar/acoanJ Crnow 1227, ?715
ma=na a3u ki-ma-t
nowMTOP rain rainACO=PGATER=
'It has Fst starte$ rainin-.(

The %o##owin- %eatres characteriIe an INCO=PGETI<E)

1. E"phasiIes that an action is either not %inishe$ or not starte$ 1.et5
?. Not CONTINUATI<E
7. Not ;RUSTRATI<E

An INCO=PGETI<E "ar9er is the opposite o% CO=PGETI<E an$ $enotes e"phasis that an action is
not 1.et5 co"p#ete$ or ne!er starte$. It is not to /e con%se$ with CONTINUATI<E or
;RUSTRATI<E, tho-h the. share certain se"antic co"ponents. A CO=PGETI<E ato"atica##.
entai#s that it the action is n%inishe$, /t /ein- n%inishe$ $oes not entai# that the action is
sti## in pro-ress 1i.e. CONTINUATI<E5J a#tho-h the INCO=PGETI<E can "ar9 actions that are
on-oin-C tre at the "o"ent o% spea9in-. It is t.pica##. trans#ate$ with 'sti##(.

14.?85 Hp 1=a9anJ Epps ?@@8, 4845
1a5 pA B b tC tC tC tC$ <aD
E
h- aD
E
h
stron- INCP 1S>ADECG
'I(" sti## stron-.(
1/5 b,oy-nA E h tC tC tC tC
st$.ANE> INCP
'1He(s5 not st$.in- .et( W 'hasn(t -one to schoo# .et.(

INCO=PGETI<E $oes not entai# that the action is ;RUSTRATI<EJ tho-h it "a. "ean that an
action was not carrie$ ot e%%ecti!e#. it $oes not ha!e the a$$itiona# e#e"ent o% a $esire$ or
e&pecte$ otco"e. It o%ten has a connotation that the action can sti## /e %inishe$, which is
not the case with ;RUSTRATI<E. A "ar9er can /e !a-e a/ot /ein- ;RUSTRATI<E or
INCO=PGETI<E, as in =atses an$ 6waIa. The =atses s%%i& Aui' can re%er to /oth an action that
was not %inishe$, an$ an action that was not %inishe$ an$ a$$itiona##. was e&pecte$ to ha!e
a $i%%erent otco"e. In 6waIa, s%%i& A3e can ha!e the "eanin- o% an n%inishe$ /t $esire$
action, /t a#so a sense o% nrea#iIe$ness 1'near#.(5 an$ e!en pro-ressi!it. 1<an $er <oort
?@@4, 47?, 4775. In this case, Aui' an$ -3e are co$e$ as !a-e /etween INCO=PGETI<E an$
;RUSTRATI<E.

4. Aspect 1@7

14.?25 =atses 1PanoanJ ;#ec9 ?@@7, 73?5
1a5 cun tie' neshca-ui' ui' ui' ui'-o-mbi
1>EN swi$$en wee$AINCP.;RUSTAPSTA1S>
'I starte$ wee$in- ". swi$$en /t $i$ not Eite %inish.(
1/5 shctenam cues-ui' ui' ui' ui'-o-mbi
white.#ippe$.peccar. 9i##AINCP.;RSTAPASTA1S>
'I ine%%ecti!e#. trie$ to 9i## a peccar.. +i.e. won$e$ it, /t it escape$,

4.3.? 4.3.? 4.3.? 4.3.? Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e Distri/tion in the sa"p#e
O% the 37 #an-a-es in the sa"p#e, ?3 "orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9 CO=PGETI<E an$ 14
INCO=PGETI<E. O% these, ei-ht #an-a-es "ar9 /oth CO=PGETI<E an$ INCO=PGETI<E, 12 "ar9
CO=PGETI<E, /t not INCO=PGETI<E, an$ si& #an-a-es "ar9 INCO=PGETI<E, /t not CO=PGETI<E 1see
ta/#e 4.45.
One pec#iarit. that catches the e.e is that the CO=PGETI<E "eanin- can s/t#. chan-e
%ro" a%%ectin- a sin-#e re%erent co"p#ete#. to a%%ectin- a## o% the "#tip#e re%erents, as in
e.-. Ca!ineOa) Ca!ineOa "ar9s CO=PGETI<E /. the s%%i&es Atere 1transiti!e5 an$ Atirya
1intransiti!e5 1>i##a"e ?@@8, 121\12?5, re%errin- to an action that was $one co"p#ete#..
The "eanin- is a#so a%%ecte$ /. the n"/er o% the re%erentsJ when it is sin-#ar, it "ar9s
that the who#e re%erent is a%%ecte$, when it is p#ra#, a## the re%erents are a%%ecte$ 1i/i$. 1275.

14.7@5 Ca!ineOa 1Tacanan, >i##a"e ?@@8, 12?, 1275
1a5 tiru-tere tere tere tere-wa e-kwe-bu'ari
/rnACO=PGAP;< 1S>A>ENA/anana
'=. /anana /rne$ co"p#ete#..(
1/5 i"i=ra=e-kwe ma"u-tere tere tere tere-"eri-kware
$rin9MCAUSM1S>ADAT $ieACO=PGAAG=OSTARE=.PST
'18ecase o% the $ro-ht,5 ". horses ha!e a#"ost a## $ie$ %ro" thirst.(

In DQw, the CO=PGETI<E "ar9er h-< 1which $eri!es %ro" the !er/ %or '%inish, co"p#ete(
1=artins ?@@4, ?2@55 to-ether with "#tip#e re%erents re%ers to the tota#it. o% re%erents
rather than tota# acco"p#ish"ent o% the action 14.71c5.

14.715 DQw 1Na$ahpJ =artins ?@@4, ?21, ?2?5
1a5 tih ne h hh h- -- -< << < cem
7S> "a9e CO=PG ni-ht
'He "a$e e!er.thin- at ni-ht.( 1ori-. 'E#e %eI t$a V noite.(5
1/5 tih xF' h hh h- -- -< << < Gmh tHp bt
7S> see9 CO=PG La"K hose in
'He searche$ the who#e hose %or La"K.( 1ori-. 'E#e procro t$o na casa $o
La"K.(5
1@8 4.3 co"p#eti!eC inco"p#eti!e

1c5 wIm Gun <Hx hm h hh h- -- -< << < tih wap
ctipor: COG rn -o CO=PG 7S> TOT.AU>
'The cutipor;s escape$, a## o% the".( 1ori-. 'Os ctipor:s %-ira", to$os e#es.(5

Ca!ineOa an$ DQw "ar9 /oth CO=PGETI<E an$ INCO=PGETI<E, /t the sa"e pheno"enon can
a#so /e o/ser!e$ in #an-a-es "ar9in- on#. CO=PGETI<E, "ost#. in TpSan 1>aranS5 1i.e.
E"Pri##on, 6a"airV, Coca"aACoca"i##a5, /t a#so in Desano 1an$ pro/a/#. in the other
CO=PGETI<E "ar9in- #an-a-es as we##, /t the #ac9 o% $ata inhi/its to state this with
certaint.5. A## o% these "a9e a $istinction in "eanin- accor$in- to the !er/a# !a#enc.) The
E"Pri##on CO=PGETI<E s%%i& ApaJ -ba in$icates that the action is co"p#ete#. rea#iIe$ /. a## the
re%erents o% the s/Fect o% an intransiti!e !er/, or with respect to a## the re%erents o% the
o/Fect o% a transiti!e !er/ 1Rose ?@@7, 4?15.

14.7?5 E"Pri##on 1TpSan, >aranSJ Rose ?@@7, 4??5
1a5 o-ho-pa pa pa pa-K
7A-oACO=PGAPG.S
'The. a## ha!e #e%t.( 1ori-. 'I#s sont tos partis.(5
1/5 o-<u-pa pa pa pa
7AeatACO=PG
'He ate a## 1o% it5.( 1ori-. 'I# a tot "an-P.(5

Gi9ewise, the 6a"airV CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Apap re%ers to the tota#it. o% a## the o/Fects with
transiti!e !er/s, an$ to the tota#it. o% the s/Fects with intransiti!e !er/s 1Se9i ?@@@, 1745.
7


14.775 6a"airV 1TpSan, >aranSJ Se9i ?@@@, 1745
1a5 o-"uka-pap pap pap pap
7A9i##ACO=PG
'He 9i##e$ a##.( 1ori-. 'e#e "ato to$os.(5
1/5 o-mano-pap pap pap pap
7A$ieACO=PG
'The. a## $ie$.( 1ori-. '"orrera" to$os.(5

Coca"aACoca"i##a "ar9s CO=PGETI<E with s%%i& Apa. In transiti!e c#ases, a## o/Fects are
a%%ecte$, in intransiti!e ones, a## s/Fects are a%%ecte$.




7
Accor$in- to Ai9hen!a#$ 1?@1?, 18@5, there is another CO=PGETI<E "ar9er in 6a"airV) s%%i& Akatu
which -ra""atica#iIe$ %ro" the stati!e root "eanin- '/e.-oo$(.
4. Aspect 1@2

14.745 Coca"aACoca"i##a 1TpSan, >aranSJ <a##eFos TopVn ?@1@, 73?, 7345
1a5 inu-eyu-pa pa pa pa ya=pura
7PG.;E=AGESPEECHAeatACO=PG 7S>.;E=AGESPEECHM;OC
'The. eat it p.(
1/5 aypa-pa pa pa pa raepe rana
-row.pACO=PG then 7PG.=AGESPEECH
'Then the. %inish -rowin- p.(

In Hi&9ar.ana, the CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Athka can "ean that e"phasis is on the %inishin- o% the
action or that a## o% the re%erents were a%%ecte$)

14.745 Hi&9ar.ana 1Cari/anJ Der/.shire 1284, ??45
n-ahataka-t tt t hka hka hka hka-txown
7S8BAco"e.otACO=PGADIST.PST. P;<.COGG
'The. %inishe$ co"in-.( or 'The. a## ca"e ot.(

=a"ain$R an$ Desano ha!e $i%%erent CO=PGETI<E "ar9ers that $istin-ish /etween a
%inishe$ action an$ an action that was $one co"p#ete#.. The =a"ain$R "ar9er Ah<C Ahn
"ar9s an action that was $one co"p#ete#., an$ Ata3ona an action that is %inishe$. The. can
coAoccr)

14.735 =a"ain$R 1Na"/i9waranJ E/erhar$ ?@@2, 4@25
1a5 "ain-ha ha ha haD D D D < << <- -- -ten-a<--wa
eatACO=PG.a##ADESA1S>APRESADECG
'I wi## eat it a##.(
1/5 "a3ik ha<tD in wek-ta3ona ta3ona ta3ona ta3ona--t
h
unna-wa
nec9#ace Eic9#. "a9eACO=PG.%inishA7S>A;UTADECG
'She wi## %inish the nec9#ace Eic9#..(
1c5 "a3ik-n< ha<tDin wek-ta3ona ta3ona ta3ona ta3ona-ha ha ha haD D D D < << <- -- --t
h
unna-wa
nec9#aceAPG Eic9#. "a9eACO=PG.%inishACO=PG.a##A7S>A;UTADECG
'She wi## %inish a## the nec9#aces Eic9#..(

One wo#$ e&pect that CO=PGETI<E "ost o%ten occrs with PAST re%erence, as an action which
is %inishe$ is necessari#. sitate$ /e%ore the point o% speech. That this is not the -enera#
r#e, howe!er, is $e"onstrate$ /. the Hp CO=PGETI<E s%%i& -cA D pC AcA D w, which can coAoccr
with ;UTURE "ar9in- an$ /oth PRESENT an$ PAST ti"e re%erence)




11@ 4.3 co"p#eti!eC inco"p#eti!e

14.775 Hp 1Na$ahpJ Epps ?@@8, 441, 44@, 4475
1a5 <h ",Hm-hi-c cc cA D A D A D A D p pp p-tL-h
1S> /atheA;CTACO=PGA;UTADECG
'I(## %inish /athin-.(
1/5 <L'ia hiph-c cc cA D
E
A D
E
A D
E
A D
E
w ww w-A D
E
y <-hnMy
E#ias 9nowACO=PGADTN "a./e
'E#ias a#rea$. 9nows, "a./e.(
1c5 te'L=',Nh-NE t th b<ni-c cc cA D
E
A D
E
A D
E
A D
E
p pp p-A D
E
h
threeMPGAO8N 7S> wor9A/eACO=PGADECG
'He(s a#rea$. wor9e$ with three 1o% the"5.(

Se!era# CO=PGETI<E "ar9ers with the "eanin- o% %inishin- or ter"inatin- an action $eri!e
%ro" #e&e"es with si"i#ar #e&ica# content, as in e.-. Hi&9ar.ana an$ Tariana. The
Hi&9ar.ana CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Athka a#so occrs as !er/a# ste" with the "eanin- 'to %inish(
1Der/.shire 1284, ??45. The Tariana enc#itic Msita "ar9s actions that are acco"p#ishe$ an$
$eri!es %ro" a constrction with the -ra""atica#iIe$ !er/ sita '%inish, "ana-e( 1Ai9hen!a#$
?@@7, 777\7785.
A $iachronic sorce o% an INCO=PGETI<E "ar9er in DQw is the !er/ %or 'to $istance, /ein-
$istant( 1=artins ?@@4, ?885. A#tho-h =artins $escri/es it as I=PER;ECTI<E, it is "ore
characteristic o% INCO=PGETI<E, /ecase it $oes not ha!e HA8ITUAG or CONTINUATI<E "eanin-s.
1See 14.78a5 %or ta< as !er/, an$ 14.78/5 %or ta< as INCO=PGETI<E.5

14.785 DQw 1Na$ahpJ =artins ?@@4, ?88, ?825
1a5 tO& ta ta ta ta< << < n
there.it.is it.is.$istant $isse
'There it isJ it is $istant, he sa.s.( 1ori-. 'GV estVJ estV $istante, $isse.(5
1/5 tih kaGm ta ta ta ta< << < "
<
mx< xa'
7S> $ie INCP Fa-ar /ecase.o%
'He a#"ost $ie$ /ecase o% the Fa-ar.( 1ori-. 'E#e Ease "orre por casa $a on`a.(5

CO=PGETI<E o%ten in!o#!es e"phasis. Se!era#, i% not a##, o% the e&a"p#es in this section can /e
interprete$ in sitations where the spea9er pt %ocs on a part 1the %inishin- or $oin-
co"p#ete#.5 o% an action when he wants to e"phasiIe sai$ part. This cannot /e pro!en as
"ost e&a"p#es are -i!en ot o% conte&t, /t *there is a#so a certain e"phasis inherent in
the notion o% ha!in- /ro-ht an action to a thoro-h conc#sion0 18./ee et a#. 1224, 475.
The res#ts %ro" st$.in- CO=PGETI<E "ar9ers in the SAIGs sa"p#e show that these share
the %eatre o% "ar9in- the co"p#etenessC thoro-hness o% an action or the tota#
a%%ecte$ness o% the s/Fect1s5Co/Fect1s5, an$ that this re#ates to e"phasis. This is in #ine with
the res#ts %or the st$. carrie$ ot /. 8./ee et a#. 1i/i$.5, who thin9 that *i% an action is
4. Aspect 111

$one co"p#ete#., it is #i9e#. to a%%ect the o/Fect tota##. an$ "a. we## in!o#!e "#tip#e
entities0.

Ta/#e 4.4) CO=PGETI<EC INCO=PGETI<E "ar9in- in the SAIGs
CO=PGETI<E CO=PGETI<E CO=PGETI<E CO=PGETI<E on#. on#. on#. on#. INCO=PGETI<E INCO=PGETI<E INCO=PGETI<E INCO=PGETI<E on#. on#. on#. on#. 8oth 8oth 8oth 8oth
I9a, 6a"airV, Awa Pit, Pi#a-V, Tanesha(, Urarina,
Ri9/a9tsa, E"Pri##on, Coca"aACoca"i##a, Paresi,
=a"ain$R, =iraOa, E"/era, Hi&9ar.ana, Desano,
SaterPA=awP, Shipi/oA6oni/o, 8are, Ge9o
=o!i"a, =atses,
CIco Necha,
6waIa, AprinK,
Tiri.:
A."ara, Tariana, DQw, Hp,
Ha##a-a Necha, Ca!ineOa
=osetPn, Ti"/ira

4.7 ANTERIOR 4.7 ANTERIOR 4.7 ANTERIOR 4.7 ANTERIOR
The #ast cate-or. in the sa"p#e is ANTERIOR, otherwise a#so 9nown as PER;ECT. 8ecase it
occrs in on#. %or #an-a-es in the sa"p#e it is $iscsse$ here rather than in a separate
section. ANTERIORC PER;ECT an$ PER;ECTI<E are o%ten se$ %or the sa"e cate-or. in the
#iteratre, /t here ANTERIOR $enotes a concept $issi"i#ar to PER;ECTI<E. It is c#ose#. re#ate$ to
Tense, /ecase an action "ar9e$ with a ANTERIOR re%ers to a sitation in the past that has
re#e!ance %or the present. 8ecase this "eanin- is o%ten not c#ear %ro" oneA#ine e&a"p#es
an$ has to /e in%erre$ %ro" conte&t, it is so o%ten "i&e$ p with PER;ECTI<E. Another reason
is that, accor$in- to 8./ee et a#. 11224, 415, ANTERIOR "ar9ers are an inter"e$iate
-ra""atica#iIation sta-e o% a&i#iaries to PAST an$ PER;ECTI<E.
I a-ree with 8./ee et a#. 11224, 445 that an ANTERIOR "ar9er *si-na#s that the sitation
occrs prior to re%erence ti"e an$ is re#e!ant to the sitation at re%erence ti"e0 1c%. a#so
Dah# 112845 an$ Co"rie 1127355, as in 14.725. The spea9er re#ates that he was attac9e$ /. a
cai"an which he pre!ios#. ha$ cre$ an$ was in trn sa!e$ /. a $o- %ro" a cai"an. The
crin- o% the cai"an is "ar9e$ with ANTERIOR Awa /ecase the cai"an was on#. a/#e to
attac9 hi" #ater /ecase the spea9er cre$ hi" pre!ios#. 1>i##a"e ?@@8, 1775.

14.725 Ca!ineOa 1TacananJ >i##a"e ?@@8, 1775
tu-ra ikwene matu"a chachane-wa wa wa wa
7S>.ER> %irst cai"an creAANT
amena tume=tu chapa=ra tu-ke
8= thenM7S>1A;=5 $o-MER> 7S>A;=
'He 1the hnter5 ha$ %irst sa!e$ 1#it. cre$5 a cai"an 1a/ot 1@ .ears ear#ier5. Then,
1this ti"e,5 a $o- sa!e$ hi".(

The %or #an-a-es in the sa"p#e with o!ert ANTERIOR "ar9in- are 8are, Tariana, I"/a/ra
Necha, an$ Ca!ineOa. Other #an-a-es "a. ha!e .et n$etecte$ ANTERIOR "a9ers in the
$is-ise o% PER;ECTI<ES or PAST "ar9ers, which "a. e&p#ain the rarit. o% ANTERIOR "ar9ers in
the sa"p#e.
11? 4.7 anterior

Danie#sen 1?@@7, ?7?5 s--ests that the ANTERIOR partic#e 7er -ra""atica#iIe$ %ro" the
a$!er/ 'a#rea$.(, an$ that e&tensi!e contact o% 8are spea9ers with Spanish "a. ha!e /een
the insti-ator. The a$!er/ia# se o% 7er is $i%%ic#t to $istin-ish %ro" the partic#e.

14.4@5 8are 1Arawa9anJ Danie#sen ?@@7, ?775
7er 7er 7er 7er nik p-aha-Po-wo-o-i,
ANT 1S>.eat oneAp#ateAoneACOPANO=AE=P
'I a#rea$. ate one who#e p#ate.(

There is no in%or"ation a/ot sorces %or the Tariana an$ Ca!ineOa ANTERIOR "ar9ers.
Howe!er, the Tariana "ar9er Mni occrs in se!era# AspectAre#ate$ an$ nonAAspectAre#ate$
%or"s) CO=PGETI<E Mniki 1Ai9hen!a#$ ?@@7, 74@5, ITERATI<E Anipe 1i/i$. 4315, no"ina#iIer Anipe
1i/i$. 77@5, an$ has o!ertones o% con%ir"ation when in co"/ination with the PAST <ISUAG
"ar9ers 1i/i$. 77?5. A possi/#e sorce is the !er/ ni '$o, "a9e(. A#tho-h Tariana an$ 8are
are re#ate$ 1Arawa9an5 the -ra""atica#iIation path o% the 8are ANTERIOR "ar9er points
towar$ in$i!i$a# $e!e#op"ent rather than share$ ancestr.. That ANTERIOR "ar9in- in these
#an-a-es is a res#t o% contact is n#i9e#.J none o% the" are in a conti-os re-ion, as can
/e seen on "ap 4.1 /e#ow. ANTERIOR "ar9in- in Soth A"erica is ths a #an-a-e in$i!i$a#
pheno"enon, -o!erne$ /. interna# -ra""atica#iIation processes an$ not $e to
-enea#o-ica# or -eo-raphica# %actors.
Accor$in- to Dah# Z <e#pi##ai 1?@11c5, there are three #an-a-es 1o% ?15 in SA that ha!E
ANTERIOR "ar9in-) Tcano, Bi!aro, an$ Coca"a. ANTERIORS %on$ /. Dah# Z <e#pi##ai are not
$eri!e$ %ro" possessi!e constrctions or wor$s with the "eanin-s '%inish( or 'a#rea$.(,
whereas at #east %or 8are the ANTERIOR "ar9er c#ear#. $eri!es %ro" the a$!er/ 'a#rea$.(.
8ecase there are so"e $i%%erences /etween co$in- in that an$ the present st$. the
$i%%erence is not srprisin-J howe!er, it is c#ear that ANTERIOR is a !er. rare cate-or. in SA,
re-ar$#ess o% $i!er-in- $e%initions.

Ta/#e 4.3) ANTERIOR "ar9ers in the sa"p#e
Gan-a-e ;a"i#. ANTERIOR Sorce
8are Arawa9an partic#e 7er a$!er/ 7er 'a#rea$.( 1Danie#sen ?@@7, ?7?5
Tariana Arawa9an enc#itic Mnhi _
I"/a/ra
Necha
Nechan s%%i& -shka _
Ca!ineOa Tacanan s%%i& Awa _





4. Aspect 117

=ap 4.1) Distri/tion o% ANTERIOR "ar9in- in the sa"p#e



114 4.8 T.po#o-ica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

4.8 TTPOGO>ICAG DIST 4.8 TTPOGO>ICAG DIST 4.8 TTPOGO>ICAG DIST 4.8 TTPOGO>ICAG DISTRI8UTION IN THE SA=P RI8UTION IN THE SA=P RI8UTION IN THE SA=P RI8UTION IN THE SA=PGE GE GE GE
O% the 37 #an-a-es in the sa"p#e, no #an-a-e is co"p#ete#. withot Aspect "ar9in-. Si&
#an-a-es "ar9 one Aspecta#, 14 "ar9 two, ?7 "ar9 three, 1? "ar9 %or, an$ se!en "ar9
%i!e. The "ost %reEent#. "ar9e$ cate-or. is CONTINUATI<E 1745, %o##owe$ /. ITERATI<E 17?5
an$ HA8ITUAG 1715, CO=PGETI<E 1?35, PER;ECTI<E 1?45, I=PER;ECTI<E 1??5, INCO=PGETI<E 1145, an$
ANTERIOR 145. E!er. #an-a-e in the sa"p#e has either I=PER;ECTI<E or one o% its s/cate-ories
"ar9e$, /t 12 #an-a-es $o not "ar9 PER;ECT or CO=PGETI<E. This section in!esti-ates
se!era# points o% interest that arise %ro" the res#ts, startin- with a co"parison with
pre!ios st$ies, /e%ore co"in- to the -enea#o-ica# an$ -eo-raphica# ana#.sis. As a #ast
point, the sta/i#it. o% certain Aspecta#s is $iscsse$.
In the -#o/a# sa"p#e o% Dah# 11284, 187A1845 the CONTINUATI<E 1*pro-ressi!e05 occrs #ess
%reEent#. than PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E an$ is pre$o"inant#. e&presse$ /. periphrastic
"eans. On#. in one ot o% 12 instances is CONTINUATI<E "ar9e$ /. in%#ection. In contrast,
CONTINUATI<E is the "ost %reEent#. "ar9e$ cate-or. in the present sa"p#e an$
pre$o"inant#. "ar9e$ /. in%#ection 1?7 instances o% s%%i&ation, %or o% c#iticiIation, an$
one o% pre%i&ation5. There is no co"parison possi/#e as to whether the n"/er o%
periphrastic CONTINUATI<E "ar9in- is hi-her than that o% in%#ectiona# "ar9in-, /t the
%reEenc. o% CONTINUATI<E in%#ectiona# "ar9in- an$ CONTINUATI<E in co"parison with
PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E is si-ni%icant#. hi-her than in Dah#(s sa"p#e. The %act that "ost
#an-a-es in this st$. "orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9 CONTINUATI<E is in #ine with 8./ee et a#.(s
11224, 1745 res#ts, where *+t,he "ost wi$esprea$ an$ %reEent#. occrrin- +^, is
pro-ressi!e, which is sa##. periphrastic in e&pression0. It is not possi/#e to sa. whether
the CONTINUATI<E in the SAIGs is "ore %reEent#. e&presse$ periphrastica##. than "orphoA
s.ntactica##.. 8t we can to ass"e that the SAIGs $o e&press CONTINUATI<E with an
nsa##. hi-h n"/er o% "orphoAs.ntactic "ar9ers co"pare$ to other re-ions o% the
wor#$. It was a#rea$. note$ in 4.?.? that PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- occrs in a/ot
ha#% o% the present sa"p#e as we## as in a -#o/a# sa"p#e.
The rather hi-h %reEenc. o% HA8ITUAG "ar9ers in the sa"p#e a#so $e!iates %ro" Dah#(s
11284, 24A235 res#ts, which not on#. show a #ow %reEenc. o% %or"s with HA8ITUAG, HA8ITUAG
>ENERIC, an$ HA8ITUAG PAST "eanin-, /t are a#so "ost#. e&presse$ periphrastica##.. A #ow
%reEenc. o% HA8ITUAG a#so occrs in 8./ee et a#. 11224, 13@5, a#tho-h their st$. e!en
inc#$es periphrastic constrctions. This points to the %o##owin- -enera#iIation) SAIGs ha!e
a hi-her %reEenc. o% "ar9in- HA8ITUAG co"pare$ to Dah#(s an$ 8./ee et a#.(s sa"p#es. This
in trn #ea$s to the conc#sion that %reEent HA8ITUAG "ar9in- is a characteristic %eatre o%
the SAIGs in the sa"p#e.






4. Aspect 114

;i-re 4.?) Aspecta#s "ar9e$ /. SAIGs



;i-re 4.7) N"/er o% SAIGs "ar9in- n"/er o% Aspecta#s


















113 4.8 T.po#o-ica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

Ta/#e 4.1?) Aspect "ar9in- in the sa"p#e
GAN>UA>E ;A=IGT
C
N
T

I
T
E

H
A
8

C
O
=
P
G

P
;
<

I
P
;
<

I
N
C
P

A
N
T

T
O
T
A
G

1 =oco!S >a.cran 1
? 6aritiana TpSan 1
7 6aro TpSan 1
4 6anoR Unc#assi%ie$ 1
4 DichS 1=ataco5 =atacoan 1
3 =o!i"a Unc#assi%ie$ 1
7 Tsa%i9i 8ar/acoan ?
8 Dari( Chapacran ?
2 Itona"a Unc#assi%ie$ ?
1@ Tehe#che Chonan ?
11 Sa/anR Na"/i9waran ?
1? Barawara Arawan ?
17 =apche Aracanian ?
14 I9a Chi/chan, Ara9 ?
14 Tapiete TpSan, >aranS ?
13 6a"airV TpSan, >aranS ?
17 A-arna Bi!aroan ?
18 =atses Panoan ?
12 Awa Pit 8ar/acoan ?
?@ Chi"i#a Chi/chan ?
?1 Tana" Tano"a"an ?
?? 8ororo =acroA>Ran 7
?7 =e9ens TpSan 7
?4 C/eo Tcanoan 7
?4 Ri9/a9tsa =acroA>Ran 7
?3 E"Pri##on TpSan, >aranS 7
?7 Coca"aA
Coca"i##a
TpSan, >aranS 7
?8 =osetPn =osetenan 7
?2 Pi#a-V >a.cran 7
7@ Tanesha( Arawa9an 7
71 Urarina Unc#assi%ie$ 7
7? Pina!e Unc#assi%ie$ 7
4. Aspect 117




77 Paresi Arawa9an 7
74 Ti"/ira =acroA>Ran 7
74 =nichi Unc#assi%ie$ 7
73 CIco Necha Nechan 7
77 =a"ain$R Na"/i9waran 7
78 Darao Unc#assi%ie$ 7
72 Tr"ai Unc#assi%ie$ 7
4@ 6waIa Unc#assi%ie$ 7
41 =iraOa 8oran 7
4? E"/era Chocoan 7
47 6ain-an- =acroA>Ran 7
44 Hi&9ar.ana Cari/an 7
44 Nasa Twe PaeIan 4
43 A."ara A."aran 4
47 Desano Tcanoan 4
48 SaterPA=awP TpSan 4
42 Panare Cari/an 4
4@ AprinK Arawa9an 4
41 I"/a/ra
Necha
Nechan 4
4? Nheen-atU TpSan, >aranS 4
47 Tra9arP Unc#assi%ie$ 4
44 Ta"inaha Panoan 4
44 Shipi/oA6oni/o Panoan 4
43 Tiri.: Cari/an 4
47 Ge9o Unc#assi%ie$ 4
48 8are Arawa9an 4
42 DQw Na$ahp 4
3@ Tariana Arawa9an 4
31 Hp Na$ahp 4
3? Ha##a-a
Necha
Nechan 4
37 Ca!ineOa Tacanan 4
74 7? 71 ?3 ?4 ?? 14 4
118 4.2 >eo-raphica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

4.2 >EO>RAPHICAG DIS 4.2 >EO>RAPHICAG DIS 4.2 >EO>RAPHICAG DIS 4.2 >EO>RAPHICAG DISTRI8UTION TRI8UTION TRI8UTION TRI8UTION IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE
This section %ocses on -eo-raphica# patterns o% Aspect "ar9in- in the sa"p#e. There are a
%ew noteworth. -eo-raphica# patterns o% Aspect "ar9in-, a#tho-h "ost#. no c#ear pictre
e"er-es. In the #an-a-es o% the >aporPA=a"orP an$ a$Facent re-ions "ost#. neither
PER;ECTI<E nor I=PER;ECTI<E are "ar9e$. Gan-a-es which "ar9 /oth are %on$ c#sterin- in
PerC western 8raIi# 1=nichi, Ta"inaha, Shipi/oA6oni/o, Ha##a-a Necha5, northern
8raIi# to Srina" 1Tana", Hi&9ar.ana, Tiri.:5, an$ in sin-#e instances in sothern 8raIi#
16ain-an-5, northAwest 8raIi# 1Nheen-atU5, the An$ean %rin-e 1Tra9arP, Ge9o5, Co#o"/ia
1Chi"i#a5 an$ <eneIe#a 1Panare5. O% these, the c#ster in PerC 8raIi# is "ost interestin-,
/ecase a## these #an-a-es are in a conti-os re-ion an$ ha!e reporte$#. /een in contact.
The PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E %or"s o% Ha##a-a Necha are not co-nate with those o% the
other Nechan #an-a-es in the sa"p#e an$ neither $o those ha!e a %## PER;ECTI<EC
I=PER;ECTI<E $istinction. Shipi/oA6oni/o an$ Ta"inaha are /oth Panoan #an-a-es which
s--ests that their Aspecta#s are rather co-nates than contact pheno"ena, a#tho-h a
thir$ Panoan #an-a-e, =atses, $oes not "ar9 either PER;ECTI<E or I=PER;ECTI<E. =nichi is
sti## nc#assi%ie$.
There is a si"i#ar $istri/tion o% CO=PGETI<EC INCO=PGETI<E "ar9in-. =ar9in- o% /oth
cate-ories in one #an-a-e occrs on#. in iso#ate$ instances thro-hot the continent, /t
an acc"#ation o% "ar9in- o% CO=PGETI<E occrs in appro&i"ate#. the sa"e re-ion as the
PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- c#ster a/o!e) Shipi/oA6oni/o, Ha##a-a Necha, Tanesha(,
Urarina, Coca"aACoca"i##a.
ITERATI<E "ar9in- occrs "ost#. in three re-iona# c#sters) aron$ an$ inc#$in- the
<apPs area, 8o#i!iaC Ron$[nia, an$ northern Per, a#tho-h a## o% these re-ions a#so
%eatre #an-a-es withot ITERATI<E "ar9in-. Interestin-#., ITERATI<E "ar9in- is noticea/#.
a/sent in A"aIonia, a#tho-h R/ino 1?@115 c#ai"s that re$p#ication in -enera# is a !er.
co""on pheno"enon in A"aIonia. Howe!er, his $ata is not con!incin-) %irst, he $oes not
speci%. *A"aIonia0 an$ secon$, the correspon$in- DAGS "ap $oes not show an. partic#ar
presence o% re$p#ication in an. re-ion that co#$ /e ter"e$ 'A"aIonia(. A$$itiona##., the
n"/er o% #an-a-es presente$ in that re-ion is rather #ow 1a#tho-h the sa"e case co#$
/e "a$e %or this st$.5. It is possi/#e, tho-h, that re$p#ication as ITERATI<E "ar9in- is
a/sent in a #an-a-e /t %##. present in other parts o% -ra""ar, so R/ino(s an$ the
present $ata $o not necessari#. ha!e to contra$ict each other. Dhat R/ino $oes %in$, /t
$oes not co""ent pon, is an acc"#ation o% re$p#ication, /oth %## an$ partia#, in
8o#i!ia an$ Ron$[nia, which a-rees with the occrrence o% re$p#ication in this st$.. =ap
4.7 /e#ow i##strates that "ost o% the #an-a-es in this sa"p#e in that re-ion "ar9 ITERATI<E
either on#. /. re$p#ication or /. /oth re$p#ication an$ other "eans 1a%%i&es, c#itics, or
partic#es5. This is not srprisin-, /ecase when re$p#ication is a pro$cti!e -ra""atica#
$e!ice in a #an-a-e in -enera#, it is #i9e#. that it is a!ai#a/#e %or ITERATI<E "ar9in- as we##.
Another noticea/#e a/sence o% "ar9in- is that o% HA8ITUAG in the area an$ a$Facent
re-ions o% the >aporPA=a"orP. As was seen a/o!e, I=PER;ECTI<E 1an$ PER;ECTI<E5 are a#so
rare#. "ar9e$ in that re-ion, /t CONTINUATI<E an$ ITERATI<E %are s#i-ht#. /etter.
4. Aspect 112

To s""ariIe, Aspecta# cate-ories or their a/sence apparent#. c#ster in a %ew cases in the
<apPs an$ >aporPA=a"orPC 8o#i!ia an$ Ron$[nia, an$ northern Per.







































1?@ 4.2 >eo-raphica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

=ap 4.?) Distri/tion o% PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- in the sa"p#e

4. Aspect 1?1

=ap 4.7) Distri/tion o% CO=PGETI<EC INCO=PGETI<E "ar9in- in the sa"p#e


1??

=ap 4.4) Distri/tion o% ITERATI<E "ar9in- in SA



4. Aspect 1?7

4.1@ >ENEAGO>ICAG DI 4.1@ >ENEAGO>ICAG DI 4.1@ >ENEAGO>ICAG DI 4.1@ >ENEAGO>ICAG DISTRI8UTION STRI8UTION STRI8UTION STRI8UTION IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE IN THE SA=PGE
4.1@.1 Intro$ction 4.1@.1 Intro$ction 4.1@.1 Intro$ction 4.1@.1 Intro$ction
The %o##owin- para-raphs present in!esti-ations o% Aspecta# s.ste"s in se#ecte$ #an-a-e
%a"i#ies) =acroA>Ran 14.1@.?5, Arawa9an 14.1@.75, TpSan 14.1@.45, Cari/an 14.1@.45, an$
Nechan 14.1@.35.

4.1@.? =acro 4.1@.? =acro 4.1@.? =acro 4.1@.? =acroA AA A>Ran >Ran >Ran >Ran
Aspect "ar9in- in the =acroA>Ran #an-a-es in the sa"p#e is hi-h#. hetero-eneos. There
is no %or"a# si"i#arit. o% the "ar9ers an$ !er. #itt#e consistenc. in "ar9in- o% the
cate-ories. CONTINUATI<E is "ar9e$ /. three #an-a-es, HA8ITUAG, CO=PGETI<E, an$ ITERATI<E /.
two, an$ PER;ECTI<E, I=PER;ECTI<E, an$ INCO=PGETI<E on#. /. one. None o% the %or"s are
co-nates. Ro$ri-es 11222, 188A1825 #ists a s%%i& maA %or I=PER;ECTI<E in >at:, an$ a
preposition k(i %or PER;ECTI<E which a#so $o not see" to /e co-nates.

Ta/#e 4.17) Aspect "ar9in- in =acroA>Ran
8ororo Ri9/a9tsa 6ain-an- Ti"/ira
P;< - - m- -
IP< - - t -
HA8 Mki&o'5 - f$ kam A
CNT Mn5 AkQ0R1 - apu
ITE Re$p ASo - -
CO=PG - -ba - ram
INCP - - - kHrm

4.1@.7 Arawa9an 4.1@.7 Arawa9an 4.1@.7 Arawa9an 4.1@.7 Arawa9an
The Arawa9an #an-a-es in the sa"p#e !ar. accor$in- to which Aspecta# cate-or. the.
"ar9, /t e&hi/it a certain a"ont o% si"i#arit. in %or"a# "ar9in-. Pa.ne 11221, 7815, in his
atte"pt to reconstrct ProtoA=aipran 1=aipran /ein- another na"e %or Arawa9an5,
reconstrcts aApe %or PAST, PER;ECTI<E, an$ CO=PGETI<E. This protoA%or" apparent#. sr!i!e$ in
AprinK an$ 8are PER;ECTI<E "ar9in-, /t not in Tariana, Tanesha(, an$ Paresi. Paresi a#so
%eatres the I=PER;ECTI<E partic#e hena, which, accor$in- to Pa.ne 11221, 7815, ste"s %ro"
the ProtoA=aipran %or" aAena4 Paresi is the on#. Arawa9an #an-a-e "ar9in- I=PER;ECTI<E.
8are an$ Paresi ha!e si"i#ar CONTINUATI<E "ar9ers) partic#e ito an$ s%%i& Aita, respecti!e#.,
which $o not concr with the protoA%or"s -i!en /. Pa.ne. This "a. /e a %or" co""on to
the SothAArawa9 /ranch on#..
8esi$es the %or"a# si"i#arities in PER;ECTI<E 18are an$ AprinK5 an$ CONTINUATI<E 18are
an$ Paresi5 "ar9in- there is no consistenc. in Arawa9an Aspect "ar9in- in the sa"p#e.
Der/.shire 11283, 418A4?@5 "entions CO=PGETI<E s%%i&es %or se!era# 8raIi#ian Arawa9an
#an-a-es 1see ta/#e 4.1@5, /t the. are !er. hetero-eneos with the e&ception o% Dara
an$ Pa#i9r which %eatre a s%%i& Awi %or PER;ECTI<E or CO=PGETI<E. The e#e"ent -n$ -na$ -ne$
-n, which occrs in the CONTINUATI<E %or"s in AprinK, Tanesha(, DenS, Pa#i9r, A"esha,
an$ in the I=PER;ECTI<E in Paresi is possi/#e a re%#e& o% the protoA%or" s--este$ /. Pa.ne
1?4 4.1@ >enea#o-ica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

112215, /t this nee$s %rther research. The hetero-eneit. o% the Aspecta#s is a#so "irrore$
in the PreAn$ine Arawa9an #an-a-e -rops Ca"pa an$ A"esha -i!en /. Dise 11283, 487A
4885) Ca"pa has a PER;ECTI<E or CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Aak an$ a PRO>RESSI<E s%%i& Aa6, an$
A"esha has a PRO>RESSI<E s%%i& Aen an$ a CO=PGETI<E s%%i& Aom. The Ca"pa PER;ECTI<E s%%i&
"a., howe!er, rather /e an ANTERIOR 1$e to a !er. co""on con%sion /etween the ter"s
PER;ECTI<E an$ PER;ECT5.
Aspecta#s in Arawa9an are on#. partia##. %a"i#. speci%ic) the PER;ECTI<E %or"s in 8are
an$ AprinK, the I=PER;ECTI<E in Paresi, the CO=PGETI<E or PER;ECTI<E in Dara an$ Pa#i9r,
an$ possi/#. the CONTINUATI<E or I=PER;ECTI<E in AprinK, Tanesha(, DenS, Pa#i9r, A"esha,
an$ Paresi.

Ta/#e 4.14) Aspect "ar9in- in Arawa9an
P;< IP;< HA8 CNT ITE CO=PG INCP
ProtoA
%or"s
4

/-pe /-k$ /-
ena
/-k$ /-ena /-k$ /-ena A -/pe A
8are -po A A ito a7ik$ -poreiy eto A
Paresi A hena A -ita A heta A
AprinK -pe A -pi nanu A A Apanhi
Tanesha' A A =e,tD =me2 A -QhuJ -Q,huJ
-Q,huaJ -uJ -ua
A
Tariana A A =hyuna$
=kape$ =nipe
A -nipe =niki$ =sita ='aka$
=si'a
DenS
4
_ _ _ -na7a _ -niJ -7i _
Pa#i9r _ _ _ -nJ -ne0ne1$
-0na1no
_ -eJ -iJ -wiJ -piJ -ep _
TerRna _ _ _ -ti _ _ _
Pa"arS _ _ _ _ _ -=iJ -=a _
Dara -wi _ -pai _ _ -ene _
Ca"pa
3
-ak _ _ Aa6 _ -ak _
A"esha _ _ _ -en _ -om _

4.1@.4 TpSan 4.1@.4 TpSan 4.1@.4 TpSan 4.1@.4 TpSan
Dith one e&ception, CO=PGETI<E "ar9in- in >aranS, there is no %or"a# si"i#arit. a"on- the
Aspecta#s in the TpSan #an-a-es o% the sa"p#e. =ost o% the TpSan #an-a-es "ar9 a/ot
two Aspecta#s. SaterPA=awP an$ Nheen-atU "ar9 the "ost cate-ories 1%or5, 6aritiana an$
6aro one. The "ost %reEent#. "ar9e$ cate-or. is ITERATI<E 1se!en5, %o##owe$ /.
CONTINUATI<E 1%i!e5J the #east "ar9e$ is I=PER;ECTI<E.
A## >aranS #an-a-es e&cept %or Tapiete "ar9 CO=PGETI<E with co-nates which are
re%#e&es o% the protoACO=PGETI<E s--este$ /. Bensen 11228, 4775) aApabT,
7
that with

4
Pa.ne 11221, 7815
4
Der/.shire 11283, 418A4?@5
3
Dise 11283, 487A4885
4. Aspect 1?4

intransiti!e !er/s in$icates that a## s/Fects per%or" the action an$ with transiti!e !er/s
in$icates that the action is per%or"e$ on a## o/Fects. There is no CO=PGETI<E "ar9er in
Tapiete, /t the RESUGTATI<E s%%i& Ama co#$ /e a co-nate 1c%. >onIV#eI ?@@4, 1475.
Interestin-#., Ri9/a9tsa, which has /een c#assi%ie$ as =acroA>Ran 1Ro$ri-es 1222, 1385, a#so
has a CO=PGETI<E "ar9er o% a si"i#ar %or" 1Aba5.
The Tapiete HA8ITUAG s%%i& is an i##strati!e e&a"p#e o% #an-a-e interna# $e!e#op"ent)
it -ra""atica#iIe$ %ro" the a$!er/ yepi 'a#wa.s( 1>onIV#eI ?@@4, 1485.

Ta/#e 4.14) Aspect "ar9in- in TpSan
P;< IP;< HA8 CNT ITE CO=PG INCP
6aritiana - - - Atso$ -tka$
-tA D $
-tsp$ -&i
- - -
6aro - - - - Re$p - -
=e9ens - - kakwat A&i#iaries Re$p, neara - -
SaterPA=awP ra,nC
ta,nC
na,n
- n Re$p, te - ne -
Nheen-atU
1>aranS5
Mw Mre wera - Re$p - -
E"Pri##on
1>aranS5
- - - Mo$ =0i1 Re$p ApaJ -ba -
6a"airV
1>aranS5
- - - - Re$p -pap, Akatu -
Coca"aA
Coca"i##a
1>aranS5
- - - -0a1ri Re$p -ka -pa -
Tapiete
1>aranS5
- - Api - Re$p - -

4.1@.4 Cari/an 4.1@.4 Cari/an 4.1@.4 Cari/an 4.1@.4 Cari/an
A## three Cari/an #an-a-es in the sa"p#e "ar9 PER;ECTI<E and I=PER;ECTI<E, /t whereas
Hi&9ar.ana an$ Tiri.: /oth ha!e $istinct Aspecta# "ar9in- o% PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E
accor$in- to Tense, Panare apparent#. has TenseAin$epen$ent "ar9ers. Tiri.: has PER;ECTC
I=PER;ECTI<E $istincti!e "ar9in- in ;UTURE, PRESENT, an$ PAST, with o!ert "ar9in- a## /t
PRESENT PER;ECTI<E 1which "a. /e a IeroA"ar9er 1c%. =eira 1222, 7@75. Hi&9ar.ana o!ert#.
"ar9s PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E on#. in the PAST Tenses 1recent an$ $istant5, /t not in PRESENT
or ;UTURE 1which are c"#ati!e NONPAST "orphe"es, see 7.7.?, Cari/an5.
The s%%i& Ane an$ !arieties are co""on in Cari/an %or Tense an$ Aspect "ar9in-
1=eira 1222, 7@3A7@75. It occrs in the "aForit. o% >i#$ea(s 11228, 285 sa"p#e n$er '$istant
past( a#tho-h he $oes not %rther co""ent on Aspecta# !a#es. Interestin-#., it occrs as

7
Bensen 11228, 4?85 -i!es a !er/ paw '%inish( in TpSan the protoA%or" o% which co#$ /e the ori-in o%
the CO=PGETI<E.
1?3 4.1@ >enea#o-ica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9er in Panare an$ PER;ECTI<E is "ar9e$ /. Aya", which "a. /e co-nate with
>i#$ea(s 1i/i$.5 aAya in NONPAST %or"s. This protoA%or" a#so occrs in Hi&9ar.ana PAST
PER;ECTI<E an$ PAST I=PER;ECTI<E as Aya an$ possi/#. in Tiri.: ;UTURE PER;ECTI<E, PRESENT
I=PER;ECTI<E, an$ PAST I=PER;ECTI<E as A"a. I% these %or"s are rea##. re%#e&es o% the NONPAST
protoA%or" it wo#$ /e interestin- to i$enti%. its $e!e#op"ent into PAST an$ the ro#e its
Aspecta# "eanin- p#a.s in the process.
The other Aspecta# cate-ories are #ess prononce$. ITERATI<E is n"ar9e$, CO=PGETI<E
"ar9e$ /. Hi&9ar.ana, INCO=PGETI<E /. Tiri.:, HA8ITUAG /. Tiri.: an$ Panare, an$
CONTINUATI<E /. Panare on#.. The rest o% the Aspect cate-ories are partia##. e&presse$ /. the
PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E %or"sJ e.-. I=PER;ECTI<e %or"s can /e se$ to e&press /oth
CONTINUATI<E an$ HA8ITUAG in Tiri.:, a#tho-h the #atter e!en has its own "ar9er 1the PAST
I=PER;ECTI<E is a#"ost co"p#ete#. rep#ace$ /. the HA8ITUAG %or" to$a. 1=eira 1222, 77?55.

Ta/#e 4.13) Aspect "ar9in- in Cari/an
Hi&9ar.ana Tiri.: Panare
P;< PRS.P;< A PRS.P;< A Aya"

PST.P;<
Ayako,
Ayatxoko,
Aye,
Atxown

PST.P;<
Ane
;UT.P;< A ;UT.P;< A1"a5k1m#5
IP;< PRS.IP;<

A

PRS.IP;< A1Fa5Ae,
A1"a5A1n5
A2e

PST.IP;<
Ayaknano,
Ayatxkenano,
Ayakon,
Ayatxkon
PST.IP;< A1"a5k1ne5
;UT.IP;< A ;UT.IP;< AtaAe,
AtaA1ne5
HA8 A Ae Asen
CNT A A Amp"C Anp"
ITE A A A
CO=PG Atihka A A
INCP A nkr A

4.1@.3 Nechan 4.1@.3 Nechan 4.1@.3 Nechan 4.1@.3 Nechan
Aspect "ar9in- in Nechan is re#ati!e#. hetero-eneos. A## three #an-a-es in the sa"p#e
"ar9 PER;ECTI<E. Ha##a-a Necha a$$itiona##. "ar9s I=PER;ECTI<E, ITERATI<E, CO=PGETI<E, an$
INCO=PGETI<E, I"/a/ra Necha HA8ITUAG an$ CONTINUATI<E, an$ CIco Necha CONTINUATI<E
an$ INCO=PGETI<E. There is a possi/i#it. that I"/a/ra Necha a#so "ar9s INCO=PGETI<E.
Co-nates o% the PER;ECTI<E "ar9ers %on$ in Tar"a Necha 1AraJ-ru1 1A$e#aar with
=.s9en ?@@4, ??1, ??35 an$ Pacaraos Necha 1Ar%aCAr%u1 1i/i$. ?47, ?445 co#$ /e the PAST
4. Aspect 1?7

"ar9ers $iscsse$ in 7.7.?. A$e#aar with =.s9en 1?@@4, ?715 s--est that that the re%#e&es
o% aAr%u enco$e PER;ECTI<E in opposition to a PRO>RESSI<E Aya. Interestin-#., /oth PAST an$
PER;ECTI<E "ar9ers can coAoccr in at #east Pacaraos Necha. Either the "o$ern PAST an$
PER;ECTI<E %or"s -ra""atica#iIe$ %ro" the sa"e protoA%or" 1possi/#. aAr%u5 or there were
two si"i#ar protoA%or"s, one %or PAST an$ one %or PER;ECTI<E. >i!en the hi-h $e-ree o%
si"i#arit. o% the %or"s an$ the %act that PER;ECTI<E an$ PAST are esta/#ishe$
-ra""atica#iIation paths %ro" ANTERIOR %or"s 18./ee et a#. 1224, 815, I ass"e a sin-#e
protoA%or".

14.415 Pacaraos Necha 1NechanJ A$e#aar with =.s9en ?@@4, ?435
Ukuy-6V aw ka-yka-nW n
y
a say-naw-pa-P
that.o!er.thereAGOC /eAPRO>A7S8B a#rea$. thatACPA>ENAHEA
wamra rima-r%u r%u r%u r%u-r%a r%a r%a r%a
chi#$ spea9AP;<APST.7S8B
'0It is o!er there0, a chi#$ ha$ sai$.(

8t ANTERIOR, i.e. a "ar9er enco$in- present re#e!ance o% a PAST action, is not the on#.
can$i$ate %or the "eanin- o% a protoA%or" o% "o$ern PAST an$ PER;ECTI<E. A$e#aar with
=.s9en 1?@@4, ?715 reconstrct aArku an$ aAr%u as $irectiona# a%%i&es enco$in- 'pwar$(
an$ 'inwar$( "o!e"ent, respecti!e#., an$ it has /een shown that the -ra""atica#iIation
path %ro" $irectiona#s into at #east Tense "ar9ers is not nco""on crossA#in-istica##..
Dhereas the I"/a/ra PER;ECTI<EC PAST "ar9er is a re%#e& o% aAr%u the %or"s in Ha##a-a
an$ CIco Necha are not. PER;ECTI<E in Ha##a-a Necha is "ar9e$ /. AykX 1De/er 1282,
1445 an$ in CIco Necha /. A2a a#tho-h the #atter is o% a $/ios natre 1;a##er 1?@@?5
-#osses this "ar9er with '$iscontinati!e( /t the %ew e&a"p#es point towar$s PER;ECTI<E
"eanin-5. On#. Ha##a-a Necha has a %##. $e!e#ope$ PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E opposition.















1?8 4.1@ >enea#o-ica# $istri/tion in the sa"p#e

Ta/#e 4.17) Aspect "ar9in- in Nechan
Ha##a-a I"/a/ra CIco ProtoA%or"s 1A$e#aar with
=.s9en ?@@4, ?715
P;< -ykX -rka A2a

aAr%u
IP< -yka - - /-6ka
HA8 - -" - _
CNT - -"u
Y
Zsha /-6ka
ITE Aykacha[J -kacha[J -cha[$
re$p#ication
- - _
CO=PG AkaakX - - _
INCP -ra% A 1Ara"_5 Ara% _

4.11 4.11 4.11 4.11 Sta/i#it. o% Aspect Sta/i#it. o% Aspect Sta/i#it. o% Aspect Sta/i#it. o% Aspect
This section e!a#ates the sta/i#it. o% Aspecta# %eatres an$ $raws pon the st$ies /.
Dich"an Z Ho#"an 1?@@25 an$ Dich"ann Z 6a"ho#I 1?@@85 1see section 7.1@ %or an
intro$ction to sta/i#it. o% t.po#o-ica# %eatres an$ the sta/i#it. o% Tense, section 4.11 %or
Aspect, 4.17 %or =o$a#it., 3.3 %or E!i$entia#it., an$ 7.4 %or a %ina# $iscssion5. Accor$in- to
Dich"ann Z Ho#"an 1?@@2, 445 PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E are re#ati!e#. sta/#e an$ PER;ECT
1MANTERIOR5 is nsta/#e. I% sp#it into the !a#es -i!en in DAGS, ANTERIORS $eri!e$ o% possessi!e
constrctions are !er. sta/#e, ANTERIORS $eri!e$ %ro" wor$s "eanin- '%inish( or 'a#rea$.( are
sta/#e, ANTERIORS $eri!e$ %ro" other sorces are !er. nsta/#e, an$ a/sence o% ANTERIOR is
nsta/#e. 8oth the a/sence an$ presence o% the -ra""atica# "ar9in- o% a PER;ECTI<EC
I=PER;ECTI<E $istinction are sta/#e 1i/i$. 47A485. PER;ECTI<E an$ I=PER;ECTI<E are there%ore
e&pecte$ to re"ain sta/#e o!er a #ar-e perio$ o% ti"e, /t ANTERIOR not. Howe!er, %rther
in!esti-ation o% ANTERIOR has to wait nti# the sorces %ro" which the %or "ar9ers in this
st$. $e!e#ope$ are i$enti%ie$. As %or the sta/i#it. o% PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E in the present
sa"p#e, there is no c#ear otco"e. In so"e o% the #an-a-e %a"i#ies the a/sence o% /oth or
either one o% the" is Eite sta/#e 1e.-. in TpSan an$ =acroA>Ran the a/sence o% /oth an$ in
Cari/an the presence o% /oth5, in others the !a#es $i%%er 1e.-. one Nechan #an-a-e
"ar9s /oth an$ the other two on#. PER;ECTI<E5. This s--ests that in -enera# PER;ECTI<EC
I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- in the sa"p#e is o% o!era## "e$i" sta/i#it. an$ that is appro&i"ate#.
in #ine with Dich"ann Z Ho#"an 1?@@25. Interestin-#., the "ost %reEent#. "ar9e$
Aspecta#, CONTINUATI<E, is sprea$ o!er a## #an-a-e %a"i#ies, an$ iso#ates. >i!en its
%reEenc. one wo#$ e&pect that it trns ot to /e a -enea#o-ica##. sta/#e %eatre, /t the
re!erse is tre. Possi/#. the #ow sta/i#it. contri/te$ to the hi-h %reEenc. in the SAIGs.

8
Co#e 1128?, 14@5 c#ai"s that this is co-nate with the re%#e&i!e "orphe"e Aku in Eca$orian Necha.
Interestin-#., the PER;ECTI<E s%%i& Apo in 8are can a#so ha!e re%#e&i!e "eanin- 1Danie#sen ?@@7, ?3?5.
A$e#aar with =.s9en 1?@@4, ?815 state that the s%%i& Asi, which "ar9s pro-ressi!e, is ho"ophonos
with the re%#e&i!e "ar9er. That re%#e&i!e an$ aspecta# "ar9in- see" to /e re#ate$ in at #east three
nre#ate$ #an-a-es $eser!es attention in %tre research.
4. Aspect 1?2

In ter"s o% sta/i#it. o% %or"a# "ar9in- o% a -i!en %eatre, there is #itt#e ho"o-eneit.
/etween the "ar9ers o% #an-a-es o% the sa"e %a"i#.. As co#$ /e seen a/o!e, there are
on#. a %ew cases where "ar9ers o% the sa"e %eatre are s%%icient#. si"i#ar to ass"e
co""on ancestr. 1e.-. aApe %or PER;ECTI<E in Arawa9an, or CO=PGETI<E aApabT in TpSan5.
8ecase the res#ts %or Tense sta/i#it. "ar9ers are si"i#ar#. hetero-eneos an$ /ecase the
se"antics o% Tense an$ Aspect interact, the insta/i#it. o% Tense "a. entai# insta/i#it. o%
Aspect. As Dich"ann Z Ho#"an 1?@@2, 745 ar-e) *One -enera# %actor that "a. /e in%erre$
to in%#ence the sta/i#it. o% a %eatre is the e&tent to which the %eatre is re#ate$ to other
%eatres. +^, i% chan-es in a %eatre are sti"#ate$ /. chan-es in re#ate$ %eatres, then the
re#ationships wo#$ pro"ote chan-e an$ ths $ecrease sta/i#it.0. I% one can accont %or
chan-es in Tense that are sti"#ate$ /. chan-es in Aspect an$ 7ice 7ersa, this wo#$
corro/orate the proposition. Partia##., this has /een $one /. e.-. 8./ee et a#. 112245 who
$e"onstrate$ that -ra""atica#iIation paths o% "ar9ers o%ten in!o#!e a switch %ro" Tense
to Aspect or Aspect to Tense. ;or e&a"p#e, ANTERIOR "ar9ers -ra""atica#iIe into PAST
"ar9ers 1i/i$. 1@45, an$ PRO>RESSI<ES 1CONTINUOUS5 into PRESENT "ar9ers 1i/i$. 14@5. Ths, as
soon as a "ar9er -ra""atica#iIes %ro" ANTERIOR to PAST, /oth the Tense an$ the Aspect
s.ste"s o% a #an-a-e are a%%ecte$ an$ $ecrease in sta/i#it.. A chan-e in one %eatre, on the
other han$, "a. a#so pre$ict a who#e series o% chan-es that %o##ow. ;or e&a"p#e, when an
ANTERIOR chan-es into PAST, it "a. /e that another chan-e is tri--ere$ to pro!i$e a new
ANTERIOR. I% this is tre, then the two chan-es wo#$ /a#ance each other
2
an$ increase the
sta/i#it. o% the presence o% a %eatre 1/t not o% the %or"5. Howe!er, Tense an$ Aspect
cate-ories were ear#ier $e%ine$ as co"p#e& se"antic %ie#$s, with centra# an$ periphera#
"eanin-s. Dhen a Tense "ar9er $e!e#ops into an Aspecta# one, it is o%ten /ecase o% a
switch o% the centra# an$ periphera# "eanin-s, /t that $oes not necessari#. in!o#!e a #oss
o% "eanin- which wo#$ /e the tri--er %or a new chan-e. The insta/i#it. o% Tense an$
Aspect "ar9in- 1o% %or"5 can ths /e e&p#aine$ /. the re#ationship /etween the two.

4.1? SU==ART 4.1? SU==ART 4.1? SU==ART 4.1? SU==ART
This chapter in!esti-ate$ the t.po#o-ica#, -eo-raphica#, an$ -enea#o-ica# patterns o% Aspect
"ar9in- in the sa"p#e. The #an-a-es were ana#.Ie$ accor$in- to PER;ECTI<E, I=PER;ECTI<E,
ANTERIOR, HA8ITUAG, ITERATI<E, CONTINUATI<E, CO=PGETI<E, an$ INCO=PGETI<E. It was $e"onstrate$
that this st$. %ocses on !iewpoint Aspect an$ not A9tionsart, /t ac9now#e$-es the
intricate interaction /etween the two. De%initions o% the in$i!i$a# cate-ories inc#$e
!ar.in- ran-es o% characteristics that ha!e to /e "et in or$er to $istin-ish the" %ro"
other Aspecta#s. The "ost $etai#e$ #ist is that o% ITERATI<E which shares "an.
characteristics with e.-. HA8ITUAG, CONTINUATI<E. The /i--est cha##en-e o% Aspecta#s is in
their hi-h $e-ree o% interre#ations, an$ how to esta/#ish where one cate-or. en$s an$

9
c%. Dhich"ann Z Ho#"ann 1?@@2, 745 *i% the chan-e in a %eatre reEires chan-es in other re#ate$
%eatres, then the re#ationships wo#$ i"pe$e chan-e an$ increase sta/i#it.0.
17@ 4.1? S""ar.

another /e-ins. It is %e#t that the st$. a/o!e represents the /est possi/#e atte"pt /ase$ on
the a!ai#a/#e $ata.
It was %on$ that no #an-a-e in the sa"p#e is withot Aspect "ar9in-, /t a#so that no
#an-a-e "ar9s the possi/#e "a&i"" o% ei-ht Aspecta# cate-ories. The "ost %reEent#.
"ar9e$ cate-or. is CONTINUATI<E 1745, %o##owe$ /. ITERATI<E 17?5 an$ HA8ITUAG 1715, CO=PGETI<E
1?35, PER;ECTI<E 1?45, I=PER;ECTI<E 1??5, INCO=PGETI<E 1145, an$ ANTERIOR 145. CONTINUATI<E an$
HA8ITUAG are "orphoAs.ntactica##. "ar9e$ "ore %reEent#. in the SAIGs than in other
re-ions o% the wor#$, whereas PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E are "ar9e$ /. a/ot the sa"e portion
in SA.
The "ar9in- o% Aspect within #an-a-e %a"i#ies !aries %ro" /ein- "i#$#. to co"p#ete#.
hetero-eneos, a#tho-h s%%i&ation 1an$ re$p#ication in the case o% ITERATI<E5 pre!ai#s. A
%ew -enea#o-ica# traits co#$ /e i$enti%ie$ %or Arawa9an 1aApe PER;ECTI<EC CO=PGETI<E5, TpSan
1aApabT CO=PGETI<E5, Nechan 1PASTC CO=PGETI<EC PER;ECTI<E aAr%u5 an$ Cari/an 1ten$enc. to
"ar9 PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E $istinctions in PAST, PRESENT, an$ ;UTURE /. c"#ati!e
"ar9ers5.
The %act that "orphoAs.ntactic "ar9in- o% /oth Aspect an$ Tense is Eite
hetero-eneos was e&p#aine$ /. the re#ationship /etween the two. It was %on$ that the
presence or a/sence o% PER;ECTI<EC I=PER;ECTI<E "ar9in- is sta/#e in certain #an-a-e
%a"i#ies, /t nsta/#e in others, whereas CONTINUATI<E is hi-h#. nsta/#e an$ $istri/te$
o!er a## #an-a-e %a"i#ies an$ re-ions.




















5. Modality 131

5. MODALITY 5. MODALITY 5. MODALITY 5. MODALITY
5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter inesti!ates the distri"#tion o$ %orpho&syntactic Modality %ar'in! (ith
re!ard to typolo!ical) !enealo!ical) and !eo!raphic properties in the sa%ple o$ *AILs. The
st#dy concerns R+ALI*) IRR+ALI*) INT+NTIONAL) C+RTAINTY) DU,ITATI-+) D+*ID+RATI-+) .RU*TRATI-+)
IT+RATI-+) /OT+NTIAL) /UR/O*I-+) and COMMAND types.
The ter% 0Modality1 here re$ers to the concepts o$ "oth %ood and %odality as $o#nd in
the literat#re2 34%5odality re$ers to "oth a se%antic and !ra%%atical notion. It can "e
e6pressed in a n#%"er o$ (ays) "#t the %ost co%%on (ays are thro#!h er" in$lection
7mccJ8 and thro#!h mcJa| er"s or particles9 7Nordstr:% ;<1<) 1=> a#thor?s italics8.
Modality $oc#ses on the spea'er and her perception o$ the (orld2 3Modality di$$ers $ro%
tense and aspect in that it does not re$er directly to any characteristic o$ the eent) "#t
si%ply to the stat#s o$ the proposition9 7/al%er ;<<1) 18. ,y"ee et al. 71@@A) 1B=8 o"sere
that one oerarchin! de$inition $or all %eanin!s and #sa!es o$ Modality is i%possi"le) or at
least can only "e $o#nd thro#!h diachronic st#dy) "#t altho#!h they do present s#ch a
st#dy) they do not present a ne( de$inition. Li'e(ise) this chapter atte%pts to inesti!ate
the syste%atic characteristics o$ Modality in the *AILs sa%ple rather than arriin! at a
sin!le enco%passin! de$inition.
There is contin#in! discord a"o#t the inner (or'in!s o$ Modality. Narro! 7;<<5) 1C@8
re$ers to it as the 31d#st"in1 o$ !ra%%atical cate!ories9 (here %any $#DDy cate!ories tend
to end #p) "#t (itho#t a s#$$iciently coherent internal de$inition that %a'es it a alid
cate!ory. *eeral atte%pts hae "een %ade to arrie at s#ch a de$inition) e.!. "y /al%er
71@C=) ;<<18 (ho diides it into t(o do%ains 7/ropositional and +ent Modality8) and ,y"ee
E .leisch%an 71@@58
1
(ho distin!#ish three do%ains 7*pea'er&oriented) A!ent&oriented)
and +piste%ic Modality8. These diisions partly oerlap) e.!. /al%er1s /ropositional
Modality incl#des ,y"ee E .leisch%an1s +piste%ic Modality) altho#!h he also incl#des
+identiality. The present st#dy does not e6plicitly $ollo( one and disre!ards the other
approach) "#t (ill "e lar!ely "ased on ,y"ee E .leisch%an 71@@58. Their ter%inolo!y (ill
no( "e o#tlined and contrasted (ith that o$ /al%er 71@C=) ;<<18.
A!ent&oriented Modality re$ers to conditions p#t on an a!ent (hereas *pea'er&oriented
Modality has the a!ent p#ttin! conditions on an addressee. Th#s) $or /al%er) Modalities li'e
IM/+RATI-+ and /ROFI,ITI-+ that are e6ternal to the addressee 7Deontic8 "elon! to +ent
Modality. Modalities internal to the a!ent 7Dyna%ic8) li'e a"ility or (illin!ness) also "elon!
to +ent Modality. ,y"ee E .leisch%an s#"s#%e Deontic and Dyna%ic #nder A!ent&
oriented Modality as conditions that apply to the a!ent) (hether i%posed "y hi%G her or
others) and esta"lish another cate!ory) *pea'er&oriented) $or eery Modality that has
directie $#nction. This last cate!ory incl#des speech&acts s#ch as IM/+RATI-+) HU**I-+)

1
,ased on ,y"ee 71@@58.
13; 5.1 Introd#ction

FORTATI-+) or /ROFI,ITI-+.
;
In !eneral) the I#estionnaire tries to aoid "road diisions s#ch as
+piste%ic) Deontic) etc.) and instead as's $or ery speci$ic %ar'ers) e.!. one (ill $ind
I#estions ;.11 and ;.1; 73Is certainty %ar'ed %orpho&syntacticallyJ9G 3Is d#"itatie
%ar'ed %orpho&syntacticallyJ98 instead o$ as'in! $or +piste%ic Modality. The speci$ic
de$initions can "e $o#nd in the releant sections "elo(. One point I disa!ree on (ith /al%er
7;<<18 a"o#t is that I do not consider +identiality part o$ Modality) "#t as a separate
cate!ory 7see chapter =8.
,oth /al%er1s and ,y"ee E .leisch%an1s classi$ications hae %any thin!s in co%%on
and indeed co%ple%ent each other. As the present st#dy is episte%olo!ical rather than
theoretical) I pre$er de$initions that spr#n! $ro% si%ilar approaches) s#ch as the approach
"y ,y"ee E .leisch%an 71@@58) i.e. %odeled on a s#rey "y ,y"ee et al. 71@@A8. Their
lan!#a!e sa%ple incl#des B= lan!#a!es 7i"id. 318 7(ith only a s%all n#%"er o$ *AILs8.
3

Apparently) /al%er 7;<<18 did not cond#ct a st#dy o$ si%ilar scale) "#t neertheless "ases
his theory on s#$$icient data to "e help$#l in the present disc#ssions.
In ;<<5) Narro! presented a de$inition o$ Modality that (as s#pposed to $inally !ie that
ter% cross&lin!#istic alidity. Fe identi$ies three approaches to Modality2 i8 spea'er1s
attit#de 7s#"Kectiity8) ii8 $act#ality) and iii8 eerythin! non&propositional. Concernin! a
st#dy o$ Ler%an) +n!lish) and Hapanese he arries at the concl#sion that 3the %ost
reasona"le cross&lin!#istic oriented de$inition o$ %odality is one thro#!h the concept o$
$act#ality9 rather than spea'er1s attit#de 7i"id. 1C@8. Mhile essentially a!reein! (ith his
ar!#%entation) $or the sa'e o$ this st#dy I $eel it is too narro(. In the $#t#re) it %ay "e
#se$#l) ho(eer) to carry o#t a st#dy "ased on Narro!1s de$inition to see (hether it is alid
across *AILs.
The Modalities in the present st#dy (ere chosen and others e6cl#ded $or di$$erent
reasons. A co%plete st#dy o$ all possi"le Modalities is te%ptin! "#t has to (ait. It is
atte%pted here to present a %i6t#re o$ the ne( and appealin! (ith the %ore traditional
and (ell researched Modalities (hile ta'in! into acco#nt the te%poral and spatial li%itions
o$ a /hD proKect. On the one hand) so%e Modalities hae a contin#o#s history o$ research)
recently receied an increasin! a%o#nt o$ attention) and are th#s ideal $or co%parison)
s#ch as R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* 7c$. ,y"ee et al. 1@@A) LiNn 1@@A) /al%er 1@C= and ;<<1) +lliott ;<<<)
Narro! ;<<5) Nordstr:% ;<1<8 or COMMAND types 7c$. Ai'henald ;<1<8. On the other hand)
the appeal o$ e.!. D+*ID+RATI-+ and .RU*TRATI-+ lies in their #nderrepresentation in the
literat#re.
A
Other) (ell 'no(n) Modality cate!ories s#ch as indicatie) s#"K#nctie) optatie)
necessity) a"ility) o"li!ation etc. are not ta'en into acco#nt here. This presents di$$ic#lties
$or the $inal res#lts) "eca#se this st#dy inesti!ates only a part o$ the Modal syste%s o$ the
*AILs) in contrast to the Tense and Aspect inesti!ations in the chapters a"oe) (hich are

;
Nordstr:% 7;<1<8 pre$ers the ter% *peech&act Modality oer *pea'er&oriented.
3
Island Cari") Coca%a) Chaco"o) Hiaro) T#cano) as (ell as lan!#a!es $ro% the Macro&Chi"chan and LO&
/ano&Cari" !ro#ps 7,y"ee et al. 1@@A) appendi6 A8.
A
Phanina 7;<<C8 is the one e6ception $or D+*ID+RATI-+.
5. Modality 133

%ore or less co%plete st#dies o$ a"sol#te Tense and ie(point Aspect. Any I#antitatie
res#lt %#st there$ore "e re!arded (ith do#"le ca#tion2 .irst) "eca#se o$ the li%itations o$
the data) and second) "eca#se o$ the li%itations o$ the chosen Modality cate!ories.
The $ollo(in! sections inesti!ate in detail the syste%atic distri"#tion o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI*
75.;8) C+RTAINTYG DU,ITATI-+ 7+piste%ic Modality8 75.38) INT+NTIONAL 75.A8) /OT+NTIAL 75.58)
/UR/O*I-+ 75.=8) .RU*TRATI-+ 75.B8) and D+*ID+RATI-+ 75.C8. *ection 5.@ analyDes the COMMAND
types IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+) HU**I-+) /OLIT+ COMMAND) COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND) and /ROFI,ITI-+.
*ections 5.1< Q 5.1; present an analysis o$ Modality %ar'in! in the sa%ple accordin! to
typolo!ical 75.1<8) !eo!raphical 75.118) and !enealo!ical 75.1;8 distri"#tions. A short
co%%ent o$ the i%plications o$ the $indin!s $or the sta"ility o$ Modality is !ien in 5.13. The
res#lts are s#%%ariDed in section 5.1A.

Ta"le 5.12 Classi$ication o$ the Modal cate!ories st#died here
Modal cate!ory present
in the sa%ple
Classi$ication accordin! to ,y"ee et al.
71@@A8
Classi$ication accordin! to /al%er
71@C=) ;<118
R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* & Mood
INT+NTIONAL A!ent&oriented Modality +ent Modality
/OT+NTIAL +piste%ic Modality +ent Modality
C+RTAINTY +piste%ic Modality /ropositional Modality 7episte%ic8
DU,ITATI-+ +piste%ic Modality /ropositional Modality 7episte%ic8
.RU*TRATI-+ & &
/UR/O*I-+ s#"ordinate %ood +ent Modality 7s#"K#nctie8
D+*ID+RATI-+ A!ent&oriented Modality +ent Modality 7deonticG episte%ic8
COMMAND types *pea'er&oriented Modality +ent Modality 7deontic8

5.; R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* 5.; R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* 5.; R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* 5.; R+ALI*G IRR+ALI*
5.;.1 5.;.1 5.;.1 5.;.1 De$initions De$initions De$initions De$initions
R+ALI* and IRR+ALI* are perhaps the %ost controersial ter%s (ithin Modality. ,y"ee et al.
71@@A) ;3C8 een propose that they %ay not "e alid cross&lin!#istically) as they ary too
%#ch "et(een lan!#a!es. LiNn 71@@A) 3;;8 ar!#es a!ainst this and states that co%ple6ity
does not necessarily point to a"sence o$ a co%%on core %eanin!. On the contrary) a closer
st#dy o$ IRR+ALI* reeals a 3considera"le %eas#re o$ coherence and co%%onality9 7i"id.8. I
$ollo( LiNn in this) tho#!h 'eepin! an eye on the ariation.
/reio#sly) the typolo!ical cate!ories R+ALI* and IRR+ALI* (ere ta'en to "e a distinction
"et(een the real and #nreal) #nsatis$actorily so) as they depict (hat a spea'er perceies
andGor proposes to "e real or #nreal) rather than "ein! a"sol#te state%ents a"o#t the (orld
7/al%er ;<<1) ;8. /al%er s#"s#%es "oth the indicatie&s#"K#nctie and realis&irrealis
distinctions #nder the s#percate!ory Realis&Irrealis as a s#"cate!ory o$ Modality. In 1@C=)
he de$ined the s#"cate!ories realis and irrealis in ter%s o$ the se%antic notion o$ $act#ality)
13A 5.; realisG irrealis

"#t later reised this to the speech&act notion o$ assertion and non&assertion) "eca#se
$act#ality) in his opinion) cannot acco#nt $or all #sa!es 7;<<18. Nordstr:% 7;<1<) A=8
ca#tions a!ainst a R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* speech&act de$inition on the !ro#nds that it is
concept#ally too "road to "e alid any%ore. Instead) she proposes that R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* are
%e%"ers o$ /ropositional Modality 7and not speech&act or +ent Modality8. They also are to
"e 'ept apart $ro% declaratieG s#"K#nctie) (hich also "elon! to /ropositional Modality)
"#t are not to "e con$#sed (ith R+ALI*G IRR+ALI*. Nordstr:% 7i"id.8 does concede that R+ALI*G
IRR+ALI* and declaratieG s#"K#nctie to!ether %a'e #p a 7/ropositional Modality8 cate!ory
o$ RealisG Irrealis. Narro! 7;<<5) 1CA8) in an atte%pt to cleanse the disc#ssion o$ #n$ort#nate
ter%inolo!y) s#"s#%es R+ALI* and IRR+ALI* #nder the ter% 3$act#al9 (hich he dee%s to "e
the "est de$inition o$ Modality as a alid cate!ory. LiNn 71@@A) ;=@8 clai%s that "esides the
co!nitie $#nction 7s#"Kectie certainty8) R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* also contri"#te to(ards
co%%#nication $#nctions) i.e. pra!%atics) and that any theory a"o#t R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* has to
ta'e this into acco#nt. LiNn also clai%s that instead o$ characteriDin! a "inary opposition)
R+ALI*GIRR+ALI* (or' alon! a contin##% 7c$. also -an LiKn E Lipper ;<<@8. Mhat has "een said
so $ar sho(s that the dile%%a in de$inin! R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* is ho( to speci$y the% in eno#!h
detail to de%arcate the% $ro% other cate!ories) "#t also to "e "road eno#!h to "e
#niersally alid 7c$. De Faan ;<1; $or a detailed history o$ the notion o$ irrealis8. *t#dies on
R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* hae "een carried o#t $or indiid#al lan!#a!es in %any parts o$ the (orld)
"#t neer in a co%prehensie (ay $or *AILs.
5
It is there$ore atte%pted here to (or' (ith a
de$inition that ena"les a co%parison (ith other st#dies. The de$inition (ill "e o#tlined in
the $ollo(in! section.
In this thesis) the $oc#s is on se%antic cate!ories. The %ain se%antic $#nction o$
R+ALI*GIRR+ALI* %ar'in! is to denote a proposition the spea'er dee%s R$act#al. I also accept
the possi"ility o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* to interact (ith and indeed ta'e oer speech&act $#nctions2
I $ollo( +lliott 7;<<<) =B8 (ho !ies the $ollo(in! se%antic de$inition2 3/rototypically realis
is #sed in cla#ses (here there is perceied certainty o$ the $act#al reality o$ an eent1s
ta'in! place) (hile irrealis is #sed to identi$y that an eent is perceied to e6ist only in an
i%a!ined or non&real (orld9. This) pl#s the $ollo(in! points characteriDe R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* in
this st#dy2

1. A R+ALI* or IRR+ALI* %ar'er %#st e6press the attit#de o$ the spea'er to(ards 7non&8
$act#ality. Lan!#a!es %ay ary (here they p#t the c#t&o$$ point "et(een $act#al
and non&$act#al 7i.e. (hat is R+ALI* in one lan!#a!e %ay "e IRR+ALI* in another8.
;. A R+ALI* or IRR+ALI* %ar'er %#st not %ar' a certain syntactic constr#ction. A
s#"ordinator is not a R+ALI*GIRR+ALI* %ar'er) "#t it %#st "e ta'en into acco#nt that
there %ay (ell "e c#%#latie %orphe%es.
=


5
*ee +lliott 7;<<<8 $or A#stralian) A#stronesian) and /ap#an) and Mith#n 7;<<18 and Cha$e 71@@58 $or
North A%erican lan!#a!es.
=
*ee Nordstr:% 7;<1<) ;58 $or this pro"le%.
5. Modality 135

O"li!atoriness o$ the cate!ory is not necessary. The ideal R+ALI* or IRR+ALI* distinction in a
lan!#a!e is %ar'ed o"li!atorily)
B
"eca#se it is then %ore easily detected. Fo(eer) "eca#se
the so#rces rarely disc#ss o"li!atoriness this cannot "e ta'en into acco#nt (ith the present
data 7e6cept (here speci$ied in indiid#al cases8.
Lan!#a!es (ith a R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* distinction o$ten %ar' only one o$ these oertly) the
other "ein! the de$a#lt #n%ar'ed one. A note(orthy e6ception is Nanti 7Ara(a'an8) (hich
o"li!atorily codes $or reality stat#s. R+ALI* is %ar'ed "y s#$$i6ation and IRR+ALI* "y
circ#%$i6ation> "oth cate!ories hae t(o di$$erent $or%s (hose selection is "ased on the
class o$ the er" they attach to 7Michael ;<<C) ;5<) ;5A82 3realis %ar'in! is associated (ith
positie polarity indicatie o$ non&$#t#re te%poral re$erence 4S5> (hile irrealis %ar'in! is
associated (ith $#t#re te%poral re$erence 4S5) (ith ne!atie polarity 4S5) and (ith
co#nter$act#al %odality9.

5.;.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.;.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.;.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.;.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
Only three lan!#a!es in the sa%ple %ar' R+ALI* %orpho&syntactically) "#t ;C %ar' IRR+ALI*.
All three lan!#a!es that %ar' R+ALI* also %ar' IRR+ALI*.The $or% o$ %ar'in! ran!es $ro%
s#$$i6ation oer cliticiDation to particles> there are t(o pre$i6es $or IRR+ALI* 7in /anare and
Paritiana8.
The !reat i%"alance o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* 732=3 -*. ;C2=38 co#ld "e e6plained "y ass#%in!
that R+ALI* #s#ally is the de$a#lt cate!ory) (hich does not receie oert %ar'in!. In
Map#che and MosetTn R+ALI* is indeed identi$ied as the a"sence o$ IRR+ALI* %ar'ers 7*%eets
;<<C) ;35> *a'el ;<<A) 3A;8. The $ollo(in! disc#ssion $irst concentrates on the three
lan!#a!es %ar'in! R+ALI*) then on IRR+ALI*) ta'in! their ario#s associated $#nctions into
acco#nt.

Ta"le 5.;2 Distri"#tion o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in! in the *AILs
R+ALI* MichU) Teh#elche) Mari1
IRR+ALI* /anare) MichU) Teh#elche) Mari1) F#alla!a V#ech#a) Ti%"ira) Urarina) Paritiana)
/aresi) ,ororo) ,a#re) Hara(ara) A(a /it) Ap#rinW) Map#che) +%Trillon) I%"a"#ra
V#ech#a) C#"eo) Ma%aindO) Marao) P(aDa) Pa%ai#rX) MosetTn) Tsa$i'i) Y#ra'arT)
Me'ens) TiriyN) C#Dco V#ech#a

kA5 anJ kkA5 markinq
The three lan!#a!es %ar'in! "oth R+ALI* and IRR+ALI* Mari1) Teh#elche) MichU) are disc#ssed
in the $ollo(in!. These lan!#a!es also are the only ones %ar'in! R+ALI* and Mari1 and
Teh#elche incidentally also do not %ar' any other Modality 7MichU additionally %ar's
IM/+RATI-+) /ROFI,ITI-+) and FORTATI-+> see section 5.38.
The R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* syste% in Teh#elche is independent o$ Tense %ar'in!) (hich is only
partially the case $or Mari1 and not at all in MichU. ,oth the Teh#elche R+ALI* s#$$i6 &k and

B
*ee e.!. +lliott 7;<<<8 (ho only incl#des o"li!atory R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in!.
13= 5.; realisG irrealis

the IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &m are co%pati"le (ith Tense %ar'in!) "#t do not the%seles e6press
Tense 7.ernXndeD Laray 1@@C) ;BA8. In contrast) MichU has a R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* distinction that
occ#rs only in the .UTUR+. The t(o c#%#latie %orphe%es ni|a and nina

e6press R+ALI*
.UTUR+ and IRR+ALI* .UTUR+) respectiely. The clitic ni|a is #sed $or actions (hich pres#%a"ly
(ill "e realiDed) (hereas (ith nina the pro"a"ility is I#ite lo(. The $ollo(in! e6a%ples
di$$er only in their #sa!e o$ the clitics> in 75.1a8) the spea'er trans%its !reat certainty that
he is !oin! to "#y clothes) (hereas in 75.1"8) he is less certain. The latter can "e interpreted
as a pro%ise or an anno#nce%ent) "#t (ith a lo( pro"a"ility 7TerraDa ;<<@) 1=A) 1=58. The
di$$erence "et(een the t(o clitics can also "e ie(ed as one (here the spea'er insists on
the pro"a"ility o$ an action he (ill carry o#t 7nina8 s. $oc#sin! on the $act that the action
(ill occ#r 7ni|a8 7TerraDa ;<<@) 1=58. It is there$ore de"ata"le (hether the latter $or% really
carries Modal al#e) or i$ the di$$erence "et(een nina and ni|a is rather one "et(een a Modal
.UTUR+ and a .UTUR+ (itho#t Modal al#e.

75.18 MichU 7Matacoan> TerraDa ;<<@) 1=58
7a8 n-k
y
cx-u-ni|a ni|a ni|a ni|a tc-wcy-is n-k
y
i|a
1&"#y&A//L&.UT.R+A /O**.IND&clothes&/L 1/O**&older."rother
0I (ill "#y clothes $or %y older "rother.1 7ori!. 0-oy a co%prar ropa para %i
her%ano %ayor.18
7"8 n-k
y
cx-u-nma nma nma nma tc-wcy-is n-k
y
i|a
1&"#y&A//L& .UT.IRR /O**.IND&clothes&/L 1/O**&older."rother
0I (ill "#y clothes $or %y older "rother.1 7ori!. 0-oy a co%prar ropa para %i
her%ano %ayor.18

In Teh#elche) the choice o$ R+ALI* or IRR+ALI* depends on (hat the spea'er dee%s $act#al or
non&$act#al. The IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &m #sed in interro!atie and s#"ordinate cla#ses) to e6press
possi"ility and do#"t) and (hen the spea'er is not a"sol#tely certain a"o#t the proposition.
The R+ALI* s#$$i6 &k is #sed $or $acts 'no(n "y the spea'er) or (hen he is a"sol#tely s#re.
The choice o$ the Teh#elche R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* is in part "ased on the 'no(led!e o$ the spea'er.
Mhen the spea'er is certain or has 'no(led!e a"o#t (hat he is !oin! to #tter in the
proposition) he #ses the R+ALI* s#$$i6) "#t (hen he is #ncertain he #ses IRR+ALI*.
Mari1 %ar's a $act#ality contin##% ran!in! $ro% R+ALI* on the one side to IRR+ALI* on the
other. R+ALI* occ#rs in c#%#latie %orphe%es (ith Tense) either /A*TG /R+*+NT or .UTUR+
7and n#%"er and person8) "#t IRR+ALI* does not. Accordin! to (hich de!ree the spea'er
dee%s the eentG action $act#al or not) he chooses $ro% the R+ALI* or IRR+ALI* side. In the
%iddle o$ the contin##% there is a R+ALI* .UTUR+ %ar'er) (hich is interestin! as .UTUR+ is a
%eanin! in other lan!#a!es #s#ally associated (ith IRR+ALI*. In Mari1) .UTUR+ R+ALI* can %ean

C
These particles can occ#r discontin#o#sly) i.e. additional er"al %orpholo!y can occ#r "et(een the
ele%ent ni& and either &|a or &na. Neertheless) TerraDa considers the% to "e sin!le %orphe%es each
7TerraDa ;<<@) 1=58.
5. Modality 13B

that the spea'er is certain or #ncertain) accordin! to conte6t 7+erett E Pern 1@@B) 3138.
The R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'ers are the only Modality %ar'ers in Mari1 as coded "y the
I#estionnaire and all other Modalities in Mari1 are %ar'ed either non&%orpho&syntactically
or e6pressed "y a co%"ination o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in! (ith other %eans) s#ch as
intonation or conte6t. The Mari1 indicatie can "e e6pressed "y the #se o$ R+ALI* /A*TG
/R+*+NT $or%s) and INT+NTIONAL can "e e6pressed "y the R+ALI* .UTUR+ 7+erett E Pern 1@@B)
31B$.8. The er"aliDed desideratie cla#se can only ta'e IRR+ALI* %ar'ers 7i"id. =58. IRR+ALI*
%ar'in! can "e #sed to si!nal conditional cla#ses) een tho#!h an alternatie %ar'in! (ith
mc 0conditional1 e6ists 7i"id. 1<18. The particle mc and R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in! can co&occ#r.

75.;8 Mari1 7Chapa'#ran> +erett E Pern 1@@B) 31B) @@) 1<18
7a8 cac nana nana nana nana-in mijac crc wari
eat 3/L.R+A./*TG/R*&3N pi! COL person
0The people ate the pi!.1
7"8 mc mc mc mc xi xi xi xi cac ca. Vaam xir
COND IN.L2IRR eat 3*L.M $#ll 3*L2IRR
0I$ he (o#ld eat) he (o#ld "e $#ll.1
7c8 mc xira xira xira xira xi xi xi xi taxi ca
to2*L 3*L2IRR IN.L2IRR 'no( 3*L.M
0Fe (o#ld hae !one i$ he had 'no(n.1

The inesti!ation o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* a"oe also sho(s that these cate!ories are hi!hly related
to +piste%ic Modality and Tense and o$ten I#ite di$$ic#lt to distin!#ish $ro% C+RTAINTYG
DU,ITATI-+G .UTUR+ %ar'ers. It see%s that in so%e cases the ter%inolo!y depends on the
pre$erence o$ the a#thor and it is o"sered that so%eti%es these ter%s are #sed al%ost
synony%o#sly. The present st#dy atte%pts to %a'e a distinction "et(een the%) "#t it
sho#ld "e "orne in %ind that this is not al(ays possi"le d#e to li%itations o$ data.

kkA5 markinq
The $ollo(in! section $oc#ses on the di$$erent $#nctions o$ IRR+ALI* %ar'in! in the sa%ple.
Lan!#a!es ary accordin! to ho( %any $#nctions IRR+ALI* %ar'ers can hae. IRR+ALI* can "e
I#ite restricted) as e.!. in Ap#rinW) (here the IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 & only %ar's a hypothetical
proposition 7.ac#ndes ;<<<) 3;58. Another e6a%ple is the IRR+ALI* particle na in A(a /it
7(hich C#rno( 1@@B !losses as 0co#nter$act#al irrealis18) (hich is restricted to the apodosis
o$ a past co#nter$act#al state%ent 7i"id. ;BB8. IRR+ALI* can also occ#r in syntactically less
restricted positions) as e.!. in Hara(ara) (here the IRR+ALI* occ#rs in conditional) "#t also in
non&conditional cla#ses 7Di6on ;<<A) ;1582




13C 5.; realisG irrealis

75.38 Hara(ara 7Ara(an> Di6on ;<<A) ;1=) ;158
7a8 jcuctc uija kinc-nimana nimana nimana nimana-na,
na%e.M "attery.. hae&FY/.M&D+/
uija taa nc-na na na na ama-ka
"attery.. !ie AUY&IRR.M +YT+NT&D+CL.M
0I$ Ho"eto had "atteries) he (o#ld !ie "atteries 7to #s8.1
7"8 kc-tcnc-nc nc nc nc ama-kc jana jaa
A//L&"e.l#"ricated&IRR.. +YT+NT&D+CL.. oil /+RI
0It 7so%e piece o$ %achinery8 needs to "e l#"ricated (ith oil.1

Many IRR+ALI* %ar'ers in the sa%ple hae) in one (ay or another) .UTUR+ connotations. This
can %ani$est itsel$ in c#%#latie 7c$. MichU a"oe8 or a%"i!#o#s %orphe%es) or IRR+ALI*
$or%s e6pressin! .UTUR+ in lan!#a!es (ith no separate .UTUR+ %ar'in!. This does not
e6cl#de the possi"ility that an IRR+ALI* %ar'er can also "e #sed (ith past ti%e re$erence.
Mhereas eents in the $#t#re are nat#rally not $act#al 7yet8) eents in the past that did not
co%e tr#e are also not $act#al 7and (ill neer "e8. Fo(eer) it is %#ch %ore co%%on $or an
IRR+ALI* %ar'er to "e #sed $or .UTUR+ than /A*T. The $ollo(in! para!raphs ta'e a closer loo'
at the distri"#tion o$ IRR+ALI* %ar'in! and TenseG ti%e re$erence as (ell as other Modalities
in the sa%ple.
Ti%"ira has a particle na) (hich %ar's .UTUR+) "#t also IRR+ALI* 7Ales ;<<A) =B8. Ales
7;<<A8 clai%s that this %ar'er has Modal al#e "esides %ar'in! .UTUR+ Tense) as can "e seen
in 75.A"8 (here na occ#rs in a conditional cla#se. It is #nclear (hether na is a%"i!#o#s
"et(een .UTUR+ and IRR+ALI*) or a c#%#latie %orphe%e.

75.A8 Ti%"ira 7Macro&LOan> Ales ;<<A) =B8
7a8 wa na na na na tr
1 .UT iaKar
0I a% !oin! to trael.1 7ori!. 0+# o# iaKar.18
7"8 kc na na na na ku-ts n m kc na na na na ram rop kura
3 IRR 3&%order *U, D*,H 3 IRR A*/C cachorro %atar
0Fe (o#ld hae 'illed it) i$ the do! (o#ld hae "itten hi%.1 7ori!. 0+le o %ataria se o
cachorro o %ordesse.18

In 75.5 8 $ro% Hara(ara) a state%ent a"o#t a /A*T eent that did not co%e tr#e is
%ar'ed (ith IRR+ALI*> in MosetTn) the IRR+ALI* %ar'er can hae past ti%e re$erence "#t
can also apply to a .UTUR+ eent 75.=8> the ,ororo IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &mJi can re$er to any ti%e
re$erence 75.B8
@
> and in Paritiana) the IRR+ALI* pre$i6 i& can occ#r "oth in cla#ses (ith .UTUR+
and NON.UTUR+ %ar'in! 75.C82


@
This s#$$i6 is not %entioned in Nonato 7;<<C8.
5. Modality 13@

75.58 Hara(ara 7Ara(an> Di6on ;<<A) ;158
mcc ka-sc-ncnc ncnc ncnc ncnc-kc jjama.kauani jaa]
3N&*L.*,H A//L&$all&IRR..&D+C.. $orest7.8 /+RI
0They 7in an aeroplane8 co#ld hae crashed into the $orest) "#t did not.1

75.=8 MosetTn 7Mosetenan> *a'el ;<<A) 3A;) 3A38
7a8 yac-ra ra ra ra ucjw-i
1*L&IRR !o.#p&-M.M.*,H
0I (ill !o #p.1
7"8 macnja-knan nasn-tsa aj mi-cnnc-in karij-tya-ki-wi-ra ra ra ra-in
yesterday&IN .OC&.RU*T yet 3M&*U&/L hard&-M&AN/.M.*,H&M&IRR&/L
0The other day they sho#ld already hae (or'ed 7"#t they did not8.1

75.B8 ,ororo 7Macro&LOan> Cro(ell 1@B@) @;8
imcJi maraqcJi-mJ mJ mJ mJi ii i
%an73*L8 (or'&IRR
0The %an pro"a"ly (or'ed.1 or 0The %an pro"a"ly is (or'in!.1 or 0The %an pro"a"ly
(ill (or'.1

75.C8 Paritiana 7T#pUan> +erett ;<<=) 3;@) ;558
7a8 i ii i-atc/-i ii i t n ut pn
IRR&ta'e&.UT 1*L arro(&O,V
0I (ill not ta'e the arro(.1
7"8 t n i ii i- -- -cp:-t (t n)
1*L IRR&c#t&N.UT 1*L
0I did not c#t it.1 or 0I did not c#t.1

It co#ld "e ar!#ed that in lan!#a!es that do not hae .UTUR+) "#t do hae IRR+ALI* %ar'in!)
the latter is rather a Tense %ar'er. Apart $ro% the $act that an IRR+ALI* can coer) "#t is not
necessarily restricted to .UTUR+ re$erence) this also not s#pported "y the $act that there are
lan!#a!es (ith "oth cate!ories %ar'ed. In Paritiana) the .UTUR+ s#$$i6 and IRR+ALI* pre$i6
can een co&occ#r 7tho#!h ar!#a"ly the IRR+ALI* contri"#tes to the ne!atie %eanin! rather
than .UTUR+8 75.Ca8. It is o$ co#rse also possi"le that a .UTUR+ %ar'er can e6press IRR+ALI* in
lan!#a!es (ith no separate IRR+ALI* %ar'in!) as in e.!. Ap#rinW 7.ac#ndes ;<<<) 5158.
As (as already de%onstrated $or Teh#elche) MichU) and Mari1) the choice o$ 7non&8
$act#ality %ar'in! can depend on the certainty o$ the spea'er o$ the proposition. In ,ororo)
the IRR+ALI* %ar'er itsel$ already indicates #ncertainty) "#t it can also "e co%"ined (ith the
DU,ITATI-+ %ar'er to e6press an een !reater #ncertainty 7Cro(ell 1@B@) @382



1A< 5.; realisG irrealis

75.@8 ,ororo 7Macro&LOan> Cro(ell 1@B@) @38
c-maqc-ru-mJc mJc mJc mJc
3/L&spea'&DU,&IRR
0They %ay perhaps spea' to hi%.1

Another $reI#ent pheno%enon in the sa%ple is the a"ility $or IRR+ALI* %ar'ers to
coerGinteract (ith *pea'er&oriented Modality. .or e6a%ple) the Mari1 IRR+ALI* clitic can "e
#sed $or politeG%ild co%%ands. Mari1 does not hae any %orpho&syntactic %ar'in! $or
IM/+RATI-+) so the IRR+ALI* clitic can "e #sed instead $or polite IM/+RATI-+ instead. In ,a#re)
the IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &sa also re$ers to polite reI#estsG co%%ands) or s#!!estions 7Danielsen
;<<B) 3AB8.

75.1<8 Mari1 7Chapa'#ran> +erett E Pern 1@@B) 358
0um c xima xima xima xima-cccn waram wia-xi
da(n>d#s' lead ;*L2IRR&3/L.M COL !randchild&1/L.INCL
0Yo# sho#ld ta'e o#r !randsons early in the %ornin!.1

75.118 ,a#re 7Ara(a'an> Danielsen ;<<B) 3AB8
pi-cpitia-sa sa sa sa-ni
;*LZdo.$ao#r&IRRZ1*L
0/lease[ 7lit. do %e a $ao#r[81

In Paritiana) ,a#re) and TiriyN the respectie IRR+ALI* %ar'ers can co&occ#r (ith IM/+RATI-+
%ar'in!. The Paritiana IRR+ALI* pre$i6 i& is o"li!atory in $or%in! an IM/+RATI-+ $ro% a
transitie er") co&occ#rrin! (ith the IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &a 7+erett ;<<=) 3;=8. The TiriyN
IRR+ALI* particle mc) (hen co%"ined (ith IM/+RATI-+ %ar'in!) e6presses a co%%and that has
to "e carried o#t later in contrast to ri!ht no( 7Meira 1@@@) A5A8.
1<


75.1;8 Paritiana 7T#pUan> +erett ;<<=) 3B@8
(n) i ii i-ck-a
;*L IRR&c#t&IM/
0C#t it[1

75.138 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) A558
w_pa_mc mc mc mc apn-kc
later\R+/\IRR !et&IM/
0Let it later 7not no(8.1

1<
In ,a#re) the co&occ#rrence o$ IRR+ALI* and IM/+RATI-+ %ar'in! does not isi"ly chan!e the co%%and
%eanin!
5. Modality 1A1

T(o lan!#a!es in the sa%ple sho( pec#liarities not $o#nd else(here2 MosetTn and
+%Trillon. MosetTn has a "asic R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* distinction) "#t only the IRR+ALI* is %ar'ed) "y
the s#$$i6 &ra. It occ#rs (ith .UTUR+ re$erence) in rhetorical I#estions) and ne!atie cla#ses)
"#t also %ar's a less&typical $eat#re not #s#ally associated (ith non&$act#ality2 chan!e in
ie(point 7*a'el ;<<A) 3A;$$.8.
The IRR+ALI* particle itc - itc in +%Trillon is %ostly #sed in s#"ordinate cla#ses) "#t
(hen it occ#rs in independent cla#ses it has a %eanin! other(ise associated (ith
.RU*TRATI-+ 7Rose ;<<3) A3C82

75.1A8 +%Trillon 7T#pUan) L#aranU> Rose ;<<3) A3C8
c-pckaq-a-it it it it c cc c, wai c-kca|-a-cw
3&sho#t&a&IRR N+L 3&$ind&a&J
0Fe sho#ts in ain) he does not $ind her.1 7ori!. 0Il a "ea# crier il ne la tro#e pas.18

A re%ar' on ne!ation is called $or here. The present st#dy $oc#ses on positie cla#ses) "#t it
sho#ld "e noted that %any o$ the IRR+ALI* %ar'ers occ#r in ne!ated cla#ses 7"#t are not
the%seles ne!ators8.
The $#nction o$ IRR+ALI* as conditionalG co#nter$act#al %ar'er %ay lead to an een
!reater n#%"er o$ IRR+ALI* %ar'ers in the sa%ple than presently identi$ied> they are hidden
in !ra%%ars as contrary&to&$act %ar'ers. On the other hand) i$ one (ere to e6cl#de
conditional %ar'ers $ro% the IRR+ALI* de$inition) the n#%"er o$ IRR+ALI* %ar'ers in the
sa%ple (o#ld decrease !reatly.
The preio#s para!raphs hae atte%pted to !ie an oerie( o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in!
in the sa%ple. There are IRR+ALI* %ar'ers interactin! (ith Tense) +piste%ic Modality) and
*pea'er&oriented Modality. This is eidence in $ao#r o$ /al%er1s 7;<<18 de$inition>
Nordstr:%1s 7;<1<8 de$inition is too narro( to acco#nt $or all these $#nctions. It is not the
p#rpose o$ this st#dy to $inally ans(er the I#estion (hether there is a #niersal R+ALI*G
IRR+ALI* cate!ory) "#t it is hoped that the present data contri"#tes to the disc#ssion. There
certainly is no #ni$ied pict#re o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in! in the *AILs sa%ple accordin! to
the de$initions a"oe.

5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 C+RTAINTYG DU,ITATI- C+RTAINTYG DU,ITATI- C+RTAINTYG DU,ITATI- C+RTAINTYG DU,ITATI-+ + + + 7+/I*T+MIC MODALITY8 7+/I*T+MIC MODALITY8 7+/I*T+MIC MODALITY8 7+/I*T+MIC MODALITY8
5.3.1 5.3.1 5.3.1 5.3.1 De$initions De$initions De$initions De$initions
*pea'ers can choose to state in a proposition (hether or not they thin' so%ethin! is li'ely)
or (hether they "eliee that an eent %ay co%e tr#e or not. This al#e is called +piste%ic
Modality and re$lects the opinion o$ the spea'er2 3+piste%ic Modality applies to assertions
and indicates the e6tent to (hich the spea'er is co%%itted to the tr#th o$ the proposition9
7,y"ee et al. 1@@A) 1B@8. +piste%ic Modality %ar'ers e6ist in a contin##% "et(een certainty
and do#"t. The spea'er #ses a %ar'er $or certainty (hen he is s#re o$ the tr#th o$ the
proposition) and do#"t (hen he is not s#re. The de!ree o$ "ein! 7not8 s#re can ary $ro%
ery certain oer less certain to not really certain and co%pletely #ncertain. .or e6a%ple)
1A; 5.3 certaintyG d#"itatie 7+piste%ic Modality8

MosetTn has a I#ite co%ple6 syste% o$ e6pressin! certainty) #ncertainty) and shades in
"et(een. T(o e6a%ples $or hi!h certainty and %oderate or lo( certainty are2

75.158 MosetTn 7Mosetenan> *a'el ;<<A) 3AB) 3538
7a8 cnnata cnnata cnnata cnnata yac rais-c- jacm-ac-tyc-
C+RT 1*L (ant&-M&3..O,H !ood&-M&A//L&3..O,H
0I tr#ly (ant to %a'e it.1
7"8 watyckc watyckc watyckc watyckc jac-tya-k-wa-jc-i
DU, s%o'e&-M&AN/&/ROL&/RI&M.*,H
0May"e he is s%o'in! 7$ish8.1

Not incl#ded here are %ar'ers that occ#r e6cl#siely in interro!atie cla#ses) "eca#se o$
the pro"a"ility that they are act#ally interro!atie %ar'ers. .or e6a%ple) D]( has a
particle 7c la"elled 0DU,ITATI-+1 that is restricted to interro!atie cla#ses2

75.1=8 D]( 7Nadah#p> Martins ;<<A) AC38
nm 7 7a 7 77 7c cc c
(ho "e DU,
0Mho (o#ldG co#ld that "eJ1 7ori!. 0V#e% sera esseJ18

C+RTAINTY in this thesis re$ers to the co%%it%ent to the tr#th o$ the proposition "y the
spea'er> DU,ITATI-+ re$ers to a %ar'er that incl#des any 'ind o$ do#"t. A DU,ITATI-+ can
there$ore "e a %ar'er that %ar's an eent (ith a hi!h de!ree o$ certainty) "#t that still has
so%e ele%ents o$ do#"t in it. It is typically translated into +n!lish (ith 0%ay7"e81) 0I !#ess1) 0I
thin'1) 0it see%s1) etc. DU,ITATI-+ there$ore allo(s $or a ariety o$ %ar'ers alon! the
certainty&contin##%) (hereas C+RTAINTY is ery restricted. This is easy to e6plain> there is a
nat#ral state o$ co%plete certainty 7(hich does not allo( $or inner s#"diisions) either one
is certain or not8) "#t not o$ co%plete #ncertainty. The contin##% can th#s "e re!arded as
open&ended on the #ncertainty side.
C+RTAINTY and DU,ITATI-+ al#es are related to direct and indirect +identiality
respectiely) as an eent the spea'er did not (itness can "e interpreted as "ein! do#"t$#l)
and an eent that (as directly (itnessed as certain. Mar'ers %ay not al(ays "e clear
(hether they are +identials (ith secondary +piste%ic %eanin!) or tr#e +piste%ic Modals.
There is a !reat potential $or +piste%ic Modality and +identiality to oerlap) e.!. 3an
indirect eidential) (hich indicates that the spea'er has only indirect 'no(led!e
concernin! the proposition "ein! asserted) i%plies that the spea'er is not totally
co%%itted to the tr#th o$ that proposition and th#s i%plies an episte%ic al#e9 7,y"ee et
al. 1@@A) 1C<8. One sho#ld "ear in %ind that a %ar'er that pri%arily si!nals certainty or
#ncertainty een i$ "ased on so%e sort o$ eidence is still coded as Modality %ar'er here)
(hereas a %ar'er that si!nals so#rce o$ in$or%ation pri%arily is an +idential %ar'er)
5. Modality 1A3

re!ardless o$ (hicheer concl#sions re$errin! to C+RTAINTY stat#s can "e dra(n 7$or %ore
a"o#t +identiality see chapter =8.

5.3.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.3.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.3.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.3.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
In the present sa%ple o$ =3 lan!#a!es 35 %ar' +piste%ic Modality) ;< o$ (hich %ar'
C+RTAINTY and ;@ %ar' DU,ITATI-+. Their distri"#tion is presented in ta"le 5.3. This section
ta'es a closer loo' at +piste%ic Modality syste%s and de!rees o$ co%ple6ity) +piste%ic
Modality and its relationship to Tense) and ori!ins o$ indiid#al +piste%ic $or%s>
!eo!raphicalG !enealo!ical distri"#tions are disc#ssed in section 5.1<.;.

Ta"el 5.32 Distri"#tion o$ +piste%ic Modality %ar'in! in the *AILs
Mar'in! N#%"er Lan!#a!es in the sa%ple
C+RTAINTY only = ,a#re) Ap#rinW) Ay%ara) Ri'"a'tsa) D]() Ma%aindO
DU,ITATI-+ only 15 /aresi) Tariana) Pain!an!) ,ororo) F#p) Matses) I%"a"#ra V#ech#a)
Caine^a) Desano) C#"eo) *aterT&Ma(T) Paro) +%Trillon) Pa%ai#rX) Urarina
,oth 1A Map#che) Yanesha1) Tsa$i'i) Fi6'aryana) TiriyN) MosetTn) Ya%inah#a) C#Dco
V#ech#a) Me'ens) Coca%a&Coca%illa) Nheen!at_) /#inae) Moi%a)
Y#ra'arT
None ;C Hara(ara) A(a /it) Mira^a) /anare) Mari1) I'a) Chi%ila) +%"era) Teh#elche)
MocoU) /ila!X) A!#ar#na) Ti%"ira) MichU) *a"anO) Nasa Y#(e) *hipi"o&
Poni"o) F#alla!a V#ech#a) Paritiana) Tapiete) Itona%a) PanoO) Tr#%ai)
M#nichi) Le'o) Marao) P(aDa) Yana%

pistcmic VcJa|ity systcms
Lan!#a!es ary accordin! to (hether they hae %ore than one %orphe%e $or the sa%e
+piste%ic Modality. *i%ple syste%s hae one %ar'er only) as e.!. in ,a#re or Tariana)
(hereas there can "e t(o or %ore %ar'ers (ithin the sa%e lan!#a!e $or ro#!hly the sa%e
%eanin! 7e.!. TiriyN8. Most o$ the lan!#a!es sho( a one&to&one correspondence o$
%orphe%e and %eanin!) "#t in e.!. C#"eo and Fi6'aryana +piste%ic Modality is %ar'ed in
c#%#latie %orphe%es (ith Tense.
*i%ple syste%s are $o#nd (here one lan!#a!e %ar's either C+RTAINTY or DU,ITATI-+ (ith
a sin!le %ar'er) "#t %ore interestin! than sin!le&%ar'er lan!#a!es are those that hae
%ore than one %ar'er) "eca#se o$ their internal se%antic distri"#tion. Mhat pro%pts the
e6istence o$ seeral %ar'ers $or the sa%e %eanin!J Certainty and do#"t e6ist in a
contin##% (ith %any shades "et(een the% and it is to "e e6pected that in lan!#a!es (ith
a ran!e o$ +piste%ic %ar'ers these coer di$$erent areas. Lien the $act that certainty and
do#"t are se%antic $ields that relate to Tense and +identiality one %ay ass#%e that these
$actors also play a role in the distri"#tion. This section inesti!ates co%ple6 7i.e. %ore than
one %ar'er per cate!ory8 +piste%ic Modality syste%s and their entan!le%ents (ith other
cate!ories.
The lan!#a!e (ith the %ost co%ple6 +piste%ic Modality syste% in the sa%ple is
MosetTn. MosetTn has a (hole ran!e o$ +piste%ic Modality %ar'ers2 Three %ar'ers e6press
C+RTAINTY) and $o#r %ar'ers e6press DU,ITATI-+. Their internal distri"#tion is not so clear)
1AA 5.3 certaintyG d#"itatie 7+piste%ic Modality8

ho(eer. The di$$erence "et(een the t(o hi!h C+RTAINTY %ar'ers particle cnnata1 and the
particle ikaG cka is at $irst not o"io#s. ,oth e6press a hi!h de!ree o$ certainty to the point
(here the spea'er is s#re a"o#t (hat he says. None o$ the %ar'ers see%s restricted to a
certain Tense or cla#se type 7the particle cnnata o$ten occ#rs in .UTUR+ conte6ts "#t is not
restricted to the%8. The particles ikaG cka can occ#r in rhetorial I#estions) a re%nant o$
their ori!in as the prono%inal $or%s i and c pl#s the rhetorical I#estion %ar'er &ka 7*a'el
;<<A) 3AB8) "#t also in declaratie cla#ses) and) to con$#se %atters) they can also e6press less
than co%plete C+RTAINTY 7i"id. 3AC8. They o$ten occ#r in conte6ts (ith na%es and the
spea'er) not re%e%"erin! the na%e7s8) as's hi%sel$ this rhetorical I#estion2

75.1B8 MosetTn 7Mosetenan> *a'el ;<<A) 3AC8
tyi-ra c cc c- -- -ka ka ka ka mc t--
person&IRR C+RT 3..*L na%e&-M&..*
0Mhat (as her na%eJ1

It is li'ely that this rhetorical constr#ction is the ori!in o$ ikaG cka) (hich hae then
deeloped into UNC+RTAINTY %ar'ers and $inally C+RTAINTY %ar'ers. This special path o$
!ra%%aticaliDation still has to "e e6plored. Apparently) these particles and cnnata do not
co&occ#r. A %ore thoro#!h inesti!ation is necessary to see (hether they are in
co%ple%entary distri"#tion.
The DU,ITATI-+ %ar'ers Ztyi) jacJyak and watyckc all re$er to a %oderate to lo( leel o$
certainty. They do not see% to "e restricted to a certain Tense either. Rather than
occ#pyin! di$$erent slots in the certainty contin##%) they di$$er in indicatin! (hy the
spea'er is #ncertain. Usin! watyckc) the spea'er has no !ro#nds on (hich to "ase his
K#d!e%ent) (hereas (ith jacJyak he %ay hae so%e +idential inp#t) "#t not necessarily.
Usin! the clitic Ztyi) the spea'er states that he has no personal e6perience on (hich to "ase
his K#d!e%ent 7c$. *a'el ;<<A) 35<&3518) (hich is I#ite a stron! $actor $or "ein! #ncertain.
This clitic can een deal#e cnnata> (hen "oth co&occ#r) the %eanin! chan!es to a
possi"ility 7i"id. 3AB8. This clitic also occ#rs in the clitic ZJyatyi, wnicn e6presses
#ncertainty "ased on #nclear eidence 7consists o$ the "o#nd %orphe%e Jya and the
DU,ITATI-+ clitic Ztyi8 7i"id. 3538. Ta"le 5.A "elo( ill#strates the +piste%ic %ar'ers in
MosetTn and ran's the% $ro% hi!h certainty to lo( certainty.
To s#%%ariDe) the +piste%ic Modality %ar'ers in MosetTn coer ro#!hly the sa%e area
o$ %oderate certainty) "#t di$$er in (hat eidence there is) or rather is not) $or the spea'er1s
K#d!e%ent. This is closely related to the real% o$ +identiality) "#t they are not +idential
%ar'ers as s#ch) "eca#se they do not speci$y ho( the in$or%ation (as acI#ired 7c$. chapter
=8.
MosetTn is an e6a%ple o$ a t(o&sided +piste%ic contin##%) in (hich a!ain there is a
distinction %ade accordin! to in$or%ation so#rce. In TiriyN) there see%s to "e a si%ilar
syste%. Occ#pyin! the slot on the side o$ co%plete C+RTAINTY is the s#$$i6 &c) (hile the s#$$i6
&ncG -n and a !ro#p o$ particles occ#py the DU,ITATI-+ area 7tankc(nc), tankar, and tankara8.
5. Modality 1A5

Not %#ch is 'no(n a"o#t possi"le di$$erences in %eanin! (ithin the !ro#p o$ particles>
they all i%ply #ncertainty 7Meira 1@@@) A5@8) "#t the $or%s tankar and tankara "oth code
3that the spea'er is not s#re) "#t that so%ethin! in the sit#ation is leadin! hi%G her to the
concl#sion stated in the sentence9 7i"id. A=18 and there$ore the %ar'ers code a ded#ctie
process. The particle tankc(nc) indicates a stron!er do#"t than the s#$$i6 7i"id. A=<8. They
can co&occ#r) altho#!h it is not clear (hether this increases the a%o#nt o$ do#"t.

75.1C8 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) 31;) 31A8
7a8 n-cn-ta-n nn n kcncpc
3AO&co%e&.UT.I/.-&DU, rain
0The rain (ill co%e.
7"8 w-n-ta-n nn n tankcn tankcn tankcn tankcn
1*
A
&!o&.UT.I/.-&DU, %ay"e
0May"e I (ill !o.1

A lan!#a!e (here t(o %ar'ers clearly occ#py di$$erent slots in the +piste%ic contin##%
(itho#t re$errin! to the so#rce o$ the K#d!e%ent) "#t co&occ#rrin! (ith +idential %ar'ers)
is Desano. It has t(o DU,ITATI-+ s#$$i6es2 &sa and &sia. The latter indicates less do#"t than the
$or%er and occ#rs (ith -I*UAL +idential %ar'in!) (hereas the $or%er occ#rs (ith the
A**UM+D +idential 7Miller 1@@@) C;8.

75.1@8 Desano 7T#canoan> Miller 1@@@) C;8
7a8 wi7i-qc 4r-sa sa sa sa-k k k k- -- -uc
ho#se&LOC "e&DU,&A*M&3..*L
0*he %ay "e in the ho#se> I don1t 'no( $or s#re.1
7"8 wi7i-qc 4r-sia sia sia sia-uc
ho#se&LOC "e&DU,&3..*L
0*he see%s to "e in the ho#se.1

A last e6a%ple $or an +piste%ic Modality syste% (here the %ar'ers relate to +identiality
is D](. It has t(o C+RTAINTY %ar'ers2 the s#$$i6 &n 0eri$ication1 and the particle tm n. The
latter occ#rs in a$$ir%atie cla#ses
11
and al(ays (ith the er" p4n 0'no(1 7Martins ;<<A)
AC38. The s#$$i6 see%s to "e restricted to conte6ts (here the spea'er (ants to e%phasiDe
hisG her certainty o$ the proposition. No e6a%ple (here "oth co&occ#r co#ld "e $o#nd.




11
In contrast to the DU,ITATI-+ particle 7c (hich is restricted to interro!atie cla#ses 7see 5.=.18
7Martins ;<<A) AC38.
1A= 5.A intentional

75.;<8 D]( 7Nadah#p> Martins ;<<A) ABB) AC38
7a8 cr m 7n xm-n n n n
yesterday 1*L !o.do(n&C+RT
0It is the tr#th[ I ca%e do(n the rier yesterday.17ori!. 0` erdade %es%o[ +# i% rio
a"ai6o onte%.18
7"8 7n p4n t tt tm m m m n nn n/ tin wm J
1*L 'no( C+RT 3*L arrie
0I thin' that he arried already.1 7ori!. 0+# acho I#e ele KX che!o#.18

Ta"le 5.A2 +piste%ic Modality %ar'ers in MosetTn ran'ed $ro% hi!h to lo( certainty
7adapted $ro% *a'el ;<<A8
Mar'er .or% .#nction +piste%ic Modality
cnnata /article Fi!h de!ree o$ certainty C+RTAINTY
ika/ cka /articles 7MG.8 Certainty C+RTAINTY
-yai Clitic Co%plete certainty C+RTAINTY
-tyi Clitic Moderate certainty) possi"ility DU,ITATI-+
jacJyak /article Moderate to lo( certainty DU,ITATI-+
watyckc /article Moderate to lo( certainty DU,ITATI-+
ZJyatyi Clitic Uncertainty "ased on #nclear eidence DU,ITATI-+

5.A INT+NTIONAL 5.A INT+NTIONAL 5.A INT+NTIONAL 5.A INT+NTIONAL
5.A.1 De$inition 5.A.1 De$inition 5.A.1 De$inition 5.A.1 De$inition
INT+NTIONAL is part o$ A!ent&oriented Modality and re$ers to the plan or intention to carry
o#t an action. Typically) this inoles $#t#re ti%e re$erence) as a planned action is one not
yet carried o#t) "#t the di$$erence "et(een .UTUR+ and INT+NTIONAL is that there is a (ill
"ehind INT+NTIONAL 7c$. A!ent&oriented Modality as to ,y"ee et al.. 1@@A) ;5=8. It is di$$ic#lt to
distin!#ish "et(een .UTUR+ and INT+NTION. Ideally) a .UTUR+ %ar'er re$ers pri%arily to Tense
7i.e. statin! a $act (itho#t Modal al#es8) and an INT+NTIONAL %ar'er to the intention o$ a
spea'er to carry o#t an action) "#t "eca#se that action is necessarily located at a ti%e
s#"seI#ent to the %o%ent o$ the #tterance) it incl#des .UTUR+ re$erence. INT+NTIONAL
typically occ#rs (ith the $irst person 70I (ant1 constr#ctions8 as (ell as (ith er"s (hose
action is controlla"le) e.!. the er" 0to eat1 is %#ch %ore li'ely to "e %ar'ed (ith
INT+NTIONAL than 0to $aint1. This er" is %#ch less controlla"le and there$ore %#ch less li'ely
to "e planned 7dependin! on the circ#%stances8. This is not the case (ith .UTUR+ %ar'in!)
(hich is per$ectly nat#ral (ith all persons and er"s. It is e6pected that INT+NTION and
.UTUR+ are heaily intert(ined. They %ay "e %ar'ed "y the sa%e %ar'er 7c#%#latie or
a%"i!#o#s %orphe%e8) or one %eanin! is secondary to another. Mhich applies to (hich)
has to "e esta"lished $or each case indiid#ally.

5.A.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.A.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.A.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.A.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
O#t o$ =< lan!#a!es in the sa%ple) 13 %ar' INT+NTIONAL %orpho&syntactically 7,a#re)
Tariana) Hara(ara) I'a) TiriyN) A!#ar#na) Nasa Y#(e) Matses) Ma%aindO) Itona%a) Moi%a)
5. Modality 1AB

Y#ra'arT) and Marao8.
1;
The %ar'ers ta'e the $or%s o$ s#$$i6es) enclitics) particles) and) in
one case) a pre$i6 7Itona%a8. In %ost cases) there is a sin!le INT+NTIONAL %ar'er per
lan!#a!e. ,a#re is the only lan!#a!e e6hi"itin! t(o INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers2 the particle kac
and the s#$$i6 &pa. They can "e co%"ined or occ#r on their o(n (itho#t a chan!e in
%eanin!. The preer"al particle kac deries $ro% the er" kac 0!o1. The s#$$i6 &pa is
ho%ophono#s (ith the particle pa (hich occ#rs in IM/+RATI-+ constr#ctions) and it is li'ely
that they are related. Danielsen 7;<<B) ;@;8 een !losses the particle as 3intentional
i%peratie9. ,a#re does not hae %orpho&syntactic .UTUR+ %ar'in! and "oth kac and &pa
can "e #sed to e6press .UTUR+ ti%e re$erence 7i"id. ;BB8. ,a#re does hae an intricate syste%
o$ %ar'in! IM/+RATI-+ 7see section 5.38) in (hich the particle pa $#nctions as e%phasiDer.

75.;18 ,a#re 7Ara(a'an> Danielsen ;<<B) ;BC) ;@;8
7a8 vcr kac kac kac kac ctc-vi ctc-a-pa-vi
/.- INT $inishZ1/L $inish&LP&INTZ1/L
0Me (ill already $inish) (e (ill $inish.1
7"8 pa pa pa pa nti nik-rc
LO 1*L 1*L.eatZ3*L.M
0I 7e%phatic8 (ill eat it[1

,a#re is not the only lan!#a!e (here the INT+NTIONAL %ar'er %ay $#nction as a co%%and2
the a%"i!#o#s INT+NTIONALG D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &ucnc in Hara(ara can "e #sed $or a %ild
IM/+RATI-+ and the Matses INT+NTIONAL s#$$i6 &nu occ#rs in hortatory conte6ts. INT+NTIONAL &nu
al%ost al(ays si!nals an action that is a"o#t to "e!in) (ith the initial steps already ta'en.
The I'a INT+NTIONAL %ar'er can also si!nal an i%%ediate .UTUR+ 7.ran' 1@@<) =<8) as can the
Tariana INT+NTIONAL clitic Zkasu 7Ai'henald ;<<3) 3C38.

75.;;8 Matses 7/anoan> .lec' ;<<3) A35) A3B8
7a8 pc-nu nu nu nu
eat&INT
0I1% !onna eat no(.1 7already p#ttin! the spoon in the so#p8
7"8 niJ-nu nu nu nu niJ-o
!o&INT !o&IM/
0Let1s !o[1 7lit. 0I1% !oin!> !o[8





1;
The s#$$i6 &qri in I%"a"#ra V#ech#a) (hich Cole 71@C;) 15<8 analyDes as in!ressie Aspect) %ay also "e
an INT+NTIONAL %ar'er. M#ys'en 71@BB) 1<B8 clai%s that &qri 0!oin! to1 has deeloped $ro% the
constr#ction -ak ri& 0!o1.
1AC 5.A intentional

75.;38 Tariana 7Ara(a'an> Ai'henald ;<<3) 3C38
Jninu/u Ji-tnuka-kasu kasu kasu kasu Ji-a
3*L.N.anec' 3*L.N.&"rea'&INT 3*L.N.&!o
0Fis nec' is a"o#t to "rea'.1 7*aid o$ a dr#n'en %an) lyin! on a "ench (ith his head
dan!lin!.8

Tariana 75.;3 a"oe8 and Y#ra'arT e6hi"it INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers that can co&occ#r (ith non&
control er"s. In Y#ra'arT) the INT+NTIONAL s#$$i6 &ni occ#rs (ith a er" #s#ally not
associated (ith control oer the action2 0to o%it1. As a res#lt o$ na#sea) o%itin! is a "ody
process o#t o$ control o$ the person concerned) altho#!h this point o$ ie( %ay "e c#lt#re&
speci$ic.

75.;A8 Y#ra'arT 7#nclassi$ied> -an LiKn ;<<=) 1@B8
|i-ti-ja-n-tta-ma |umu|u ayc-ni ni ni ni
D+L&1*L&3*L&IDR.O,H&p#t&IM/.*L (ar% o%it&INT21*L.*,H
0/#t on so%e (ar% (ater $or %e) I a% a"o#t to o%it.1

Uns#rprisin!ly) all INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers occ#r in cla#ses (ith .UTUR+ conte6ts 7also in .UTUR+
in the /A*T8> indeed) the Moi%a particle |cy is not allo(ed (ith /A*T re$erence 7Fa#de ;<<=)
5;B8. The INT+NTIONAL %ar'er can co&e6ist (ith a .UTUR+ %ar'er) or) i$ a lan!#a!e does not
hae .UTUR+ %ar'in!) it can ta'e oer that $#nction 7e.!. in ,a#re8.
INT+NTIONAL is also ery close to D+*ID+RATI-+) (hich codes a (ish or desire) "#t an action
that is planned or intended does not necessarily inole the desire to do it. It is possi"le
that D+*ID+RATI-+ and INT+NTIONAL are %ar'ed "y the sa%e s#$$i6) li'e &ucnc in Hara(ara2

75.;58 Hara(ara 7Ara(an> Di6on ;<<A) 1C=) 1C58
7a8 amc c-mata-ra-naucnc naucnc naucnc naucnc c-kc
sleep 1*L.*,H&*FORT.TIM+&N+L&INT.. 1*L&D+CL..
0I don1t intend to sleep $or a (hile yet.1
7"8 c-ka-tima-ma-mata-naucnc naucnc naucnc naucnc
1*L.*,H&in.%otion&U/*TR+AM&,ACP&*FORT.TIM+&INT..
c-kc mata
1*L&D+CL.. *FORT.TIM+
0I (ant to !o "ac' #pstrea% $or a short ti%e 7to !o "ac' to %y illa!e to arran!e
thin!s) "e$ore settin! o$$ on the Ko#rney to the *oro(ahX8.1

INT+NTIONAL is closely related to co%%ands 7IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+8) .UTUR+ 7i%%ediate or
!eneral8) and D+*ID+RATI-+. Mhen the INT+NTIONAL %ar'er is #sed in IM/+RATI-+ conte6ts) it
%ay si!nal a %ilder co%%and in co%parison to the #s#al IM/+RATI-+ constr#ctions.
INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers can sere to e6press .UTUR+ in lan!#a!es that do not hae a distinct
.UTUR+ %ar'in!) "#t they can also "e a%"i!#o#s (ith .UTUR+.
5. Modality 1A@

These res#lts are in line (ith research on non&*AILs. ,y"ee et al. 71@@A8 cite Renc'
71@B5) ;;C8 $or Ya!aria) a lan!#a!e o$ /ap#a Ne( L#inea) that the 3Intentional .#t#re $or%)
4S5 is also #sed to e6press i%peratie) hortatie) and intention9. Accordin! to ,y"ee et al.
71@@A) ;A<&;==8) INT+NTIONAL is a step "e$ore .UTUR+ on the !ra%%aticaliDation path)
re!ardless o$ (hat %eanin! ca%e "e$ore intention.
.or three lan!#a!es in the sa%ple there are ori!ins !ien $or the %ar'ers2 ,a#re)
A!#ar#na) and Ma%aindO. They (ill "e disc#ssed no( in the li!ht o$ possi"le
!ra%%aticaliDation paths post#lated in ,y"ee et al. 71@@A8.
The A!#ar#na INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers 7s#$$i6 &tatus $or 3
rd
person and s#$$i6 &tasa $or non&3
rd

person8 pro"a"ly derie $ro% the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &tatu - tata pl#s the s#"ordinator &sa
7Oerall ;<<B) 3C;8. ,y"ee et al. 71@@A) ;5=8 post#late the $ollo(in! !ra%%aticaliDation path2

desire b 7(illin!ness8 b intention b $#t#re

They do not incl#de (illin!ness as a $#ll sta!e in "et(een "#t rather as a n#ance. Th#s) the
A!#ar#na INT+NTIONAL) li'e the ,a#re INT+NTIONAL) %ay ery (ell "e on its (ay to
!ra%%aticaliDe into a .UTUR+ %ar'er 7!ien that those lan!#a!es s#rie lon! eno#!h to
deelop nat#rally8. In ,y"ee et al.1s 71@@A) ;538 sa%ple) .UTUR+ %ar'ers %ost co%%only
derie $ro% %oe%ent er"s s#ch as 0co%e1) or 0!o1. The $act that the ,a#re INT+NTIONAL
particle kac deries $ro% the er" 0!o1 sho(s that it is possi"ly on the (ay to "eco%in! a
.UTUR+ %ar'er.
13
The Ma%aindO INT+NTIONAL s#$$i6 &tcn see%s to con$ir% the
!ra%%aticaliDation path a"oe. Accordin! to +"erhard 7;<<@8) the s#$$i6 can "e #sed as an
alternatie .UTUR+ %ar'er (itho#t any intentional %eanin! le$t. It cannot co&occ#r (ith the
.UTUR+ s#$$i6es in either its .UTUR+ or INT+NTIONAL carnation 7+"erhard ;<<@) A;<$.8.

5.5 /OT+NTIAL 5.5 /OT+NTIAL 5.5 /OT+NTIAL 5.5 /OT+NTIAL
5.5.1 5.5.1 5.5.1 5.5.1 De$inition De$inition De$inition De$inition
/OT+NTIAL is part o$ +piste%ic Modality) in that it can depend on the spea'er1s K#d!%ent
(hether an eent is or (as possi"le2 34p5ossi"ility indicates that the proposition %ay
possi"ly "e tr#e9 7,y"ee et al. 1@@A) 1B@8. The spea'er hi%sel$ %ay not "e s#re (hether an
eent is tr#e) "eca#se he has ins#$$icient in$or%ation. The eent re$erred to then !ets
%ar'ed (ith a /OT+NTIAL %ar'er> the +n!lish translation is #s#ally the Modal er" 0%ay1.
The /OT+NTIAL is e6pected to t#rn #p in cla#ses (ith .UTUR+ %ar'in!) "#t also in cla#ses
that re$er to /A*T eents that %ay hae) "#t did not) co%e tr#e. ,eca#se it is concept#ally
close to "ein! #ncertain) it is also e6pected to $ind a relation to DU,ITATI-+. Typical Modal
eniron%ents (o#ld "e IRR+ALI*) conditional) ne!atie) and interro!atie cla#ses.




13
*i%ilarly) the Itona%a .UTUR+ a#6iliary deeloped $ro% the er" mamana 0!o1 7Creels p.c.8.
15< 5.5 potential

5.5.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.5.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.5.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.5.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
O#t o$ the =3 lan!#a!es in the sa%ple 1B %ar' /OT+NTIAL %orpho&syntactically 7,a#re) A(a
/it) Nasa Y#(e) Matses) Ya%inah#a) Caine^a) Desano) *aterT&Ma(T) Le'o) Me'ens) Yana%)
Moi%a) Y#ra'arT) P(aDa) Pa%ai#rX) /#inae) Marao8. The %ar'ers ta'e the $or% o$ either
particles or s#$$i6es) (ith one noticea"le e6ception2 the /OT+NTIAL circ#%$i6 in Caine^a)
(hich re$ers to .UTUR+ eents and is 3o$ten #sed in I#estions to e6press so$t and polite
reI#ests9 7L#illa#%e ;<<C) 1B@8. It is the only circ#%$i6 in the (hole TAM+ dataset.
The lan!#a!es do not ary %#ch in ho( %any /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers they hae. Mith the
e6ception o$ Matses (hich has as %any as $o#r di$$erent s#$$i6es %ost hae only one. Nasa
Y#(e is the only lan!#a!e (ith a paradi!% o$ /OT+NTIAL and personG n#%"er c#%#latie
%orphe%es. The $ollo(in! disc#ssion $oc#ses on the %eanin!s o$ lan!#a!e speci$ic
/OT+NTIAL %ar'ers and in (hich eniron%ents they occ#r.
Uns#rprisin!ly) the /OT+NTIAL can occ#r in cla#ses that are %ar'ed $or .UTUR+ or hae
!eneral $#t#re re$erence) tho#!h in so%e lan!#a!es they are applica"le only in $#t#re
conte6ts) (hereas in others the past is an accepta"le conte6t as (ell. The $o#r /OT+NTIAL
s#$$i6es in Matses all hae $#t#re re$erence. The s#$$i6es &manc) &nunJa) and &pancnJac di$$er
only in (hich ar!#%ent they ta'e. All o$ the% di$$er se%antically $ro% the last s#$$i6 &nusnc
in that they si!nal 3that there is a possi"ility that the spea'er (ill accidentally or
#n(ittin!ly per$or% or ca#se an action9 7.lec' ;<<3) A3@8 (hereas &nusnc additionally re$ers
to a 3$#t#re irrealis or co#nter$act#al notion that %i!ht "e translated into +n!lish as
3%ay"e (o#ld #nless99 7i"id. AA<8.

75.;=8 Matses 7/anoan> .lec' ;<<3) AA<8
7a8 cnc-nunJa nunJa nunJa nunJa
co%e&/OT.3
07Fe8 %i!ht co%e.1
7"8 nisi-n pc-nusnc nusnc nusnc nusnc tapucutc ta-siuiJ-o
sna'e&+RL "ite&/OT.3 shoe $oot&p#t.on.clothes&IM/
0/#t on "oots "eca#se 7i$ yo# don1t8 a sna'e %i!ht "ite yo#.1

Y#ra'arT is a lan!#a!e (here the /OT+NTIAL %ar'er can also appear (ith past re$erence
a"o#t so%e action that co#ld hae happened2

75.;B8 Y#ra'are 7#nclassi$ied> -an LiKn ;<<=) 1@@8
ti-yam pura ka-ma|-ta ta ta ta- samma ku-ti-|a
1*L&si"lin! /#ra 3*L&!o.*L&/OT&3 (ater 3*L.CO&say21*L.*,HZ-AL
0I tho#!ht the (ater %ay hae ta'en %y sister /#ra.1

In P(aDa) the /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 &tsy #s#ally has $#t#re re$erence) "#t this is a less certain
$#t#re than the .UTUR+ s#$$i6 &n re$ers to. It can co&occ#r (ith the .UTUR+ %ar'er and then
5. Modality 151

si!nals a re%ote .UTUR+ 7 the .UTUR+ %ar'er itsel$ does not speci$y any re%oteness8 7-an der
-oort ;<<A) =<B8.

75.;C8 P(aDa 7#nclassi$ied> -an der -oort ;<<A) =<B8
7a8 t|c-'n n n n-tsc G t|c-Ja'my-tsc
an!ry&.UT&D+CL G an!ry&(ant&D+CL
07The do!8 is "eco%in! an!ry.1
7"8 t'|c-tsy tsy tsy tsy-tsc
an!ry&/OT&D+CL
07Don1t tease the do! or8 it (ill !et an!ry.1
7c8 zc'zju-Jy-rjy cja-'n n n n-Ja-tsy tsy tsy tsy-tsc
ceDinho&/O**&CD2area !o&.UT&1&/OT&D+CL
0I (ill !o to ceDinho 7one o$ these days8.1

Unli'e in P(aDa) (here the co&occ#rrence o$ the /OT+NTIAL and .UTUR+ s#$$i6es e6presses a
re%ote .UTUR+) the /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 7on its o(n8 in Desano e6presses an i%%ediate .UTUR+
7Miller 1@@@) C;8.
The ,a#re /OT+NTIAL particle deries $ro% the er"al root tccri 0do ho(1) as in 0Fo( do
yo# do the $ishin!J1 7Danielsen ;<<B) ;@A&;@58. Unli'e in other lan!#a!es) the ,a#re
/OT+NTIAL %ar'er does not predo%inantly hae .UTUR+ re$erence. It see%s that the ,a#re
INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers are pre$erred to e6press .UTUR+ 7,a#re does not hae a %ar'ed .UTUR+8)
and that the /OT+NTIAL tccri can occ#r (ith "oth .UTUR+ and /A*T re$erence. It (as not $o#nd
in conditionalG co#nter$act#al cla#ses.

75.;@8 ,a#re 7Ara(a'an> Danielsen ;<<B) ;@58
7a8 rckicin tccri tccri tccri tccri risim
(hen /OT 3*L..Zarrie
0Mhen %ay she arrieJ1
7"8 ni-pinik tccri tccri tccri tccri nc
1*LZpass /OT here
0I %i!ht pass here.1

The Ya%inah#a /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 &tirc cannot co&occ#r (ith Tense %ar'in! at all 7.a#st E
Loos ;<<;) 1;58.
Mhen a /OT+NTIAL %ar'er occ#rs in /A*T conte6ts it can e6press co#nter$act#al cla#ses)
e.!. in A(a /it) (hich has t(o s#$$i6es 7positie and ne!atie /OT+NTIAL8. They can occ#r in
the apodosis o$ co#nter$act#al cla#ses 7"#t cannot co&occ#rr (ith Tense %ar'in!8 7C#rno(
1@@B) ;A;$.8. In Desano) the /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 &uu in co%"ination (ith the recent /A*T s#$$i6 &a
%ar's a co#nter$act#al. In Me'ens) the /OT+NTIAL particle ctcct co&occ#rs (ith the IRR+ALI*
particle pcqat in a co#nter$act#al cla#se.
15; 5.5 potential

75.3<8 Desano 7T#canoan> Miller 1@@@) 15@8
Jckc ur-uiri-kt ari-uu uu uu uu- -- -a aa a-y-u
(ater $all&N+L&*R co%e&CNTR.C&A*M&3/L
0I$ it hadn1t rained) they (o#ld hae co%e.1

75.318 A(a /it 7,ar"acoan> C#rno( 1@@B) ;A38
akki pana-t-na, izn-sina sina sina sina-ma
here "e2standin!7I/.-./TC/8&CNTR.CZTO/ see&/OTZT+M/
0I$ he (ere here) (e co#ld %eet.1

75.3;8 Me'ens 7T#pUan> Lal#cio ;<<1) B18
kiri-cri-p ka-t tc tc sc-pcctcp
childZA,LZreally !oGco%e&/*T tr#ly .OC 3C&'no(led!e
cat pcqat ctcct ctcct ctcct ctcct
acI#ire IRR /OT
0I$ it had "een really since childhood) then I (o#ld hae learned.1

In P(aDa) A(a /it) and Marao the /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers can also re$er to a !eneral a"ility to
carry o#t the action in I#estion) either "eca#se circ#%stances allo( it or "eca#se o$ the
spea'er1s personal a"ility. Mhen the P(aDa /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 &tsy occ#rs in co%"ination (ith
ne!ation) it re$ers to ina"ility 7-an der -oort ;<<A) =1<8.
A(a /it has a positie and a ne!atie /OT+NTIAL %ar'er 7&sina and &satsni8. Mhen they
occ#r in a cla#se #n%ar'ed $or person) they e6press a !eneral a"ility) (hen they occ#r in a
cla#se %ar'ed $or person) they e6press %ore speci$ic possi"ility or a"ility 7C#rno( 1@@B)
;A;$.8. The Marao /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 &kcmc e6presses a"ility as (ell.

75.338 A(a /it 7,ar"acoan> C#rno( 1@@B) ;A;8
7a8 maza caua||c maza carrc tayq-sina sina sina sina
one horse one car p#ll&/OT
0A sin!le horse can p#ll a car.1
7"8 nyampi-kasa pisnkatu ki-sina sina sina sina-y
hoo'Z(ith $ish718 $ish7;8&/OT&N.L/M
0Yo# 7 the addressee8 can $ish (ith a hoo' 7"eca#se the rier is #p8.1

75.3A8 Marao 7#nclassi$ied> Ro%ero&.i!#eroa 1@@B) 1<;8
nc nancuu-kcmc kcmc kcmc kcmc ncuu kcnc-ya naru-a-c
cra" $ind&/OT yo#n!.%an rier.%o#th&ALL !o&/NC&/*T
0The yo#n! %en (ent to the rier %o#th. They can $ind cra"s 7there8.1

To s#%%ariDe) /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers in the sa%ple can occ#r in the apodosis in co#nter$act#al
cla#ses 7e.!. in Desano) A(a /it) Me'ens8) si!nal i%%ediate 7Desano8 or re%ote 7P(aDa8
5. Modality 153

.UTUR+) or a"ility 7Marao) A(a /it8. /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers can "e #sed in Matses and Nasa Y#(e
$or /OLIT+ COMMAND* and in P(aDa $or per%ission> they do not co&occ#r (ith COMMAND
%ar'in! as speci$ied in section 5.3.
The e6pectations $ro% 5.5.1 are $#lly %et. /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers are $o#nd (ith "oth .UTUR+
and /A*T re$erence) in interro!atie) ne!atie) conditional) and IRR+ALI* cla#ses. /OT+NTIAL
%ar'ers in a NON/A*T conte6t re$er to actions that are in the real% o$ possi"ility and
there$ore "y de$a#lt I#estiona"le> altho#!h they hae not "een $o#nd in conK#nction (ith
+piste%ic %ar'ers it is clear that they incl#de inherent #ncertainty.
,y"ee et al. 71@@A) 1BB&1BC8 propose a !ra%%aticaliDation path $ro% a"ility 7$ro%
%ental and physical to !eneral8 oer root possi"ility to per%ission. A"ility re$ers to 3the
e6istence o$ internal ena"lin! conditions9 and root possi"ility to 3!eneral ena"lin!
conditions9. The /OT+NIAL %ar'er in A(a /it re$ers to a"ility 75.33a8 7that the horse is a"le to
p#ll the car is conditioned "y its internal al#es s#ch as stren!ths8) "#t also to root
possi"ility 75.33"8 7the possi"ility to $ish (ith a hoo' is conditioned "y spea'er&e6ternal
$actors s#ch as that the rier is #p8. The /OT+NTIAL %ar'er in Marao li'e(ise points to(ards
root possi"ility 7$indin! cra"s is conditioned "y spea'er&e6ternal $actors) s#ch as that cra"s
!enerally can "e $o#nd at the rier8.
*adly) the so#rces o$ the /OT+NTIAL %ar'ers in the sa%ple re%ain lar!ely #nspeci$ied.
The /OT+NTIAL s#$$i6 in Moi%a 7&nira8 is possi"ly co%posed o$ the er"aliDin! s#$$i6 &ni and
the se%antically e%pty ele%ent &ra 7Fa#de ;<<=) A3;8.

5.= /UR/O*I-+ 5.= /UR/O*I-+ 5.= /UR/O*I-+ 5.= /UR/O*I-+
5.=.1 5.=.1 5.=.1 5.=.1 De$inition De$inition De$inition De$inition
Altho#!h this st#dy is carried o#t $ro% a se%antic perspectie) in order to de$ine /UR/O*I-+
it is necessary to co%%ent on the synta6 o$ p#rpose cla#ses. A spea'er can indicate that the
action o$ the %atri6 cla#se is done $or a p#rpose) li'e 3Y does Y in order to achiee c92
34p5#rpose cla#ses are part o$ co%ple6 sentences (hich encode that one er"al sit#ation)
that o$ the %atri6 cla#se) is per$or%ed (ith the intention o$ "rin!in! a"o#t another
sit#ation) that o$ the p#rpose cla#se9 7*ch%idt'e&,ode ;<<@) ;<8. The /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er in
these cases is the one carryin! the %eanin! o$ 3in order to9) 3(ith the intention9 to) etc.
The ter% 3intention9 (ill "e aoided as %#ch as possi"le in this section in order to aoid
con$#sion (ith the INT+NTIONAL. This also !oes to sho( that /UR/O*I-+ and INT+NTIONAL
oerlap) i.e. "ehind each p#rpose is the intention to do Y. ,oth INT+NTIONAL and /UR/O*I-+
%ar'ers re$er to an eent sit#ated in the $#t#re) "oth are !oal&oriented 7i.e. directed to(ard
a prospectie tar!et state or eent that is to "e deli"erately achieed82 3/#rpose relations
lin' t(o 4cla#ses5 one o$ (hich 7the %ain one8 is per$or%ed (ith the !oal o$ o"tainin! the
realiDation o$ another one 7the dependent one897Cristo$aro ;<<3) 15B8. ,#t (hile INT+NTIONAL
is #s#ally e6pressed in a si%ple %ain cla#se) /UR/O*I-+ is #s#ally e6pressed in a co%ple6
cla#se. They constit#te the sa%e se%antics "#t di$$er in constr#ction co%ple6ity. The
p#rpose cla#se is #s#ally s#"ordinate) (hich %eans that a /UR/O*I-+ can "e a s#"ordinator
7or a conK#nction8. Not eery s#"ordinator is a /UR/O*I-+) ho(eer) only (hen its pri%ary
15A 5.= p#rposie

%eanin! is p#rpose is it coded as /UR/O*I-+) and not eery /UR/O*I-+ necessarily occ#rs in
s#"ordinated cla#ses 7as (ill "e seen "elo(8. A prototypical /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er is $o#nd in
Caine^a 7Zisnu82

75.358 Caine^a 7Tacanan> L#illa#%e ;<<C) B<B8
camicn nuui-isnu isnu isnu isnu-tuna-ja-tu c-Jijc uajcjc-ti-cninc
tr#c' enterZ/R/Z3/L&DAT Z3*L N/.&path prepare&TM/R&R+C./*T
0They (ent there to arran!e the path so that the tr#c's can enter.1

An e6a%ple $or a %ar'er that e6presses /UR/O*I-+) "#t is not a /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er in the sense
o$ the present de$inition is the s#$$i6 &m in Map#che. This instr#%ental s#$$i6 o"li!atorily
occ#rs (ith other %ar'ers and only e6presses /UR/O*I-+ in co%"ination (ith the IRR+ALI*
%ar'er &a 7*%eets ;<<C) ;<=8. The $act that /UR/O*I-+ is not its pri%ary %eanin! and that a
/UR/O*I-+ %eanin! is only !ien in co%"ination (ith another %ar'er) disI#ali$ies &m as
/UR/O*I-+ in %y sa%ple.

75.3=8 Map#che 7Ara#canian> *%eets ;<<C) ;<@8
jcy amu-y i nqi||a-ka-ya-m mm m
she !o&IND&3 /O**3 "#y&.CT&IRR&I-N
0*he (ent in order to !o shoppin!.1

5.=.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.=.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.=.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.=.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
/UR/O*I-+ is %ar'ed "y ;A o#t o$ the =3 lan!#a!es in the sa%ple2

Tariana) Tsa$i'i) Tr#%ai) A(a /it) Fi6'aryana) TiriyN) I'a) +%"era) MosetTn)
Ma%aindO) I%"a"#ra V#ech#a) +%Trillon) Ya%inah#a) Caine^a) Paro) Nheen!at_)
Coca%a&Coca%illa) Le'o) P(aDa) M#nichi) Marao) *hipi"o&Poni"o) Mira^a) and
Matses.

.or%al %ar'in! incl#des s#$$i6ation) enclitics) and particles) (ith %ostly s#$$i6es.
/UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers occ#r in indicatie) "#t also in COMMAND cla#ses and are in so%e
lan!#a!es or!aniDed in paradi!%s accordin! to (hether the action o$ the cla#se is re$erred
to "y a %otion er") and (hether the p#rpose cla#se has the sa%e or a di$$erent s#"Kect
than the %ain cla#se. The $ollo(in! para!raphs o#tline these $#nctions.
The lan!#a!e (ith the %ost ela"orate /UR/O*I-+ syste% is Ma%aindO. It e%ploys distinct
s#$$i6es $or positie and ne!atie p#rpose cla#ses and $#rther diides positie p#rpose
cla#ses into sa%e s#"Kect and di$$erent s#"Kect cla#ses) each (ith di$$erent s#$$i6es.
I%"a"#ra V#ech#a also has t(o distinct s#$$i6es $or sa%e s#"Kect and di$$erent s#"Kect 7&
cnun and &nqapaj) respectiely8 7Cole 1@C5) =38. The s#$$i6 &nqapaj consists o$ the .UTUR+ 73
rd

person8 s#$$i6 &nqa and &paj 0$or1 7i"id. 3B8. In co%parison) F#alla!a and C#Dco V#ech#a do
not %ar' /UR/O*I-+. Cole 71@C5) 3B$.8 %entions that the speci$ic pattern o$ I%"a"#ra V#ech#a
5. Modality 155

s#"K#nctie cla#ses 7o$ p#rpose8 is #nco%%on in the V#ech#a dialects. /#rpose in F#alla!a
V#ech#a is instead e6pressed "y special constr#ction incl#din! the s#$$i6 &pa) (hich has
ario#s $#nctions 7Me"er 1@C@) ;<A8) a possessie s#$$i6) and the s#$$i6 &na) (hich is a
s#"stantiiDin! s#"ordinator 7i"id. ;<58.

75.3B8 Ma%aindO 7Na%"i'(aran> +"erhard ;<<@) 535) 53=8
7a8 ja|ik-tu waun-k
n
ann-tu tu-tc tc tc tc7nta7 7nta7 7nta7 7nta7 jcna-tcn-a7-wa
nec'lace..N* red&NCL.ro#nd&.N* !et&CN./R/.** trade&D+*&*,H1&/R*&D+CL
0I (ant to trade in order to !et red nec'lace "eads.1
7"8 ni nusa-nai7ka nakat-si si si si7 77 7
he /O**1./L&(ord hearG#nderstand&CN./R/.D*,H
nawin-ta7 sct-a7-o-wa
teach&CN.and.** spea'&*,H1&/R*&D+CL
0.or hi% to #nderstand o#r lan!#a!e) I a% teachin! and spea'in!.1

There are t(o other constr#ctions $or p#rpose %otion cla#ses and ne!atie /UR/O*I-+. In
Le'o) the s#$$i6 &tc %ar's /UR/O*I-+ cla#ses (ith %otion er"s. Another strate!y to e6press
/UR/O*I-+ is the "ene$actie %ar'er &mcki)
1A
"#t it is #nclear (hether these t(o %ar'ers
constit#te a %otionG non%otion /UR/O*I-+ syste% 7-an de Per'e p.c.8.

75.3C8 Le'o 7#nclassi$ied> -an de Per'e ;<<@) 3;A8
yc-mcki cncswai wcsra yu-nun-a-ka-tc aycna na|-tc tc tc tc
1&L+N (o%an L#anay 1.O,H&co%%and&/.-&AUY&D+CL %eat "#y&/R/
0My (i$e sent %e to L#anay in order to "#y %eat.1 7ori!. 0Mi esposa %e ha %andado
a L#anay a co%prar carne.18

Ya%inah#a also %ar's sa%e s#"KectG di$$erent s#"Kect /UR/O*I-+ cla#ses (ith di$$erent
%ar'ers. The s#$$i6 &nd is #sed (hen the s#"Kects o$ %ain and s#"ordinate cla#ses di$$er.
The s#$$i6 &xiki is #sed $or sa%e&s#"Kect cla#ses and pro"a"ly ori!inates in the co%"ination
o$ the s#$$i6 &xi 0para1 and -ki 0$#t#re17.a#st E Loos ;<<;) 1558.
Interestin!ly) Tsa$i'i) a ,ar"acoan lan!#a!e that is not related to V#ech#an "#t
!eo!raphically near"y) also has a /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er &cnun 7Dic'inson ;<<;) 13;8.
15
This does
not necessarily point to(ard a relationship "et(een Tsa$i'i and I%"a"#ra V#ech#a)
ho(eer. In Tsa$i'i) the co%"ination o$ the IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &cnu and the statie s#$$i6 &n
occ#rs I#ite $reI#ently 7c$. Dic'inson ;<<;8. .or%ally) this %ay "e the ori!in o$ a
reinterpreted /UR/O*I-+ s#$$i6 &cnun) altho#!h the e6act se%antic deelop%ent is not clear.



1A
,ene$actie %ar'ers e6pressin! /UR/O*I-+ are $o#nd all oer the (orld 7c$. *ch%idt'e&,ode ;<<@) @<8.
15
Matses has an ader"ial cla#se s#"ordinator &snun 0a$ter1) 0(hen1 7.lec' ;<<3) 111B8.
15= 5.= p#rposie

75.3@8 Tsa$i'i 7,ar"acoan> Dic'inson ;<<;) 13;8
junni aman in-|a-ka man-ji-cnu cnu cnu cnu- -- -n nn n aman wa pai|a
then no( 3p1Z/L&ACC a!ainZeat&IRR&*TA no( "i! pan
Ja-kari-man-ti-c.
coo'&ca#se2!eneric&*IT&R+/O&D+CL
0Then they say she heated #p a "i! pan to eat the% a!ain.1

As (as seen a"oe) Le'o has a %ar'er speci$ically $or /UR/O*I-+ (ith %otion er"s) (hereas
non&%otion er"s p#rpose cla#ses are %ar'ed "y the "ene$actie s#$$i6 &mcki. Other
lan!#a!es also e%ploy di$$erent %ar'ers accordin! to %otion or non&%otion er"s. .or
e6a%ple) Caine^a has a !eneral /UR/O*I-+ enclitic Zisnu that can occ#r (ith all er" types
7L#illa#%e ;<<C) B<B8) "#t an enclitic Zra speci$ically $or /UR/O*I-+ (ith a controlled %otion
in the %atri6 cla#se 7i"id. B158. In TiriyN) the MOTION /UR/O*I-+ s#$$i6 &sc is #sed (hen the
%atri6 er" is a %otion er" 7#s#ally 0!o1 or 0co%e18 7Meira 1@@@) 5=@8) (ith non&%otion
er"s the /UR/O*I-+ is e6pressed "y a di$$erent constr#ction 7i"id. 3318. Fi6'aryana has a
s#$$i6 si%ilar to the TiriyN %otion /UR/O*I-+2 &scG &xc that also %ar's %otion /UR/O*I-+
7Der"yshire 1@C5) A<$.8) ,#t Fi6'aryana also has a /UR/O*I-+ particle that is apparently not
restricted to %otion er"s2 ncri 7i"id. 3@8.

75.A<8 Caine^a 7Tacanan> L#illa#%e ;<<C) B15) B1B8
7a8 tuJya c-kwc c-mama c-kwc c-tata
then 1*L&L+N 1&%other 1*L&L+N 1&$ather
jaJya kwa-kwarc nawi-ra ra ra ra
and !o&R+M./*T "atheZMOT./R/
0My $ather and %y %other (ent to "athe.1
7"8 i-kc uaui-ra ra ra ra kwa-ya
1*L&.M h#ntZMOT./R/ !o&I/.-
07I told %y (i$e28 I1% !oin! h#ntin![1

75.A18 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) 3318
cp-c cc c w-t-c
"athe&/R/ 1s
A
&!o2/R*.I/.-&C+RT
0I a% !oin! 7to the rier8 to "athe.1

*ch%idt'e&,ode 7;<<@) @58) in his st#dy o$ p#rpose cla#ses #ses a !lo"al sa%ple) discoered
that %otion /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers are co%%on and 3not con$ined to partic#lar !eo!raphical
4%acro5areas or lan!#a!e $a%ilies9. This can "e con$ir%ed $or the *AILs in the sa%ple. In
the present sa%ple) $ie lan!#a!es e6plicitly code %otion /UR/O*I-+ 7Le'o) Fi6'aryana)
TiriyN) Caine^a) and +%"era8. The present data also sho( that /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers occ#r
%ostly in sa%e&s#"Kect relations "et(een %ain and s#"ordinate cla#se) e6cept $or the cases
(here there is a special di$$erent&s#"Kect /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er. The close connection o$
5. Modality 15B

/UR/O*I-+ to %otion and sa%e&s#"Kect inole%ent is nat#ral) as Cristo$aro 7;<<@) 15B8
points o#t2 3In $act) %ost o$ the data on p#rpose relations concern the p#rpose o$ %otion
4S5. In %otion p#rpose relations) an entity !oes so%e(here in order to o"tain the
realiDation o$ a certain *oA 4*oAZstate o$ a$$airs5) and it is #s#ally ass#%ed 7tho#!h not
lo!ically entailed8 that this realiDation is "ro#!ht a"o#t "y the entity itsel$9.
*o%e o$ the lan!#a!es e6hi"it /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers in co%%and cla#ses. These do not
hae a %atri6 cla#se&s#"ordinate cla#se str#ct#re) "#t si%ply a sin!le cla#se (ith the er"
%ar'ed (ith a COMMAND %ar'er. This is eidence $or the $act that the se%antics o$ /UR/O*I-+
transcend a certain syntactic constr#ction. The se%antic connection "et(een /UR/O*I-+ and
COMMAND is not hard to e6plain. As *ch%idt'e&,ode 7;<<@) 1A58 states) a 3pheno%enon
pertainin! to illoc#tionary $orce is that p#rposie constr#ctions lend the%seles (ell to
"ein! $or%#lated as directies9. In TiriyN) "oth FORTATI-+ and /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers can co&
occ#r 7TiriyN /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er &sc 7$or /UR/O*I-+ in %otion cla#ses8. In MosetTn) the
/UR/O*I-+ particle paj itsel$ can e6press an indirect COMMAND 7*a'el ;<<A) A3@88.
1=


75.A;8 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) 3318
npa npa npa npa cp-c cc c
FORT "athe&/R/
0Let1s !o "athe[1

75.A38 MosetTn 7Mosetenan> *a'el ;<<A) A3@8
jam-ra mn ucjw-i paj paj paj paj mama ucjw-i|
N+L&IRR ;/L !o.#p&-M&M.*,H /R/ $ather !o.#p&-M&M.*,H
0Don1t yo# cli%" #p) let $ather cli%" #p[1

The P(aDa /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er -tc is %ost co%%on (ith $irst person sin!#lar 7-an der -oort
;<<A) A1;8 and is possi"ly a no%inaliDer. In contrast) the Coca%a&Coca%illa /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er
Zra is ho%ophono#s (ith the er"aliDer &ra 7-alleKos YopXn ;<1<) ;@5) 3C58.
Tariana is the only lan!#a!e in the sa%ple that encodes "oth /UR/O*I-+ and TenseG
+identiality in c#%#latie %orphe%es. The -I*UAL or IMM+DIAT+ /UR/O*I-+ is %ar'ed "y
&ka/u) and the NON-I*UAL or DI*TANT /UR/O*I-+ "y &nyu 7Ai'henald ;<<3) 3@38.

75.AA8 Tariana 7Ara(a'an> Ai'henald ;<<3) 3@38
7a8 was ta/aJa-pcni wcnta-ka ka ka ka/ // /u u u u wa
let1s.!o alie&/L2AN 1/Lata'e&-I*./R/ 1/La!o
0Let1s !o and see the liin! ones 7$ish8 7ri!ht no(8.1



1=
Apparently) /a#%arU has a !ra%%aticaliDed /UR/O*I-+ co%%and constr#ction 7*ch%idt'e&,ode ;<<@)
1A58.
15C 5.B $r#stratie

7"8 taJa-pcni Junta-nyu nyu nyu nyu Ju-a-piJana
alie&/L2AN 3*L..ata'e& N-I*. /UR/ 3*L..&!o&R+M./*T.R+/O
0*he (ent to !et the liin! ones 7she %ay not see the%8.1

As (as already pointed o#t in the introd#ction) the distinction "et(een /UR/O*I-+ and
INT+NTIONAL lies %ostly in syntactic co%ple6ity) in that a /UR/O*I-+ al(ays e6presses
3p#rposie relations "et(een t(o states o$ a$$airs in the (orld9 7*ch%idt'e&,ode ;<<@) 3<8.
Neertheless) (e hae also seen that /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers can occ#r in di$$erent constr#ctions)
as in co%%and cla#ses. It is co%%on that lan!#a!es (ith either only INT+NTIONAL or
/UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers or "oth hae one o$ these %ar'ers e6pressin! the se%antics o$ the other
as a secondary %eanin!. .or e6a%ple) Matses has a ran!e o$ $ie /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers) t(o o$
(hich can also indicate INT+NTION 7all o$ the %ar'ers hae the secondary te%poral %eanin!
0"e$ore1 7.lec' ;<<3) 111< $$.88.
1B

To s#%%ariDe) lan!#a!es can hae a sin!le /UR/O*I-+ %ar'er that only re$ers to %otion
cla#ses 7e.!. TiriyN) Fi6'aryana) Caine^a8) /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers that do not %a'e a distinction
"et(een %otion or non&%otion cla#ses 7e.!. Fi6'aryana) Caine^a8) /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers
speci$yin! $or sa%e&s#"Kect andG or di$$erent&s#"Kect p#rpose cla#ses 7Ma%aindO) I%"a"#ra
V#ech#a) Ya%inah#a) A(a /it8) and /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers e6pressin! directies in p#rpose
cla#ses 7e.!. TiriyN) MosetTn8. Ma%aindO is the only lan!#a!e speci$yin! ne!atie and
positie /UR/O*I-+ (ith di$$erent %ar'ers.

5.B .RU*TRATI-+ 5.B .RU*TRATI-+ 5.B .RU*TRATI-+ 5.B .RU*TRATI-+
5.B.1 5.B.1 5.B.1 5.B.1 De$inition De$inition De$inition De$inition
A .RU*TRATI-+ re$ers to an eent that did not hae the e6pected o#tco%e or (as $inished
#ns#ccess$#lly. The action can "e le$t #n$inished) or "e $inished "#t not as e6pected) or "e
done in ain. It inoles e%otie $r#stration on the part o$ the spea'er) "#t not necessarily
so. It is not an INCOM/L+TI-+) (hich K#st states that an action is not $inished) re!ardless o$
(hether the o#tco%e (as e6pected or desired. One co#ld say that se%antically a
.RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er can "e an INCOM/L+TI-+ (ith added $r#stration in those cases (here the
action is not $inished) "#t this is only a part o$ .RU*TRATI-+ %eanin!. Actions %ay ery (ell
"e $inished) (hich prohi"its INCOM/L+TI-+ %eanin!) "#t not (ith the desired o#tco%e. A
typical e6a%ple o$ a .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er is the clitic Ztna in Tariana2

75.A58 Tariana 7Ara(a'an> Ai'henald ;<<3) 3C<8
nuna nu-sata-tna tna tna tna-na nnuma
I 1*L&as'&.RU*T&R+M./*T.-I* 1*Lahear
0I did try in ain to as' 7the pilot (hy he did not let #s !o8.1


1B
The intentional dependent cla#se 7sa%e&s#"Kect8 can e6press p#rpose in A!#ar#na 7Oerall ;<<B)
5<A8.
5. Modality 15@

As can already "e o"sered $ro% the a"oe para!raph) a .RU*TRATI-+ can hae seeral
shades o$ %eanin!s. All hae in co%%on that an intended res#lt or !oal is not reached)
(hether the action (as $inished or not. The res#ltin! state can incl#de $r#stration and
dissatis$action on part o$ the spea'er.

5.B.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.B.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.B.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.B.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
No less than ;3 lan!#a!es in the sa%ple %ar' .RU*TRATI-+ %orpho&syntactically2
1C


Ap#rinW) Hara(ara) Tariana) /aresi) Mira^a) Fi6'aryana) TiriyN) A!#ar#na) Ti%"ira)
F#p) D]() Map#che) MosetTn) Caine^a) C#"eo) Desano) Ri'"a'tsa) Me'ens)
Pa%ai#rX) Nheen!at_) Moi%a) P(aDa) and /#inae.

.or%s ran!e $ro% s#$$i6es oer clitics and particles to one a#6iliary 7D](8. The $ollo(in!
section !ies an oerie( o$ the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers and its applications) startin! (ith
contrary&to&$act eniro%ents) #n#s#al %eanin! e6tensions) and ori!ins.
That .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'in! is co%%on in co#nter$act#al state%ents has already "een
noted "y Oerall 7;<<B) 3C=8 and can "e con$ir%ed $or the present data set. A selection o$
lan!#a!es (ith .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers in co#nter$act#al conte6ts is !ien "elo(.
1@

Mhen the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er &ma in Ap#rinW co&occ#rs (ith the .UTUR+ %ar'er it has
the %eanin! o$ a co#nter$act#al cla#se 7.ac#ndes ;<<<) 53A8. It attaches to er"al and
noner"al "ases) "#t al(ays re$ers to the action o$ the cla#se. The sa%e is possi"le (ith the
Fi6'aryana .RU*TRATI-+ particle narync. In F#p) the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er y n o$ten occ#rs in
co#nter$act#al cla#ses (hich are %ar'ed "y t ?) "#t it is also possi"le to hae a
co#nter$act#al cla#se (itho#t the co#nter$act#al "#t (ith .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er. In Map#che)
the .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 &ju can occ#r in conditional cla#ses that are not co#nter$act#al "#t
hypothetical. The $ollo(in! e6a%ples ill#strate the #sa!e o$ the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers
disc#ssed a"oe.

75.A=8 Ap#rinW 7Ara(a'an> .ac#ndes ;<<<) A<A) 5358
7a8 nu-nuta-pc-ka-ma ma ma ma-ru kcna n-apcka-ru
1*L&search&/.-&/A**&.RU*T
;<
&3M.O,H not 1*L&$ind&3M.O,H
0I searched itG hi% "#t I didn1t $ind itG hi%.1


1C
The stat#s o$ the .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 &kcan in *hipi"o&Poni"o is #nclear. -alenD#ela 7;<<3) ;CA8 does
not !ie any e6a%ples> the #sa!e o$ &kcan in -alenD#ela 71@@B8 points %ore to(ard INCOM/L+TI-+.
1@
The .RU*TRATI-+ co#ld not "e $o#nd in co#nter$act#al cla#ses in MosetTn 7in *a'el ;<<A8. In Caine^a)
no co#nter$act#al cla#ses (ere $o#nd 7in L#illa#%e ;<<C8> the .RU*TRATI-+ ZJatsc does not occ#r in
conditional cla#ses. In C#"eo) the .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 &uu has not "een $o#nd in conditional
7co#nter$act#al or not8 cla#ses 7in Morse E Ma6(ell 1@@@8.
;<
In the ori!inal te6t the !loss .RU*T is %issin!> instead &ma is erroneo#sly !lossed as 0/A**1.
1=< 5.B $r#stratie

7"8 nni-nnipckc-ta-ma ma ma ma-kc kc kc kc kcna awa-ru nnipckc-ru
1*L&$ood&-,Lc&.RU*T&.UT not "e&3M.O,H $ood&UN/O*
0I (o#ld eat "#tG i$ there1sG (ere no $ood.1

75.AB8 Fi6'aryana 7Cari"an> Der"yshire 1@C5) ;538
7a8 nckaimyatxkcn narync narync narync narync ti
they&(ere&cli%"in! .RU*T F+A
0They (ere tryin! to cli%" 7"#t didn1t s#cceed8.1
7"8 incknura cntckc, cnamri tnc narync narync narync narync
(itho#t&child i$&his&"ein! "#ryin!&o$&hi% D+-LD .RU*T
0I$ he had had no children) he (o#ld hae "een "#ried.1 7As it (as he (as cre%ated.8


75.AC8 F#p 7Nadah#p> +pps ;<<C) =1A) =;38
7a8 nt

n 7n ni-t n, 7n way-Jc7-t

7 77 7-

y y

n n n n
"ird 1*L "e&COND 1*L leae&ta'e&CNTR.C&DYN .RU*T
01I$ I (ere a "ird) I (o#ld $ly.1
7"8 tin Jc7-cy y

n nn n-man yp, t7

y-w-

p
3*L ta'e&DYN .RU*TZR+/O that.ITL (o%an&.LR&D+/M
0*he (o#ld hae ta'en hi% 7as her h#s"and8) the (o%an.1

75.A@8 Map#che 7Ara#canian> *%eets ;<<C) ;3;8
amu-a-|-m-i wckun, maku-tu-nqc
!o&IRR&COND&;&*L o#tside) coat&-,Lc&IM/;*L
cnajc-a-ju ju ju ju-y-m-i wutrc-mcw
catch.a.cold&IRR&.RU*T&IND&;&*L cold&IN*T
0I$ yo# !o o#tside) p#t on a coat. Yo# %i!ht catch a cold in ie( o$ the cold.1

The .RU*TRTATI-+ %ar'er &ju in Map#che sho(s %eanin!s not #s#ally related to .RU*TATI-+. It
can denote that the action is oer) ended) (hich is the case $or all $r#stratie %ar'ers) "#t
also that the eal#ated o#tco%e is not ne!atie) (hich is not prototypical 7c$. e6a%ples 7=8
and 71<8 in *%eets ;<<C) ;31&;3;8. It has preio#sly "een analyDed as a /A*T Tense %ar'er
7li'e(ise) the IRR+ALI* s#$$i6 &a has "een analyDed as .UTUR+ Tense %ar'er 7i"id. ;3A88) "#t
*%eets 7i"id.8 de%onstrates that the /A*T %eanin! deries $ro% the Modal al#es o$ &ju
rather than "ein! the pri%ary %eanin!. The .RU*TRATI-+ in Map#che is also closely
connected to the IRR+ALI* %ar'er &a) (ith (hich it o$ten co&oc#rrs 7c$. e6a%ple 5.A@8) so in
preio#s p#"lications analyDed the seI#ence -a-ju- as one %orphe%e &aju.
The .RU*TRATI-+ particle in Moi%a co#ld not "e $o#nd in co#nter$act#al cla#ses 7in
Fa#de ;<<=8) "#t interestin!ly co#nter$act#al cla#ses are %ar'ed "y the particle Ji (hich
also appears in the .RU*TRATI-+ particle JiJi 7seeral Modals hae this $or%2 .RU*TRATI-+
JiJi) hypothetical Ji) optatie Jis) co#nter$act#al Jiscy 7Fa#de ;<<=) 53<88.
5. Modality 1=1

In TiriyN) the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er rc(pc) re$ers to an action that (as not planned "#t
al%ost happened any(ay) to the displeas#re o$ the spea'er. It can co&occ#r (ith the
D+*ID+RATI-+ on the sa%e er". The C#"eo .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 &Ju also co&occ#rs (ith the
D+*ID+RATI-+) as does the Me'ens .RU*TRATI-+ particle ctacp 7c$. Lal#cio ;<<1) 151) 5"8.

75.5<8 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) AB@8
j-ancta_rc rc rc rc
1s
o
&$all2/R*./.-\.RU*T
0I al%ost $ell.1

75.518 C#"eo 7T#canoan> Morse and Ma6(ell 1@@@) ;@8
Jc- t -k cpc-uca-iji-k-Ju Ju Ju Ju-kxa-kaki
that&LOC 3M.*L&O,H e6plosion&'ill&D+*&L+R&.RU*T&N.R+C./*TG/R*.FA,.1M.*L
0Oer there) I (anted to shoot hi% 7the tapir8 7"#t didn1t8.1

In F#p) the action %ar'ed (ith .RU*TRATI-+ y n can een "e s#ccess$#lly co%pleted) "#t
so%ethin! that happened a$ter that had $r#stratin! e$$ects on the preio#s action. In 75.5;8)
a nec'lace (as created) altho#!h it later !ot lost or stolen.

75.5;8 F#p 7Nadah#p> +pps ;<<C) =;<8
tit wa-at 7n cun-7c7-y

n nn n-

n
strin! lon!&O,V 1*L strin!&/.-&.RU*T&D+CL
0I str#n! 7the "eads8 on a lon! strin! 7in ain8.1

The .RU*TRATI-+ particle jcpc in Pa%ai#rX has t(o $#nctions that rarely occ#r (ith
.RU*TRATI-+ %eanin!2 it can indicate that the %ar'ed er"al action is a"o#t to happen (hen
it co&occ#rs (ith the particle rak 0atcstaJc1> and it can indicate a $ictitio#s eent 7*e'i ;<<<)
@=8. The .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 -nama in Hara(ara also can re$er to a pretended action 7Di6on
;<<A) 1B18) as (ell as the P(aDa s#$$i6 -|c 7a%"i!#o#s "et(een .RU*TRATI-+ and INCOM/L+TI-+>
see "elo(8.

75.538 Pa%ai#rX 7T#pUan) L#aranU> *e'i ;<<<) @=8
7a8 c-manc jcpc rak
3&%orer .RU*T ATT+*T+D
0Fe al%ost died.1 7ori!. 0+le I#ase %orre#.18
7"8 c-jacc jcpc
3&cry .RU*T
0Fe pretends to cry.1 7ori!. 0+le $in!e I#e chora.18



1=; 5.B $r#stratie

75.5A8 Hara(ara 7Ara(an> Di6on ;<<A) 1B18
c-kc-makc-nama c-na-nara c-kc
1*L.*,H&in.%otion&.OLLOMINL&.RU*T 1*L&AUY&IMM./*T.+Y+.. 1*L&D+CL..
0I pretend to r#n 7say2 so%eone else (as r#nnin!) as'ed %e to r#n (ith hi%) I said I
(o#ld) started to r#n) "#t then stopped (itho#t sayin! I (as stoppin!8.1

The .RU*TRATI-+ s#$$i6 -|c in P(aDa is a !ood e6a%ple $or a %ar'er that is a%"i!#o#s
"et(een .RU*TRATI-+ and INCOM/L+TI-+. It %ar's actions that are not co%pleted 7and een
interr#pted8) or did not start at all 7-an der -oort ;<<A) A3;8) "#t can also re$er to an action
that (as intended "#t t#rned o#t to "e i%possi"le 7i"id. =AA8.

75.558 P(aDa 7#nclassi$ied> -an der -oort ;<<A) A3;) =A18
7a8 ny'ja-xa-|c |c |c |c-ki
$all&;&INC/&D+CL
0Yo# nearly $ell.1
7"8 ywy'nwy 'Jy-asa-'n-Ja-|c |c |c |c-ny 'ti-ki
tree c#tZleae&.UT&1*/&.RU*T&NMLc hard&D+CL
0I (as !oin! to c#t a(ay the tree tr#n') "#t it (as 7too8 hard.1

Fo( .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers deeloped is certainly one o$ their interestin! aspects. T(o
so#rces in the sa%ple present hypotheses $or A!#ar#na and F#p.
;1
Oerall 7;<<B) 3CB8
s#!!ests that the A!#ar#na .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er &takama is a recently !ra%%aticaliDed $or%
and that it deeloped $ro% 3a periphrastic intentional constr#ction to a s#"ordinatin!
intentional s#$$i6 that (as al(ays acco%panied "y a controllin! er" indicatin! an
#ns#ccess$#l o#tco%e. A s#"seI#ent shi$t o$ the 0$r#stratie1 %eanin! $ro% the controllin!
er" to the s#"ordinate er" !ies #s the c#rrent syste% in A!#ar#na9.
+pps 7;<<C) =;=8 s#!!ests a !ra%%aticaliDation path $or the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er y n o$
the er" (ith the sa%e $or% %eanin! 0order) co%pel) reI#est1) (hich is %ore
strai!ht$or(ard than (hat Oerall presents $or A!#ar#na. These t(o deelop%ents point
to(ard lan!#a!e&internal chan!e) rather than contact) "#t the .RU*TRATI-+ as a $#nctional
cate!ory can apparently "e $o#nd as a "orro(in! in Ma(ayana2 Carlin 7;<<B) 3138 ar!#es
that the $#nctional cate!ory .RU*TRATI-+ is "orro(ed into Ma(ayana 7Ara(a'an8 $ro%
Cari"an) (here it is o"li!atory. ,oth Cari"an lan!#a!es in the sa%ple hae .RU*TRATI-+
%ar'ers 7Fi6'aryana narync) TiriyN rc(pc88) tho#!h they do not see% to "e related to
Ma(ayana &muku 7ety%olo!y #n'no(n8. Carlin "ases her ar!#%ent $or the "orro(in! o$
the $#nctional cate!ory on the $act that it 3has) $or the %ost part) e6actly the sa%e
%orphosyntactic properties as the Cari"an $r#stratie) that is) it can "e %ar'ed on the
%aKor er" classes) and it carries the sa%e %eanin!9 7i"id. 3;B8. I$ this is indeed the case) a

;1
A(etU) a T#pU lan!#a!e not incl#ded in the sa%ple) %ay hae deeloped the IRR+ALI* %ar'er tutcpc
$ro% the .UTUR+ %ar'er tut and the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er tcpc 7Dr#de ;<<C) @;8.
5. Modality 1=3

(orth(hile $#t#re inesti!ation o$ si%ilar contact scenarios $or .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'in! is
hi!hly desira"le.
.or a disc#ssion a"o#t .RU*TRATI-+ as an areal characteristic see section 5.1<.

5.C D+*ID+RATI-+ 5.C D+*ID+RATI-+ 5.C D+*ID+RATI-+ 5.C D+*ID+RATI-+
5.C.1 5.C.1 5.C.1 5.C.1 De$inition De$inition De$inition De$inition
A D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'er pertains to a (ish or desire o$ the s#"Kect o$ the cla#se to carry o#t an
action) to aI#ire an o"Kect or s'ill) or $or a certain eent to ta'e place. This can "e the $irst
person 7spea'er8) "#t also any other 'ind o$ s#"Kect) as in Ap#rinW2

75.5=8 Ap#rinW 7Ara(a'an> .ac#ndes ;<<<) 31=8
7a8 nni-nnika-cnc cnc cnc cnc-ta-ru
1*L&eat&D+*&-,Lc&3M
0I (anted to eat it.1
7"8 nkiti akatsa-cnc cnc cnc cnc-ta-ru
Ka!#ar "ite&D+*&-,Lc&3M
1The Ka!#ar (anted to "ite hi%.1

Other ter%s than D+*ID+RATI-+ $o#nd in the literat#re) (hich so%eti%es denote the sa%e
%eanin! and so%eti%es hae a sli!htly di$$erent one) are optatie and olitie. *o%eti%es)
so&called e6hortaties are #sed to e6press (ishes) "#t since those $or%s are #s#ally
restricted to $irst person COMMANDs) they are coded as FORTATI-+ 7see section 5.@8.

5.C.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.C.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.C.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.C.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
In the present sa%ple o$ =3 lan!#a!es 3@ %orpho&syntactically %ar' D+*ID+RATI-+2

Ap#rinW) Hara(ara) Ay%ara) A(a /it) Tsa$i'i) Fi6'aryana) /anare) TiriyN) A!#ar#na)
MocoU) /ila!X) ,ororo) D]() F#p) Ma%aindO) *a"anO) Matses) *hipi"o&Poni"o)
Ya%inah#a) F#alla!a V#ech#a) I%"a"#ra V#ech#a) Caine^a) C#"eo) Desano)
*aterT&Ma(T) Paritiana) Me'ens) +%Trillon) Pa%ai#rX) Tapiete) Le'o) Moi%a)
Y#ra'arT) PanoO) P(aDa) Tr#%ai) M#nichi) /#inae) and Marao.

The $or% o$ %ar'in! ran!es $ro% s#$$i6ation oer particles to a#6iliaries (ith a clear
pre$erence $or s#$$i6es.
D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers are $reI#ently $o#nd to denote %eanin!s that are related to desire
in "oth Modality and Tense 7"esides their prototypical %eanin!8. The $ollo(in! section
e6plores the D+*ID+RATI-+ hain! INT+NTIONAL) .RU*TRATI-+) /UR/O*I-+) .UTUR+) and directie
$#nctions) as (ell as its distri"#tion patterns and se%antic restrictions.



1=A 5.C desideratie

u5ukA1v anJ VcJa|ity
Not s#rprisin!ly) D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers can e6tend to Modal %eanin!s that are related to the
sense o$ desire) as e.!. INT+NTIONAL. T(o lan!#a!es hae %ar'ers that are a%"i!#o#s
"et(een D+*ID+RATI-+ and INT+NTIONAL2 Hara(ara and Ma%aindO. The D+*ID+RATI-+G INT+NTIONAL
s#$$i6 &ucnc in Hara(ara can "e #sed $or "oth %eanin!s) as can the s#$$i6 &tcn in Ma%aindO
7(hich can in addition re$er to i%%ediate .UTUR+8. The D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &cnikc in Tsa$i'i
only occ#rs in s#"ordinated p#rpose cla#ses. This s#$$i6 and the /UR/O*I-+ s#$$i6 &cnun "oth
encode p#rpose) "#t &cnikc adds a sense o$ desire 7Dic'inson ;<<;) 13;8.
The D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 in Fi6'aryana can i%ply e$$ort on the part o$ the spea'er
7Der"yshire 1@C5) ;3@8. This di$$ers $ro% traditional D+*ID+RATI-+*) (here the desired action
doesG did not 7yet8 ta'e place) "#t the action isG (as carried o#t #ns#ccess$#lly (ith a sense
o$ 0to try1. This relates to .RU*TRATI-+ %eanin!. Fi6'aryana also e%ploys the D+*ID+RATI-+
%ar'er c 7Der"yshire 1@@@) 5C8.

75.5B8 Fi6'aryana 7Cari"an> Der"yshire 1@C5) ;3@8
ti-niki-txankc txankc txankc txankc
AD-c&sleep&D+*
0(antin! to sleep1) 0tryin! to sleep1

75.5C8 Fi6'aryana 7Cari"an> Der"yshire 1@@@) 5@8
c- c cc c w-cn-ana
;&D+* 1*,H&"e&N/*T
0I loe yo#.1

ucsiJcrativc anJ spcccn-acts
Matses has three (ays to e6press desire2 (ith the er" uun 0(ant1 (ith a co%ple%ent cla#se
as o"Kect 7.lec' ;<<3) 1<3A8) (ith the a"ilitatie 7(illin!ness8 s#$$i6 7i"id. 1<538) or (ith the
s#$$i6 &pasnun 7i"id. A3A8. The $irst t(o only apply to sa%e&s#"Kect sit#ations. Mhen &pasnun
is #sed) the spea'er e6presses his desire that so%e"ody else do so%ethin!) i.e. this s#$$i6
denotes a directie. It is not a co%%and) nor een a (ea' co%%and) as there is irt#ally no
$orce "ehind the proposition) "#t it is directed to(ards an addressee 7that %ay een "e
a"sent8. Ay%ara has a paradi!% o$ person and D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6es. It is #sed $or desire)
ad%onitions) and reco%%endations 7Fard%an ;<<1) 11A8. In P(aDa) (hen the s#"KectG
a!ent o$ the cla#se (ith the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 ncta is not a $irst person) it also has directie
$#nction.

75.5@8 Matses 7/anoan> .lec' ;<<3) A3A8
7a8 actc uacusn ac-pasnun pasnun pasnun pasnun
(ater $oa% drin'&D+*
0I (ish he (o#ld drin' "eer.1

5. Modality 1=5

7"8 actc uacusn miui ac-pasnun pasnun pasnun pasnun
(ater $oa% ;+RL drin'&D+*
0I (ish yo# (o#ld drin' "eer.1

75.=<8 P(aDa 7#nclassi$ied> -an der -oort ;<<A) A1=8
pr rr j-nc'ta-Ja-(|c) (|c) (|c) (|c)-ki
spea'&D+*&1*L&.RU*T&D+CL
0I (o#ld li'e hi% to tal'.1

ucsiJcrativc anJ luturc
The A!#ar#na D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 is ho%ophono#s (ith the de$inite .UTUR+ s#$$i6 7&tata8> the
latter is %ore !ra%%aticaliDed. The s#$$i6 %ay "e deried $ro% the i%%ediate .UTUR+ s#$$i6
&ta pl#s the er" tu 0say1 7Oerall ;<<B) 355$.8. The F#p a#6iliary tu also %ar's i%%ediate
.UTUR+) and the Ma%aindO s#$$i6 &tcn) (hich is a%"i!#o#s "et(een D+*ID+RATI-+ and
INT+NTIONAL) can also hae i%%ediate .UTUR+ %eanin!. It cannot co&occ#r (ith the .UTUR+
%ar'ers and is indeed an alternatie .UTUR+ %ar'er in its o(n ri!ht 7+"erhard ;<<@) A;<8.

75.=18 Ma%aindO 7Na%"i'(aran> +"erhard ;<<@) A1@) A;@8
7a8 7iun-tcn tcn tcn tcn-a7-o-wa
sleep&D+*&1*,H&/R*&D+CL
0I intend to sleep.1
7"8 wa-min-tu tc-tcn tcn tcn tcn-|at
n
a-o-wa
/O**;&pet&.N* die&D+*&3*,H&/R*&D+CL
0Yo#r pet (ill die.1

The D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &sicnakwa in Moi%a can also re$er to actions that are a"o#t to occ#r
(hen the 7only8 participant o$ the cla#se is an #nder!oer 7Fa#de ;<<=) AA58. One instance o$
the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &nta in Y#ra'arT also e6hi"its an 0a"o#t to1 %eanin!2

75.=;8 Y#ra'arT 7#nclassi$ied> -an LiKn ;<<=) ;<<8
masni-nta nta nta nta-o
rain&D+*&3
0It (ants to rain 7i.e.2 it loo's li'e it1s !oin! to rain8.1

One D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'er (as $o#nd (hich re%otely relates to the Aspect#al INCOM/L+T+2 The
Paritiana D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &wak %ar's eents that nearly happened 7+erett ;<<=) ;C<8)
there$ore addin! a sense o$ inco%pleteness as (ell as .RU*TRATI-+.




1== 5.C desideratie

75.=38 Paritiana 7T#pUan> +erett ;<<=) ;C<8
7a8 t n i-pit7i -wak wak wak wak
1*L INTR&eat&D+*
0I (ant to eat.1
7"8 i-taka-tat-awak awak awak awak t n
1*L.A,*&*A/&!o&D+* 1*L
0I al%ost (ent.1

8cJi|y juncticns/ urqcs, anJ wcatncr prcJicatcs
The PanoO D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 #s#ally occ#rs (ith "odily $#nctions) "#t not e6cl#siely.
;;

F#alla!a V#ech#a has a D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &na: (hich occ#rs on no#ns 7Me"er 1@C@) 338) "#t
also on er"s> in the latter case it occ#rs (ith "odily $#nctions and (eather predicates
;3

7i"id. 1B<$.8. The D+*ID+RATI-+ on er"s can tri!!er a sli!ht chan!e o$ %eanin!) as seen in
75.=A"8 and 75.=Ac8. I%"a"#ra V#ech#a has a D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 (hich is not so restricted
se%antically and also occ#rs on "oth no#ns and er"s 7c$. Cole 1@C5) 1C<$.8. The D+*ID+RATI-+
s#$$i6 &wcj in Pa%ai#rX is restricted to physical desire or appetite. Any other desire has to "e
e6pressed "y the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &pctat 7*e'i ;<<<) 13;8.

75.=A8 F#alla!a V#ech#a 7V#ech#an> Me"er 1@C@) 33) 1B<) 1B18
7a8 yaku-na: na: na: na:- -- -
(ater&D+*
0to "e thirsty) to (ant (ater1
7"8 cniw||a-na: na: na: na:- -- -
to.#rinate&D+*
0to need to #rinate1
7c8 csnya-na na na na-sna cya-yka-n cnakay tamya-rku-r
sic'&D+*&/TC/ /A**2day&I/.-&3 ni!ht rain&A*/C&AD-
0All day it is clo#ded oer) hain! rained last ni!ht.1

,ororo has e6a%ples (ith the D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'er and the er" 0#rinate12

75.=58 ,ororo 7Macro&LOan> Nonato ;<<C) 11A8
(i aiJu rc) i kiquruJu wc wc wc wc
71*L (ant A**R8 1*L #rinate D+*
0I (ant to #rinate.1 7ori!. 0e# I#ero #rinar.18

In Moi%a) the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &sicnakwa also occ#rs in cla#ses (hich denote a 0physical
#r!e12

22
.or instance) sleep) #rinate) eat) s#c') spea') 'noc' do(n) play) carry) lay do(n 7c$. ,acelar ;<<A8.
;3
The Y#ra'arT D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &nta also occ#rs (ith (eather 7rain8 7c$. 75.=;88.
5. Modality 1=B

75.==8 Moi%a 7#nclassi$ied> Fa#de ;<<=) AA=8
jayna n-cs za:ra:-wa, in cncj-sicnakwa sicnakwa sicnakwa sicnakwa,
DI*C O,V&ART.N./*T (a'e\#p&NMLc 1INTR #rinate.D+*
ua kwayi:-maj n_cs pcmc:-wa
"#t laDiness&-LC O,V&ART.N./*T !et\#p&NMLc
0As I (o'e #p) I had to #rinate) "#t I (as too laDy to !et #p.1

Most o$ the D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers $o#nd in so%e (ay ori!inated in $or%s 7%ostly er"s8 (ith
si%ilar %eanin!. .or e6a%ple) the C#"eo D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &ijiG &ji deries $ro% the statie
er" i 0(ant) desire) loe1 7Morse and Ma6(ell 1@@@) ;C8. The D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &pctat in
Pa%ai#rX also e6ists as independent er" pctat 0(ant) enKoy1 7*e'i ;<<<) 13;8. Rose 7;<<3)
A;=8 clai%s that the D+*ID+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &tan - -tanc deries $ro% the er" pcta| 0(ant1
$ollo(ed "y the particle nc - n 0contrastie1. The er" pcta| %ay also "e the ori!in o$ the
.UTUR+ s#$$i6 &ta|. The Y#ra'arT s#$$i6 &nta %ay derie $ro% INT+NTIONAL &ni and /OT+NTIAL &ta
7-an LiKn ;<<=) ;<<8.
Altho#!h the D+*ID+RATI-+ $or%s in the sa%ple %ostly di$$er ery %#ch $ro% one
another) a $e( lan!#a!es e6hi"it si%ilar $or%s. The stron!est case o$ the ass#%ption that
(e are dealin! (ith the sa%e $or% cross&lin!#istically can "e %ade $or the V#ech#an)
Na%"i'(aran and /anoan lan!#a!es in the sa%ple) "#t also T#pUan 7L#aranU8. .or a %ore
detailed st#dy o$ D+*ID+RATI-+ as a characteristic o$ *A d#e to a co%"ination o$ areal and
!enealo!ical e$$ects see M#eller 7;<138.

5.@ 5.@ 5.@ 5.@ COMMAND COMMAND COMMAND COMMAND TY/+* TY/+* TY/+* TY/+*
5.@.1 5.@.1 5.@.1 5.@.1 De$initions De$initions De$initions De$initions
COMMAND* $all #nder *pea'er&oriented Modality 70eent %odality1 in /al%er ;<<18 and 3allo(
the spea'er to i%pose 4S5 conditions on the addressee9 7,y"ee et al. 1@@A) 1B@8 . A COMMAND
is a speech act that reI#ires at least t(o participants2 a spea'er #tterin! the co%%and and
an addressee (ho is "ein! co%%anded. There is no li%it to ho( %any persons are at either
the co%%andin! or receiin! end. A spea'er can co%%and "y hi%sel$ or as an a#thority on
"ehal$ o$ a !ro#p) and the addressee can "e a speci$ic person) a !ro#p) and een incl#de the
spea'er hi%sel$. This section deals (ith a selection o$ COMMAND* that (ill "e o#tlined "elo(.
At the onset) a note a"o#t ter%inolo!y is necessary) ho(eer.
The ter%s 0COMMAND1 and 0IM/+RATI-+1 are o$ten #sed synony%o#sly) "#t as Ai'henald
7;<1<) 18 points o#t) a co%%and can "e !ien "y other %eans than IM/+RATI-+ and an
IM/+RATI-+ does not necessarily coney a co%%and. Fere) 0IM/+RATI-+1 is a ter% restricted to
second person COMMAND*) and 0COMMAND1 re$ers to a speech&act (ith a $orce "ehind it that
pro%pts an addressee to carry o#t the desired action. I$ this action is %ar'ed it receies the
respectie ter% 7as disc#ssed "elo(8. The ter% COMMAND is #sed as an #%"rella&ter% $or all
o$ these ter%s.
*earle 71@B58 de$ines COMMAND* as directie speech&acts that hae illoc#tionary $orce) i.e.
ca#se the addressee to do so%ethin!. This also incl#des adice) reI#ests) and (arnin!s)
1=C 5.@ co%%and types

"esides others) (hich are !enerated "y ho( %#ch $orce there is "ehind the co%%and. The
traditional and prototypical COMMAND is !ien to a second person addressee and has $orce
"ehind it as in 0Yo# hae to $inish yo#r thesis[1) "#t other COMMAND types) s#ch as /OLIT+
COMMAND*) hae lesser $orce. It is a topic o$ !reat disc#ssion o$ (here a tr#e COMMAND ends
and other directies) s#ch as reI#ests) (ishes) or s#!!estions) "e!in) and this is een $#rther
co%plicated "y speci$ic social conte6ts. The present st#dy ac'no(led!es these pro"le%s)
"#t circ#%ents the% in tr#stin! in the ori!inal analyses o$ the so#rces.
In the literat#re) COMMAND* hae "een !ien a ran!e o$ ter%s s#ch as 0hortatie)
hortatory) cohortatie) e6hortatory1) and 0K#ssie1. The latter is traditionally #sed (ith third
person addressees and the $irst $o#r (ith $irst person addressees) "#t they occ#r also (ith
the e6act opposite %eanin!s) or co%prisin! %ore than one person. Fere) the ter%
IM/+RATI-+ is restricted to second person addressees) FORTATI-+ to $irst person addressees)
and HU**I-+ to third person addressees. COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND* denote any COMMAND that applies
to %ore than one person) i.e. any co%"ination o$ $irst) second) and third person. /ROFI,ITI-+
re$ers to a ne!atie COMMAND 70Don1t do Y[18) and /OLIT+ COMMAND to a so$t or (ea' co%%and.
There is no n#%"er distinction in any o$ those cate!ories) i.e. no sin!#lar or pl#ral
distinction. /OLIT+ COMMAND* and /ROFI,ITI-+* can re$er to any person addressee. The
$ollo(in! section o#tlines the indiid#al COMMAND types (ith e6a%ples.
The IM/+RATI-+ is #ndisp#ta"ly the canonical COMMAND as $o#nd in the literat#re 7e.!. in
Ai'henald ;<1<8. The addressee is a second person) sin!#lar or pl#ral) and there is a stron!
$orce "ehind the COMMAND. The spea'er directly addresses the intended person and leaes
no do#"t a"o#t his intention> he #s#ally has so%e 'ind o$ a#thority oer the addressee. A
strai!ht$or(ard direct second person COMMAND is $o#nd in Desano2

75.=B8 Desano 7T#canoan> Miller 1@@@) B38
yi-rc karta qcna-ucc-kc kc kc kc
1*L&*/C letter (rite&send&IM/
0Do (rite and send %e a letter[1

A FORTATI-+ has identical spea'er7s8 and addressee7s8. The FORTATI-+ s#$$i6 &t
n
anta/ -natanta
in Ma%aindO incl#des the spea'er and addressee) "#t the spea'er can also direct the
co%%and solely to hi%sel$ (ith no other person inoled) as in Map#che. Typically) the
latter is translated as 0Let %eS1 and the $or%er (ith 0Let #sS1.

75.=C8 Ma%aindO 7Na%"i'(aran> +"erhard ;<<@) AB@8
t
n
cnati-ijan-tu 7ai-natanta natanta natanta natanta-wa
there&D+M&.N* !o&FORT&NINTRL
0Let1s !o oer there[1



5. Modality 1=@

75.=@8 Map#che 7Ara#canian> *%eets ;<<C) 1C58
cntu-cni cni cni cni tuj4
ta'e.o#t&FORT1*L this
0Let %e ta'e this o#t.1

The FORTATI-+ in Map#che re$ers to a proposition or (ish 7*%eets ;<<C) 1C58 and it is
ar!#a"le (hether FORTATI-+ has as %#ch $orce as an IM/+RATI-+ or rather re$ers %ore to a
reI#est or s#!!estion) (hich (o#ld still "e a directie) "#t not a COMMAND.
The HU**I-+ is si%ilarly an ar!#a"ly lo(&$orce directie> it has the least direct connection
to the spea'er. The addressee is not directly spo'en to) and een does not need to "e
present. The COMMAND ta'es a deto#r ia a second person that is ordered to do so%ethin! to
a third person) "#t (itho#t an IM/+RATI-+ %ar'er. This o$ten appears to "e a (ish or
s#!!estion) rather than co%%and.

75.B<8 F#p 7Nadah#p> +pps ;<<C) =3A8
nn-way-nt n-yi7 nt n, tt n-nup tt n way-7 77 7n n n n
carry&!o.o#t&N+L&T+L "e.IM/ 3*LZR+.L 3*L !o.o#t&HU*
0Don1t carry hi% o#t 7o$ the ho#se8> let hi% !o o#t "y hi%sel$.1

The COMMAND type (ith the least $orce "ehind it in this sa%ple is the /OLIT+ COMMAND. It %ay
"e chosen "y a spea'er in a de$ined social settin! 7e.!. the spea'er lac's the s#$$icient
a#thority oer the addressee (hen the addressee is o$ hi!her stat#s8) or as a si!n o$ respect
or $a%iliarity. In A(a /it) the relationship o$ spea'er and addressee is not the cr#cial $actor
$or choosin! the /OLIT+ COMMAND s#$$i6 &n(a)ka) "#t rather the %essa!e content) (hich
"orders on a s#!!estion 7C#rno( 1@@B) ;A=8. Mhateer the reason) a /OLIT+ COMMAND $or%
i%plies that the co%%and !ien is (ea'er) or so$ter) than an IM/+RATI-+) and closely "orders
on a reI#est or een a I#estion) "#t it is not an interro!atie as it occ#rs in non&
interro!atie cla#ses. The spea'er does e6pect the co%%and to "e carried o#t) (hich
di$$erentiates it $ro% a real I#estion.

75.B18 A(a /it 7,ar"acoan> C#rno( 1@@B) ;A=8
ayna-t kwa-nka nka nka nka|
coo'&*- eat&/OL.COM
0Coo' and eat it[1 7(hen !iin! a present o$ $ood8

In I%"a"#ra V#ech#a) the honori$ic %ar'er &pa can co&occ#r (ith the IM/+RATI-+ %ar'er
3re$errin! to the actions o$ older or respected indiid#als) or indiid#als $or (ho% the
spea'er $eels a$$ection9 7Cole 1@C5) 318. ,eca#se this is a !eneral politeness %ar'er (hich
also occ#rs in non&IM/+RATI-+ cla#ses) this is not a /OLIT+N+** COMMAND %ar'er.
COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND* are %ar'ers that can re$er to any co%"ination o$ $irst) second) or
third person addressee. These di$$er $ro% IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+) and HU**I-+ as those re$er to
1B< 5.@ co%%and types

one speci$ic person only. In P(aDa) the COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND s#$$i6 &ni can re$er to either $irst
person incl#sie or third person2

75.B;8 P(aDa 7#nclassi$ied> -an der -oort ;<<A) 3<C8
7a8 n 'kui-a-ni ni ni ni
(ater drin'&1/L&COL.COM
0Let #s drin'[1
7"8 ka'wc kui-'ni ni ni ni
co$$ee drin'&COL.COM
0Let hi% hae co$$ee[1

/ROFI,ITI-+ is any 'ind o$ ne!atie COMMAND (ith the %eanin! o$ 3Don1t do Y9. This is #s#ally
the ne!ation o$ the IM/+RATI-+) "#t %ay also incl#de shadin!s in %eanin! li'e threats or
(arnin!s 7also called ad%onities8) (hich %ean 3Don1t do Y so that notG"eca#seGin order
to aoid S9 One and the sa%e %ar'er %ay "e #sed $or /ROFI,ITI-+ and its ario#s se%antic
o$$sprin!s) or each %ay hae its o(n %ar'er. A typical e6a%ple $or a %ar'er (ith
prototypical /ROFI,ITI-+ %eanin! is $o#nd in A(a /it 7mun82

75.B38 A(a /it 7,ar"acoan> C#rno( 1@@B) ;AB8
kutku-mun mun mun mun|
tell.a.lie&/ROF.*L
0Don?t lie[1

Ta"le 5.5 s#%%ariDes the correlation o$ COMMAND type deno%inations and person and
positieG ne!atie) and !ies appropriate +n!lish e6a%ples.

Ta"le 5.52 COMMAND types
/ositie Ne!atie +6a%ple
COMMAND
typesG
person
1st
person
;nd
person
3rd
person
More than
one
person

FORTATI-+ 6 & & & & Let %e !o[
IM/+RATI-+ & 6 & & & Lo[
HU**I-+ & & 6 & & Let her !o[
COLL+CTI-+
COMMAND
& & & 6 & 7All or a selection o$ the
three a"oe8
/OLIT+
COMMAND
6 6 6 6 & Lo) please[
/ROFI,ITI-+ 6 6 6 6 6 Do not !o[

5.@.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.@.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.@.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple 5.@.; Distri"#tion in the sa%ple
At $irst) the !reat n#%"er o$ lan!#a!es %ar'in! at least one COMMAND type %orpho&
syntactically stands o#t. 5; o#t o$ =3 lan!#a!es in the sa%ple hae an IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+)
5. Modality 1B1

HU**I-+) COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND) /OLIT+ COMMAND) or /ROFI,ITI-+ %ar'er. O$ the nine lan!#a!es not
%ar'in! any COMMAND type) it is possi"le that COMMAND %ar'ers e6ist in the% as (ell (hich
are K#st not reealed "y the 7yet8 #nsatis$yin! state o$ the respectie doc#%entation. A
candidate is o$ co#rse /anare) altho#!h the doc#%entation $or at least Mari1) MocoU) and
/ila!X is satis$actory eno#!h to state (ith %odest certainty that there is no %orpho&
syntactic COMMAND type %ar'in!.
HU**I-+* and /OLIT+ COMMAND* are least %ar'ed 7"oth 118) $ollo(ed "y COLL+CTI-+
IM/+RATI-+* 71=8 and FORTATI-+* 7;38) and the %ost %ar'ed COMMAND* are /ROFI,ITI-+* 73<8 and
IM/+RATI-+* 7A58. Re!ardless o$ ho( %any di$$erent %ar'ers a lan!#a!e %ay hae $or one and
the sa%e COMMAND type and re!ardless o$ (hich COMMAND type is %ar'ed) nine lan!#a!es do
not %ar' any COMMAND type) 1; %ar' one) 1= %ar' t(o) 1= %ar' three) seen %ar' $o#r) t(o
%ar' $ie) and one %ar's all si6 COMMAND types 7see ta"le 5.=8.
.or%al %ar'in! is dierse and ran!es $ro% a$$i6es and clitics oer particles to
a#6iliaries. The position o$ a$$i6es and clitics) ho(eer) is s#rprisin!ly o$ten to the le$t o$
the er" co%pared to Tense) Aspect) and Modality 7other than IM/+RATI-+8 %ar'in!. *till)
,y"ee1s 71@C5) 1B3) ori!inal hi!hli!htin!8 res#lt that 3it is %#ch %ore co%%on to hae an
i%peratie sujjix than a prcjix9 is con$ir%ed.
A co%%on strate!y o$ e6pressin! COMMAND* is hain! the "are er"al ste%) either (ith
or (itho#t person prono#ns and (ith no other TAM+ %ar'in!. +en lan!#a!es in the
sa%ple that do hae %orpho&syntactic COMMAND %ar'in! allo( $or alternatie strate!ies)
s#ch as e%ployin! .UTUR+ or *U,HUNCTI-+. *o%eti%es these hae the sa%e %eanin! as
IM/+RATI-+) so%eti%es they di$$er in $orce) e.!. politeness) $ro% the %ar'ed IM/+RATI-+*. .or a
st#dy o$ these and co%%and strate!ies in !eneral the interested reader is re$erred to the
%ono!raph "y Ai'henald 7;<1<8. The present st#dy $oc#ses on %orpho&syntactic COMMAND
%ar'in! only) "#t I (anted to point o#t that this does not %ean that the lan!#a!es in the
sa%ple lac' ario#s other %eans o$ e6pressin! co%%ands in all their arieties.
The $ollo(in! sections disc#ss the distri"#tion o$ COMMAND %ar'in! in the sa%ple and
co%%ent #pon selected pec#liarities. The !eo!raphicalG !enealo!ical distri"#tion o$
%ar'in! is disc#ssed in section 5.1<.

6cncra|izaticns
The $ollo(in! !eneraliDations can "e %ade $or lan!#a!es that %ar' at least one COMMAND
type2

1. Mhen a *AIL %orpho&syntactically %ar's a COMMAND type) it is %ost li'ely the
IM/+RATI-+. Lan!#a!es that do not $ollo( this pattern are Nheen!at_) C#"eo)
Itona%a) M#nichU) Yanesha1) /aresi) Paro) Me'ens) and Pa%ai#rX. I$ one incl#des
/ROFI,ITI-+ it is only C#"eo and Itona%a that do not $it this pattern. These t(o
lan!#a!es appear as e6ceptions thro#!ho#t the COMMAND type data.
;. Mhen /ROFI,ITI-+ is not %ar'ed) IM/+RATI-+ is al(ays %ar'ed 7a!ain e6cept $or
Itona%a and C#"eo8.
1B; 5.@ co%%and types

3. Mhen IM/+RATI-+ is not %ar'ed) /ROFI,ITI-+ is al(ays %ar'ed 7a!ain e6cept $or
Itona%a and C#"eo8.
A. Mhen FORTATI-+ is %ar'ed) IM/+RATI-+ is al(ays %ar'ed too.
5. HU**I-+ is neer the only COMMAND %ar'ed> at least IM/+RATI-+ is al(ays %ar'ed too.
=. Mhen "oth HU**I-+ and IM/+RATI-+ are %ar'ed) FORTATI-+ is %ar'ed as (ell 7e6cept
$or F#p8.
B. /olite COMMANDs are only %ar'ed (hen at least IM/+RATI-+ is %ar'ed too 7(ith the
e6ception o$ /aresi8.
It is possi"le to !eneraliDe the $ollo(in! direction o$ %ar'in! 7see also ta"le 5.=82


.i!#re 5.32 hierarchy o$ COMMAND %ar'in!


Lien the $act that C#"eo and Itona%a do not $it the !eneral pattern o$ COMMAND
%ar'in!) they (ill no( "e loo'ed at in detail.
In C#"eo) the s#$$i6 &xA is $o#nd in COMMAND* re$errin! to all three persons. The er"
receies the COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND s#$$i6 and the respectie person prono#ns. The $irst person
pl#ral FORTATI-+ has an alternatie constr#ction (itho#t &xA (hich i%plies %ore #r!ency
7Morse E Ma6(ell 1@@@) ;A&;=8. No other COMMAND %ar'er co#ld "e $o#nd in Morse and
Ma6(ell 71@@@8. The other T#canoan lan!#a!e in the sa%ple is Desano) (hich sho(s a
co%pletely di$$erent COMMAND %ar'in! syste% 7IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+) HU**I-+8. This is not
s#rprisin!) "eca#se) accordin! to ,arnes 71@@@) ;<@8) they "elon! to I#ite di$$erent
"ranches2 C#"eo is Central T#canoan and Desano +astern Central T#canoan. Another
T#canoan lan!#a!e not in the sa%ple) T#cano 7+astern Northern T#canoan accordin! to
+thnolo!#e8) has an IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6 (-ya/ -a/ -a8) "#t no COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND either 7Mest
1@C<) AC$$.8. .#rther research is necessary to esta"lish (hether C#"eo is an e6ception in
COMMAND %ar'in! not only in the present sa%ple) "#t also (ithin the T#canoan $a%ily.
The pre$i6 that %ar's IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+) and HU**I-+ in Itona%a 7ki&8 is ho%ophono#s
(ith the INT+NTIONAL pre$i6. The relationship "et(een intention and co%%and is easy to see)
"#t the direct relations are yet to "e inesti!ated. Certainly) this pre$i6 is not a typical
COMMAND %ar'er and this %ay e6plain (hy Itona%a does not $it the !eneraliDation pattern
a"oe. Until %ore data "eco%es aaila"le) ki& is treated as a%"i!#o#s %orphe%e 7"et(een
COMMAND and INT+NTIONAL8.
5. Modality 1B3

75.BA8 Itona%a 7#nclassi$ied> Creels p.c.8
7a8 Jin-ki ki ki ki-yaka-nc waripancrc
1/L.INCL&IM/GFORTGHU*GINT&sin!&N (aripahoro
0Let1s sin! the waripancrc.1
7"8 a-ki ki ki ki-yaka-nc
;*L&IM/GFORTGHU*GINT&sin!&N
0*in![1
7c8 kc kc kc kc-pcnkc|c-na sc-pa-cnn-kc
IM/GFORTGHU*GINT&"e.I#iet&N 1*L.IN-&speech&"other&/L
0Let hi% "e I#iet) he "others %e (ith his noise.1
7d8 cnapcnkc mamana sc-payki-nc asscsiyc ni-kanc
to%orro( AUY2.UT 1*L.IN-&"rin!&N Ascensio CL.2sin#o#s&one
pakisinc as-mi-karcta as-ki ki ki ki-ncs-kcs-cni-nc
CONH2/UR/ 1*L&R+L&o6cart 1*L&IM/GFORTGHU*GINT&#p&side&attach&N
0To%orro( Ascensio is !oin! to "rin! %e a yo'e o$ o6en so that I can attach %y
o6cart to the yo'e.1

Mhile it is not possi"le to disc#ss eery detail a"o#t *AILs1 COMMAND %ar'in!) a $e( topics o$
interest that e%er!e o#t o$ the data are no( hi!hli!hted2 7i8 three lan!#a!es that e6hi"it
.AMILIAR COMMAND %ar'ers) 7ii8 MOTION COMMAND* 7space and ti%e8.
Three lan!#a!es hae distinct %ar'ers $or COMMAND* that apply to $a%ily or $riends) or
in !eneral $a%iliar persons) and (hich are) $or lac' o$ a "etter ter%) called here .AMILIAR
COMMAND2 A!#ar#na) Ya%inah#a) and Ma%aindO. They are pro"a"ly not si%ply s#"types o$
/OLIT+ COMMAND*) "eca#se the latter t(o possess a di$$erent %ar'er $or /OLIT+ COMMAND*
7altho#!h it is o$ co#rse possi"le that /OLIT+ COMMAND %ar'ers in other lan!#a!es in the
sa%ple incl#de the possi"ility to #se the% (ith $a%iliars8) and "eca#se the Ma%aindO
%ar'er clearly has %ore $orce than either IM/+RATI-+ or /OLIT+ COMMAND 7see "elo(8.
In A!#ar#na) the .AMILIAR COMMAND s#$$i6 &kia is #sed in COMMAND* that are directed
to(ards $a%ily %e%"ers o$ $riends 7Oerall ;<<B) 3518. A /OLIT+ COMMAND is e6pressed "y a
co%"ination o$ the IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &ta and the atten#tie s#$$i6 &sa 7i"id. ;@;8. The
IM/+RATI-+ is clearly the stron!est COMMAND o$ the three) "#t the e6act di$$erence in %eanin!
"et(een a .AMILIAR and a /OLIT+ COMMAND re%ains to "e inesti!ated.
Unli'e A!#ar#na) Ya%inah#a does hae a separate /OLIT+ COMMAND %ar'er 7s#$$i6 &k8
(hich is a so$ter COMMAND than IM/+RATI-+ 7s#$$i6 &jc8) "#t a!ain) the e6act di$$erence
"et(een /OLIT+ and .AMILIAR COMMAND is #n'no(n 7e6cept $or the $act that the $a%iliar
COMMAND o$ten co&occ#rs (ith the #r!ency s#$$i6 &xtc8 7.a#st E Loos ;<<;) 15@$.8.
In Ma%aindO) the nor%al IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &tann is contrasted (ith the /OLIT+ COMMAND
s#$$i6 &tsn. Additionally) the .AMILIAR COMMAND s#$$i6 &tan is #sed in in$or%al and colloI#ial
conte6ts and e6presses the %ost $orce 7+"erhard ;<<@) ABC$.8. This %ar'er is certainly
co%pletely di$$erent $ro% those in A!#ar#na and Yanesha1) altho#!h directed to ro#!hly
the sa%e a#dience. ,#t (hereas the increased leel o$ $a%iliarity and inti%acy "et(een
1BA 5.@ co%%and types

spea'er and addressee leads to an increased leel o$ politeness in the $irst t(o lan!#a!es) in
Ma%aindO it leads to an al%ost peKoratie #sa!e.
The $ollo(in! e6a%ples $irst !ie the IM/+RATI-+) then the /OLIT+ COMMAND or alternatie
constr#ction) and then the .AMILIAR COMMAND %ar'ers.

75.B58 A!#ar#na 7Hiaroan> Oerall ;<<B) 351) ;@;) 3518
7a8 mai-ta ta ta ta IM/+RATI-+
"atheaLOA.&IM/
0Fae a "ath[1
7"8 uwa-sa-ta ta ta ta /OLIT+ COMMAND
drin'&ATT&IM/ constr#ction
0Drin'[1
7c8 mai-kia kia kia kia .AMILIAR COMMAND
"atheaLOA.&.AM.IM/
0Fae a "ath[1

75.B=8 Ya%inah#a 7/anoan> .a#st and Loos ;<<;) 15@) 1=<8
7a8 kirika anc-jc jc jc jc IM/+RATI-+
"oo' read&IM/
0Read the "oo'[1 7ori!. 0Lee el li"ro.18
7"8 mia yci-nc nc nc nc, nika-k k k k. /OLIT+ COMMAND
I yo# tal'&COL.COM listen&/OL.COM
0Let %e tal' to yo#) listen.1 7ori!. 0Te oy a ha"lar) esc#cha.18
7c8 c-pc pc pc pc .AMILIAR COMMAND
co%e&.AM.IM/
0Co%e[1 7ori!. 0-en.18

75.BB8 Ma%aindO 7Na%"i'(aran> +"erhard ;<<@) AB@) 3A5) AB@8
7a8 7ain- sun-tann tann tann tann-wa IM/+RATI-+
$ish&.N* 'ill&IM/&N.INT
0Pill the $ish[1
7"8 ta7|cnna-ki7 tanu-tsn tsn tsn tsn-wa. /OLIT+ COMMAND
old.(o%an&incl&also !ie&/OL.COM&N.INT
0Lie 7so%e8 to the old (o%an as (ell.1
7c8 na7tin ana7-tan tan tan tan .AMILIAR COMMAND
I#ic'ly stop&.AM.COM
0*top I#ic'ly[1

5. Modality 1B5

/OLIT+ COMMAND* are $o#nd in %any lan!#a!es as a "y&prod#ct o$ Modality %ar'in! di$$erent
$ro% COMMAND %ar'in!. .or e6a%ple) in Mari1 and ,a#re) the IRR+ALI* %ar'ers can re$er to a
/OLIT+ COMMAND and reI#ests and s#!!estions.
;A

MOTION COMMAND* speci$y %otion) either to or a(ay $ro% the spea'er and in !eneral
inole a %otion er". A MOTION COMMAND a(ay $ro% the spea'er is so%eti%es re$erred to as
0enitie1 70Co%e and do Y[18) to(ards the spea'er as 0allatie1 7Lo and do Y[18.
;5
,eca#se a
$e( lan!#a!es in the *AILs sa%ple do e6hi"it MOTION COMMAND*) they (ill "e no( disc#ssed.
,oth Cari"an lan!#a!es in the sa%ple 7Fi6'aryana and TiriyN8 %a'e a distinction o$
NONMOTION s. MOTION COMMAND %ar'in!. Fi6'aryana has t(o di$$erent paradi!%s $or
co%%ands inolin! %otion and non%otion. The non%otion paradi!% has c#%#latie
%orphe%es $or the $#ll ran!e o$ persons 71
st
) ;
nd
) 1
st
incl) 3
rd
8 and n#%"er 7indiid#alG
collectie8) "#t the %otion paradi!% only $or 1
st
and ;
nd
person and n#%"er 7Der"yshire
1@C5) 1@A$.8. Fi6'aryana MOTION COMMAND* are #sed (hen the er" in the COMMAND cla#se is a
%otion er" and see% restricted to allatie %eanin!s.
TiriyN has a si%ilar syste%2 IM/+RATI-+* that do not inole %otion a(ay $ro% the
spea'er are %ar'ed "y &k) (hereas IM/+RATI-+* that do are %ar'ed "y -ta 7Meira 1@@@) 31@8
7co%pare (ith the MOTION IM/+RATI-+ $or% &ta in Fiy'aryana8.

75.BC8 Fi6'aryana 7Cari"an> Der"yhsire 1@C5) 1@5) 1@58
7a8 a-wancta-kc kc kc kc
;*L&sin!&NMOT.IM/
0*in![1
7"8 o-cwcni-ta ta ta ta
LNR.&ta'e.a."ath&MOT.IM/
0Lo ta'e a "ath.1

75.B@8 TiriyN 7Cari"an> Meira 1@@@) 31@) 31@8
7a8 twaar cn-k k k k
care$#l CO/&NMOT.IM/
0,e care$#l[1
7"8 papa_pa i-wa-t tt t
;2$ather\R+/ 3O&$etch&MOT.IM/
0Lo !et yo#r $ather[1

In Coca%a&Coca%illa) a enitie MOTION COMMAND is %ar'ed "y the constr#ction er" a
enitie a#6iliary uri and s#"Kect s#ppression or the particle tsaniuri) and an allatie MOTION

;A
Interestin!ly) the .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er Zcni in Y#ra'arT has politeness al#e in co%"ination (ith
COMMAND* 7Lipper ;<11) 1CB8.
;5
*AILs not in the sa%ple (hich hae MOTION COMMAND* incl#de Manano and ,arasano 7"oth +ast
T#canoan8 7Ai'henald ;<1<) 3BA$$.8.
1B= 5.@ co%%and types

COMMAND "y the particle yawa 7-alleKos YopXn ;<1<) 5AC$$.8. The canonical IM/+RATI-+
(itho#t enitie %eanin! is #n%ar'ed and e6pressed "y the "are er" (ith a special
intonation pattern. The $or% uri) (hich e6ists as the independent er" 0co%e1) also occ#rs
in the /OLIT+ IM/+RATI-+ %orphe%e tsaniuri 7(ith tsani 0try18 and e6presses an initation to
co%e and do Y> the a#6iliary uri can co&occ#r (ith this $or% "#t this is not necessary. I'a
has a enitie MOTION COMMAND that is si%ilar in $or% to the particle yawa2 the a#6iliary
awa.
;=


75.C<8 Coca%a&Coca%illa 7T#pUan) L#aranU> -alleKos YopXn ;<1<) 5AC) 5AC) 555) 5=<8
7a8 utsu
!o
0Lo[1
7"8 cy-uri
eat&AUY
0Co%e to eat[1
7c8 yawa yatsuka
MOT.IM/ ta'e."ath
0Lo ta'e a "ath[1
7d8 tsaniuri tsaniuri tsaniuri tsaniuri yatsuk-uri
MOT./OL.IM/ ta'e."athZAUY
0Co%e and ta'e a "ath.1

75.C18 I'a 7Chi"chan) Ar#a'> .ran' 1@C5) 11C8
awakati Jzc iJc-awa
aocado (ater spill&AUY
07Lo8 (ater the aocado tree[ 7oer thereG a(ay81

In addition to COMMAND* that are near or re%oed in space) COMMAND* can "e %ar'ed
accordin! to (hether they are near or re%oed in ti%e. Tariana has a special %ar'er &wa
$or a postponed COMMAND 7Ai'henald ;<<3) 3B38. Hara(ara partially con$lates these
%eanin!s2 it has IM/+RATI-+ %ar'ers $or 0here and no(1 and 0in so%e distant ti%e or place1
7Di6on ;<<A) 3@B8. In TiriyN) the IRR+ALI* %ar'er co&occ#rrin! (ith IM/+RATI-+ %ar'in!
indicates that the action is to "e carried o#t later.



;=
The ele%ent awa occ#rs as a no#n in Coca%a&Coca%illa %eanin! 0people) h#%an "ein!1 and as
interro!atie 0(ho1) in the er" yawacnima 0arrie1) and in the ader" kawa 0$ar a(ay1 7$o#nd in -alleKos
YopXn ;<1<8. .ro% these) the latter $or% is possi"ly related to the MOTION COMMAND.

5. Modality 1BB

75.C;8 Tariana 7Ara(a'an> Ai'henald ;<<3) 3B38
Jiwcsc-wya pi-a-wa wa wa wa nuitc
then&+YTRAL ;*L&!o&IM/ 1*L.da#!hter2-OC
0Lo a little later) %y da#!hter[1

75.C38 Hara(ara 7Ara(an> Di6on ;<<A) 3@B) 3B@8
7a8 ctara ncki ti-na-ni ni ni ni
1+YCL.O,H (ait ;*L.*,H&AUY&IMM.IM/..
0Yo# 7s!8 (ait $or #s 7here and no(8[1
7"8 ctara ncki ti-jani jani jani jani
1+YCL.O,H (ait ;*L.*,H&DI*T.IM/..
0Yo# 7s!8 (ait $or #s 7in so%e distant place or ti%e8[1

.i!#re 5.12 N#%"er o$ *AILs %ar'in! COMMAND types



.i!#re 5.;2 N#%"er o$ *AILs %ar'in! n#%"er o$ COMMAND types





1BC 5.@ co%%and types

Ta"le 5.=2 COMMAND type %ar'in! in the *AILs
LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ .AMILY .AMILY .AMILY .AMILY IM/ IM/ IM/ IM/ /ROF /ROF /ROF /ROF FORT FORT FORT FORT COL COL COL COL
COM COM COM COM
/OL /OL /OL /OL
COM COM COM COM
HU* HU* HU* HU* TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
1 /anare Cari"an <
; Mari1 Chapac#ran <
3 Chi%ila Chi"chan <
A Teh#elche Chonan <
5 MocoU L#ayc#r#an <
= /ila!X L#ayc#r#an <
B ,ororo Macro&LOan <
C Pain!an! Macro&LOan <
@ Ti%"ira Macro&LOan <
1< Tsa$i'i ,ar"acoan 1
11 MosetTn Mosetenan 1
1; +%"era Chocoan 1
13 C#Dco
V#ech#a
V#ech#an 1
1A PanoO Unclassi$ied 1
15 Paritiana T#pUan 1
1= Marao Unclassi$ied 1
1B Nheen!at_ T#pUan) L#aranU 1
1C Yanesha1 Ara(a'an 1
1@ M#nichi Unclassi$ied 1
;< Itona%a Unclassi$ied 1
;1 C#"eo T#canoan 1
;; Hara(ara Ara(an ;
;3 D]( Nadah#p ;
;A Matses /anoan ;
;5 Tr#%ai Unclassi$ied ;
;= *aterT&Ma(T T#pUan ;
;B Ap#rinW Ara(a'an ;
;C Fi6'aryana Cari"an ;
;@ Ri'"a'tsa Macro&LOan ;
3< *a"anO Na%"i'(aran ;
31 Mira^a ,oran ;
3; *hipi"o&
Poni"o
/anoan ;
33 F#p Nadah#p ;
5. Modality 1B@





3A Pa%ai#rX T#pUan) L#aranU ;
35 Paro T#pUan ;
3= Me'ens T#pUan ;
3B /aresi Ara(a'an ;
3C I'a Chi"chan) Ar#a' 3
3@ Nasa Y#(e /aeDan 3
A< MichU
7Mataco8
Matacoan 3
A1 Yana% Yano%a%an 3
A; +%Trillon T#pUan) L#aranU 3
A3 Tapiete T#pUan) L#aranU 3
AA Y#ra'arT Unclassi$ied 3
A5 /#inae Unclassi$ied 3
A= A(a /it ,ar"acoan 3
AB Moi%a Unclassi$ied 3
AC TiriyN Cari"an 3
A@ Ma%aindO Na%"i'(aran 3
5< ,a#re Ara(a'an 3
51 F#alla!a
V#ech#a
V#ech#an 3
5; I%"a"#ra
V#ech#a
V#ech#an 3
53 Desano T#canoan 3
5A P(aDa Unclassi$ied A
55 Coca%a&
Coca%illa
T#pUan) L#aranU A
5= Map#che Ara#canian A
5B Urarina Unclassi$ied A
5C Ya%inah#a /anoan A
5@ Ay%ara Ay%aran A
=< Le'o Unclassi$ied A
=1 Tariana Ara(a'an 5
=; A!#ar#na Hiaroan 5
=3 Caine^a Tacanan =
A5 3< ;3 1= 11 11 13=G
3BC
1C< 5.1< Typolo!ical distri"#tion in the sa%ple

5.1< 5.1< 5.1< 5.1< TY/OLOLICAL DI*TRI,U TY/OLOLICAL DI*TRI,U TY/OLOLICAL DI*TRI,U TY/OLOLICAL DI*TRI,UTION IN TF+ *AM/L+ TION IN TF+ *AM/L+ TION IN TF+ *AM/L+ TION IN TF+ *AM/L+
I (ill "e!in "y consolidatin! the $indin!s $ro% sections 5.; to 5.@) ai%in! to !ie an
oerie( o$ Modality %ar'in! in the *AILs in the sa%ple. ,eca#se indiid#al res#lts (ere
disc#ssed in the respectie sections) they (ill not "e repeated here. Instead) I present the
distri"#tion o$ all Modality %ar'ers and their typolo!ical i%plications and disc#ss the
ra%i$ications $or the st#dy o$ !ra%%aticaliDation.
In the sa%ple) 3@ lan!#a!es %ar' D+*ID+RATI-+) ;C %ar' DU,ITATI-+ and IRR+ALI*) ;A %ar'
/UR/O*I-+) ;3 %ar' .RU*TRATI-+) ;< %ar' C+RTAINTY) 1B %ar' /OT+NTIAL) 13 %ar' INT+NTIONAL)
and three %ar' R+ALI*. Alto!ether 5; o#t o$ =3 lan!#a!es %ar' at least one COMMAND type.
Mhen the indiid#al COMMAND types are ta'en into consideration) the $ollo(in! hierarchy
e%er!es2 IM/+RATI-+ 7A58) D+*ID+RATI-+ 73@8) /ROFI,ITI-+ 73<8) DU,ITATI-+ 7;C8 and IRR+ALI* 7;C8)
/UR/O*I-+ 7;A8) .RU*TRATI-+ 7;38 and FORTATI-+ 7;38) C+RTAINTY 7;<8) /OT+NTIAL 71B8) COLL+CTI-+
COMMAND 71=8) INT+NTIONAL 7138) /OLIT+ COMMAND 7118 and HU**I-+ 7118) and R+ALI* 738.
No lan!#a!e %ar's all nine Modalities) "#t only one %ar's no Modality 7Chi%ila) (hich
does not %ar' any COMMAND type either8. Nine lan!#a!es %ar' one Modality) 1C %ar' t(o)
nine %ar' three) 11 %ar' $o#r and $ie) three %ar' si6 and one %ar's seen. .i!#res 5.A and
5.5 plot the n#%"er o$ lan!#a!es %ar'ed per cate!ory and the n#%"er o$ lan!#a!es
%ar'in! the n#%"er o$ Modals 7$ro% Dero to seen8) respectiely. It can "e seen that
COMMAND %ar'in! 7all COMMAND types collapsed8 occ#rs %ost $reI#ently and that R+ALI* is
least %ar'ed) and that lan!#a!es %ar'in! t(o Modal cate!ories are %ost $reI#ent in
contrast to those %ar'in! one and seen cate!ories. Ta"le 5.B sho(s (hich lan!#a!e
e6hi"its %ar'er $or (hich cate!ory) ordered $ro% least %ar'in! to %ost %ar'in! 7this ta"le
e6cl#des COMMAND types (hich are presented in ta"le 5.=8.
In contrast to the COMMAND types syste%s 7c$. section 5.@8) there are ery $e(
i%plications or relations in the Modality sa%ple e6cl#din! the COMMAND types. Modality
%ar'in! see%s chaotic thro#!ho#t the sa%ple) altho#!h the COMMAND types distri"#tion "y
itsel$ per$or%s "etter than the other nine Modalities 7see "elo(8.
/reio#s research has s#!!ested that A!ent&oriented Modality is rarely %ar'ed
in$lectionally cross&lin!#istically) i.e. "y non&"o#nd %orphe%es) and that the other
Modalities tend to "e %ore "o#nd in co%parison 7,y"ee 1@C5) 1==> ,y"ee et al. 1@@A) ;A18.
This cannot "e con$ir%ed co%pletely $or the present st#dy. ,eca#se this st#dy does not
code $or periphrastic constr#ctions there can "e no co%parison (ith periphrastic %ar'in!
as in ,y"ee et al. 71@@A) ;A;8. I (ill no( co%%ent #pon the "o#ndedness o$ $or%s in the
present Modality sa%ple.
The t(o A!ent&oriented Modalities in the present sa%ple) INT+NTIONAL and D+*ID+RATI-+)
pattern di$$erently on the Modality scale. Mhereas INT+NTIONAL indeed ran!es I#ite lo( 7138)
D+*ID+RATI-+ is the second&hi!hest %ar'ed Modality a$ter COMMAND 73=8. O$ the 3@ lan!#a!es
%ar'in! D+*ID+RATI-+) 33 hae s#$$i6ation) t(o hae a#6iliaries) $o#r hae particles) and one
has as %ar'er that %ay "e either a clitic or particle 7,ororo8. Mhen a lan!#a!e has %ore
5. Modality 1C1

than one D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'er) they al(ays hae the sa%e $or%> e.!. "oth D+*ID+RATI-+
%ar'ers in *a"anO are s#$$i6es.
;B
O$ the 13 lan!#a!es %ar'in! INT+NTIONAL) 1< hae
s#$$i6ation) t(o hae particles) one has a pre$i6) and one has a clitic 7,a#re %ar's
INT+NTIONAL (ith a particle and a s#$$i68. +en i$ one considers particles and a#6iliaries as
non&"o#nd) the oer(hel%in! %aKority o$ D+*ID+RATI-+ and INT+NTIONAL %ar'in! lan!#a!es
still has "o#nd %ar'ers2 D+*ID+RATI-+2 in 33 o#t o$ 3@ cases) INT+NTIONAL in 1; o#t o$ 13. This is
not s#prisin!) "eca#se 3the tendency o$ a !ra% to a$$i6 to a ste% is partly !oerned "y the
se%antic releance o$ that !ra% to the ste%9 7,y"ee et al. 1@@A) ;A;8. D+*ID+RATI-+ and
INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers directly %odi$y the er" and are th#s hi!hly releant to the er"al
se%antics) and %ore li'ely to "e "o#nd. Fo(eer) this needs $#rther eri$ication in
co%parison to non&%orpho&syntactical (ays o$ e6pressin! D+*ID+RATI-+ and INT+NTIONAL in
the sa%e set o$ lan!#a!es.
,y"ee et al. 71@@A) ;A18 also report that 3i%peraties are %ost li'ely to "e "o#nd9. The
IM/+RATI-+ certainly is the cate!ory in the sa%ple that is %ar'ed %ost 7in A5 lan!#a!es8) and
li'e the D+*ID+RATI-+ and INT+NTIONAL) it is %ostly %ar'ed "y s#$$i6in!. I$ (e ass#%e that
cate!ories (ith a hi!h a%o#nt o$ "o#nd %orpho&syntactic %ar'ers 7co%pared to the
a%o#nt o$ non&"o#nd $or%s8 are %ore li'ely to "e at a later sta!e o$ !ra%%aticaliDation 7as
s#!!ested "y ,y"ee et al. 1@@A8) this leads to the hypothesis that all Modal cate!ories in the
sa%ple are hi!hly !ra%%aticaliDed. This certainly holds tr#e $or INT+NTIONAL and
D+*ID+RATI-+) altho#!h ,y"ee et al. 71@@B) ;A18 ar!#e that 3a!ent&oriented %odalities
!enerally are at early sta!es o$ !ra%%aticiDation) (hile the other %odalities are !enerally
at later sta!es9. +arly sta!es o$ !ra%%aticaliDation inolin! periphrastic e6pressions are
not ta'en into acco#nt here. ,#t "eca#se this st#dy does consider "oth "o#nd 7e.!. a$$i6es
and clitics8 and non&"o#nd 7e.!. particles and a#6iliaries8 %ar'ers) it is possi"le to esta"lish
the relatie position o$ a %ar'er on a !ra%%aticaliDation path) and s#"seI#ently o$ Modal
cate!ories in a cross&lin!#istic perspectie as (ell. It is ho(eer de"ata"le (hether
"o#ndedness in this case eI#als a hi!h de!ree o$ !ra%%aticaliDation. In !eneral) *AILs hae
"een sho(n to possess a hi!h de!ree o$ co%ple6 %orpholo!y not only $or TAM+ "#t ario#s
other $#nctions. This %ay %ean that all these $#nctions hae a hi!h de!ree o$
!ra%%aticaliDation) or) rather %ore pro"a"le) that "o#ndedness does not a#to%atically
entail a hi!h de!ree o$ !ra%%aticaliDation.
At this point) a note a"o#t the so#rces o$ Modality %ar'ers in the sa%ple is in order.
The ori!ins o$ D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers are disc#ssed in M#eller 7;<138. They o$ten ori!inate in
(ords (ith the %eanin! 0(ant1 or .UTUR+ %ar'ers) or that "oth .UTUR+ and D+*ID+RATI-+ hae
a co%%on so#rce. .UTUR+ and Modal cate!ories are in !eneral stron!ly related in ter%s o$
co%%on ori!ins in the sa%ple) as de%onstrated $or the case o$ A!#ar#na "elo(.
The stri'in! si%ilarity o$ the .UTUR+) IM/+RATI-+) HU**I-+) INT+NTIONAL) .RU*TRATI-+) and
D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers in A!#ar#na 7all inole GtaG8 s#!!ests a co%%on ori!in. Accordin! to

;B
Fi6'aryana is the only e6ception (ith a s#$$i6 and a particle 7postposition8.
1C; 5.1< Typolo!ical distri"#tion in the sa%ple

Oerall 7;<<B) 3AB8 0desira"le1 .UTUR+ (as the ori!inal %eanin! and the other Modals
deeloped $ro% it 7see also "elo(8. +pps 7;<<C) =A<8 ar!#es $or a !ra%%aticaliDation path o$
the DU,ITATI-+ %ar'er in F#p $ro% a directie to an +piste%ic %ar'er) or) in /al%er1s ter%s)
$ro% Deontic to +piste%ic) (hich is not #nco%%on 7c$. /al%er ;<<1) CB&C@8. ,y"ee et al.
71@@A) 1@58 de%onstrate as (ell that +piste%ic Modals o$ten deelop $ro% A!ent&oriented
Modality.
The C+RTAINTY particle ||cmay in Map#che consists o$ the a$$ir%atie particle ||c and the
particle may (hich is #sed in I#estions to 3proo'e an a$$ir%atie ans(er9 7*%eets ;<<C)
33A8) andt the DU,ITATI-+ particle ni in Caine^a is pro"a"ly related to the ne!ator ni) (hich
is "orro(ed $ro% *panish ni 0not een1 7L#illa#%e ;<<C) =A;8. Nheen!at_ "orro(ed the
phrase scr4 uc as DU,ITATI-+ particle scraki $ro% /ort#!#ese 7da Cr#D ;<11) 3=18. All in all)
not %#ch is 'no(n a"o#t the so#rces o$ %ost %ar'ers) "#t (here (e do 'no( these they
point to(ards ori!ins o$ le6e%es !ra%%atical %ar'ers (ith related %eanin!s. One co#ld
in$er the ori!in o$ a lan!#a!e&speci$ic %ar'er "y its c#rrent !ra%%aticaliDed $or% and
parallel) esta"lished !ra%%aticaliDation paths. In cases (here no ori!in can "e $o#nd (ithin
a lan!#a!e or lan!#a!e $a%ily that (o#ld s#!!est possi"le "orro(in!. Th#s) "ac'trac'in!
!ra%%aticaliDation paths proides a #se$#l tool $or #ncoerin! lan!#a!e contact sit#ations.
,ased on the ass#%ption that the Tariana IM/+RATI-+ %ar'er &si is a reinterpretation o$
the .UTUR+ %ar'er &si 7Ai'henald ;<1<) 3C18)
;C
I did a s#rey o$ correlations o$ $or%s
"et(een .UTUR+ and related cate!ories 7e.!. INT+NTIONAL) /UR/O*I-+) IRR+ALI*8 and COMMAND type
%ar'ers. COMMAND* and .UTUR+ Tense are nat#rally related) "eca#se prototypically a
co%%and re$ers to an action in the $#t#re 7c$. Ai'henald ;<1<) 1;C&1338. ,y"ee et al. 71@@A)
;B38 report that 13 lan!#a!es in their sa%ple #se .UTUR+ %ar'ers to e6press COMMAND*) and
post#late that COMMAND %ar'ers !ra%%aticaliDe $ro% .UTUR+ %ar'ers.
In !eneral) ho(eer) the $or%s in the present sa%ple do not sho( oert $or%al
correlations) (ith a $e( e6ceptions2 ho%ophono#s %ar'ers occ#r in A!#ar#na 7.UTUR+)
IM/+RATI-+) HU**I-+8) Itona%a 7INT+NTIONAL) COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND8. A!#ar#na e%ploys the s#$$i6 &
ta $or .UTUR+) IM/+RATI-+ and HU**I-+. The sa%e $or% occ#rs in the D+*ID+RATI-+) .RU*TRATI-+)
and INT+NTIONAL %ar'ers. As noted) Oerall 7;<<B) 3AB8 s#!!ests that 0desira"le1 .UTUR+ (as
pro"a"ly the ori!inal %eanin! and that the other Modal shades hae deeloped $ro% this
one %ar'er. This con$ir%s the !ra%%aticaliDation path o$ ,y"ee et al. 71@@A8.

75.CA8 A!#ar#na 7Oerall ;<<B) 351) ;3) 35A) 3<38
7a8 mai-ta ta ta ta IM/+RATI-+
"atheaLOA.&IM/
0Fae a "ath[1



;C
It is not clear on (hat "asis Ai'henald 7;<1<8 de$ines &si as .UTUR+ %ar'er. The .UTUR+ %ar'ers in
Tariana in Ai'henald 7;<<3) 3;<8 are &mnaJc and &Jc.
5. Modality 1C3

7"8 yu-a-ta ta ta ta-na-i .UTUR+
eat&FIA.&.UT&1*L&D+CL
0I (ill eat this.1
7c8 yu-a-tata tata tata tata-na-i D+*ID+RATI-+
eat&FIA.&D+*&1*L&D+CL
0I (ant to eat.1
7d8 impi-mitika-takama takama takama takama .RU*TRATI-+
"eco%e.dea$&CAU*&.RU*T
0tryin! in ain to dea$en 7hi%8S1
7e8 mai-tasa tasa tasa tasa-nu wi-a-na-i INT+NTIONAL
"athe2LOA.&INT&1*L2** !o&I/.-&1*L&D+CL
0I1% !oin! to "athe.1

A rather #n#s#al correlation is $o#nd in Matses) (here the s#$$i6 &cnJa occ#rs as the
.UTUR+ as (ell as the /ROFI,ITI-+ %orphe%e. It does not present a pro"le% to connect &cnJa
(ith Modal al#es) "#t it is #nclear ho( it acI#ired a ne!atie %eanin!) i$ it really is the
sa%e %ar'er. Us#ally) .UTUR+ in Matses in %ar'ed "y the NON/A*T s#$$i6 &c) and (hen &cnJa is
#sed there are Modal oertones speci$ically o$ politeness) reI#ests) and #ncertainty 7i"id.
A;C&A;@8. It attaches directly to the er" ste% and is $ollo(ed "y person andG or Mood
%ar'in!. Mhen a er" is %ar'ed (ith /ROFI,ITI-+ &cnJa it does not receie any $#rther
%ar'in!. The /ROFI,ITI-+ &cnJa possi"ly consists o$ the ne!ation %ar'er &cn and IM/+RATI-+
&ta) "#t .lec' 7;<<3) AAA8 reKects this on phonolo!ical and syntactic !ro#nds. Neertheless)
the !ra%%aticaliDation path o$ the /ROFI,ITI-+ %ar'er &cnJa in Matses does see% to inole
IM/+RATI-+ and .UTUR+ %eanin!s) altho#!h in (hich (ay e6actly has to "e $#rther
researched.
Incidently) Matses %ar's IM/+RATI-+ "y &ta) K#st li'e A!#ar#na. That %ar'er apparently
has a Hiaroan "ac'!ro#nd) "eca#se it is not only $o#nd in A!#ar#na) "#t in *h#ar as (ell2
FORTATI-+ &ta and .UTUR+ &tta 7Adelaar (ith M#ys'en ;<<A) AA1&AA;8. In the t(o /anoan
lan!#a!es in the sa%ple) Ya%inah#a
;@
and *hipi"o&Poni"o) no si%ilar $or% co#ld "e $o#nd
either as .UTUR+ or COMMAND type.

75.C58 Matses 7/anoan> .lec' ;<<3) AAA) A;@) A;C8
7a8 pcs-cnJa cnJa cnJa cnJa
shatter&/ROF
0Don1t "rea' it[1
7"8 miui niJ-cnJa cnJa cnJa cnJa-c
;A,* !o&N/*T&IND
0Yo# %i!ht !o.1

;@
Ya%inah#a has a s#$$i6 &ta $or either distal or 3/A*T o$ yesterday9 "#t there is no relationship (ith
.UTUR+ or COMMAND types.
1CA 5.1< Typolo!ical distri"#tion in the sa%ple

7c8 n-ui niJ-cnJa cnJa cnJa cnJa-ui
no(&+M/ !o&N/*T&1*L
0I1% leain! no( 7so h#rry #p i$ yo# don1t (ant to "e le$t "ehind8.1

Another correlation "et(een #nrelated lan!#a!es o$ COMMAND and .UTUR+ $or%s occ#rs (ith
the s#$$i6 &ya as COMMAND in Tariana 7Ara(a'an8) ,arasano) T#y#ca) Desano 7all three
T#canoan8) and as .UTUR+ in +%"era 7Chocoan8 and /#inae 7#nclassi$ied8. These lan!#a!es
partially coincide (ith the proposed lin!#istic are Ieana&-a#pTs 7c$. Ai'henald 1@@@8 and
adKoinin! areas) "#t %ore research is necessary to esta"lish a certain contact pheno%enon
here.
There are seeral cases o$ identical $or%s thro#!ho#t the sa%ple and ModalityG Tense
cate!ories that occ#r in #nrelated andGor !eo!raphically distanced lan!#a!es. These are
interestin! in the li!ht o$ possi"le contact pheno%ena) "#t it is o$ten not possi"le to
esta"lish a !eo!raphical or c#lt#ral lin' "et(een the%. Most li'ely the si%ilarities are d#e
to chance. They (ill "e "rie$ly listed "elo() in the hope that $#t#re research (ill reeal
their ori!ins. The "est case $or a possi"le contact pheno%enon is the e6istence o$ IM/+RATI-+
&ma and HU**I-+ &pa in Ay%ara) and IM/+RATI-+ sin!#lar &ma and IM/+RATI-+ pl#ral &pa in
Y#ra'arT. Less pla#si"le is the relationship "et(een the IM/+RATI-+ pre$i6es m& in Nasa Y#(e
and Y#ra'arT> the /ROFI,ITI-+ s#$$i6es &umc in Pa%ai#rX and Caine^a> the /UR/O*I-+ s#$$i6es
&ra in Coca%a&Coca%illa and Caine^a> the IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6es &wa in Tr#%ai) Tariana) and
MosetTn 7G(aG occ#rs in Coca%a&Coca%illa IM/+RATI-+ particle yawa8> or the ele%ent G'iG as
$o#nd in IM/+RATI-+ $or%s in A!#ar#na) Yana%) Moi%a) and Tr#%ai 7and in the /ROFI,ITI-+
s#$$i6 in Map#che and in the Itona%a COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND8.

.i!#re 5.A2 N#%"er o$ *AILs %ar'in! Modality 7COMMAND types as one col#%n8







5. Modality 1C5

.i!#re 5.52 N#%"er o$ *AILs %ar'in! n#%"er o$ Modalities































1C= 5.1< Typolo!ical distri"#tion in the sa%ple

Ta"le 5.B2 Modality %ar'in! in the *AILs
LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ .AMILY .AMILY .AMILY .AMILY
D
+
*
D
+
*
D
+
*
D
+
*

D
U
,
D
U
,
D
U
,
D
U
,

I
R
R
I
R
R
I
R
R
I
R
R

/
R
/
/
R
/
/
R
/
/
R
/

.
R
U
*
T
.
R
U
*
T
.
R
U
*
T
.
R
U
*
T

C
+
R
T
C
+
R
T
C
+
R
T
C
+
R
T

/
O
T
/
O
T
/
O
T
/
O
T

I
N
T
I
N
T
I
N
T
I
N
T

R
+
A
R
+
A
R
+
A
R
+
A

T
O
T
A
L

T
O
T
A
L

T
O
T
A
L

T
O
T
A
L


1 Chi%ila Chi"chan

<
; PanoO Unclassi$ied

1
3 MocoU L#ayc#r#an

1
A /ila!X L#ayc#r#an

1
5 *a"anO Na%"i'(aran

1
= Tapiete T#pUan)
L#aranU


1
B Pain!an! Macro&LOan



1
C +%"era Chocoan



1
@ Yana% Yano%a%an





1
1< Itona%a Unclassi$ied





1
11 /anare Cari"an



;
1; F#alla!a
V#ech#a
V#ech#an

;
13 Paritiana T#pUan

;
1A *hipi"o&
Poni"o
/anoan



;
15 Tr#%ai Unclassi$ied



;
1= M#nichi Unclassi$ied



;
1B Ay%ara Ay%aran





;
1C Urarina Unclassi$ied

;
1@ Paro T#pUan

;
;< Yanesha1 Ara(a'an







;
;1 Ti%"ira Macro&LOan

;
;; Mari1 Chapac#ran



;
;3 Teh#elche Chonan



;
;A MichU
7Mataco8
Matacoan



;
;5 Mira^a ,oran



;
;= I'a Chi"chan )
Ar#a'





;
;B Ri'"a'tsa Macro&LOan



;
;C Nasa Y#(e /aeDan





;
;@ ,ororo Macro&LOan

3
3< F#p Nadah#p



3
5. Modality 1CB

31 *aterT&Ma(T T#pUan 3
3; Le'o Unclassi$ied





3
33 D]( Nadah#p



3
3A A!#ar#na Hiaroan





3
35 /aresi Ara(a'an

3
3= C#Dco
V#ech#a
V#ech#an 3
3B Coca%a&
Coca%illa
T#pUan)
L#aranU






3
3C I%"a"#ra
V#ech#a
V#ech#an

A
3@ +%Trillon T#pUan)
L#aranU


A
A< C#"eo T#canoan

A
A1 Desano T#canoan



A
A; A(a /it ,ar"acoan



A
A3 Ap#rinW Ara(a'an

A
AA Hara(ara Ara(an



A
A5 Map#che Ara#canian

A
A= Nheen!at_ T#pUan)
L#aranU
A
AB Tariana Ara(a'an



A
AC ,a#re Ara(a'an



A
A@ Tsa$i'i ,ar"acoan

5
5< Pa%ai#rX T#pUan)
L#aranU






5
51 Fi6'aryana Cari"an



5
5; Caine^a Tacanan



5
53 Ya%inah#a /anoan



5
5A Matses /anoan



5
55 /#inae Unclassi$ied



5
5= P(aDa Unclassi$ied



5
5B Ma%aindO Na%"i'(aran



5
5C Marao Unclassi$ied



5
5@ MosetTn Mosetenan

5
=< Me'ens T#pUan

=
=1 Y#ra'arT Unclassi$ied

=
=; Moi%a Unclassi$ied

=
=3 TiriyN Cari"an

B
3@ ;C ;C ;A ;3 ;< 1B 13 3 1@5





1CC 5.11 Leo!raphical distri"#tion

5.11 L+OLRA/FICAL DI 5.11 L+OLRA/FICAL DI 5.11 L+OLRA/FICAL DI 5.11 L+OLRA/FICAL DI*TRI,UTION *TRI,UTION *TRI,UTION *TRI,UTION
This section co%%ents on !eo!raphical patterns o$ %ar'ed Modal cate!ories. The $ollo(in!
para!raphs inesti!ate cl#sters o$ Modal %ar'in!) incl#din! .RU*TRATI-+) D+*ID+RATI-+)
+piste%ic Modality) and COMMAND types) and disc#sses lin's "et(een Modal %ar'ers and
Tense %ar'ers.
The n#%"er o$ Modals occ#rrin! in the sa%ple 7(itho#t COMMAND types8 %ar'ed "y
lan!#a!es ran!es $ro% Dero to seen 7%a6i%ally possi"le are nine8. Map 5.1 sho(s the
distri"#tion o$ the n#%"er o$ Modal %ar'in! in the sa%ple. Mhile the di$$erent parts o$ the
continent ary !reatly in ho( %any Modals are %ar'ed) the -a#pTs area $eat#res a cl#ster
o$ lan!#a!es %ar'in! $o#r Modals 7Tariana) C#"eo) Desano) Nheen!at_> D]( has three8.
Additionally) %ost lan!#a!es (ith the hi!hest n#%"er o$ %ar'ed Modals 7si6 and seen8
occ#r in the L#aporT&Ma%orT and adKoinin! re!ions 7Y#ra'arT) Me'ens) Moi%a8. A %inor
cl#ster o$ lan!#a!es %ar'in! t(o Modals can "e seen in central to north /er# 7Urarina)
M#nichi) F#alla!a V#ech#a) *hipi"o&Poni"o) and Yanesha8. The hi!h diersity o$ Modality
%ar'in! in the L#aporT&Ma%orT area) not only in ter%s o$ n#%"er o$ Modals "#t also in
ter%s o$ ariation o$ Modal cate!ories) is e6plained "y the hi!h n#%"er o$ #nrelated and
especially isolates or #nclassi$ied lan!#a!es in that re!ion 7c$. Creels E -an der -oort
;<<C8. There are 1B o$ the lan!#a!es proposed $or the L#aporT&Ma%orT "y Creels E -an
der -oort 7;<<C8 (hich are also part o$ the present sa%ple) incl#din! seen #nclassi$ied
lan!#a!es or isolates) and T#pUan) Tacanan) Ara(a'an) /anoan) Na%"i'(aran) Macro&LOan)
and Chapac#ran lan!#a!es. Interestin!ly) the ariation o$ Modality %ar'in! in that area
o#t(ei!hs the si%ilarities) "#t the li%itations o$ the sa%ple do not allo( statin! this (ith
certainty.
Contrary to %ost cate!ories in this sa%ple) .RU*TRATI-+ e6hi"its a pattern o$ %ar'in!
(hich is I#ite $reI#ent in certain re!ions. The $reI#ent occ#rrence o$ .RU*TRATI-+ in *AILs
has "een noted "e$ore) and indeed this (as (hy the $eat#re (as chosen $or this st#dy.
Ai'henald 71@@@) @A8 %entions that .RU*TRATI-+ o$ten occ#rs in Ara(a'an lan!#a!es
3<
and
Ca%p"ell 7;<1;) ;@18 adds that 3$r#stratie !ra%%atical %ar'ers are not #n'no(n in other
parts o$ the (orld) "#t they see% especially (ell represented in *A in co%parison to
else(here9.
31
/ayne 71@@<) ;1=8 %entions .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ed "y s#$$i6ation in T#pUan
7L#aranU8) as does Dietrich 7;<<=8 7see also Oerall) ;<1;8.
3;
.RU*TRATI-+ %ar'in! is a I#ite
e6otic $eat#re $or spea'ers o$ an Indo&+#ropean lan!#a!e) (hich %ay lead to the s#!!estion

3<
O$ the Ara(a'an lan!#a!es in the present sa%ple) /aresi) Tariana) and Ap#rinW %ar' .RU*TRATI-+)
,a#re and Yanesha1 do not.
31
Ca%"ell 7;<1;8 lists Urarina and ,a#re a%on! the lan!#a!es (hich hae .RU*TRATI-+. Urarina does
hae a %ar'er (ith .RU*TRATI-+&li'e $#nctions) "#t it does not $it the present de$inition> ,a#re clearly
has no .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'er) altho#!h the ter% appears in historical so#rces 7Danielsen p.c.8. Ca%p"ell
does not disc#ss his so#rces here.
3;
.or a st#dy o$ the .RU*TRATI-+ %orphe%e &pana $#nctionin! as conK#nction in A%ah#aca 7/anoan8 see
*parin!&ChaeD 7;<<38.
5. Modality 1C@

that its occ#rrence in sli!htly oer a third o$ the *AILs in the sa%ple is statistically
si!ni$icant. Un$ort#nately) in the li!ht o$ the a"sence o$ st#dies o#tside *A it is not possi"le
to test this. Ai'henald 7;<1;) 1C58 s#!!ests that .RU*TRATI-+ co#ld hae deeloped into a
characteristic o$ certain areas) s#ch as the -a#pTs and A%aDonia in !eneral2

34$5r#stratie %ar'ers are $o#nd in al%ost eery $a%ily in A%aDonia. /erasie as
they are in s#"!ro#ps s#ch as T#pU&L#aranU) it appears to "e hard to reconstr#ct a
co%%on $or%. Only so%e $r#stratie %ar'ers (ithin /anoan lan!#a!es hae
co!nates across the $a%ily. The $r#stratie is a $eat#re o$ all the lan!#a!es in the
lin!#istic area o$ the -a#pTs and its s#rro#nds 4S5. The distri"#tion o$ the
$r#stratie) as a se%antic pac'a!e) co#ld (ell "e a co%"ination o$ areal di$$#sion
and !enetic inheritance9.

Lan!#a!es o$ the -a#pTs occ#rrin! in the sa%ple are Tariana) C#"eo) Desano) Nheen!at_)
and D](. All these hae .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers) altho#!h these do not see% to "e related. The
Nheen!at_ .RU*TRATI-+ is a T#pUan co!nate 7see ta"le 5.1;8) the .RU*TRATI-+ a#6iliary wmJ in
D]( ori!inates in the er" 0"e) possi"ility to "e) not "ein! $#ll1 7Martins ;<<A) ;@38> the other
so#rces are #n'no(n. This points to(ard independent deelop%ent in each lan!#a!e
altho#!h possi"ly ind#ced "y contact. Nheen!at_ as |inqua jranca o$$ers itsel$ as %odel
lan!#a!e) "#t this needs $#rther st#dy.

Ta"le 5.C2 .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers in the -a#pTs
Lan!#a!e Tariana Desano C#"eo Nheen!at_ D](
.a%ily Ara(a'an T#canoan T#canoan T#pUan) L#aranU Nadah#p
.RU*TRATI-+ Clitic Ztna *#$$i6 &riG &ra *#$$i6 &Ju /article ycpc a#6
wmJ

Dietrich 7;<<=) B18 clai%s that .RU*TRATI-+ is especially pro%inent in A%aDonia (hich is
con$ir%ed in this sa%ple 7see %ap 5.;8.
.RU*TRATI-+* as occ#rrin! in the sa%ple do not s#!!est co%%on ori!ins (ithin lan!#a!e
$a%ilies) (ith the e6ception o$ T#pUan 7see section 1upian "elo(8) (here the $or%s hint
to(ards t(o di$$erent so#rces. This points to(ards a co%"ination o$ di$$#sion o$ the
.RU*TRATI-+ se%antic cate!ory rather than the $or%) in addition to co%%on ori!ins in at
least T#pUan) K#st as Ai'henald s#!!ested 7altho#!h the three /anoan lan!#a!es in the
sa%ple 7*hipi"o&Poni"o) Matses) Ya%inah#a8 do not possess %orpho&syntactic .RU*TRATI-+
%ar'ers8.
The sa%e $actors hae already "een ar!#ed to "e "ehind the distri"#tion o$ D+*ID+RATI-+ in
*A 7M#eller ;<138. Altho#!h .RU*TRATI-+ occ#rs less o$ten in the sa%ple than D+*ID+RATI-+) it
is o$ co#rse possi"le that it spread "y the sa%e processes. Are the sa%e lan!#a!es or areas
a$$ected "y the deelop%ents o$ "oth $eat#resJ .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers in the present sa%ple
occ#r cl#sterin! in and aro#nd the -a#pTs and to a certain e6tent in A%aDonia and in and
1@< 5.11 Leo!raphical distri"#tion

aro#nd the L#aporT&Ma%orT. *tri'in!ly) it does not occ#r in the (estern part o$ the
continent (ith the Andes serin! as a "order line. This %ay "e $#rther eidence $or an
Andean s. A%aDonian diide in typolo!ical $eat#res as post#lated "y Di6on E Ai'henald
71@@@) C&1<8. The re!ional pro%inence o$ .RU*TRATI-+ coincides ro#!hly (ith the "orders o$
the T#pUan e6pansion. Accordin! to Rodri!#es 71@@@) 1<B8) T#pUan lan!#a!es are %ostly
sit#ated in the A%aDon "asin. It is ery li'ely that .RU*TRATI-+ %ostly ori!inated in T#pUan
and di$$#sed (ith the T#pUan e6pansion. Maps 5.; and 5.3 ill#strate the t(o cl#sters o$
.RU*TRATI-+ %ar'in! in co%parison to the al%ost eenly spread D+*ID+RATI-+.
T#rnin! no( to +piste%ic Modality) accordin! to a st#dy a"o#t the e6pression o$
+piste%ic Modality as either er"al constr#ction) er"al a$$i6) or else (orld&(ide "y -an
der A#(era E A%%ann 7;<118) lan!#a!es in *A do not #se er"al constr#ctions to e6press
this cate!ory "#t e6cl#siely either a$$i6es on er"s or 3other9 %eans. Their sa%ple
incl#des ;5 *AILs) 15 o$ (hich hae e6cl#siely a$$i6ationG cliticiDation) and 1< hae other
%eans (hich incl#des particles. In a !lo"al perspectie) the A%ericas) A#stralia) and Ne(
L#inea %ar' +piste%ic Modality al%ost e6cl#siely "y non&er"al constr#ctions. A$$i6ation
occ#rs on eery continent) "#t %ost $reI#ently in the three re!ions a"oe.
In the present sa%ple) 3A lan!#a!es %ar' +piste%ic Modality) i.e. either C+RTAINTY or
DU,ITATI-+ or "oth> "y s#$$i6ation) cliticiDation) or particles) or "y %ore than one o$ those2 1A
lan!#a!es %ar' +piste%ic Modality "y s#$$i6ation) 1; "y particles) 5 "y cliticiDation) $o#r "y
"oth particles and s#$$i6es and one "y particles and clitics. In the sa%ple) ;A lan!#a!es %ar'
+piste%ic Modality "y s#$$i6ation or cliticiDation and 1B "y particles 7(ith an oerlap o$ $ie
lan!#a!es #sin! particles and s#$$i6esG clitics "oth8. That %eans that a little oer a third o$
the lan!#a!es in the sa%ple %ar' +piste%ic Modality "y "o#nd $or%s) a little #nder a third
"y non&"o#nd $or%s 7particles8 and the rest not at all. ,eca#se the present sa%ple does not
ta'e er"al constr#ctions into consideration it is not possi"le to co%%ent #pon the clai%
that there are no lan!#a!es in *A (ith +piste%ic Modality %ar'ed "y s#ch. Additionally)
the present sa%ple does not inesti!ate (hether the lan!#a!es %ar' +piste%ic Modality
e6cl#siely "y a$$i6ation or (hether lan!#a!es can hae %ore than one %eans) e6cept $or
the $ie lan!#a!es that hae "oth a$$i6ationG cliticiDation and particles. These are an
e6ception to -an der A#(era E A%%ann1s state%ent2 Fi6'aryana) MosetTn) Matses) TiriyN)
and D](.
As can "e seen in %ap 5.A) the !eo!raphical distri"#tion o$ +piste%ic Mar'in! in *A
points to a clear cl#ster in north&(est ,raDil and so#th&east Colo%"ia) incl#din! the -a#pTs)
and seeral %inor cl#sters in ,oliia and north /er#. The $irst cl#ster consists
predo%inantly o$ #nrelated lan!#a!es "#t is partly located in the lin!#istic area o$ the
-a#pTs) (hich is 'no(n $or its hi!h de!ree o$ lan!#a!e chan!e "y contact 7c$. Ai'henald
1@@@8. Ta"le 5.@ sho(s the +piste%ic %ar'ers o$ those lan!#a!es in the sa%ple in and close
to the -a#pTs area. Interestin!ly) the |inqua jranca o$ that re!ion) Nheen!at_) $eat#res a
DU,ITATI-+ particle (hich is "orro(ed $ro% /ort#!#ese2 scr4 uc b scraki 7Da Cr#D ;<11) 3=18.
A case o$ "orro(in! is the C+RTAINTY %ar'er in Ay%ara and C#Dco V#ech#a2 "oth
lan!#a!es #se the s#$$i6 &puni to indicate that the spea'er is relatiely certain a"o#t the
5. Modality 1@1

state%ent. The $act that a search o$ neither the F#alla!a nor I%"a"#ra V#ech#a so#rces
reealed a si%ilar $or% and that V#ech#a and Ay%ara hae "een spo'en in the sa%e re!ion
$or a lon! ti%e 7c$. Adelaar (ith M#ys'en ;<<A8 leads to the tentatie concl#sion that the
"orro(in! too' place $ro% Ay%ara into C#Dco V#ech#a) altho#!h this needs $#rther
eri$ication.

75.C=8 Ay%ara 7CerrNn&/alo%ino E CaraKal CaraKal ;<<@) ;<18
sar-xa-puni puni puni puni-:-wa
0I (ill !o in any case.1 7ori!. 0%e irT de todas %aneras18

75.CB8 C#Dco V#ech#a 7.aller ;<<;) CA8
tanta-ta-puni puni puni puni iri-ta-a u-ra-n
"read&ACC&p#ni child&ACC&TO/ !ie&/*T&3
07*8he certainly !ae "read to the child.1

Considerin! the cl#ster o$ +piste%ic %ar'in! in appro6i%ately the -a#pTs re!ion) this
points to(ard a li'ely spread "y contact. Fo(eer) this and the other possi"le cl#sters need
$#rther research.

Ta"le 5.@2 +piste%ic %ar'in! inG aro#nd the -a#pTs
lan!#a!e .a%ily C+RTAINTY DU,ITATI-+
C#"eo T#canoan & C#%#latie s#$$i6es
7.UTUR+&DU,ITATI-+ 3s!. &"U)
&"+8
Tariana Ara(a'an & Clitic 7J8 ZJa
Desano T#canoan & *#$$i6es &sa, -sia
Nheen!at_ T#pUan) L#aranU /article supi /article scraki 7$ro%
/ort#!#ese8
/#inae #nclassi$ied *#$$i6 &si *#$$i6 &tipa (-ti, -pa)
D]( Nadah#p s#$$i6&n) particle tm n &

I no( t#rn to the !eo!raphical distri"#tion o$ COMMAND types. Accordin! to Ai'henald
7;<1<) 3@<8) the %eanin!s o$ COMMAND* di$$#se relatiely easy and th#s COMMAND* are prone
to "e a$$ected "y contact) "oth o$ $or%s and patterns. In the present sa%ple) "oth
!enealo!ical and !eo!raphical i%pacts see% to "e responsi"le $or the distri"#tion o$
COMMAND type %ar'in!) "#t no si!ni$icant a%o#nt o$ COMMAND* d#e to contact co#ld "e
esta"lished yet.
Lan!#a!es %ar'in! at least one co%%and type occ#r $reI#ently and not restricted to
any partic#lar re!ion. As can "e seen on %ap 5.5) lan!#a!es not %ar'in! any COMMAND type
are li'e(ise $airly spread oer the continent) (ith a s%all cl#ster incl#din! "oth
L#ayc#r#an lan!#a!es 7MocoU and /ila!X8 and t(o Macro&LOan lan!#a!es 7,ororo and
Pain!an!8. An areal cl#ster o$ FORTATI-+ %ar'in! incl#des Ri'"a'tsa) P(aDa) Ma%aindO) and
1@; 5.11 Leo!raphical distri"#tion

*a"anO> and o$ HU**I-+ incl#des Urarina) A!#ar#na) and F#alla!a V#ech#a. More research is
reI#ired to inesti!ate these cl#sters. COMMAND type %ar'ers on their o(n do not point
to(ards clear areal distri"#tions> the $ollo(in! analysis there$ore incorporates the res#lts
o$ the .UTUR+ Tense inesti!ation (ith those o$ COMMAND types.
The !eo!raphical distri"#tion o$ %orpho&syntactic Modality %ar'in! in the sa%ple is not
in$or%atie) apart $ro% the cl#sters %entioned a"oe. The $ollo(in! section inesti!ates
(hether the !enealo!ical distri"#tion can perhaps contri"#te %ore to the distri"#tion o$
Modal %ar'in! in the *AILs.

































5. Modality 1@3

Map 5.12 Distri"#tion o$ Modals 7"y n#%"er8 %ar'ed in the sa%ple 7e6cl. COMMAND types8



1@A 5.11 Leo!raphical distri"#tion

Map 5.;2 Distri"#tion o$ .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'in! in the sa%ple


5. Modality 1@5

Map 5.32 Distri"#tion o$ D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'in! in the sa%ple



1@= 5.11 Leo!raphical distri"#tion

Map 5.A2 Distri"#tion o$ +piste%ic Modality %ar'in! in the sa%ple



5. Modality 1@B

Map 5.52 Distri"#tion o$ COMMAND %ar'in! in the sa%ple



1@C 5.1; Lenealo!ical distri"#tion

5.1; L+N+ALOLICAL 5.1; L+N+ALOLICAL 5.1; L+N+ALOLICAL 5.1; L+N+ALOLICAL DI*TRI,UTION DI*TRI,UTION DI*TRI,UTION DI*TRI,UTION
5.1;.1 Introd#ction 5.1;.1 Introd#ction 5.1;.1 Introd#ction 5.1;.1 Introd#ction
*o $ar the $oc#s has "een on distri"#tion o$ $eat#res accordin! to !eo!raphic patterns. No(
I present the distri"#tion o$ Modality in the sa%ple (ith re!ard to lan!#a!e $a%ilies.
,eca#se the %ar'in! o$ %orpho&syntactic Modality is ery aried thro#!ho#t the co%plete
sa%ple) I (ill concentrate on a $e( $a%ilies (here %ore can "e said. Other $a%ilies) $or
e6a%ple Macro&LOan) (here no si%ilarity o$ %ar'in! co#ld "e $o#nd at all) (ill not "e
disc#ssed in detail here.
Co!nate $or%s are $o#nd in V#ech#an) T#pUan) Ara(a'an) and Cari"an 7see "elo(8. In
L#ayc#r#an and Na%"i'(aran the D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers are co!nates2 the s#$$i6 &akc in
MocoU and /ila!X) and the *a"anO and Ma%aindO s#$$i6es &tanG &tcn 7c$. M#eller ;<138.
Nota"le is the a"sence o$ R+ALI*G IRR+ALI* %ar'in! in the /anoan) Nadah#p) and L#ayc#r#an
lan!#a!es. Other lan!#a!es $a%ilies in the sa%ple) li'e Ara(a'an) Cari"an) and T#pUan)
hae aried %ar'in!. ,oth ,ar"acoan lan!#a!es in the sa%ple hae IRR+ALI* %ar'in! 7"#t
(ith ery di$$erent $or%s8. The L#ayc#r#an and Macro&LOan lan!#a!es in the sa%ple stand
o#t as none o$ the% %ar' any COMMAND type.
The $ollo(in! section disc#sses Modality in Ara(a'an 75.1;.;8) T#pUan 75.1;.38) Cari"an
75.1;.A8) and V#ech#an 75.1;.58 in %ore detail.

5.1;.; Ara(a'an 5.1;.; Ara(a'an 5.1;.; Ara(a'an 5.1;.; Ara(a'an
,eca#se the Ara(a'an Modality %ar'ers in the sa%ple are hi!hly hetero!eneo#s additional
data (as added 7see ta"le 5.118>
33
#n$ort#nately) this did not clari$y the pict#re. Accordin!
to Ai'henald 71@@@) @38) Ara(a'an lan!#a!es are characteriDed "y their co%ple6 %odality
syste%s and that is certainly tr#e in this st#dy as (ell. .or a $e( cases there is eidence $or
co!nate $or%s2 The IRR+ALI* %ar'ers in ,a#re) /aresi) Ap#rinW) and Terfna %ay "e re$le6es o$
the proto&$or% g&sia $or .UTUR+G IRR+ALI*G /OT+NTIAL 7/ayne 1@@1) 3C18. The +piste%ic
Modality %ar'ers in /aresi) DenU) and Ma#rX certainly loo' related) as do the .RU*TRATI-+
%ar'ers in Matchi!#en!a) No%atsi!#en!a) and AshanincaG Asheninca. .RU*TRATI-+) listed "y
Ai'henald 71@@@) @A8 as one $eat#re o$ those Ara(a'an lan!#a!es that hae rich Modal
syste%s) occ#rs in /aresi) Ap#rinW) Terfna) A%#esha) AshanincaG Asheninca)
No%atsi!#en!a) Matchi!#en!a) and Tariana 7see also section 5.B.;8.
Mise 71@@1) =1A8 states that #s#ally IM/+RATI-+ in Ara(a'an does not di$$er $ro% second
person declaratie $or%s. Ai'henald 71@@@) @A8 adds that in !eneral there is only one
IM/+RATI-+ per lan!#a!e. Mhile in the lan!#a!es in the sa%ple COMMAND %ar'in! is in !eneral
not o"li!atory) there are certain $or%s that do %ar' IM/+RATI-+. Tariana e%ploys al%ost the
(hole ran!e o$ COMMAND types e6cept $or HU**I-+) and all the other Ara(a'an lan!#a!es %ar'
at least one o$ the% "#t not %ore than three. It is een possi"le to identi$y t(o cases o$

33
Additional data $or Terfna) Mapishana) ,ha(anaG Chiriana) Acha!#a) and Ma#rX $ro% Ai'henald
71@@@8) $or DenU) Ma#rX) and Terfna $ro% Der"yshire 71@@18) and $or A%#esha) No%atis!#en!a and
AshanincaG Asheninca $ro% Mise 71@@18.
5. Modality 1@@

pro"a"le !enetic inheritance2 the HU**I-+ particle ta in ,a#re and the FORTATI-+ enclitic ZJa
in Tariana) and the FORTATI-+ particle si in ,a#re and the pro6i%ate s#$$i6 &si in Tariana.
Interestin!ly Desano) (hich is T#canoan "#t in contact (ith Tariana) also has a COMMAND
s#$$i62 FORTATI-+ 7per%issie8 &si. Ai'henald 7i"id.8 s#!!ests that the lar!e COMMAND type
syste% in Tariana is d#e to areal di$$#sion $ro% T#canoan into Ara(a'an) "#t the $act that
the %ar'er &si also occ#rs in another Ara(a'an lan!#a!e points to(ard "orro(in! $ro%
Ara(a'an into T#canoan rather than the other (ay ro#nd. Additionally) the %ar'er %ay
hae deeloped $ro% the .UTUR+ %ar'er &si 7Ai'henald ;<1<) 3C18) as noted. On the other
hand) the Tariana %ar'er &si occ#rs e6cl#siely (ith second person (hereas the Desano
%ar'er re$ers to $irst person (hich s#!!ests that the si%ilarity o$ the $or%s %ay "e d#e to
chance rather than contact. The Tariana IM/+RATI-+ s#$$i6 &ya is de$initely "orro(ed $ro%
T#canoan) tho#!h 7Ai'henald ;<<3) 3B@> Ai'henald ;<1<) 3C18. The e6act sa%e $or%
occ#rs in COMMAND* o$ ,arasano and T#y#ca &ya 7Ai'henald ;<1;) 1CB&1C@8 as (ell as Desano
7Miller 1@@@) B;8. The .UTUR+ s#$$i6es &ya in +%"era 7Chocoan8 and /#inae 7#nclassi$ied8 are
possi"ly related as (ell. In that case the $or% (o#ld hae spread $ro% T#canoan into
Tariana 7Ara(a'an8) +%"era 7Chocoan8) and an #nclassi$ied lan!#a!e) "#t that has yet to "e
proen.

Ta"le 5.1<2 COMMAND type %ar'in! in Ara(a'an
LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ LANLUAL+ HU* HU* HU* HU* /OL COM /OL COM /OL COM /OL COM COL COM COL COM COL COM COL COM FORT FORT FORT FORT /ROF /ROF /ROF /ROF IM/ IM/ IM/ IM/
Yanesha1 & & & & &ats &
Tariana & Ztna/a Detri%ental
clitic Ztupc
7;a38
ZJa mnaJa /ro6i%ate s#$$i6 &si) distal
s#$$i6 &kaJa) postponed &wa)
secondhand ZpiJa) &ya
7"orro(ed $ro% T#cano8
/aresi & maika & & awa &
Ap#rinW & & & (n)amc & &pcka 7rare) #sed to "e polite
only8
,a#re ta & & si & &nc
;
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5. Modality ;<1

5.1;.3 T#pUan 5.1;.3 T#pUan 5.1;.3 T#pUan 5.1;.3 T#pUan
The T#pUan lan!#a!es %ostly ary as to (hich Modal cate!ory they %ar') "#t there are a
$e( sets o$ co!nates) %ost pro%inently the .RU*TRATI-+. The .RU*TRATI-+ %ar'ers and $or%s
(ith related %eanin!s in the sa%ple and as $o#nd in Hensen 71@@C) 53C&53@8 see% to "e
related) pro"a"ly (ith t(o di$$erent so#rces. The Nheen!at_ and Pa%ai#rX %ar'ers ycpc
and jcpc, respectiely) occ#r as +piste%ic Modals in other L#aranU lan!#a!es 7Dietrich ;<<=)
BC8) (hich points to(ards a !ra%%aticaliDation $ro% +piste%ic Modality to .RU*TRATI-+.
Re$le6es o$ the IM/+RATI-+ proto&$or%s in L#aranU "ranch gc& 7s!8) gpc& 7pl.8 7Hensen 1@@C)
5;58 are $o#nd in Tapiete) T#pina%"a) and +%Trillon) "#t Coca%a&Coca%illa has a
co%pletey di$$erent IM/+RATI-+ $or%. The T#pUan lan!#a!e Paro (hich is not o$ the L#aranU
"ranch has a pro"a"ly related COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND pre$i6 pc7-. Li'e(ise) the A(etU 7non&
L#aranU8 pre$i6es i- 7s!8 and pcj& 7pl8 7/+RMI**I-+8 7c$. Dr#de ;<<C) C<8 %ay "e co!nate. The
T#pUan 7L#aranU8 proto&/ROFI,ITI-+ gcmc 7Hensen 1@@C) 5A@8 is $o#nd in Pa%ai#rX and possi"ly
+%Trillon.
.or a disc#ssion o$ the D+*ID+RATI-+ co!nates in T#pUan see M#eller 7;<138.

Ta"le 5.1;2 .RU*TRATI-+ in T#pUan
3A

.RU*TRATI-+ 1 .RU*TRATI-+ ;
Me'ens ctacp 7J8 -
Pa%ai#rX jcpc -
Nheen!at_ ycpc -
A(etU tcpc
1
-
Maya%pi titc mij 0preio#sly) "#t not any
%ore
Ur#"_&Paapor tipc -
T#pina%"X & -ui
L#aray# t vj 0#nreal0
L#aKaKXra tczyz 0$r#stration1) zcpc 0inco%plete
s#ccess1
miamc 0in ain1



3A
Maya%pi) Ur#"_&Paapor) T#pina%"X) L#aray#) and L#aKaKarX data $ro% Hensen 71@@C8.
35
In Dr#de 7;<<C) @38.
;<; 5.1; Lenealo!ical distri"#tion

Ta"le 5.132 Modality in T#pUan

*
a
t
e
r
T
&

M
a
(
T

P
a
r
o

P
a
r
i
t
i
a
n
a

M
e
'
e
n
s

T
a
p
i
e
t
e

C
o
c
a
%
a
&

C
o
c
a
%
i
l
l
a

+
%
T
r
i
l
l
o
n

P
a
%
a
i
#
r
X

N
h
e
e
n
!
a
t
_

R+A & & & & & & & & &
IRR & & i& pcqat & & itc-itc ram &
C+RT & & & cuc, p, tc & Ztin & supi
DU, sic) scm pa)
i?kiy
& kra ) tct & Ztaka,
-ray
&cn
1e
inip -
nip
scraki
D+* &tcran & &wak kct kc) kct
kaat
&sc)
&(i)sna
& &tan &pctat,
&wcj
&
INT & & & & & & & & &
.RU*T & & & ctacp & & & jcpc ycpc
/R/ & nt & & & Zra t& & ar
/OT aru & & ctcct & & & in &

Ta"le 5.1A2 COMMAND type %ar'in! in T#pUan

5.1;.A Cari"an 5.1;.A Cari"an 5.1;.A Cari"an 5.1;.A Cari"an
In Cari"an (e $ind eidence $or t(o cases o$ co!nates2 The D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers in
Fi6'aryana) TiriyN) and /anare) and the /UR/O*I-+ in Fi6'aryana) TiriyN) Mai Mai) and
Ma'#shi 7data $or the latter t(o are $ro% Der"yshire 1@@@8. Lildea 71@@C) 13C&1A<8 reconstr#cts a
proto&Cari"an p#rpose constr#ction inolin! the attri"#tie gmcG pc and no%inaliDer
g&tcpc (hich occ#rs in TiriyN) Fi6'aryana) and /anare) "#t the $or%er t(o to!ether (ith

3=
*i%ilar +piste%ic Modality %ar'ers in *#r#U &in4 and cn4 7Rodri!#es 1@@@) 11@8.
37
In Hensen 71@@@) 1AC8.
IM/ FORT HU** /OL COM COL COM /ROF
*aterT&
Ma(T
c) tc & & & & mcicG tcic
Paro & & & & pc7- 71G38 yanmm
Paritiana &a & & & & &
Me'ens & & & & &a 7;s!) plG
1pl8
&uc

/roto&$or% gc& 7s!8)
gpc& 7pl8
& & & & gcmc
Tapiete c- & & & t-/ ti- 71G 38 awi
Coca%a&
Coca%illa
yawa yapay & &puri)
tsani/
tsaniuri
& ina
+%Trillon c& 7s!8) pc&
7pl8
& & & t& mamc-mamcn
Pa%ai#rX & & & & ta- &um(c), pancn
Nheen!at_ & & & & & Ztc
T#pina%"a c&
3B
J J J J J
5. Modality ;<3

Mai Mai and Ma'#shi also e6hi"it special /UR/O*I-+ %ar'ers that li'e(ise are co!nates.
Lildea 71@@C) 1A1&1518 de%onstrates that the participial g&cc is ery $reI#ent in Cari"an and
o$tenti%es descri"ed as 3p#rpose&o$&%otion9) (hich $its the description o$ at least the
Fi6'aryana and TiriyN %ar'ers 7see section 5.= $or e6a%ples8. It is ery li'ely that the
D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers in Fi6'aryana and TiriyN are also co!nate (ith gcc.
As Der"yshire 71@@) 3B8 notes2 34t5here is another set o$ s#$$i6es $or the i%peratie
4di$$erin! $ro% the indicatie5 7incl#din! hortatory %ood8> these hae co%ponents o$
n#%"er and %otion) and di$$er in $or% accordin! to the person o$ the s#"Kect9. ,eca#se
data $or /anare is scarce this can only "e con$ir%ed $or TiriyN and Fi6'aryana.
In !eneral) Modality %ar'in! in Cari"an loo's ho%o!eneo#s only to a s%all de!ree.
INT+NTIONAL is %ar'ed only "y TiriyN) and the %ar'ers o$ IRR+ALI*) C+RTAINTY) and .RU*TRATI-+
do not see% to "e !enealo!ically related. TiriyN is the lan!#a!e (ith the %ost %ar'ed
Modality cate!ories in the sa%ple) and Fi6'aryana li'e(ise ran's in the top third. This is
e6plained "y the hi!h de!ree o$ $#sion in the Cari"an lan!#a!es in the sa%ple> +piste%ic
Modality) .UTUR+) and /+R.+CTI-+G IM/+R.+CTI-+ are e6pressed "y c#%#latie %orphe%es in
TiriyN 7c$. Meira 1@@@8 and in Fi6'aryana +piste%ic Modality and NON/A*T $or%s occ#r in
c#%#latie %orphe%es. ,eca#se the so#rces $or /anare are not co%prehensie on TAM+
%ar'in!) it is e6pected that) a$ter %ore data "eco%e aaila"le) there (ill "e a si%ilar hi!h
de!ree o$ Modality %ar'in! and $#sion.

Ta"le 5.152 Modality %ar'in! in Cari"an
Fi6'aryana TiriyN /anare Mai Mai Ma'#shi /roto&
$or%
R+A & & & J J J
IRR & mc t& J J J
C+RT mpini &c & J J J
DU, -yancG &yatxcwi> na)
mpa
-nc/ -n, tankc(nc),
tankar, tankara
& J J J
D+* &txankc) c sc/ c &jtc J J g&cc 7J8
INT & &ta & J J J
.RU*T narync rc(pc) & J J J
/R/ ncri, &sc/-xc &sc & &scG &i &iG &sc g&cc
/OT & & & J J J

Ta"le 5.1=2 COMMAND type %ar'in! in Cari"an








Fi6'aryana TiriyN /anare
IM/ &kcG &txckc &7k8) &ta) mi/
mikc(mc)8
&
FORT &siG &xc) &
sinycG &xcnyc
&nc 7pl8 &
HU** & 7nakaJ8 & &
/OL COM & & &
COL COM & w(n) 73G1 s!8 &
/ROF & & &
;<A 5.1; Lenealo!ical distri"#tion

5.1;.5 V#ech#an 5.1;.5 V#ech#an 5.1;.5 V#ech#an 5.1;.5 V#ech#an
Modality %ar'in! in V#ech#an is hi!hly ho%o!eneo#s. Al%ost all o$ the Modality %ar'ers
in the three V#ech#an lan!#a!es in the sa%ple and an additional set o$ $o#r 7Ayac#cho)
Tar%a) *alasaca) and /acaraos V#ech#a8
3C
can "e "ro#!ht into relations2 The
IRR+ALI* %ar'ers in F#alla!a) I%"a"#ra) and C#Dco V#ech#a and the /OT+NTIAL %ar'er in
Ayac#cho and Tar%a V#ech#a are identical) and the DU,ITATI-+ %ar'ers in I%"a"#ra) C#Dco)
*alasaca) and /acaraos V#ech#a are certainly related 7possi"ly also the IRR+ALI* in
Ayac#cho8. The D+*ID+RATI-+ %ar'ers as $o#nd in I%"a"#ra and C#Dco V#ech#a
!ra%%aticaliDed $ro% the er" muna 0(ant1 7c$. M#eller ;<138.
3@
The +piste%ic %ar'er &puni
in C#Dco V#ech#a has an Ay%aran ho%ony% 7Adelaar (ith M#ys'en ;<<A) ;@18.
The sa%e ho%o!eneity holds tr#e $or the set o$ COMMAND type %ar'ers. The IM/+RATI-+
s#$$i6 &y as (ell as the HU**I-+ s#$$i6 &cnun occ#r in al%ost all lan!#a!es in ta"le 5.1C.

Ta"le 5.1B2 Modality %ar'in! in V#ech#an
F#alla!a
V#ech#a
I%"a"#ra
V#ech#a
C#Dco
V#ech#a
Ayac#cho
V#ech#a
Tar%a
V#ech#a
R+A & & & J J
IRR &man &man &man &cu J
C+RT & & &puni, -mi J J
DU, & &cn4(ri) &cnus,
-cn4
!

J J
D+* &na2 &naya & J J
INT & & & J J
.RU*T & & & J J
/R/ & &cnun/
&nqapaj
& J J
/OT & & & &man &man

Ta"le 5.1C2 COMMAND type %ar'in! in V#ech#an
F#alla!a V#ech#a I%"a"#ra V#ech#a C#Dco V#ech#a Ayac#cho
V#ech#a
IM/ *#$$i6 &y) 7&nki ;pl
.UT8
&y 7s!8) &cni 7pl8 &y &y
FORT &snun &snuncni & &J
HU* &cnun &cnun
-
&cunG &sun
COL COM & & & J
/OL COM & & & J
/ROF & & & J


3C
Additional data $ro% Adelaar (ith M#ys'en 7;<<A8.
3@
Incidentally) the er" muna 0(ant1 also occ#rs in Ay%ara 7c$. Adelaar (ith M#ys'en ;<<A) ;B;) e6.
13<8) "#t no D+*ID+RATI-+ that !ra%%aticaliDed $ro% it.
A<
*ee section =.3.3 quccnuan $or +identialG +piste%ic &cn4.
5. Modality ;<5

5.13 *TA,ILITY O. MO 5.13 *TA,ILITY O. MO 5.13 *TA,ILITY O. MO 5.13 *TA,ILITY O. MODALITY DALITY DALITY DALITY
This section eal#ates the sta"ility o$ Modal $eat#res and dra(s #pon the st#dies "y
Mich%an E Fol%an 7;<<@8 and Mich%ann E Pa%holD 7;<<C8 7see chapter 3.1< $or an
introd#ction to sta"ility o$ typolo!ical $eat#res and the sta"ility o$ Tense) A.11 $or Aspect)
=.= $or +identiality) and B.5 $or a $inal disc#ssion8. The Modal $eat#res in Mich%ann E
Fol%an 7;<<@8 incl#de 3*it#ational /ossi"ility9) 3+piste%ic /ossi"ility9) 3Oerlap "et(een
*it#ational and +piste%ic Modal Mar'in!9) 3The Morpholo!ical I%peratie9) 3/rohi"itie9)
and 3i%peratie&Fortatie *yste%s9) all o$ the% ran'ed relatiely #nsta"le or ery
#nsta"le) and 3/#rpose Cla#ses9 (hich are ran'ed relatiely sta"le. In !eneral) the present
data con$ir% that Modal cate!ories are not sta"le and prone to lan!#a!e internal chan!e as
(ell as to di$$#sion. It has already "een s#!!ested that the 7in8sta"ilities o$ Tense and Aspect
deter%ine each other) and the sa%e is possi"ly tr#e $or Modality as (ell) "eca#se o$ the
de%onstrated relationship "et(een at least .UTUR+ and %any Modal cate!ories 7e.!.
COMMAND*) INT+NTIONAL) IRR+ALI*) etc.8. Additionally) Modal $eat#res are characteriDed "y their
s#scepti"ility to pra!%atic $actors) s#ch as politeness in COMMANDs) and these $eat#res tend
to "e #nsta"le in !eneral 7Mich%ann E Fol%an ;<<@) 338.

5.1A *UMMARY 5.1A *UMMARY 5.1A *UMMARY 5.1A *UMMARY
This chapter inesti!ated the typolo!ical) !eo!raphical) and !enealo!ical patterns o$
Modality %ar'in! in the sa%ple. The lan!#a!es (ere analyDed accordin! to R+ALI*G IRR+ALI*)
INT+NTIONAL) C+RTAINTY) DU,ITATI-+) /OT+NTIAL) .RU*TRATI-+) D+*ID+RATI-+) /UR/O*I-+) and the
$ollo(in! COMMAND types2 IM/+RATI-+) FORTATI-+) HU**I-+) COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND) /OLIT+ COMMAND)
and /ROFI,ITI-+.
Res#lts sho( that IM/+RATI-+ is the %ost $reI#ently %ar'ed cate!ory 7A5 lan!#a!es8)
$ollo(ed "y D+*ID+RATI-+ 73@8) /ROFI,ITI-+ 73<8) DU,ITATI-+ 7;C8 and IRR+ALI* 7;C8) /UR/O*I-+ 7;A8)
.RU*TRATI-+ 7;38 and FORTATI-+ 7;38) C+RTAINTY 7;<8) /OT+NTIAL 71B8) COLL+CTI-+ COMMAND 71=8)
INT+NTIONAL 7138) /OLIT+ COMMAND 7118 and HU**I-+ 7118) and R+ALI* 738. The oerall de!ree o$
s#$$i6ation is ery hi!h. Only one lan!#a!e has no Modality %ar'in! 7Chi%ila8) "#t none
%ar's the %a6i%#% possi"le n#%"er 715 incl#din! COMMAND types> nine e6cl#din!
COMMAND types8. Disre!ardin! COMMAND types) TiriyN %ar's the %ost Modal cate!ories 7B8.
*eeral re!ional cl#sters o$ Modal %ar'in! occ#r in the sa%ple. The L#aporT&Ma%orT
area $eat#res a considera"le ariation o$ hi!h !enealo!ical diersity> on the contrary) the
-a#pTs re!ion is relatiely ho%o!eneo#s in ter%s o$ (hich Modal cate!ory is %ar'ed)
altho#!h the %ar'ers the%seles do not sho( any si%ilarities. .RU*TRATI-+ has "een sho(n
to occ#r only east o$ the Andes in (hat ro#!hly constit#tes A%aDonia) and thro#!ho#t all
lan!#a!e $a%ilies) "#t (itho#t !enealo!ical si!nal e6cept $or T#pUan. T#pUan pro%inently
$eat#res .RU*TRATI-+* (hich %ay hae t(o di$$erent ori!ins) and possi"ly contact (ith
T#pUan led to the spread o$ .RU*TRATI-+* in A%aDonia. Mhereas a sin!le lan!#a!e $a%ily (as
pro"a"ly responsi"le $or the spread o$ .RU*TRATI-+) the D+*ID+RATI-+ (as deeloped "y seeral
lan!#a!e $a%ilies) (hich e6plains its (ider !eo!raphical spread than the .RU*TRATI-+ one.
;<= 5.1A *#%%ary

+piste%ic Modality occ#rs partic#larly $reI#ently in north&(est ,raDil and so#th&east
Colo%"ia) incl#din! the -a#pTs) and seeral %inor cl#sters in ,oliia and north /er#.
COMMAND* occ#r $reI#ently in the sa%ple in all re!ions and $a%ilies) (ith the e6ception o$
L#ayc#r#an and Macro&LOan. Many COMMAND type %ar'ers apparently !ra%%aticaliDed
$ro% the sa%e ori!ins as .UTUR+ %ar'ers) or $ro% .UTUR+ %ar'ers.
Modality %ar'in! aries !reatly accordin! to $a%ily. V#ech#an is ery ho%o!eneo#s in
Modality and COMMAND type %ar'in!) (ith co!nates $or al%ost all cate!ories. On the other
hand) Macro&LOan is ery hetero!eneo#s and #ni$ied only "y its lac' o$ COMMAND type
%ar'in!. L#ayc#r#an has no COMMAND type %ar'in! as (ell. The other lan!#a!e $a%ilies
ran' in "et(een these t(o e6tre%es) "ein! relatiely hetero!eneo#s (ith a $e( sets o$
co!nates. T#pUan has .RU*TRATI-+ co!nates> D+*ID+RATI-+ occ#rs in co!nates in irt#ally all
$a%ilies> COMMAND type co!nates in Cari"an and T#pUan can "e connected to esta"lished
proto&$or%s.
Modal $eat#res are #nsta"le) "oth in the present sa%ple and Mich%ann E Fol%an1s
7;<<@8 st#dy) "eca#se on their relationship (ith Tense) (hich is also #nsta"le) and its
s#scepti"ility to pra!%atic $actors.

6. Evidentiality 207

6. EVIDENTIALITY 6. EVIDENTIALITY 6. EVIDENTIALITY 6. EVIDENTIALITY
6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION
This ha!te" investi#ates the dist"i$%ti&n &' the #"a((atiali)ed (a"*in# &' in'&"(ati&n
s&%"e+ als& te"(ed Evidentiality. The n&ti&n &' Evidentiality is n&t ne, t& ty!&l&#ial
"esea"h and has $een the t&!i &' va"i&%s st%dies &n the dist"i$%ti&n &' the !hen&(en&n+
its '%nti&n ,ithin #"a((atial syste(s+ and its va"i&%s se(anti+ !"a#(ati+ and dis&%"se
ha"ate"istis. -&" &ve"vie,s &' the hist&"y &' Evidentiality in lin#%istis see e.#. .illett
/10112+ Dendale 3 Tas(&,s*i /20012+ and Ai*henvald /20042. Des!ite this ,&"ld5,ide
inte"est in (a"*in# &' in'&"(ati&n s&%"e+ Evidentiality is 'a" '"&( '%lly e6!l&"ed. -&"
e6a(!le+ it &ntin%es t& $e the t&!i &' h&t de$ates a$&%t ,hethe" &" n&t Evidentiality is
!a"t &' 7&dality &" indeed e6ists as a ate#&"y in its &,n "i#ht.
The !"esent st%dy '&%ses &n the (&"!h&5syntati (a"*in# &' Evidentiality in 8AILs+
$ased &n a"e'%lly de'ined se(anti &(!&nents. It d&es n&t atte(!t t& "es&lve all the
!&ints &' de$ate+ $%t instead &''e"s an e(!i"ial &ve"vie, in the 8AILs sa(!le+ the "es%lts &'
,hih ,ill $e analy)ed &n the $asis &' "eent lite"at%"e. The ate#&"ies h&sen a"e th&se
that "e%" in "eent st%dies as hi#hly "elevant+ in te"(s &' '"e9%eny as ,ell as (eanin#.
:e'&"e I !"esent the individ%al de'initi&ns+ h&,eve"+ a #ene"al n&te a$&%t Evidentiality is in
&"de".
The &ne!t &' (a"*in# in'&"(ati&n s&%"e /e.#. Evidentiality2 has $een de'ined $y
Ai*henvald /2004+ ;2 as '&ll&,s<

=Evidentiality is a lin#%isti ate#&"y ,h&se !"i(a"y (eanin# is s&%"e &'
in'&"(ati&n />2 this &ve"s the ,ay in ,hih the in'&"(ati&n ,as a9%i"ed+ ,ith&%t
neessa"ily "elatin# t& the de#"ee &' s!ea*e"s? e"tainty &ne"nin# the state(ent
&" ,hethe" it is t"%e &" n&t />2. T& $e &nside"ed as an evidential+ a (&"!he(e has
t& have @s&%"e &' in'&"(ati&n? as its &"e (eanin#A that is+ the %n(a"*ed+ &" de'a%lt
inte"!"etati&nB.

The 9%esti&nnai"e '&ll&,s this a!!"&ah and the de'initi&ns &%tlined in seti&n 6.2 a"e als&
l&sely (&deled &n the &nes $y Ai*henvald.
The d&(inant '%nti&n &' any Evidential is that it si#nals h&, the in'&"(ati&n "e'e""ed
t& $y the s!ea*e" ,as a9%i"ed. -&ll&,in# this+ Evidentiality an !e"tain t& a n%($e" &'
a9%isit&n "&%tes+ sta"tin# at a "&%#h di"et vs. indi"et ,itness &!!&siti&n and $"anhin#
int& "e'ined (eanin#s s%h as ,itness $y visi&n &" hea"in#+ &" in'e"ene $ased &n indi"et
evidene. The l&#ial inte"nal st"%t%"e &' Evidentiality is $asially the sa(e th"&%#h&%t
Evidential st%dies and ,ill als& $e %sed as (&del he"e. The '&ll&,in# 'i#%"e !"esents a
si(!li'ied ve"si&n &' the se(anti inte"nal st"%t%"es &' Evidentiality $ased &n .illett
/10112 and Ai*henvald /20042. Evidential ate#&"ies inl%ded in the 9%esti&nnai"e a"e in
italis.

201 6.1 Int"&d%ti&n

-i#%"e 6.1< Ty!es &' Evidentiality in this st%dy $ased &n .illett /10112 and Ai*henvald /20042
/ate#&"ies in the !"esent sa(!le a"e in italis2


This thesis d&es n&t investi#ate all ty!es &' Evidentiality !"esented $y .illett+ $%t adds t,&
e6t"a distinti&ns /CUOTATIVE and A88U7ED2.
.he"eas the inte"nal &"#ani)ati&n &' Evidentiality is #ene"ally a#"eed %!&n $y
ty!&l&#ists+ they a"e less %nani(&%s a$&%t #"&%!in# the ,h&le ate#&"y in "elati&n t& &the"
#"a((atial ate#&"ies. The"e a"e t,& &!!&sin# sides< th&se that vie, Evidentiality as a
s%$#"&%! &' 7&dality+ and th&se that see it as a ate#&"y &%tside &'+ $%t &nneted t&+
7&dality /and Tense and As!et2. The 'i"st &!ini&n is als& the t"aditi&nal &ne+ end&"sed $y
e.#. .illett /10112 and Dal(e" /20012+ ,he"eas the se&nd &ne is (%h (&"e "eent and
adv&ated $y e.#. Ai*henvald /20042 and de Eaan /200F2. This de$ate is inte"t,ined ,ith the
&ne a$&%t the e6at "elati&nshi! $et,een Evidentiality and E!iste(i 7&dality+ i.e. a"e
these &nG%nt /the sa(e2+ disG%nt /a!a"t2+ &" &ve"la!!in# syste(s /'. Dendale 3
Tas(&,s*i 2001+ ;41'.2. As in this st%dy they a"e !"esented as se!a"ate ate#&"ies+ I ,ill n&,
dis%ss this !&int in (&"e detail.
Dal(e" /2001+ 12 !%ts Evidentiality &n a !a" ,ith E!iste(i 7&dality+ the t,& ate#&"ies
'&"(in# a $ina"y distinti&n ,ithin the ate#&"y &' D"&!&siti&nal 7&dality. Eis (ain
a"#%(ent is that a s!ea*e" (a*es a G%d#e(ent a$&%t the 'at%al stat%s &' the !"&!&siti&n
/E!iste(i2 ,hen indiatin# the a9%isiti&n s&%"e /Evidential2+ s& these n&ti&ns a"e
ine6t"ia$ly lin*ed< e.#. in'e""in# '"&( an indi"et s&%"e al,ays "es%lts in a "elatively
%ne"tain state(ent. O!!&nents a"#%e that (a"*in# the s&%"e &' in'&"(ati&n d&es n&t
neessa"ily inv&lve G%d#e(ent and that it indeed an $e "elated ,ith+ $%t is inde!endent &'+
E!iste(i 7&dality. H%st as G%d#in# the 'at%ality &' a !"&!&siti&n d&es n&t have t& inv&lve
s&%"e &' in'&"(ati&n+ #ivin# a s&%"e an $e ne%t"al as t& G%d#(ent.
De Eaan /2001+ 2012 a"#%es that a &ntin#ent lin* $et,een E!iste(i 7&dality and
Evidentiality d&es n&t e6ist+ $%t "athe" is s!ea*e"5de!endent. Ai*henvald /2004+ 751 +
'&&tn&te 12 a"#%es that =the &asi&nally e6istin# lin* $et,een s&(e evidential h&ies and
the e6!"essi&n &' e"tainty &" %ne"tainty I>J is then (ista*en '&" a %nive"salB. 8he
de(&nst"ates that lan#%a#es indeed an have distint /disG%nt2 syste(s &' Evidentiality
and E!iste(i 7&dality+ that these e6ist inde!endently+ and an even &5&%" in the sa(e
6. Evidentiality 200

la%se /i$id. 2F152602. The s&le e6istene &' lan#%a#es that have disG%nt syste(s s%!!&"ts
the vie, that Evidentiality 7&dality.
1

.hile the !"esent st%dy a*n&,led#es that the"e an $e "elati&ns $et,een Evidentiality
and E!iste(i 7&dality+ they a"e n&t seen as de!endent &n eah &the"+ &" as !a"t &' the
sa(e ate#&"y. .he"eas E!iste(i 7&dality is &ne"ned !"i(a"ily ,ith the s!ea*e"?s
G%d#(ent &' the !"&!&siti&n+ Evidentiality "e'e"s t& a &ne!t &(!letely inde!endent '"&(
the s!ea*e"?s G%d#(ent+ &"+ in De Eaan?s te"(s /200F+ ;10A a%th&"?s e(!hasis2< =Evidentiality
asserts the evidene+ ,hile e!iste(i (&dality evaluates the evideneB.
The '&ll&,in# seti&n /6.22 &%tlines the Evidential ate#&"ies h&sen '&" this st%dy and
thei" de'initi&ns. A !"i(a"y "eas&n ,hy they ,e"e h&sen is $ased &n the "es%lts '"&(
Ai*henvald /2004+ 6;2+ ,h& states that si6 "e%""ent se(anti !a"a(ete"s an $e '&%nd
th"&%#h&%t the lan#%a#es &' the ,&"ld< vis%al+ n&n5vis%al+ in'e"ene+ ass%(!ti&n+ hea"say+
and 9%&tative.
2
These !a"a(ete"s ,e"e h&sen he"e as ,ell ,ith the di''e"ene that n&n5
vis%al ,as s%$stit%ted '&" NON5-IR8TEAND t& all&, '&" a $"&ad -IR8TEANDK NON5-IR8TEAND
distinti&n. 8eti&n 6.; !"esents (y "es%lts. Lene"al 'indin#s a"e dis%ssed in 6.;.1. 8eti&n
6.;.2 dis%sses the Evidential syste(s as &%""in# in the sa(!le+ and 6.;.; the dist"i$%ti&n
&' Evidential (a"*e"s in "elati&n t& #eneal&#ial and #e&#"a!hial !atte"ns. The "es%lts a"e
s%((a"i)ed in seti&n 6.4.

6.2 DE-INITION8 6.2 DE-INITION8 6.2 DE-INITION8 6.2 DE-INITION8
6.2.1 6.2.1 6.2.1 6.2.1 -IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND and and and and VI8UAL VI8UAL VI8UAL VI8UAL Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality
-IR8TEAND in'&"(ati&n "e'e"s t& the s!ea*e" $ein# the di"et ,itness t& the (a"*ed eventA
this an $e th"&%#h visi&n &" &the" sens&"y e6!e"ienes li*e hea"in#+ t&%h+ s(ell+ and
taste. A (a"*e" in this ate#&"y an "e'e" t& any &' these. A (a"*e" that e6l%sively "e'e"s t&
vis%al ,itness is n&t &%nted as -IR8TEAND+ $%t as VI8UAL instead. 8ee an e6a(!le '"&( Ma"&
'&" a VI8UAL !a"tile /top2 in /6.12+ and '"&( E%! '&" a -IR8TEAND (a"*e" that e6l%des VI8UAL
in /6.2a2 and /6.2$2. In E%!+ the a$sene &' any Evidential %s%ally e6!"esses VI8UAL /E!!s
2001+ 64;2.

/6.12 Ma"& /T%!NanA La$as H". 1000+ 2662
p e-t top top top top to=at macat w-a
,hite.(an AUO5IND1 $e.seen ;RPDO88 !et *ill5LER
@/It ,as seen that2 the ,hite *illed his !et.? /%sed in a sit%ati&n ,he"e the s!ea*e"
,ent t& the ,hite (an?s h&%se and sa, hi( *illin# his !et2




1
C'. Da C"%) /2011+ ;F;2 ,h& lai(s that the REDORTATIVE in Nheen#atQ has n& inhe"ent E!iste(i val%e.
2
:ased &n a &nveniene sa(!le &' F00 lan#%a#es h&sen '&" availa$ility &' data /A. Y. Ai*henvald 2004+
6ii2.
210 6.2 De'initi&ns

/6.22 E%! /Nadah%!A E!!s 2001+ 646+ 64;2
/a2 nciya p-c

w-

y=h
$&at #&.%!"ive"5CO7DL5DYNPNVI8
@The $&at al"eady ,ent %!"ive".? /the s!ea*e" hea"d $%t did n&t see it2
/$2 !"h nw= h hh h
s,eet #&&dPNVI8
@It?s nie and s,eetR? /tastin# s&(ethin#2
/2 o#-n h #ey-ham-!"et-y -ay=$ $$ $ t h=a

y-a
%
h&
(&ve5NEL see5#&5stand5TEL5INCEPVI8 ;8LP-5DECL
@8he ,as G%st standin# the"e l&&*in#+ ,ith&%t (&vin#R? /s!ea*e" ,itnessed event2

6.2.2 6.2.2 6.2.2 6.2.2 N NN NON ON ON ON5 55 5-IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND -IR8TEAND Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality
A NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e" "e'e"s t& the &!!&site &' di"et ,itness. As this is in di"et
&!!&siti&n t& -IR8TEAND+ it is e6!eted that this inl%des eve"ythin# n&t e6!e"iened
th"&%#h the senses+ alth&%#h &'ten this (eans eve"ythin# n&t a9%i"ed $y vis%al
in'&"(ati&n+ and the"e'&"e &%ld als& $e alled n&n5vis%al. This (eanin# &(!"ises all the
n&ti&ns in 'i#%"e 6.1 that de!end &n the n&de @indi"et?+ i.e. 8ECONDEAND+ IN-ERRED+ A88U7ED+
and CUOTATIVE. E&,eve"+ a (a"*e" that e6l%sively (a"*s &ne &' these is n&t &%nted as NON5
-IR8TEAND+ $%t as the "es!etive s%$(eanin#. Only ,hen a (a"*e" #ene"ally en&des indi"et
,itness+ havin# t,& &" (&"e '%nti&ns &' 8ECONDEAND+ IN-ERRED+ A88U7ED+ &" CUOTATIVE+ it is a
NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e" /this is si(ila" t& I7DER-ECTIVE+ ,hih is de'ined as (a"*in# at least
t,& &' the (eanin#s &' EA:ITUAL+ CONTINUATIVE+ ITERATIVE2. NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e"s a"e n&t the
sa(e as 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s+ $%t 8ECONDEAND is a !&ssi$le (eanin# &' NON5-IR8TEAND. -&"
e6a(!le in Ta!iete+ the NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e" 5n'a "e'e"s t& ve"$al "e!&"t+ hea"say+ $%t als&
in'e"ene<

/6.;2 Ta!iete /T%!Nan+ L%a"anNA L&n)Sle) 200F+ 2F2+ 2F;+ 2F42
/a2 ou-n'a n'a n'a n'a ar#a"e #o-pe
;<&(e5N-R8T l&n# ti(e a#& DE75LOC
@/they say that2 /s2he a(e he"e a l&n# ti(e a#&.?
/$2 ywa-'a 'a 'a 'a ha"e-ipi i#o
ti#e"5N-R8T /s2he5LOC7OV $e
@/It is said that2 the ti#e" lives &ve" the"e.?
/2 (am)a-n'a n'a n'a n'a n'u-su-e
d&#5N-R8T 28L5$ite5REC
@It see(s it is the d&# /the &ne that2 $it y&%.?

6.2.; 6.2.; 6.2.; 6.2.; 8ECONDEAND 8ECONDEAND 8ECONDEAND 8ECONDEAND and and and and CUOTATIVE CUOTATIVE CUOTATIVE CUOTATIVE Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality
8ECONDEAND "e'e"s t& in'&"(ati&n that is a9%i"ed th"&%#h ve"$al "e!&"t '"&( s&(e&ne else+
als& alled @"e!&"tative?. This inl%des thi"d5hand+ '&%"th5hand+ et. and als& the (eanin#
&'ten identi'ied as hea"say &" "%(&". 8ECONDEAND in'&"(ati&n an+ $%t d&es n&t have t&+
6. Evidentiality 211

inl%de the (eanin# &' CUOTATIVE. CUOTATIVE is a s!eiali)ed '%nti&n &' 8ECONDEAND. A
CUOTATIVE &%"s in a di"et s!eeh &nst"%ti&n ,ith a s&%"e that is %s%ally di"etly
identi'ied &" identi'ia$le $y &nte6t. 8e(antially+ the s&%"e &' 8ECONDEAND in'&"(ati&n is
n&t i(!&"tant+ i(!&"tant is that the in'&"(ati&n ,as a9%i"ed th"&%#h s&(e$&dy else.
.ith a CUOTATIVE the s&%"e is i(!&"tant+ as it indiates n&t &nly that the in'&"(ati&n ,as
a9%i"ed th"&%#h s&(e$&dy else+ $%t als& $y ,h&( e6atly. 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s a"e &'ten
t"anslated int& En#lish ,ith @it is said>? &" @they say>?+ and a"e ty!ially %sed '&" na""atives
&" hea"say ,he"e the s!ea*e" "e!eats a st&"y &" in'&"(ati&n that he has hea"d '"&( an&the"
!e"s&n+ $%t (ay n&t "e(e($e" ,he"e &" ,h& '"&(. /6.42 !"&vides an e6a(!le &' the
8ECONDEAND (a"*e" pa in Cavinen)a<

/6.42 CavineTa /TaananA L%illa%(e 2001+ 6442<
amena *tuna
+
nawi-#arama ,u-ya=,u- =pa pa pa pa=tuna
.
#atsa-#ware/
:7 ;DL $athe5DE8ID.NEL $e5I7D-VPD8PREDP;DL /5ERL2 $eat5RE7.DA8T
@It is said that ,hen they /&%" anest&"?s hild"en2 "e'%sed t& $athe+ they /&%"
anest&"s2 ,&%ld $eat the(.?

8ECONDEAND and CUOTATIVE &'ten &ve"la!. In CavineTa+ the 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" pa an als& $e
%sed ,ith an identi'ied s&%"e+ as @the '&"ei#n lady? in /6.F2<

/6.F2 CavineTa /TaananA L%illa%(e 2001+ 64F2
runeshi =pa =pa =pa =pa=e#wana
0
!rin!a=ra
.
iya-mere-ya avion=e#e/
(&ndayPREDP1DL '&"ei#n.ladyPERL !%t5CAU85ID-V !lanePDERL
@The lady said that she ,ill have s&(e&ne /!il&t2 ta*in# %s /$a* t&
&%" &((%nity2 $y !lane &n 7&nday.?

1a is neve"theless &ded as 8ECONDEAND+ $ea%se it &%"s ,ith indi"et s!eeh and a
(aG&"ity &' the e6a(!les d& n&t see( t& identi'y the s&%"e. -%"the"(&"e+ CavineTa has a
se!a"ate &nst"%ti&n '&" 9%&tati&n that has n& CUOTATIVE (a"*e" $%t inv&lves "e!eatin# &'
di"et s!eeh '&ll&,ed $y the deiti adve"$ ,a'ya<

/6.62 CavineTa /TaananA L%illa%(e 2001+ 7772
amenat ue#e'ya *21a-#wa='yai-#e
+
&3 ,a'ya- ,u-#ware/
:7 then EORT.8L5#&P-OC 18L5-7 th%s $e5RE7.DA8T
@:%t then /as n&$&dy ,anted t& #&2 I said< =I?ll #&RB?

As CUOTATIVE (a"*e"s a"e G%st a s%$ate#&"y &' 8ECONDEAND+ they a"e e6!eted t& $e "a"e"
than 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s in the sa(!le.



212 6.2 De'initi&ns

6.2.4 6.2.4 6.2.4 6.2.4 IN-ERRED IN-ERRED IN-ERRED IN-ERRED and and and and A88U7ED A88U7ED A88U7ED A88U7ED Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality Evidentiality
:&th IN-ERRED and A88U7ED Evidential (a"*e"s en&de in'&"(ati&n that has $een &$tained
th"&%#h indi"et (eas%"es+ i.e. $el&n# t& the NON5-IR8TEAND ate#&"y+ G%st li*e 8ECONDEAND
and CUOTATIVE. .ith an IN-ERRED (a"*e"+ a s!ea*e" in'e"s in'&"(ati&n &n the $asis &' sens&"y
in!%t. This is easily (ista*en '&" -IR8TEAND in'&"(ati&n+ ,hih is als& $ased &n sens&"y
in!%t+ $%t ,ith the di''e"ene that ,ith an IN-ERRED (a"*e" the event itsel' is n&t di"etly
,itnessed. In /6.72+ the s!ea*e" in'e"s that it "ained $ea%se the #"&%nd is ,et+ i.e. he did n&t
see it "ain $%t it he sees the di"et "es%lt. In /6.12 the s!ea*e" ded%es '"&( seein# the dead
!"ey that the &the" !e"s&n (%st have *illed it+ alth&%#h he did n&t ,itness the *illin#<

/6.72 M,a)a /%nlassi'iedA Van de" V&&"t+ 4212
a4we-hyU-tehere tehere tehere tehere
"ain5NO75IN-R
@it (%st have "ained? /I did n&t see it "ain+ $%t the #"&%nd is ,et2

/6.12 Ma"& /T%!NanA La$as H". 1000+ 2612
p a=w-n a#et a#et a#et a#et
,hite.(an ;8LP*ill5IND1 IN-R
@The ,hite (an (%st have *illed it.? /%sed in a sit%ati&n ,he"e it ,as *n&,n $y the
s!ea*e" that the ,hite (an had #&ne in the '&"est &ve"ni#ht t& h%nt and a(e $a*
,ith his !"ey+ $%t neithe" the s!ea*e" n&" any$&dy else sa, hi( *illin# it2
/&"i#inal #l&ss a#et P (%st2

A88U7ED is the Evidential that is '%"thest "e(&ved '"&( di"et e6!e"iene /&' all the
Evidential ate#&"ies in the 9%esti&nnai"e2 and "e'e"s t& #ene"al *n&,led#e. -&" e6a(!le+ in
/6.02 the s!ea*e" ass%(es that the s%$Get &' the la%se has #&ne t& slee! $ea%se seve"al
i"%(stanes !&int t& that &nl%si&n+ inl%din# the *n&,led#e that !e&!le #& t& slee! at
ni#ht. This &nl%si&n is d"a,n &n the $asis &' #ene"al *n&,led#e /it $ein# late+ !e&!le
%s%ally #& t& slee!2. C&(!a"e this t& the Ma"& (a"*e" a#et in /6.12 a$&ve+ ,he"e the"e is
vis%al evidene &' the "es%lt /the *illed ani(al2<

/6.02 Ma"& /T%!NanA La$as H". 1000+ 2612
to=#et-a a=e-t i!5 i!5 i!5 i!5
;RPslee!5LER ;8LPAUO5IND1 A87
@Ee (%st have #&ne t& slee!.? /%sed ,hen the s!ea*e" *e!t ,aitin# '&" a !e"s&n '&" a
l&n# ti(e+ it ,as late at ni#ht+ and the !e"s&n did n&t sh&, %!. 8&+ the s!ea*e"
&nl%des that the !e"s&n (ay have #&ne t& slee!.2
/&"i#inal #l&ss i!5 P i!52



6. Evidentiality 21;

6.; TYDOLOLICAL DI8T 6.; TYDOLOLICAL DI8T 6.; TYDOLOLICAL DI8T 6.; TYDOLOLICAL DI8TRI:UTION IN TEE 8A7D RI:UTION IN TEE 8A7D RI:UTION IN TEE 8A7D RI:UTION IN TEE 8A7DLE LE LE LE
6.;.1 Lene"al &ve"vie, 6.;.1 Lene"al &ve"vie, 6.;.1 Lene"al &ve"vie, 6.;.1 Lene"al &ve"vie,
O' the 6; lan#%a#es in the sa(!le+ 14 d& n&t (a"* any Evidential+ $%t 40 have at least &ne
(&"!h&5syntatially (a"*ed Evidential ate#&"y. O' these 40 lan#%a#es+ 22 (a"* a di"et
,itness /i.e. -IR8TEAND andK &" VI8UAL2+ and 46 an indi"et ,itness Evidential /i.e. NON5
-IR8TEAND+ andK &" 8ECONDEAND+ andK &" CUOTATIVE+ andK &" IN-ERRED andK &" A88U7ED2. An
inte"setin# set &' 20 lan#%a#es (a"* $&th di"et and indi"et ,itness. 8!lit %! int& the
individ%al ate#&"ies+ "es%lts sh&, that the (&st '"e9%ently (a"*ed ate#&"y is 8ECONDEAND
/;12+ '&ll&,ed $y -IR8TEAND /172+ IN-ERRED /1F2+ NON5-IR8TEAND /112+ A88U7ED /102+ VI8UAL /F2+ and
CUOTATIVE /22. 2; lan#%a#es in the sa(!le (a"* &ne Evidential ate#&"y+ 11 (a"* t,&+ nine
(a"* th"ee+ '&%" (a"* '&%"+ and t,& (a"* 'ive.
The '&"( &' (a"*in# "an#es '"&( s%''i6es &ve" litis t& !a"tilesA the"e is &ne !"e'i6
/8ECONDEAND #6'65 in It&na(a2. 8%''i6ati&n is (&st &((&n in the sa(!le. E&,eve"+
Evidentiality is (a"*ed "elatively (&"e '"e9%ently $y !a"tiles than Tense+ As!et+ and
7&dality. The"e a"e ei#ht lan#%a#es ,ith %(%lative (&"!he(es &' Evidentiality and
Tense+ %s%ally inv&lvin# DA8T and s&(eti(es DRE8ENT+ "a"ely -UTURE. Lan#%a#es (a"*in#
Evidentiality and Tense ,ith %(%lative (&"!he(es a"e< Ta"iana+ Ay(a"a+ Ha"a,a"a+
7a(aindV+ 8a$anV+ 7atses+ C%$e&+ and Desan&. Ay(a"a is the &nly lan#%a#e inv&lvin#
-UTURE in a %(%lative (&"!he(e ,ith Evidentiality. De Eaan /20112 "e!&"ts the sa(e
dist"i$%ti&n '&" a #l&$al sa(!le< =I(J&st lan#%a#es that %se the ve"$al syste( t& den&te
evidential distinti&ns d& s& &nly in the !ast tenseB.
The '&ll&,in# ta$les and 'i#%"es ill%st"ate the dist"i$%ti&n &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in
the sa(!le. Ta$le 6.1 sh&,s the n%($e" &' lan#%a#es (a"*in# Evidentiality &" n&t. The"e
a"e 40 lan#%a#es (a"*in# di"et andK &" indi"et Evidentiality+ 21 &' ,hih (a"* $&th.
-%"the"(&"e+ di"et and indi"et a"e s!lit int& thei" "es!etive ate#&"ies and h&, (any
lan#%a#es (a"* these. -i#%"e 6.2 sh&,s h&, (any lan#%a#es (a"* ,hih ate#&"y and
'i#%"e 6.; h&, (any lan#%a#es (a"* ,hih n%($e" &' Evidentials. These n%($e"s a"e all
$ased &n ta$le 6.4+ ,hih !"esents the lan#%a#es and ,hih Evidential ate#&"ies they
(a"*K d& n&t (a"*+ &"de"ed '"&( least t& (&st (a"*in#.
The '&ll&,in# seti&n /6.;.22 !"esents the Evidentiality syste(s &%""in# in the sa(!le.
A detailed dis%ssi&n &' #e&#"a!hial and #eneal&#ial !atte"ns '&ll&,s in seti&n 6.4 and
6.F.









214 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

Ta$le 6.1< 8he(ati &ve"vie, &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le
N& Evid. Evidential (a"*in#
14 40
di"et
22
indi"et
46
$&th
21
-IR8TEAND VI8UAL NON5
-IR8TEAND
8ECONDEAND
/WCUOTATIVE2
IN-ERRED A88U7ED
17 F 11 ;1/W22 1F 10

-i#%"e 6.2< N%($e" &' 8AILs (a"*in# n%($e" &' Evidential ate#&"ies




-i#%"e 6.;< Evidential ate#&"ies (a"*ed $y 8AILs







6. Evidentiality 21F

Ta$le 6.4< Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le /'"&( least t& (&st2
LANLUALE LANLUALE LANLUALE LANLUALE -A7ILY -A7ILY -A7ILY -A7ILY 8CND 8CND 8CND 8CND -R8T -R8T -R8T -R8T IN-R IN-R IN-R IN-R N-R8T N-R8T N-R8T N-R8T A87 A87 A87 A87 VI8 VI8 VI8 VI8 CUOT CUOT CUOT CUOT TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL
1 Da"esi A"a,a*an 0
2 A,a Dit :a"$a&an 0
; Ti"iyX Ca"i$an

0
4 Dana"e Ca"i$an 0
F .a"i? Cha!a%"an 0
6 Chi(ila Chi$han 0
7 Teh%elhe Ch&nan



0
1 Dila#S L%ay%"%an 0
0 A#%a"%na Hiva"&an 0
10 Ri*$a*tsa 7a"&5LVan 0
11 Ti($i"a 7a"&5LVan
0
12 .ihN
/7ata&2
7ata&an 0
1; 7%nihi Unlassi'ied 0
14 Man&V Unlassi'ied 0
1F T"%(ai Unlassi'ied 1
16 .a"a& Unlassi'ied

1
17 It&na(a Unlassi'ied 1
11 Ei6*a"yana Ca"i$an





1
10 Yanesha? A"a,a*an

1
20 :a%"e A"a,a*an 1
21 A!%"inY A"a,a*an

1
22 :&"&"& 7a"&5LVan 1
2; Main#an# 7a"&5LVan 1
24 DZ, Nadah%! 1
2F E($e"a Ch&&an 1
26 Nasa Y%,e Dae)an 1
27 Ya(inah%a Dan&an 1
21 CavineTa Taanan 1
20 Ma"itiana T%!Nan

1
;0 D%inave Unlassi'ied

1
;1 7&vi(a Unlassi'ied

1
;2 Nheen#atQ T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
1
;; E(["ill&n T%!Nan+
L%a"ani
1
216 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le



;4 M,a)a Unlassi'ied 1
;F 7a!%he A"a%anian





1
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6. Evidentiality 217

6.;.2 8yste(s &' Evidentiality (a"*in# 6.;.2 8yste(s &' Evidentiality (a"*in# 6.;.2 8yste(s &' Evidentiality (a"*in# 6.;.2 8yste(s &' Evidentiality (a"*in#
This seti&n !"esents an &ve"vie, &' the syste(s &' Evidentiality (a"*in# as &%""in# in
the sa(!le. N&te that the ,ay the te"( @syste(? is "e'e""ed t& he"e d&es n&t &inide ,ith
Ai*henvald?s /200;2 (&"e na""&, de'initi&n. Ai*henvald inl%des '&"(ally %n(a"*ed
Evidential '%nti&ns+ i.e. )e"&5(a"*e"s. That leads t& syste(s that an have %n(a"*ed
(e($e"s+ in &nt"ast t& the !"esent de'initi&n &' a syste(+ ,he"e all (e($e"s (%st $e
&ve"tly (a"*ed. The "eas&n that I have h&sen t& inl%de &nly (a"*ed ate#&"ies is the 'at
that '&" (any &' the lan#%a#es in the !"esent sa(!le it is n&t !&ssi$le t& esta$lish
&$li#at&"iness+ ,hih ,as de'ined in ha!te" 2 as a neessa"y &nditi&n '&" the !&st%lati&n
&' )e"&5(&"!he(es. As a "es%lt+ the !"esent syste(s %s%ally have &ne Evidential ate#&"y
less than in Ai*henvald?s /20042 analysis. Additi&nally+ an Evidential syste( as de'ined he"e
d&es n&t s!ei'y ,hethe" the (a"*e"s ,ithin &ne lan#%a#e &nstit%te a !a"adi#(ati
syste(+ a"e in &(!le(enta"y dist"i$%ti&n+ &" &%!y di''e"ent ve"$al sl&ts. Ai*henvald
/200;2 (a*es a distinti&n $et,een =%nita"yB ve"s%s =satte"edB syste(s+ i.e. th&se ,ith a
!a"adi#(ati set &' '&"(s ve"s%s seve"al Evidential '&"(s dist"i$%ted th"&%#h&%t the
#"a((a". This ,ill $e &((ented %!&n ,hen "elevant.
As an $e seen in ta$le 6.4 the"e is a line $et,een the n%($e" &' Evidentials (a"*ed
and the n%($e" &' lan#%a#es (a"*in# it+ e.#. (&"e lan#%a#es (a"* a s(all n%($e" &'
Evidential ate#&"ies ,hile 'e,e" lan#%a#es (a"* a hi#he" n%($e". The (&st '"e9%ent
syste( &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le has &nly &ne &!ti&n /(&stly 8ECONDEAND2. The
9%esti&nnai"e all&,s '&" a (a6i(%( &' seven &!ti&ns+ $%t the hi#hest n%($e" &' &!ti&ns is
'ive in &nly t,& lan#%a#es /Ta"iana and 7a(aindV2.
The '&ll&,in# seti&n !"esents the individ%al syste(s ,ith ill%st"ative e6a(!les. A '%ll
dis%ssi&n &' Evidential (a"*in# in eah lan#%a#e is $ey&nd the s&!e &' this st%dyA instead+
ill%st"ative and a 'e, !e%lia" ases ,ill $e investi#ated.

7vi'entiality systems with one option
This is the la"#est #"&%! in the sa(!le+ '&%nd in 2; lan#%a#es. The (aG&"ity &' these
lan#%a#es sh&, 8ECONDEAND (a"*in# /172+ t,& e6hi$it -IR8TEAND+ t,& NON5-IR8TEAND+ &ne has
CUOTATIVE+ and &ne has IN-ERRED. A syste( ,ith &nly &ne &ve"tly (a"*ed &!ti&n (ay see(
li*e a $ina"y &ne ,he"e &ne ate#&"y is %n(a"*ed &" )e"&5(a"*ed.
8ECONDEAND is $y 'a" the (&st '"e9%ently (a"*ed ate#&"y+ and Ai*henvald /2004+ ;15;22
al"eady sh&,ed that si(!le Evidentiality syste(s &' the s&"t ="e!&"tative ve"s%s eve"ythin#
elseB a"e indeed &((&n th"&%#h&%t 8&%th A(e"ia. All &' the lan#%a#es in this ate#&"y
have &ne &" (&"e (a"*e"s ,hih indiate that the in'&"(ati&n ,as a9%i"ed $y ve"$al
"e!&"t+ s%h as in Ma"itiana<

/6.112 Ma"itiana /T%!NanA Eve"ett 2006+ 2122
a-ta#a-tat-sar sar sar sar t tt t-$
28L.A:85N8AD5#&58CND5N-UT
@Y&% ,ent+ I hea"d.?
211 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

7%h less &((&n in the sa(!le a"e &ne5&!ti&n syste(s ,ith (a"*e"s '&" -IR8TEAND+
NON-IR8TEAND+ IN-ERRED+ &" CUOTATIVE. The"e is n& lan#%a#e ,hih has an A88U7ED (a"*e" &nly.
The '&ll&,in# !a"a#"a!hs investi#ate these s%$ty!es.
:&th 7&&vN and 7a!%he have a NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e". In the ase &' 7&&vN+ the
enliti Po "e'e"s t& %n,itnessed events and is e6t"e(ely &((&n in na""atives /L"&nd&na
1001+ 1102. It is attahed t& the ve"$ @say? $e'&"e a di"et s!eeh &nst"%ti&n and th%s als&
(a"*s a CUOTATIVE. The NON5-IR8TEAND s%''i6 -89:r#e in 7a!%he is als& &((&nly %sed in
na""atives+ and (a"*s in'&"(ati&n $y ded%ti&n+ "e!&"t+ &" #ene"al hea"say. An %n&((&n
(eanin# a(&n# the NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e"s in the sa(!le is that the 7a!%he s%''i6 is als&
%sed in &nte6ts ,he"e the !a"tii!ant /n&t the s!ea*e"2 ,as %na,a"e &' s&(e as!et &' the
ve"$al ati&n /8(eets 2001+ 246'.2 5 see /6.1;$2.

/6.122 7&&vN /L%ay%"%anA L"&nd&na 1001+ 2122
/a2 #a i;<ya#;o oo o l;asom l;ai
then ;ACTW$"in#WN-R8T ;DO88Wd&&" A:8Wside
@And she !laed it nea" the d&&" /P$y the side &' the d&&"2.? /ta*en '"&( a st&"y t&ld
t& the s!ea*e" $y his #"and'athe"2
/$2 #a $;na=#;o oo o #a yat
then ;ACTWsayWN-R8T DEIC.A:8N (&s9%it&
@Then the (&s9%it& said< >?

/6.1;2 7a!%he /A"a%anianA 8(eets 2001+ 246+ 2472
/a2 amu-r#e r#e r#e r#e-lle-y-n!-9n
#&5N-R8T5A-75IND5;N8L5DL
@I&h yes+J they e"tainly ,ent+ I a( t&ld.?
/$2 we(e-nie-(ma-r#e r#e r#e r#e->i-y-n!-9n (i mapu
steal5DRD85IDR.O:H5N-R8T5EDO5IND5;N8L5DL DO88; land
@They *e!t "&$$in# the( &' thei" land ,ith&%t the( $ein# a,a"e &' it.?

7e*ens is the &nly lan#%a#e that has CUOTATIVE as the &nly (a"*ed Evidential ate#&"y.
CUOTATIVE is (a"*ed in t,& lan#%a#es in the sa(!leA %s%ally 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s &"
&(!le(ent la%ses ,ith ve"$s &' the *ind @say+ tell+ s!ea*? a"e %sed t& e6!"ess
CUOTATIVE (eanin#. The 7e*ens CUOTATIVE !a"tiles #e /'i"st and se&nd !e"s&n2 and #aat
/thi"d !e"s&n2 !"ed&(inantly &%" %nde" "eal 9%&tative &nditi&ns+ i.e. syntatially ,ith a
di"et 9%&te and an identi'ied s&%"e+ $%t als& in (&"e 8ECONDEAND5li*e envi"&n(ents. The
CUOTATIVE (a"*e" #aat is inte"estin# in an&the" "es!et as ,ell< It is !&ssi$ly the se&nd %nit
in the DE8IDERATIVE #ot #aat t&#ethe" ,ith the I77EDIATE -UTURE !a"tile #ot.




6. Evidentiality 210

/6.142 7e*ens /T%!NanA Lal%i& 2001+ 11+ 207+ 6;2
/a2 s neat i#5? o-i-mi #aat #aat #aat #aat
dee" 87L that.ti(e 18L5O:H5*ill CUOT
@It l&&*s li*e it is a dee" that I sh&t that ti(e?+ he said.?
/$2 po-#5ra ese-ip pa ?t #aat #aat #aat #aat marly
hand5$eads C7T5&(e -UT I CUOT 7a"ly
@7a"ly said that she ,&%ld $"in# the $"aelets.? /lit. @7a"ly said< =I ,ill $"in# the
$"aelets.B?2
/2 #aa)=eri e)a ?t aose na eteet
thatPA:L EV I !e"s&n V:L\ &%ld
o-# ?-a #e #e #e #e te
18L5,ate" #ive5TEE7 CUOT t"%ly
@That is ,hy I said at that ti(e that i' it ,e"e a !e"s&n it sh&%ld #ive (e ,ate".?

M,a)a is the &nly lan#%a#e ,hih has an IN-ERRED (a"*e" in a &ne5&!ti&n syste(+ and is
,&"th '%"the" &nside"ati&n. The"e is little d&%$t that the s%''i6 5tehere /and 5cehere@ ,hih
is !"&$a$ly its all&(&"!h2 (a"*s IN-ERRED Evidentiality /Van de" V&&"t 2004+ 4202. In
e6a(!le /6.1Fa2+ the sentene n&t (a"*ed ,ith 5tehere is ne%t"al a$&%t the s&%"e &'
in'&"(ati&n+ $%t in e6a(!le /6.1F$2+ 5tehere lea"ly (a"*s that the !"&!&siti&n is $ased &n
visi$le evidene /the #"&%nd $ein# ,et2<

/6.1F2 M,a)a /%nlassi'iedA Van de" V&&"t 2004+ 4212
/a2 aAwe-hB-#i
"ain5NO75DECL
@It has "ained.? /I did &" did n&t see it "ain.2
/$2 aAwe-hB-tehere tehere tehere tehere
"ain5NO75IN-R
@It (%st have "ained.? /I did n&t see it "ain+ $%t the #"&%nd is ,et.2

The s%''i6 5tehere is the &nly (&"!h&5syntati Evidential (a"*e" in M,a)a. Only &ne &the"
(a"*e" in M,a)a has any Evidential (eanin#< the inde'inite s%$Get s%''i6 5wa+ ,hih (a"*s
%ns!ei'ied thi"d !e"s&n/s2. It an als& indiate di"et &" indi"et ,itness+ $%t this is
&nside"ed a =side5e''etB $y Van de" V&&"t /2004+ 2642 and &""es!&nds t& ,hat Ai*henvald
/2004+ 10F2 alls an =evidential st"ate#yB+ ,hih inl%des any (a"*e" that a9%i"ed
se&nda"y Evidential (eanin#s in &nt"ast t& (a"*e"s ,ith !"i(a"y (eanin#. As is the
nat%"e &' #"a((atiali)ati&n+ a '&"(e" (a"*e" ,ith se&nda"y Evidential (eanin#s (ay
devel&! int& a '%ll Evidential+ and the M,a)a s%''i6 5wa (ay $e in s%h an ea"ly sta#e &'
#"a((atiali)ati&n.
It is li*ely that 5tehere has devel&!ed lan#%a#e5inte"nally "athe" than havin# $een
$&""&,ed. The '&"( 5here &%"s in th"ee di''e"ent+ $%t a!!a"ently "elated (&"!he(es
,hih Van de" V&&"t /2004+ 41754112 s%((a"i)es as =&nGet%"alB< the INTENTIONAL (a"*e"
220 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

5here+ ,hih !"&$a$ly devel&!ed '"&( the ne#ati&n s%''i6 5he and the inte""&#ati&n s%''i6 5
re+ the a!!ellative (a"*e" 5here,5+ and the IN-ERRED (a"*e" 5tehere. Liven the 'at that the
INTENTIONAL (a"*e" an $e hist&"ially se!e"ated int& t,& di''e"ent (&"!he(es+ and that
the Evidential and a!!ellative (&"!he(es have an additi&nal ele(ent+ it is !&ssi$le that the
latte" t,& de"ive '"&( the INTENTIONAL. 8%h a #"a((atiali)ati&n !ath is yet t& $e !"&ven+
$%t see(s the (&st li*ely e6!lanati&n '&" the e6istene &' the IN-ERRED (a"*e" in M,a)a.

7vi'entiality systems with two options
Evidentiality syste(s ,ith t,& Evidential ate#&"ies (a"*ed in the sa(!le an $e #"&%!ed
int& syste(s ,ith a2 &ne di"et and &ne indi"et ,itness (a"*e"+ and $2 t,& indi"et ,itness
(a"*e"s. The '&ll&,in# seti&n dis%sses these t,& s%$syste(s and thei" inte"nal divisi&n.
The 'i"st s%$syste( &nsists &' lan#%a#es that (a"* $&th di"et and indi"et ,itness
,ith &ne (a"*ed ate#&"y eah. This #"&%! an $e '%"the" $"&*en d&,n int& -IR8TEANDK
NON5-IR8TEAND /I*a+ Yana(+ Ta!iete2+ -IR8TEANDK 8ECONDEAND /U"a"ina+ E%alla#a C%eh%a+
I($a$%"a C%eh%a2+ and VI8UALK 8ECONDEAND /Ma(ai%"S+ Nheen#atQ2 (a"*in#.
I*a+ Yana(+ Ta!iete+ and E%alla#a C%eh%a all have a -IR8TEANDK NON5-IR8TEAND &!ti&n+
,hih a!!ea"s t& $e &$li#at&"y in n&ne &' the lan#%a#es. A s!ea*e" &' E%alla#a C%eh%a
an h&&se $et,een the -IR8TEAND s%''i6 5mi &" the NON5-IR8TEAND s%''i6 5shi+ &" neithe". In
I*a+ the -IR8TEAND s%''i6 5in see(s t& $e "est"ited t& vis%al evidene /a&"din# t& the
e6a(!les #iven2+ $%t $ea%se -"an* /101F+ 10F2 la$els it di"et ,itness ,ith&%t '%"the"
&((ent it is ta*en as -IR8TEAND. Its Evidential &!!&site is the !a"tile ni+ as an $e seen in
/6.162<

/6.162 I*a /Chi$han+ A"%a*A -"an*+ 101F+ 10F2
/a2 win-na#a u-C-in in in in/
;DL.8:H5&(e AUO57ED5-R8T
@They a(e /and I sa, it2.?
/$2 win-na#a u-na ni/ ni/ ni/ ni/
;DL.8:H5&(e AUO5DI8T N-R8T
@They a(e /$%t I didn?t see it2.?

The t,& s%$#"&%!s -IR8TEANDK 8ECONDEAND and VI8UALK 8ECONDEAND a"e "e!"esented $y
U"a"ina+ E%alla#a C%eh%a+ and I($a$%"a C%eh%a '&" the '&"(e"+ and Ma(ai%"S and
Nheen#atQ '&" the latte". U"a"ina distin#%ishes $et,een di"et and indi"et ,itness ,ith a
-IR8TEAND liti Pni and t,& 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s. They d& n&t &nstit%te a $ina"y Evidential
syste( as thei" %sa#e is enti"ely &!ti&nal. The -IR8TEAND (a"*e" is (&st &((&n as an
eye,itness (a"*e"+ $%t an als& "e'e" t& any &the" sens&"y evidene. The t,& 8ECONDEAND
(a"*e"s a"e the enliti Phe '&" in'&"(ati&n that is a9%i"ed th"&%#h ve"$al "e!&"t '"&( a
thi"d !e"s&n+ and a !a"tile+ hetau+ ,hih &%"s in na""atives+ es!eially th&se ,ith distant
!ast "e'e"ene /Ola,s*y 2006+ 406''.+ 1622.

6. Evidentiality 221

/6.172 U"a"ina /%nlassi'iedA Ola,s*y 2006+ 407+ 400+ 0112
/a2 itDa-i=ni ni ni ni=tau
d&52P-R8TPREA8
@Y&% did it ea"lie" t&day.? /I *n&, it+ $ea%se I ,as a ,itness.2
/$2 rauto-a=ni ni ni ni
$e.tasty5;P-R8T
@It ,as tasty.? /Re'e""in# t& ,hat I ate in the (&"nin#.2
/2 itDa>wa-a=ni ni ni ni=tau
sh&&t5;P-R8TPREA8
@Ee sh&t it /ea"lie" t&day2.? /I sa, &" hea"d hi( sh&&tin#.2
/d2 itDa-#5E=he he he he
d&5158CND
@Ee says that I did it.?
/e2 nii h5E hetau hetau hetau hetau=te temE-a #E-Ere
that $ea%se 8CNDP-OC !lant5NTR #&5;DL
@The"e'&"e+ they ,ent t& !lant.? /'"&( a t"aditi&nal na""ative a$&%t the "eati&n &'
the !ea"ies2

-&" E%alla#a and I($a$%"a C%eh%a+ see the C%eh%an seti&n $el&,.
The se&nd s%$syste( &nsists &' lan#%a#es ,ith an &!ti&n &' t,& Evidentials (a"*in#
t,& di''e"ent indi"et ,itness Evidentials. They all (a"* 8ECONDEAND< Tsa'i*i (a"*s
8ECONDEAND and IN-ERRED+ 7i"aTa (a"*s NON5-IR8TEAND and 8ECONDEAND+ and C&a(a5
C&a(illa (a"*s 8ECONDEAND and CUOTATIVE. C&a(a5C&a(illa is &ne &' the t,& lan#%a#es in
the sa(!le that e6!liitly (a"*s a s!ei'ied s&%"e ,ith a di"et s!eeh &nst"%ti&n /the
&the" is 7e*ens2+ and d&es s& in additi&n t& havin# a 8ECONDEAND (a"*e". The 8ECONDEAND
(a"*e" PFa "e'e"s t& an %ns!ei'ied s&%"e+ ,he"eas the CUOTATIVE !a"tiles ay and na a"e
!"ed&(inantly %sed in &nst"%ti&ns ,ith a di"et 9%&te and a ve"$ &' tellin#. They di''e" in
that ay int"&d%es a 9%&te+ ,he"eas na '&ll&,s it. The !a"tile na an als& &%" ,ith&%t a
di"et 9%&te /ValleG&s Y&!Sn 2010+ 1722.

/6.112 C&a(a5C&a(illa /T%!NanA ValleG&s Y&!Sn 2010+ 40F+ 17;+ 1742
/a2 manir=Fa Fa Fa Fa ay#ua-pa
7an%elP8CND $e.si*5CO7DL
@It is said that 7an%el is ve"y ill.?
/$2 na piata tsewe@ na na na na ra #umitsa
28L as* salt CUOT ;87 say
@BY&% as* '&" salt+B he says.?
/2 uri@ eee@ #umitsa ay ay ay ay na papa tsapu#i-ta=ene
;8L. L7 h( says CUOT 28L 'athe" all5CAUP28L.L
@Ee says =Y&%" 'athe" alls y&%B.?

222 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

Tsa'i*i has 8ECONDEAND and IN-ERRED (a"*e"s+ $%t als& an %n(a"*ed -IR8TEAND ,hih see(s t&
$e in di"et &!!&siti&n t& the &the" (a"*e"s /Di*ins&n 2002+ 1022. :ea%se Di*ins&n d&es
n&t &((ent &n ,hethe" Evidential (a"*in# in Tsa'i*i is &$li#at&"y &" n&t+ it ann&t $e said
,hethe" this is a )e"&5(&"!he(e.

7vi'entiality systems with three options
O' the lan#%a#es in the sa(!le that &''e" an &!ti&n &' (a"*e"s '&" th"ee Evidential
ate#&"ies seven (a"* $&th di"et and indi"et ,itness and t,& &nly indi"et ,itness. All &'
the '&"(e" have -IR8TEAND as di"et ,itness ate#&"y and an th%s $e #"&%!ed int& a
-IR8TEANDK indi"et ,itness &!!&siti&n. They a"e st"%t%"ed int& -IR8TEANDK NON5-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEAND /Ha"a,a"a2+ -IR8TEANDK NON5-IR8TEANDK IN-ERRED /Ay(a"a2+ -IR8TEANDK 8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERRED /8a$anV+ E%!+ 7&set[n2+ -IR8TEANDK 8ECONDEANDK A88U7ED /Desan&2+ and -IR8TEANDK
IN-ERREDK A88U7ED /7atses2. The t,& lan#%a#es that (a"* indi"et ,itness &nly in an
Evidentiality syste( &' th"ee &!ti&ns have the sa(e dist"i$%ti&n &' (a"*e"s< 8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERREDK A88U7ED /Y%"a*a"[+ Le*&2. The '&ll&,in# seti&n #ives an &ve"vie, &' E%! as a
"e!"esentative &' a th"ee5&!ti&n syste( ,ith a di"etK indi"et ,itness &!!&siti&n.
E%! distin#%ishes $et,een th"ee &!ti&nally (a"*ed Evidential ate#&"ies+ and a
!&ssi$ly )e"&5(a"*ed '&%"th &ne. Alth&%#h Evidentiality (a"*in# is n&t &$li#at&"y in E%!+
the a$sene &' -IR8TEAND (a"*in# is %s%ally %nde"st&&d as &din# VI8UAL /E!!s 2001+ 641''.2.
Usa#e &' the -IR8TEAND (a"*e" is "est"ited t& sens&"y $%t n&n5vis%al e6!e"iene. This is
%n%s%al in the sa(!le as (&st -IR8TEAND (a"*e"s inl%de visi&n.

/6.102 E%! /Nadah%!A E!!s 2001+ 6462
/a2 nciya p-c

w-

y=h hh h
$&at #&.%!"ive"5CO7DL5DYN7P-R8T
@The $&at al"eady ,ent %!"ive".? /s!ea*e" hea"d $%t did n&t see it2
/$2 o#-n h #ey-ham-!"et-y -ay=$ $ $ $ t h=a

y-a
G
h&
(&vePNEL see5#&5stand5TEL5INCEPVI8 ;8LP-E75DECL
@8he ,as G%st standin# the"e l&&*in#+ ,ith&%t (&vin#R? /s!ea*e" ,itnessed event2

-le* /200;+ ;00''.2 (a*es a s!eial !&int &' the 'at that the Evidential syste( in 7atses
/,hih is &$li#at&"y and '%sed ,ith DA8T Tense2 (a*es a distinti&n $et,een ,hethe" the
event ,as ,itnessed at the sa(e ti(e as it &%""ed+ i.e. si(%ltane&%sly+ &" n&t. The '&"(e"
is (a"*ed $y -IR8TEAND DA8T s%''i6es+ ,he"eas the latte" a"e (a"*ed $y IN-ERRED DA8T and
A88U7ED DA8T s%''i6es. L&#ially+ this is the ase ,ith all Evidentials "&ss5lin#%istiallyA an
event an &nly $e di"etly ,itnessed ,hen the ,itness is the"e the sa(e ti(e the event
&%"s.

7vi'entiality systems with >our options
All &' the '&%" lan#%a#es ,ith '&%" &!ti&ns &' (a"*ed Evidential ate#&"ies have &ne di"et5
,itness ate#&"y and th"ee indi"et &nes< -IR8TEAND+ 8ECONDEAND+ IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED
6. Evidentiality 22;

/8hi!i$&5M&ni$&+ C%$e&+ C%)& C%eh%a2+ and VI8UAL+ 8ECONDEAND+ IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED
/Ma"&2.
8hi!i$&5M&ni$& has (a"*e"s '&" -IR8TEAND+ 8ECONDEAND+ IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED
Evidentiality. The &""es!&ndin# '&"(s ri+ ron#iH #i+ and )ira &%" (&st '"e9%ently in
enliti /$%t als& in !"&liti2 !&siti&n and a"e n&t ve"$al (&"!he(es per se $%t an attah t&
va"i&%s la%se &nstit%ents. Evidentiality (a"*in# in 8hi!i$&5M&ni$& is als& &$li#at&"y =in
the sense that the evidential val%e &' the in'&"(ati&n has al,ays $een #"a((atially
(a"*ed in the '&"#&in# dis&%"se and is lea" t& native s!ea*e"sB /Valen)%ela 200;a+ ;02.
The -IR8TEAND (a"*e" Pri &ve"s all sens&"y e6!e"ienes and als& (a"*s the s!ea*e" as ative
!a"tii!ant+ e.#. ,hen tellin# a 'at a$&%t hi(sel'. The"e a"e t,& (a"*e"s '&" 8ECONDEAND
Evidentiality+ Pron#i and P#i+ ,ith P#i !"&$a$ly $ein# the sh&"te" '&"( &' Pron#i+ ,hih (a"*s
an identi'ied &" %nidenti'ied s&%"e &' ve"$al "e!&"t. The a($i#%&%s liti P)ira (a"*s
A88U7ED and IN-ERRED /Valen)%ela 200;$+ F;4''.2. This liti is n&t a NON5-IR8TEAND (a"*e"
$ea%se it d&es n&t inl%de "e!&"tative &" hea"say %nde" its (eanin#s.

/6.202 8hi!i$&5M&ni$& /Dan&anA Valen)%ela 200;+ F;6+ F41+ F4F2
/a2 e-a r rr r- -- -i#i IawaniJo-n#o-ni-a/
15A:8 -R8T5COD :a,ani6&5LOC5LIL5A:L
@I a( '"&( :a,anish&.?
/$2 a-ron#i ron#i ron#i ron#i-ai/
d&58CND5INCD
@It is said that she ,ill d& /it2.K 8he says that she ,ill d& it.?
/2 )e#a-ra ra ra ra pi-#as-i-)ira i-t-ai/
:e*a<A:85-R8T eat5DE8588885IN-R $e5DROL5INCD
@:e*a (%st $e h%n#"y.? /8ine eve"y$&dy *n&,s the"e is n& 'ish in he" villa#e2

In &nt"ast t& the di"et ,itness (a"*e"s in 8hi!i$&5M&ni$& and C%$e&+ the &ne in Ma"&
"e'e"s &nly t& eye5,itness. The VI8UAL (a"*e" topK (a"*s events that ,e"e eye5,itnessed $y
the s!ea*e"+ $%t an als& "e'e" t& a n&%n !h"ase ,hih is the s%$Get &' the ,itnessed event.
In e6a(!le /6.21$2+ topK !"&vides =in'&"(ati&n a$&%t the head n&%n and the !"&!&siti&nB
/La$as H". 1000+ 2722. -%"the"(&"e+ Ma"& (a"*s 8ECONDEAND ,ith the !a"tile tK+ IN-ERRED ,ith
a#et and A88U7ED ,ith i!5
L
and mem5 /i$id. 266 ''.2.

/6.212 Ma"& /T%!NanA La$as H". 1000+ 266+ 27;+ 267+ 2612
/a2 p e-t top top top topK KK K to=at macat w-a
,hite.(an AUO5IND VI8 ;PDO88 !et *ill5LER
/It ,as seen that2 the ,hite (an *illed his !et.? /%sed in a sit%ati&n ,he"e the
s!ea*e" ,ent t& the ,hite (an?s h&%se and sa, hi( *illin# his !et.2


;
This (a"*e" is '&"(ally si(ila" t& the -UTURE !a"tile i!a /'. La$as H". 1000+ 11;2.
224 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

/$2 p top top top topK K K K toat macat n? w-n
,hite.(an VI8 ;.DO88 !et &ne.&' *ill5IND
@The ,hite (an ,as seen t& have *illed &ne &' his &,n !ets.?
/2 p a=w-n a#et a#et a#et a#et
,hite.(an ;8LP*ill5IND IN-R
@The ,hite (an (%st have *illed it. /%sed in a sit%ati&n ,he"e it ,as *n&,n $y the
s!ea*e" that the ,hite (an had #&ne in the '&"est &ve"ni#ht t& h%nt and a(e $a*
,ith his !"ey+ $%t neithe" the s!ea*" n&" any$&dy else sa, hi( *illin# it2
/d2 to=#et-a a=e-t i!5 i!5 i!5 i!5
;"Pslee!5LER ;8LPAUO5IND A87
@Ee (%st have #&ne t& slee!.? /%sed ,hen the s!ea*e" *e!t ,aitin# '&" a !e"s&n '&" a
l&n# ti(e+ it ,as late at ni#ht+ and the !e"s&n did n&t sh&, %!. 8&+ the s!ea*e"
&nl%des that the !e"s&n (i#ht have #&ne t& slee!2
/e2 a=#et-t mem5 mem5 mem5 mem5
;8LPslee!5IND A87
@I s%!!&se he is slee!in#.? /%sed in a sit%ati&n ,he"e the s!ea*e" *ne, that the
!e"s&n in 9%esti&n ,as slee!in# $e'&"e2

7vi'entiality systems with >ive options
The t,& lan#%a#es that (a"* 'ive Evidential ate#&"ies in the sa(!le have the sa(e
se(anti dist"i$%ti&n< $&th Ta"iana and 7a(aindV (a"* VI8UAL+ NON5-IR8TEAND+ 8ECONDEAND+
IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED Evidentiality. These a"e the (&st ela$&"ate Evidential syste(s in the
sa(!le. It is n&ta$le that the (a"*e"s have a hi#h a de#"ee &' '%si&n+ i.e. al(&st eve"y sin#le
(a"*ed Evidential ate#&"y is '%sed ,ith at least &ne &the" ate#&"y. The e6e!ti&n is the
7a(aindV 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5satau ,hih has n& &the"+ n&n5Evidential (eanin#. All &' the
(a"*e"s a"e s%''i6es /7a(aindV2 &" enlitis /Ta"iana2. .hen the"e is a %(%lative s%''i6
'&" a ate#&"y+ Evidentiality is al,ays '%sed ,ith Tense. 7a(aindV has &ne set &' a($i#%&%s
/and %(%lative2 (a"*e"s '&" IN-ERRED and A88U7ED+ i.e. the sa(e (a"*e"s a"e %sed t&
e6!"ess eithe" &' the(. Additi&nally+ 7a(aindV (a"*s A88U7ED Evidentiality that "e'e"s t&
#ene"al *n&,led#e as the in'&"(ati&n s&%"e+ ,ith a se!a"ate set &' s%''i6es.
7a(aindV is the &nly lan#%a#e in the sa(!le that has a TEIRDEAND (a"*e"+ i.e. ,hih
s!ei'ially (a"*s that the ve"$al "e!&"t #iven t& the s!ea*e" ,as als& a9%i"ed $y a ve"$al
"e!&"t. This (a"*e"+ the s%''i6 5sn+ &nt"asts ,ith the 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5satau ,hih
den&tes that the ve"$al "e!&"t ,as #iven t& the s!ea*e" $%t d&es n&t '%"the" s!ei'y
,hethe" it &"i#inated in yet an&the" !e"s&n /E$e"ha"d 2000+ 460''.2. In Ta"iana+ the
8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s &ve" $&th 8ECONDEAND+ TEIRDEAND+ and (&"e "e(&ved "e!&"ts
/Ai*henvald 200;+ ;022.




6. Evidentiality 22F

/6.222 7a(aindV /Na(i*,a"anA E$e"ha"d 2000+ 4602
/a2 wann-so#a ,a,5n-tu sun-satau satau satau satau-le-$-hn hn hn hn-wa
sha(an5NCL.EU7 Ga#%a"5-N8 *ill58CND5D8T58:H;5D8TKNVI85DECL
@The sha(an *illed a Ga#%a" /yeste"day2.? /and I *n&, this $ea%se s&(e&ne t&ld (e2
/$2 wann-so#a ,a,5n-tu sun-sn sn sn sn-$-nha nha nha nha- -- -wa
sha(an5NCL.EU7 Ga#%a"5-N8 *ill5TERD58:H;5DR8KNVI85DECL
@The sha(an *illed a Ga#%a" /yeste"day2.? /and I *n&, this $ea%se s&(e&ne said
they ,e"e t&ld that it ,as s&2

The VI8UAL Evidentiality (a"*e"s in $&th 7a(aindV and Ta"iana have a (eanin# e6tensi&n
in the di"eti&n &' #n&(i state(ents< the VI8UAL in Ta"iana n&t &nly "e'e"s t& eye,itness
a&%nts+ $%t als& t& #ene"al and &$se"va$le 'ats /Ai*henvald 200;+ 20F2. In 7a(aindV+
the"e is an e6t"a set &' (a"*e"s '&" #ene"al *n&,led#e+ $%t the VI8UAL (a"*e"s a"e als& %sed
as de'a%lt '&" &$vi&%s 'ats /E$e"ha"d 2000+ 46;54642.

/6.2;2 Ta"iana /A"a,a*A Ai*henvald 200;+ 2062
i#asu yaphini-nu#u itMiNi ma-inu-#a'e-na#a na#a na#a na#a nemhani
t&day thin#Ali*e5TOD.NON.AK8 #a(e NEL5*ill5EL5DRE8.VI8 ;DLW#&."&%nd
@On a day li*e t&day n& &ne #&es a"&%nd h%ntin#.?

Ta$le 6.; !"&vides an &ve"vie, &' the Evidential syste(s as &%""in# in the sa(!le+
&"de"ed '"&( &ne t& 'ive &!ti&ns.



















226 6.; Ty!&l&#ial dist"i$%ti&n in the sa(!le

Ta$le 6.;< Evidentiality syste(s
N
%
(
$
e
"

&
'

l
#
s
.

(
a
"
*
i
n
#

&
!
t
i
&
n

6


N
%
(
$
e
"

&
'

l
a
n
#
%
a
#
e
s


N
%
(
$
e
"

&
'

l
a
n
#
%
a
#
e
s




Lan#%a#e/s2
One
&!ti&n /2;2
di"et 2 -IR8TEAND 2 E(["ill&n+ I($a$%"a C%eh%a
indi"et 21 8ECONDEAND 17 Main#an#+ Nasa Y%,e+ Yanesha?+ T"%(ai+
Ma"itiana+ .a"a&+ It&na(a+ :&"&"&+ :a%"e+
A!%"inY+ Ya(inah%a+ CavineTa+ D%inave+
Ei6*a"yana+ 7&vi(a+ E($e"a+ DZ,
NON5-IR8TEAND 2 7&&vN+ 7a!%he
CUOTATIVE 1 7e*ens
IN-ERRED 1 M,a)a
T,&
&!ti&ns
/112
di"etK
indi"et
7 -IR8TEANDK NON5
-IR8TEAND
; I*a+ Yana(+ Ta!iete
-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEAND
2 U"a"ina+ E%alla C%eh%a+ I($a$%"a C%eh%a
8ECONDEANDK
VI8UAL
2 Ma(ai%"S+ Nheen#atQ

indi"etK
indi"et
; 8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERRED
1 Tsa'i*i

NON5-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEAND
1 7i"aTa
8ECONDEANDK
CUOTATIVE
1 C&a(a5C&a(illa
Th"ee
&!ti&ns /02
di"etK
indi"etK
indi"et











7 -IR8TEANDK NON5
-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEAND
1 Ha"a,a"a
-IR8TEANDK
NON5-IR8TEANDK
IN-ERRED
1 Ay(a"a
-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERRED
; 8a$anV+ E%!+ 7&set[n
-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEANDK
1 Desan&
6. Evidentiality 227




A88U7ED
-IR8TEANDK
IN-ERREDK
A88U7ED
1 7atses


indi"etK
indi"etK
indi"et
2 8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERREDK
A88U7ED
2 Y%"a*a"[+ Le*&


-&%"
&!ti&ns /42
di"etK
indi"etK
indi"etK
indi"et

4 -IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERREDK
A88U7ED
; C%$e&+ 8hi!i$&5M&ni$&+ C%)& C%eh%a



VI8UAL
8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERREDK
A88U7ED
1 Ma"&


-ive
&!ti&ns /22
di"etK
indi"etK
indi"etK
indi"etK
indi"et
2 VI8UALK
NON5-IR8TEANDK
8ECONDEANDK
IN-ERREDK
A88U7ED
2 Ta"iana+ 7a(aindV

6.4 LEOLRADEICAL DI8 6.4 LEOLRADEICAL DI8 6.4 LEOLRADEICAL DI8 6.4 LEOLRADEICAL DI8TRI:UTION TRI:UTION TRI:UTION TRI:UTION
6.4.1 Res%lts 6.4.1 Res%lts 6.4.1 Res%lts 6.4.1 Res%lts
The #e&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n &' (&"!h&5syntati Evidential (a"*in# in the sa(!le is ve"y
hete"&#ene&%s. This seti&n dis%sses the si(ila"ities and di''e"enes &' (a"*in# ,ithin
'a(ilies and "&ss5lin#%istially ,ith "e#a"d t& !&ssi$le "e#i&nal l%ste"s. It atte(!ts t& #ive
a $"&ad &ve"vie,+ ,ith individ%al ases $ein# dis%ssed in (&"e detail. .he"e !&ssi$le+
&(!a"is&ns t& additi&nal st%dies &' Evidentiality (a"*in#+ #l&$ally &" (&"e s!ei'i ,ill $e
#iven.
The"e a"e 22 lan#%a#es (a"*in# di"et and 46 (a"*in# indi"et EvidentialityA 20
lan#%a#es (a"* $&th. Only &ne lan#%a#e in the sa(!le (a"*s di"et Evidentiality &nly<
E(["ill&n. Its -IR8TEAND s%''i6 5la#o &des di"et ,itness $%t als& !ast ti(e "e'e"ene+ and is
9%ite "a"e /R&se 200;+ 4402. R&se /i$id. 4412 *ee!s the !&ssi$ility &!en that 5la#o is "athe" an
E!iste(i 7&dal (a"*e". I' this t%"ns &%t t& $e t"%e+ it ,&%ld s&lve the !"&$le( that
E(["ill&n is the &nly lan#%a#e in the sa(!le that e6l%sively (a"*s di"et Evidentiality.
Neve"theless+ the e6a(!les in R&se /200;2 a"e n&t e6tensive en&%#h '&" a (&"e detailed
analysis. Additi&nally+ it is (%h (&"e li*ely that 5la#o is !"i(a"ily a DA8T (a"*e".





221 6.4 Le&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n

/6.242 E(["ill&n /T%!Nan+ L%a"anNA R&se 200;+ 4402
a #
w
ala-l-ehe-la#o la#o la#o la#o Oo!er o-si!al a Piwe/
DE7 yea"5RELN5DO8TD5D8T.-R8T R&#e" ;5s!eial.'&"(.&'.'ishin# at Ni,[
@In that yea"+ R&#e" 'ished at Ni,[ /and I ,as the"e2.? /&"i#. @Cette ann[e5lS+ R&#e" a
niv"[ ] Ni,e /et G?y [tais.?2

E(["ill&n is an e6e!ti&n n&t &nly in this sa(!le+ $%t ,&"ld5,ide< In a #l&$al st%dy &' 411
lan#%a#es De Eaan /20112 d&es n&t 'ind a sin#le instane &' a lan#%a#e &nly (a"*in# di"et+
,ith&%t (a"*in# indi"et Evidentiality as ,ell. Ee "e!&"ts 111 lan#%a#es ,ith&%t
#"a((atiali)ed Evidentiality+ 166 ,ith &nly indi"et+ and 71 ,ith $&th *inds. In this
sa(!le the "ati& &' indi"et and di"etWindi"et (a"*in# is (&"e $alaned< 27 (a"* indi"et+
21 $&th+ 14 n&ne+ and &ne di"et Evidentiality. A st%dy $y T&""es 8Snhe) /20012 &'
Evidentiality in 204 lan#%a#es in N&"th+ 7es&5+ and 8&%th A(e"ia /02 &' these in 8A2+
"eveals als& &nly &ne sin#le lan#%a#e+ Oa6aa /Te9%istlatean2+ that (a"*s &nly di"et+ $%t
n&t indi"et Evidentiality.
The &ve"all n%($e" &' 8AILs ,ith (&"!h&5syntati Evidentiality (a"*in# is 9%ite hi#h
/40 &%t &' 6;2. Re#a"din# the "eent lite"at%"e &n Evidentiality in 8A this is n&t s%"!"isin#+
and ,as al"eady de(&nst"ated $y De Eaan /20112 ,h& '&%nd 2;7 lan#%a#es ,ith and 111
,ith&%t Evidential (a"*e"s ,&"ld5,ideA this t"anslates '&" 8A int& F2 ,ith and 2F ,ith&%t
Evidentials. T&""es 8Snhe) /20012 'inds 110 lan#%a#es ,ith and 1F ,ith&%t Evidentials. All
in all+ the "ati& &' lan#%a#es ,ith Evidentials in this st%dy is sli#htly hi#he" than in De Eaan
and T&""es 8Snhe)+ $%t that (ay $e d%e t& the 'at that the sa(!le 'av&"s a"eas ,he"e
Evidentiality "e!&"tedly &%"s 9%ite '"e9%ently /e.#. A(a)&nia /'. Ai*henvald /20042+ the
L%a!&"[57a(&"[ /'. C"evels 3 Van de" V&&"t /20012+ and the Andes /'. Adelaa" 201222.
These a"e indeed a"eas ,he"e (any Evidentials &%" in the sa(!le+ $%t &ne an see &n (a!
6.1 that Evidential (a"*in# &%"s eve"y,he"e in 8A and d&es n&t 'av&" &" ne#let a e"tain
#"eate" "e#i&n.
The '"e9%ent &%""ene &' Evidentials in #ene"al sh&,s that it is !"&$a$ly a
ha"ate"isti &'+ alth&%#h n&t sin#%la" t&+ 8&%th A(e"ian lan#%a#es. De Eaan /20112 and
T&""es 8Snhe) /20012 have sh&,n that Evidential (a"*in# is '"e9%ent in all &' the A(e"ias
as &!!&sed t&+ '&" e6a(!le+ A'"ia /De Eaan 20112. As has $een de(&nst"ated '&" e"tain
"e#i&ns in 8A this is !a"tially d%e t& a"eal di''%si&n &nditi&ned $y the s&i&5lin#%isti
settin#s+ s%h as lin#%isti e6&#a(y /e.#. Ai*henvald 1000+ 2004A E!!s 200F2+ $%t (%h (&"e
,&"* needs t& $e d&ne t& a&%nt '&" the !"esene &' Evidentiality in all &' 8A. .hethe" '&"
the (&st !a"t a"eal di''%si&n is "es!&nsi$le &" indeed inhe"itane is an &!en 9%esti&n. As &'
n&,+ it see(s !&ssi$le that Evidentiality devel&!ed in di''e"ent a"eas inde!endently '"&(
&the" a"eas+ and that the a##"e#ati&n &' lin#%isti a"eas t&#ethe" '&"(s the %ni'&"( !it%"e
&' Evidentiality t&day. It ,&%ld '&ll&, that Evidentiality is !"&ne t& di''%si&n and that
lan#%a#es ,ith&%t Evidentiality a"e then !"ed&(inantly '&%nd &%tside lin#%isti a"eas.
E&,eve"+ in &"de" t& test this hy!&thesis a la"#e st%dy &' (%h (&"e lan#%a#es than the
!"esent sa(!le #ives %s is neessa"y.
6. Evidentiality 220

Ta$le 6.4 &(!a"es t,& st%dies &' Evidentiality ,&"ld5,ide /De Eaan 20112 and in the
A(e"ias /T&""es 8Snhe) 20012 ,ith the !"esent st%dy. Un'&"t%nately+ it ,as n&t !&ssi$le
t& esta$lish the n%($e" &' Evidentials in 8A in T&""es 8Snhe). 7a! 6.1 ill%st"ates /i2 the
dist"i$%ti&n &' lan#%a#es (a"*in# and n&t (a"*in# Evidentiality (&"!h&5syntatially and
/ii2 ,hih lan#%a#es (a"* di"et &" indi"et ,itness+ &" $&th+ &" n&ne. 7a! 6.2 ill%st"ates
the dist"i$%ti&n &' lan#%a#es ,ith eithe" di"et &" indi"et Evidentiality (a"*in#+ &" $&th &"
n&ne &' these.

Ta$le 6.4< Evidentiality (a"*in# in th"ee sa(!les


De Eaan /20112
/#l&$al2
T&""es 8Snhe) /20012
/N&"thK 8&%th A(e"ia2
This st%dy
/8&%th A(e"ia2
T&tal n%($e" &' l#s. #l&$ally
T&tal n%($e" &' l#s. in 8A
411
77
204
02
6;
6;
Evidentials !"esent in &(!lete sa(!le
Evidentials !"esent in 8A
2;7
F2
110
^
40
40

A&"din# t& (a! 6.;+ t,& lan#%a#es that (a"* a la"#e n%($e" &' Evidentials &%" in the
sa(e a"ea+ the Va%![s< Ta"iana /F Evidential ate#&"ies2 and C%$e& /4 Evidential ate#&"ies2.
De Eaan /20112 "e!&"ts a l%ste" &' the la"#est Evidential syste(s in the Va%![s and
adGaent a"eas ,ell. The lan#%a#es ,ith the (&st Evidential (a"*e"s in this sa(!le a"e
Ta"iana and 7a(aindV. .he"eas the '&"(e" is indeed sit%ated in the Va%![s+ the latte" is
sit%ated in an&the" "e#i&n enti"ely< ,est &' the L%a!&"[57a(&"[ a"ea. Alth&%#h 7a(aindV
and Ta"iana sha"e the 'eat%"e &' a "ih Evidential syste( /$%t a"e in di''e"ent 'a(ilies2+ thei"
Evidential syste(s devel&!ed '&" di''e"ent "eas&ns. The Ta"iana syste( la"#ely "es%lts '"&(
lan#%a#e &ntat ,ith T%an&an /see $el&, and Ai*henvald /200422+ $%t the 7a(aindV
syste( is la"#ely #eneal&#ially &nditi&ned /'. E$e"ha"d 2000+ 4F1''.2. Alth&%#h the t,&
Na($i*,a"an lan#%a#es in the sa(!le+ 7a(aindV and 8a$anV+ have ve"y di''e"ent
8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s /s%''i6 5satau and s%''i6 5tia#a+ "es!etively2+ the 7a(aindV s%''i6 is
'&"(ally and '%nti&nally si(ila" t& the La*&ndV /als& Na($i*,a"an2 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s
-"se and 5setaw /Telles 3 .et)els 2006+ 2;02. La*&ndV (a*es a distinti&n in (a"*in# a
ve"$al "e!&"t ,h&se s&%"e is identi'ied /5setaw: and n&t identi'ied /5"se2A th%s+ the '&"(e"
has &ne ha"ate"isti &' a CUOTATIVE+ alth&%#h it d&es n&t &%" ,ith di"et 9%&tati&n
synta6. The 7a(aindV s%''i6 5satau &n the &the" hand an $e %sed ,ith di"et 9%&tati&n
alth&%#h it ty!ially d&es n&t identi'y the s&%"e /E$e"ha"d 2000+ 4142.

Neve"theless+ this is
evidene '&" a "elati&nshi! &' the 8ECONDEAND s%''i6es in 7a(aindV and La*&ndV.
The"e a"e a 'e, !e%lia"ities &ne"nin# the #e&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n &' the individ%al
Evidential ate#&"ies. One an &$se"ve that (any &' the lan#%a#es (a"*in# A88U7ED als&
(a"* IN-ERRED Evidentiality. This is d%e t& the 'at that th&se lan#%a#es have %(%lative
(a"*e"s '&" $&th ate#&"ies. On the &the" hand+ the"e "a"ely a"e &ve"la!s '&" 8ECONDEAND
and CUOTATIVE+ and VI8UAL and -IR8TEAND. In (any lan#%a#es ,ith a 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" this
an als& e6!"ess CUOTATIVE+ i.e. has a se&nda"y CUOTATIVE (eanin#. -"&( the t,& lan#%a#es
2;0 6.4 Le&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n

,ith a CUOTATIVE (a"*e"+ 7e*ens and C&a(a5C&a(illa+ 7e*ens d&es n&t have an
additi&nal 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"+ $%t C&a(a5C&a(illa d&es. In the latte" ase+ the"e is n&
%(%lative (&"!he(e+ $%t t,& di''e"ent (a"*e"s '&" CUOTATIVE and 8ECONDEAND.
H%st li*e 8ECONDEAND &'ten inl%des a CUOTATIVE (eanin#+ -IR8TEAND &'ten inl%des VI8UAL.
Lan#%a#es (a"*in# -IR8TEAND "a"ely (a"* an additi&nal VI8UAL. It is "athe" the ase that
,hen -IR8TEAND &" VI8UAL a"e (a"*ed+ the &the" ate#&"y is n&t (a"*ed. VI8UAL (a"*in#
lan#%a#es a"e Ta"iana+ 7a(aindV+ Ma"&+ 8ate"[57a,[+ and Ma(ai%"S and n&ne &' these
have an additi&nal -IR8TEAND (a"*e" &" a %(%lative (&"!he(e '&" VI8UAL and -IR8TEAND. It
is n&te,&"thy that th"ee &' th&se a"e T%!Nan+ ,hih !&ints t&,a"d a T%!Nan ha"ate"isti.
































6. Evidentiality 2;1

7a! 6.1< Dist"i$%ti&n &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le


2;2 6.4 Le&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n

7a! 6.2< Dist"i$%ti&n &' di"et and indi"et Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le


6. Evidentiality 2;;

7a! 6.;< Dist"i$%ti&n &' Evidential ate#&"ies /$y n%($e"2 (a"*ed in the sa(!le



2;4 6.4 Le&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n

6.4.2 The L%a!&"[ 6.4.2 The L%a!&"[ 6.4.2 The L%a!&"[ 6.4.2 The L%a!&"[5 55 57a(&"[ a"ea 7a(&"[ a"ea 7a(&"[ a"ea 7a(&"[ a"ea
C"evels 3 Van de" V&&"t /20012 !"&!&se that the L%a!&"[57a(&"[ "e#i&n in R&nd_nia+
:"a)il+ and the :&livian A(a)&nian l&,lands &nstit%tes a lin#%isti a"ea. They #ive a
!"&visi&nal list &' FF lan#%a#es !"esent in that a"ea la"#ely $ased &n #e&#"a!hial
&nside"ati&ns /i$id. 1662. :ea%se Evidentiality &%"s '"e9%ently in a s%$sa(!le &' 24
lan#%a#es in the sa(!le /a!!"&6i(ately in 70+2`2+ and $ea%se Evidentiality has n&t $een
te"(ed as =ty!ially A(a)&nianB+ they &nside" it a salient 'eat%"e '&" a lin#%isti a"ea /i$id.
1702. E&,eve"+ R&d"i#%es /1000+ 1102 al"eady (enti&ned that =Evidentiality is a !e"vasive
'eat%"e &' !a"ts &' A(a)&niaB+ alth&%#h he did n&t s!ei'y this '&" the L%a!&"[57a(&"[
"e#i&n. Ai*henvald /2004+ 202+ ;0;2 si(ila"ly !"esents evidene '&" a l%ste" &'
#"a((atiali)ed Evidentiality in A(a)&nia. This "athe" !&ints t&,a"ds Evidentiality n&t
G%st $ein# a ha"ate"isti &n'ined t& the L%a!&"[57a(&"[+ $%t '&" enti"e A(a)&nia /and
als& the Andes2. The '&ll&,in# !a"a#"a!hs investi#ate ,hethe" the a"#%(ent that
Evidentiality (a"*in# &nstit%tes a salient 'eat%"e &' the L%a!&"[57a(&"[ lin#%isti a"ea
an $e &n'i"(ed.
C"evels 3 Van de" V&&"t?s /20012 !"esent a list &' FF lan#%a#es !"esent in the L%a!&"[5
7a(&"[ and '%"the" a detailed st%dy &' seve"al !"&!&sed 'eat%"es in 24 lan#%a#es '&" that
a"ea. O' these 24 lan#%a#es+ the !"esent sa(!le inl%des 1;< :a%"e+ 7&set[n+ M,a)a+
It&na(a+ Le*&+ 7&vi(a+ 7e*ens+ Man&V+ .a"i?+ CavineTa+ Y%"a*a"[+ Ma"&+ and Ma"itiana.
4
11
&' these sh&, (&"!h&5syntati Evidentiality (a"*in#. The (&st '"e9%ently (a"*ed
ate#&"y is 8ECONDEAND /02+ ,hih is n&t s%"!"isin# $ea%se it is the (&st '"e9%ently (a"*ed
Evidential in the &(!lete sa(!le+ '&ll&,ed $y IN-ERRED /F2+ A88U7ED /;2+ VI8UAL and -IR8TEAND
/1 eah2+ and CUOTATIVE /12. N& lan#%a#e (a"*s NON5-IR8TEAND. The '&"( &' (a"*in# "an#es
'"&( s%''i6ati&n t& enlitis &ve" !a"tiles t& &ne !"e'i6 /It&na(a 8ECONDEAND2. The sa(!les
la"#ely a#"ee &n ,hih lan#%a#e (a"*s Evidentiality+ alth&%#h in the !"esent sa(!le .a"i?
d&es n&t and Y%"a*a"[ d&es. This (ay $e d%e t& di''e"ent &din# st"ate#ies.
The"e is al(&st n& '&"(al si(ila"ity $et,een (a"*e"s e6e!t '&" the IN-ERRED
(&"!he(es in Ma"& and 7&set[n /see ta$le 6.1 $el&,2. This leads t& the &nl%si&n that i'
the ,ides!"ead Evidential (a"*in# is d%e t& lan#%a#e &ntat+ it is n&t the "es%lt &' di"et
$&""&,in# &' '&"( /%nless the (a"*e"s have %nde"#&ne han#e !"&esses that e"adiated
all '&"(al si(ila"ities2. It is (&"e li*ely that they a"e the "es%lt &' lan#%a#e inte"nal
!"&esses+ ,hih neve"theless (ay have $een t"i##e"ed $y &ntat. This ,&%ld $e evidene
that Evidentiality in the L%a!&"[57a(&"[ "e#i&n is indeed a valid 'at&" &' a lin#%isti a"ea.
Ma"& and 7&set[n have '&"(ally and '%nti&nally si(ila" IN-ERRED (a"*e"s< the s%''i6
-8a:#e and the !a"tile a#et+ "es!etively. The 7&set[n s%''i6 58a:#e is %n!"&d%tive and =&nly
a!!ea"s in !lae na(es and &the" le6iali)ed '&"(sB /8a*el 2004+ ;412+ ,he"eas the Ma"&
!a"tile a#et see(s t& $e '%lly !"&d%tive. Ma"& /T%!Nan2 and 7&set[n /7&setenan2 a"e
neithe" "elated n&" #e&#"a!hially adGaent &" even l&se. T&#ethe" ,ith Chi(ane and

4
I dis"e#a"d C%eh%a+ U"%+ and Ay(a"a as C"evels 3 Van de" V&&"t /2001+ 1702 added the( t& the
sa(!le as &nt"&l lan#%a#es.
6. Evidentiality 2;F

7&set[n de 8anta Ana+ 7&set[n '&"(s the s(all lan#%a#e 'a(ily 7&setenan /8a*el 2004+ 15
22. Chi(ane has the s%''i6 5aQue '&" events the s!ea*e" did n&t see &" ,as n&t !"esent at /Lill
1000+ 1242. Le&#"a!hially l&se t& 7&set[n a"e Y%"a*a"[ and Le*&+ $%t $&th d& n&t have a
'&"(ally si(ila" (a"*e". In Y%"a*a"[+ IN-ERRED Evidentiality is (a"*ed $y the s%''i6 5ti)a+
and in Le*& $y 5nem. Le&#"a!hially+ Ma"& and 7&set[n a"e at the &%ts*i"ts &' the !"&!&sed
lin#%isti L%a!&"[57a(&"[ a"eaA Ma"& is at the n&"theaste"n side and 7&set[n at the
s&%th,este"n side. Th%s+ ,ith "e#a"d t& the 'ats that Ma"& and 7&set[n a"e n&t
#eneal&#ially "elated and that s!ea*e"s /at least t&day2 a"e sit%ated 'a" a,ay '"&( eah
&the" and that n&ne &' the lan#%a#es in $et,een sh&, '&"(ally si(ila" (a"*e"s at this
!&int+ it is (&st li*ely that they a"e the "es%lt &' inde!endent devel&!(ent. -%"the"(&"e+
the '&"( a#et is n&t '&%nd as IN-ERRED (a"*e" in the &the" T%!Nan lan#%a#es in the sa(!le.
-%"the" "esea"h a$&%t !&ssi$le hist&"ial &ntat $et,een Ma"& and 7&set[n s!ea*e"s is
neessa"y t& see ,hethe" the IN-ERRED (a"*e"s a"e d%e t& lan#%a#e &ntat a'te" all.
In seve"al lan#%a#es '&"(s si(ila" t& the IN-ERRED (a"*e"s in Ma"& and 7&set[n a"e
'&%nd that+ h&,eve"+ d& n&t e6!"ess Evidentiality< 7&vi(a< IRREALI8 a# /Ea%de 2006+ 4;12A
CavineTa !e"lative 5e#e /L%illa%(e 2001+ 6112+ and 5a#iH -#i @$ein# ty!ial? /i$id. ;;02A 7e*ens
de(&nst"ative 5e#e /Lal%i& 2001+ 472R Y%*i de(&nst"ative 5a#e /Villa'anae 2004+ 2062A
Ya(inah%a 5a#e @a"&%nd? /-a%st 2002+ 1;651;72A and Dila#S DE8IDERATIVE 5a#e /Vidal 2001+ 2122.
The (a"*e"s in 7e*ens and Y%*i /$&th L%a"anN2 a"e !"&$a$ly T%!Nan &#nates+ $%t '&"
the "est &' the lan#%a#es n& &$vi&%s "elati&n t& eah &the" &" t& the IN-ERRED (a"*e"s an $e
esta$lished.
The 9%antitative analysis &' Evidentiality (a"*in# s%!!&"ts C"evels 3 Van de" V&&"t?s
lai(+ as 11 &%t &' 1; lan#%a#es d& (a"* at least &ne Evidential ate#&"y. On the &the" hand+
$ea%se the &ve"all '"e9%eny &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in 8A in 9%ite hi#h+ this d&es n&t
&nstit%te a 'eat%"e s!ei'i t& the L%a!&"[57a(&"[. :%t $ea%se this sa(!le is t&& s(all t&
$e si#ni'iant+ &ne ,&%ld need a '%ll analysis &' Evidentiality in all FF lan#%a#es &' the
&"i#inal list t& (a*e a valid state(ent.
2;6 6.F Leneal&#ial dist"i$%ti&n

Ta$le 6.F< C&(!a"is&n &' Evidentiality (a"*in# in the !"esent and the C"evels 3 Van de"
V&&"t /20012 s%$sa(!le

6.F LENEALOLICAL DI8 6.F LENEALOLICAL DI8 6.F LENEALOLICAL DI8 6.F LENEALOLICAL DI8TRI:UTION TRI:UTION TRI:UTION TRI:UTION
6.F.1 Int"&d%ti&n 6.F.1 Int"&d%ti&n 6.F.1 Int"&d%ti&n 6.F.1 Int"&d%ti&n
I n&, t%"n '"&( a #e&#"a!hi '&%s t&,a"ds dis%ssin# the dist"i$%ti&n &' Evidentiality in
lan#%a#e 'a(ilies. The"e is s&(e h&(&#eneity &' Evidentiality (a"*in# ,ithin /$%t als&
a"&ss2 'a(ilies+ alth&%#h 5 !&ssi$ly d%e t& the 'at that the sa(!le is n&t ve"y dense '&" any
'a(ily 5 (&stly the"e is n& lea" !atte"n. -&" e6a(!le+ in this sa(!le t,& &' the th"ee
Ca"i$an lan#%a#es /Ti"iyX and Dana"e2 d& n&t (a"* any Evidentiality+ ,he"eas the thi"d+
Ei6*a"yana+ (a"*s 8ECONDEAND. The t,& :a"$a&an lan#%a#es als& di''e"< Tsa'i*i (a"*s
8ECONDEAND and IN-ERRED+ $%t A,a Dit (a"*s n&ne. T,& &' the 7a"&5LVan lan#%a#es d& n&t
(a"* any Evidentiality /Ri*$a*tsa and Ti($i"a2+ $%t $&th :&"&"& and Main#an# (a"*
8ECONDEAND. .ith "e#a"d t& the 'at that (&st &' the Evidentiality (a"*in# is !"ed&(inantly
hete"&#ene&%s ,hen it &(es t& '&"(s+ t,& lan#%a#e 'a(ilies stand &%t $ea%se they have
ve"y si(ila" (a"*e"s '&" e"tain Evidential ate#&"ies< C%eh%an /dis%ssed $el&,2 and
Nadah%!. The t,& Nadah%! lan#%a#es in the sa(!le have the sa(e (a"*e" '&" 8ECONDEAND<
the E%! liti Pmah and the DZ, !a"tile m5h. Inte"estin#ly+ D%inave+ an %nlassi'ied
lan#%a#e+ als& has a 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5ma.
Lan#%a#e Lan#%a#e Lan#%a#e Lan#%a#e -a(ily -a(ily -a(ily -a(ily EVI EVI EVI EVI in the !"esent sa(!le in the !"esent sa(!le in the !"esent sa(!le in the !"esent sa(!le EVI EVI EVI EVI in C"evels 3 Van de" in C"evels 3 Van de" in C"evels 3 Van de" in C"evels 3 Van de"
V&&"t @s /20012 list &' 24 lan#%a#es V&&"t @s /20012 list &' 24 lan#%a#es V&&"t @s /20012 list &' 24 lan#%a#es V&&"t @s /20012 list &' 24 lan#%a#es
:a%"e A"a,a*an 8CND Phi yes
.a"i? Cha!a%"an n& yes
7&set[n 7&setenan -R8T ishtyi"+ 8CND #atyi+ IN-R
5/a2#e
yes
CavineTa Taanan 8CND Ppa yes
Ma"itiana T%!Nan 8CND 5saNt yes
7e*ens T%!Nan CUOT #e@ #oot yes
Ma"& T%!Nan 8CND tK+ VI8 topK+ IN-R a#et+ A87 i!5@
mem5
yes
Y%"a*a"[ Unlassi'ied 8CND Pya+ IN-RK A87 Pti)a+ =,tS n&
Le*& Unlassi'ied 8CND 5mono+ IN-R 5nem
/5tson2+ A87 5nem
yes
M,a)a Unlassi'ied IN-R 5tehereK 5cehere yes
7&vi(a Unlassi'ied 8CND Tan yes
Man&V Unlassi'ied n& n&
It&na(a Unlassi'ied 8CND #6'6- yes
6. Evidentiality 2;7

/6.2F2 E%! /Nadah%!A E!!s 2001+ 6F42
th ham-t!=mah mah mah mah
;8L #&5-UTP8CND
@Ee?ll #& /he &" an&the" said s&2.?

/6.262 DZ, /Nadah%!A 7a"tins 2004+ 4112
m5h m5h m5h m5h tU! tVh
8CND h&,le".(&n*ey TOD
@They say that it ,as the h&,le" (&n*ey ,hih "es!&nded. /&"i#. @Di)e( 9%e '&i &
#%a"i$a 9%e( "es!&nde%.?2

/6.272 D%inave /%nlassi'iedA Li"Xn 2001+ ;762
,a-'i#-ma ma ma ma mowe,n
;8L5have58CND dan#e"&%s.s!i"it
@It is said that the"e is a devil.? /&"i#. @Di)9%e hay dia$l&.?2

The a''iliati&n &' D%inave is still %n"es&lved+ $%t is has $een s%##ested that it &"i#inated as
Nadah%! and &nside"a$ly han#ed %nde" A"a,a*an in'l%ene /'. Li"Xn 20012. A&"din#
t& 7%ys*en /20122+ D%inave and Nadah%! /and A"a,a*an2 s!ea*e"s a"e in &ntat. I' the
the&"y a$&%t the Nadah%! &"i#in &' D%inave is &""et+ 5ma is &ne !iee &' evidene '&" this+
&" D%inave has $&""&,ed 5ma th"&%#h &ntat /in ,hih ase it is still !&ssi$le that it is
Nadah%!2. The"e is n& (a"*e" &""es!&ndin# in $&th '&"( and '%nti&n '&%nd in the
A"a,a*an lan#%a#es in the sa(!le+ alth&%#h all &' the( d& have 8ECONDEAND (a"*in#.
The "elati&nshi! $et,een the Na($i*,a"an 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s and the 8ECONDEAND
!a"tile hetau in U"a"ina is n&t lea". Alth&%#h hetau is '&"(ally "e(a"*a$ly si(ila" t& 5
setaw and 5satau+ a&"din# t& Ola,s*y /2006+ F0;2 it is a le6iali)ati&n &' the "eass%"ane
(a"*e" Ptau and the 8ECONDEAND liti Phe. The 'at that U"a"ina and the Na($i*,a"an
lan#%a#es a"e n&t #e&#"a!hially l&se als& s!ea*s a#ainst di''%si&n &' '&"(s. N&thin# is
*n&,n a$&%t a !&ssi$le inte"nal divisi&n &' 5setaw &" 5satau+ alth&%#h it is !&ssi$le that at
least 5setaw &%ld $e divided int& the 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5Wse and an %n*n&,n '&"(.
The '&ll&,in# !a"a#"a!hs dis%ss Evidentiality in seleted lan#%a#e 'a(ilies in detail<
A"a,a*an /6.F.22+ T%!Nan /6.F.;2+ Ca"i$an /6.F.42+ and C%eh%an /6.F.F2.

6.F.2 A"a,a*an 6.F.2 A"a,a*an 6.F.2 A"a,a*an 6.F.2 A"a,a*an
The A"a,a*an lan#%a#e 'a(ily va"ies ,idely "e#a"din# Evidentiality (a"*in#< it "an#es
'"&( (a"*in# n&ne at all /Da"esi2+ t& (a"*in# 8ECONDEAND &nly /Yanesha?+ :a%"e+ A!%"inY2+ t&
Ta"iana+ ,hih is &ne &' the t,& lan#%a#es in the sa(!le (a"*in# NON5 -IR8TEAND+
8ECONDEAND+ VI8UAL+ IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED.
The"e &%ld have $een a di"et $&""&,in# &' '&"( $et,een A"a,a*an and Ch&&an<
Ta"iana and A!%"inY have 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s that a"e si(ila" t& th&se &' E($e"a and
E!ena Dedee+ $&th Ch&&an lan#%a#es< Ppi'a+ 5pira+ 5pi'a+ and pF'a+ "es!etively. A ve"y
2;1 6.F Leneal&#ial dist"i$%ti&n

tentative &nl%si&n $ased &n the sa"e evidene availa$le !&ints t&,a"d an A"a,a*an
&"i#in ,hih ,ill n&, $e dis%ssed.
Ta"iana has th"ee (a"*e"s '&" 8ECONDEAND '%sed ,ith DRE8ENT+ RE7OTE DA8T+ and RECENT
DA8T< the litis Ppi'a+ Ppi'ana+ and Ppi'a#a+ "es!etively /Ai*henvald 200;+ ;02'.2. The DRE8ENT
8ECONDEAND liti is als& %sed in the 8ECONDEAND I7DERATIVE ,hih is a al9%e '"&( T%an&an
/i$id. ;042. Ai*henvald a"#%es that the =s!ei'i in'e""edB Evidential is als& a al9%e '"&(
T%an&an and that this is d%e t& a"eal ind%ed han#e /i$id. 2172A in 'at+ the &(!lete
TenseK Evidential syste( in Ta"iana is a "es%lt &' a"eal di''%si&n '"&( East5T%an&an. The
'&"( Ppi'a e6isted at 'i"st as a #ene"al 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" and &nly a9%i"ed a DRE8ENT
s!ei'iati&n a'te" &ntat /i$id. ;222. The T%an&an lan#%a#es in the sa(!le+ Desan& and
C%$e&+ indeed have 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s+ $%t neithe" &' the( have a Ppi'a '&"(. E&,eve"+
t,& &the" %n"elated lan#%a#es ,ith that '&"( a"e E($e"a /Ch&&an2 and E!ena Dedee
/Ch&&an2. E($e"a has a 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5pi'a '&" ve"$al "e!&"ts+ $%t als& 'eat%"es the
s%''i6 5mana '&" na""atives+ es!eially le#ends /7&"tensen 1000+ 16'.2. E!ena Dedee %ses the
!a"tile pF'a t& indiate "e!&"ted *n&,led#e /Ea"(s 1004+ 1772.
F
The 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" in
A!%"inY /A"a,a*an2 is the s%''i6 5pira ,hih is a!!a"ently n&t &$li#at&"y /-a%ndes 2000+
;172+ $%t the &the" A"a,a*an lan#%a#es in the sa(!le d& n&t have a si(ila" 8ECONDEAND
(a"*e" &" n&ne at all /a 9%i* sea"h &' Cha(N /va"iati&n &' E($e"a2 in A#%i""e Liht /10002
yielded n& "es%lts '&" eithe" Evidentiality+ 5pi'a+ &" 5mana2.

/6.212 E($e"a /Ch&&anA 7&"tensen 1000+ 162
o-s
h
i-pi'a pi'a pi'a pi'a
(a*e5D8T5RDRT
@IEe t&ld (e thatJ he (ade &ne.?

/6.202 E!ena Dedee /Ch&&anA Ea"(s 1004+ 1772
,os-pa tama pee-t
h
aa-hF pF pF pF pF'a 'a 'a 'a pa#
h
urX-pa
H&s[5ERL sna*e *ill5O:H5D8T 8CND t"ee5IN8T
Ee said that H&s[ *illed a sna*e ,ith a l%$.?

/6.;02 A!%"inY /A"a,a*anA -a%ndes 2000+ ;172
ata #ema-pira pira pira pira-ta-ru
1DL listen58CND5V:L\5;7.O:H
@.e hea"d "%(&%"s.?

The 'at that '&%" lan#%a#es &' t,& 'a(ilies have al(&st the sa(e '&"( '&" the sa(e
(eanin# de"eases the !&ssi$ility &' individ%al devel&!(ent. Additi&nally+ Ta"iana and
Ch&&an a"e "eas&na$ly l&se #e&#"a!hially+ th&%#h n&t in the i((ediate viinity. Adelaa"

F
N& &the" 8ECONDEAND '&"( &%ld $e '&%nd in Ea"(s /10042+ $%t the"e is a h&(&!h&n&%s '&"( pF'a
@even?. The e6at "elati&nshi! t& the 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" is %n*n&,n.
6. Evidentiality 2;0

3 7%ys*en /2004+ F02 (enti&n that =s&(e s%"vivin# #"&%!s /e.#. the Ch&&an E($e"S+ the
C%na+ the Da[)2 have $een "e(a"*a$ly e6!ansive in "eent ti(esB. The 'at that the
8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s a"e '&"(ally e6atly the sa(e !&ints t&,a"d a "elatively "eent
$&""&,in#+ &" they ,&%ld $e e6!eted t& have %nde"#&ne lan#%a#e5inte"nal han#e.
:ea%se E($e"a at this (&(ent has t,& 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s+ it is li*ely that 5mana is the
&lde" '&"( ,hih has $een !%shed int& a (&"e "est"ited "&le &' le#end (a"*in# ,hen 5pi'a
ente"ed the #"a((a". This is at the (&(ent the &nly lea" 'at&" in 'av&" &' an A"a,a*an
&"i#in &' bpi'a.

Ta$le 6.6< Evidentiality (a"*in# in A"a,a*an
Lan#%a#eK
ate#&"y
N-R8T 8CND VI8 IN-R A87
Da"esi 5 5 5 5 5
Yanesha 5 Po" /a%6ilia"y
ahuo?^2
5 5 5
:a%"e 5 Phi 5 5 5
A!%"inY 5 -pira 5 5 5
Ta"iana Pmha+ Pmah#a+
Pmhana
Ppi'a+ Ppi'a#a+
Ppi'ana
Pna#a@ P#a@
Pna
Pnih#a+
Pnhina
Psi#a+
Psina

6.F.; T%!Nan 6.F.; T%!Nan 6.F.; T%!Nan 6.F.; T%!Nan
A&"din# t& R&d"i#%es /1000+ 1102 + Evidentiality is n&t a (aG&" ha"ate"isti in T%!Nan+
$%t+ neve"theless+ it is '&%nd in all T%!Nan lan#%a#es in the sa(!le. Es!eially the
8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s s%##est &((&n &"i#ins< Hensen /1001+ FF;2 lists seve"al &#nates in
T%!Nan that have Evidential &" E!iste(i 7&dal (eanin#s< the .aya(!i ve"i'iati&n 7&dals
ipo and ,Y als& &%" in T%!ina($S /ipo @(ay$e?2+ Te($[ /ipo @%ne"tainty &" d&%$t?2+ L%a"ay%
/aipo @hea"say?2A and in Te($[ /,e @they say?2+ Ma(ai%"S /,e @they say?2 and U"%$Q5Maa!&" /,e
@hea"say?2. The L%aGaGS"a hea"say !a"tile Ze and !&ssi$ly als& the Ma"& 8ECONDEAND (a"*e" tK
a"e &#nate. R&d"i#%es 3 Ca$"al /2012+ F272 s%##est a 'icen'iH >acien'i ve"$ /b#

e @t& say?2 as
s&%"e '&" these '&"(s. Additi&nally+ 8%"%N /als& T%!Nan2 has a hea"say !a"tile y5
/R&d"i#%es 1000+ 1102+ ,hih (ay $e "elated t& the C&a(a5C&a(illa 8ECONDEAND litis
PyaK Pa and PFaK Pa. R&d"i#%es 3 Ca$"al /2012+ F612 state that alth&%#h T%!Nan lan#%a#es
di''e" #"eatly ,ith "e#a"d t& 7&dality+ eve"y lan#%a#e has at least &ne 7&dal and that this
e6!"esses =hea"sayB. This is &n'i"(ed in the !"esent st%dy.
Th"ee &' the 'ive lan#%a#es in the sa(!le that (a"* VI8UAL a"e T%!Nan< Ma"&+ 8ate"[5
7a,[+ and Ma(ai%"S. It is %n*n&,n ,hethe" thei" (a"*e"s a"e "elated+ $%t it is !&ssi$le
that VI8UAL (a"*e"s a"e a T%!Nan ha"ate"isti.


240 6.F Leneal&#ial dist"i$%ti&n

Ta$le 6.7 Evidential (a"*in# in T%!Nan
6

Lan#%a#e -a(ily -R8T N-R8T 8CND CUOT VI8 IN-R A87
E(["ill&n T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
5la#o 5 5 5 5 5 5
Ta!iete T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
Pm)a Pn'a 5 5 5 5 5
C&a(a5
C&a(illa
T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
5 5 PyaK Pa@
=FaH =a
ay+ na 5 5 5
Ma(ai%"S T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
5 5 ,e 5 ehe[he 5 5
Ma"itiana T%!Nan 5 5 5saNt 5 5 5 5
8ate"[57a,[ T%!Nan 5 5 so 5 ne#e 5 5
7e*ens T%!Nan 5 5 5 #e@
#aat
5 5 5
Ma"& T%!Nan 5 5 tK 5 topK a#et i!5@ mem5
8%"%N T%!Nan+
7&nde
^ ^ y5 ^ ^ ^ ^
L%aGaGS"a T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
^ ^ Ze ^ ^ ^ ^
L%a"ay% T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
^ ^ aipo ^ ^ ^ ^
Te($[ T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
^ ^ ,e ^ ^ ^ ^
U"%$Q5
Maa!&"
T%!Nan+
L%a"anN
^ ^ ,e ^ ^ ^ ^

6.F.4 6.F.4 6.F.4 6.F.4 Ca"i$an Ca"i$an Ca"i$an Ca"i$an
The Ca"i$an lan#%a#es in the sa(!le stand &%t $ea%se t,& &' the( d& n&t 'eat%"e
Evidentiality at all /Ti"iyX and Dana"e2 and the thi"d &ne &nly has 8ECONDEAND /Ei6*a"yana2.
Evidentiality see(s t& !lay a (in&" "&le in Ca"i$an. Ca"i$an lan#%a#es have a la"#e n%($e"
&' !a"tiles ,hih !a"tially have $een lassi'ied as =ve"i'iati&n /i.e. evidential2B !a"tiles $y
De"$yshi"e /1000+ F;2 /see als& De"$yshi"e 101F+ 1272. E&'' /10162 !"esents an analysis &' 17
!a"tiles he lai(s a"e Evidentials in Ca"i$an+ $ased &n a Ca"i$an s!ea*e" '"&( 8%"ina(. Eis
de'initi&n &' Evidentiality+ h&,eve"+ di''e"s s&(e,hat '"&( (&"e &nte(!&"a"y de'initi&ns
&' Evidentiality. A&"din# t& E&'' /i$id. 405F02+ Evidentials =indiate ,hat *ind &' evidene
is availa$le '&" the "elia$ility &' the state(ent in ,hih they a"e %sedB+ "e'e""in# t& LivXn
/10122. 8&%"es &' evidene in E&''?s st%dy a"e eithe" s!ea*e"5inte"nal &" the &%tside ,&"ld
and eithe" st"&n# &" ,ea*A the s!ea*e" is e(&ti&nally inv&lved and (a*es a state(ent
a$&%t his assess(ent &' the t"%th &' the !"&!&siti&n. Eis !a"tiles d& n&t &""es!&nd t& the
n&ti&n &' Evidentiality ad&!ted he"e. -&" e6a(!le+ '&" E&'' /i$id. F15F;2 the !"e'i6 #65
indiates @st"&n# int"&s!etive? &((it(ent &' the s!ea*e"+ i.e. the s!ea*e" d&es n&t have

6
Additi&nal data '&" L%aGaGS"a+ L%a"ay%+ Te($[+ and U"%$Q5Maa!&" '"&( Hensen /10012A '&" 8%"%N '"&(
R&d"i#%es /10002.
6. Evidentiality 241

any evidene $%t is s%"e a$&%t ,hat he says. .ith &%" !"esent *n&,led#e &' Evidentials+
this ,&%ld "athe" $e analy)ed as E!iste(i 7&dality "athe" than Evidentiality.
In that li#ht+ it is "e(a"*a$le that Ei6*a"yana d&es have a (a"*e" '"&( the d&(ain &'
Evidentiality+ and n&t 7&dality< the 8ECONDEAND !a"tile t /its a$sene an indiate di"et
,itness2 /De"$yshi"e 101F+ 1272. Additi&nally+ i' a s!ea*e" %ses this !a"tile sKhe "eGets any
"es!&nsi$ility &' the !"&!&siti&n. The 9%esti&n is ,hethe" Ei6*a"yana devel&!ed this
!a"tile inte"nally+ i.e. i' ,e an in'e" the #"a((atiali)ati&n !ath+ and ,hethe" this ,as
ind%ed $y &ntat ,ith an&the" 8ECONDEAND (a"*in# lan#%a#e+ &" i' this '&"( ,as even
&(!letely $&""&,ed. :ea%se 8ECONDEAND (a"*e"s l&#ially &'ten devel&! '"&( ve"$s
den&tin# @say?
7
&" si(ila" (eanin#s+ this (ay $e the &"i#in '&" t as ,ell. E&,eve"+ the
Ei6*a"yana ve"$ @say? is #a /i$id. 2;2. An&the" !&ssi$ility is that it devel&!ed '"&( a '&"(e"
7&dal+ $%t+ as Ai*henvald /2004+ 1F12 states< =8%h !a"tiles I(&dalsJ d& n&t %s%ally #ive
"ise t& #"a((atial evidentialsB. -&" n&,+ I an &nly &nl%de that the Ei6*a"yana
8ECONDEAND !a"tile did n&t #"a((atiali)e '"&( the ve"$ @say? #a /alth&%#h the"e (ay
an&the" ve"$ @say?2+ and that it !"esents an an&(aly in the &the",ise dev&id &' Evidentiality
Ca"i$an lan#%a#es in this sa(!le.

6.F.F 6.F.F 6.F.F 6.F.F C%eh%an C%eh%an C%eh%an C%eh%an
C%eh%an is ve"y h&(&#ene&%s in its Evidentiality (a"*in# ,ith &ne a!!a"ent e6e!ti&n+
the IN-ERREDK A88U7ED (a"*e" in C%)& C%eh%a /,hih (ay t%"n &%t n&t t& $e an e6e!ti&n
at all2. In &"de" t& ,iden the s&!e &' the &"i#inal sa(!le+ additi&nal data '"&( Adelaa" ,ith
7%ys*en /20042 and Eint) /20072 is added. :e'&"e sta"tin# the dis%ssi&n+ a te"(in&l&#ial
n&te is in &"de". Adelaa" ,ith 7%ys*en /20042 #ive seve"al e6a(!les &' (a"*e"s they all
$&th @evidential? and @validati&nal?+ $%t ,hih &nly in !a"ts &n%" ,ith the de'initi&ns &'
Evidential ate#&"ies !"esented a$&ve. The (a"*e"s they dis%ss have $een ta*en int&
&nside"ati&n '&" the !"esent dis%ssi&n &nly ins&'a" as they an $e des"i$ed as evidential
a&"din# t& the de'initi&n %sed in this ha!te".
Al(&st all lan#%a#es in ta$le 6.1 $el&, have a -IR8TEAND s%''i6 5mi+ and a 8ECONDEAND &"
NON-IR8TEAND (a"*e" 5shi. A&"din# t& C&le /101F+ 1642+ 5shi as a hea"say (a"*e" &%"s &nly
in n&n5E%ad&"ian C%eh%an. The (a"*e" 5shi in I($a$%"a C%eh%a has als& %nde"#&ne
se(anti shi't '"&( hea"say t& s!e%lati&n /i$id. 16F2+ $%t n&t '&" all s!ea*e"sA a shi't that is
n&t evident in the &the" C%eh%an lan#%a#es.
The %(%lative IN-ERREDK A88U7ED s%''i6 5ch in C%)& C%eh%a (e"its attenti&n+ $ea%se
it has E!iste(i 7&dal ele(ents. It &%"s in the sa(e ve"$al sl&t as the &the" Evidentials
/17;2+ $%t+ additi&nally t& &din# that a e"tain a(&%nt &' "eas&nin# is inv&lved+ it als&
e6!"esses a val%e &' %ne"tainty< =5ch is n&t !%"ely evidential+ indiatin# that the s!ea*e"
a""ives at his &" he" state(ent $y "eas&nin#+ $%t als& en&des that the s!ea*e" is less than
100` e"tain that the !"&!&siti&n is t"%eB /-alle" 2002+ 1772. E&,eve"+ -alle" /20022 "eGets

7
C'. the 8ECONDEAND s%''i6 5ti in Tsa'i*i ,hih de"ives '"&( the ve"$ ti @say? /Di*ins&n 2002+ 10;2.
242 6.F Leneal&#ial dist"i$%ti&n

an analysis &' 5ch as !%"e E!iste(i 7&dal. 8&(e &the" C%eh%an lan#%a#es 'eat%"e si(ila"
(a"*e"s+ &'ten ,ith E!iste(i '%nti&ns. In I($a$%"a C%eh%a /C&le 101F2 the"e is a
DU:ITATIVE (a"*e" 5ch8ri:+ $%t als& an inte""&#ative 5ch. C&le /101F2 d&es n&t (enti&n any
evidential %ses &' 5ch.

/6.;12 I($a$%"a C%eh%a /C%eh%anA C&le 1012+ 1FF+ 1702
/a2 shamu-n!ui-man-ch ch ch ch
&(e525&nditi&nal5inte"
@.&%ld y&% &(e^?
/$2 #aya-pash-chari chari chari chari shamu-n!a
t&(&""&,5even5DU: &(e5-UT
@De"ha!s t&(&""&, he?ll &(e.?

.e$e" /1006+ 42F2 !"esents an Evidential s%''i6 5chi in E%alla#a C%eh%a+ ,hih is n&t
t"eated he"e as Evidential+ $ea%se n& &nvinin# evidene &%ld $e '&%nd '&" this. That
s%''i6 d&es en&de &nGet%"e &n the !a"t &' the s!ea*e"+ $%t als& shi'tin# the "es!&nsi$ility
a,ay '"&( the s!ea*e"+ as ,ell as the s!ea*e"?s s%$Getive assess(ent &' the !"&!&siti&n. It
is ,ell !&ssi$le that it is si(ila" t& 5ch in C%)& C%eh%a. H%st as -alle" /2002+ 1112 lai(s
that 5ch is $&th an Evidential and E!iste(i 7&dal+ 5chi in E%alla#a C%eh%a &%ld als& $e
$&th. In 8&%th C&nh%&s C%eh%a+ 5chi den&tes $&th E!iste(i /validati&nal2 and
Evidential /&nGet%"al2 val%es /Eint) 2007+ 702+ alth&%#h it?s !"i(a"y '%nti&n is that &'
validati&n< =ItJhe &nGet%"al 5chi is %sed !"i(a"ily t& indiate the s!ea*e"?s attit%de that
the state(ent sKhe is (a*in# is !"&$a$ly t"%e /a validati&nal '%nti&n2. It an als& $e
&nside"ed t& have an evidential '%nti&n+ in ,hih the s!ea*e"?s assumption is the s&%"e &'
the evideneB /i$id. 60+ Eint)?s e(!hasis2. -&"(ally si(ila" E!iste(i (a"*e"s &%" in
Daa"a&s+ Ta"(a+ Aya%h&+ and 8alasaa C%eh%a /see als& ha!te" F.10.2 \uechuan2+ $%t a
(&"e detailed st%dy is neessa"y t& investi#ate the "elati&nshi! &' these ,ith Evidentiality.
An a!!"&ah t& this !"&$le( has $een s%##ested $y Eint) /20122+ ,h& !"esents an
additi&nal n&ti&n neessa"y '&" the lassi'iati&n &' the Evidential (a"*e"s in 8&%th
C&nh%&s C%eh%a< (%t%al vs. individ%al *n&,led#e. .he"eas 5shi "e(ains a si(!le
"e!&"tative+ the !"a#(ati and se(anti '%nti&ns &' the &the" (a"*e"s an then $e $ette"
%nde"st&&d. :esides 5shi+ 8&%th C&nh%&s C%eh%a has '&%" (&"e Evidential (a"*e"s< 5mi+
5cha=+ 5chi+ and 5cher. Eint) /i$id.2 a"#%es that these an $est $e des"i$ed $y dis&%"se
!"ini!les+ i.e. the !a"tii!ants en&de ,hethe" they $elieve the *n&,led#e is sha"ed $y the
&the" !a"tii!ants. In that li#ht+ 5mi and 5cha= $&th "e'e" t& di"et ,itness+ $%t the '&"(e"
en&des =asse"ti&n &' individ%al *n&,led#eB and the latte" =asse"ti&n &' (%t%al
*n&,led#eB. 8i(ila"ly+ 5chi and 5cher a"e indi"et ,itness (a"*e"s+ $%t the 'i"st indiates
=individ%al &nGet%"eB and the se&nd =a!!eal t& (%t%al *n&,led#eB. A si(ila" analysis is
#iven $y Eint) /20122 '&" Evidential (a"*e"s in 8ih%as C%eh%a. It ,&%ld $e ve"y inte"estin#
t& see ,hethe" sha"ed vs. (%t%al *n&,led#e an e6!lain an&(alies in &the" C%eh%an and
n&n5C%eh%an lan#%a#es as ,ell.
6. Evidentiality 24;

Ta$le 6.1< Evidentiality in C%eh%an
1


6.6 8TA:ILITY 6.6 8TA:ILITY 6.6 8TA:ILITY 6.6 8TA:ILITY O- EVIDENTIALITY O- EVIDENTIALITY O- EVIDENTIALITY O- EVIDENTIALITY
This seti&n eval%ates the sta$ility &' Evidentiality and d"a,s %!&n the st%dies $y .ih(an
3 E&l(an /20002 and .ih(ann 3 Ma(h&l) /20012 /see seti&n ;.10 '&" an int"&d%ti&n t&
sta$ility &' ty!&l&#ial 'eat%"es and the sta$ility &' Tense+ 4.11 '&" As!et+ F.1; '&" 7&dality+
and 7.F '&" a 'inal dis%ssi&n2. The Evidential 'eat%"es inl%ded in .ih(ann 3 E&l(an
/20002 inl%de =8e(anti Distinti&n &' EvidentialityB and =C&din# &' EvidentialityB. The
'&"(e" is "an*ed %nsta$le and the latte" ve"y %nsta$le. In the !"esent data+ Evidentiality has
$een sh&,n t& di''%se+ '&" instane t& Ta"iana '"&( T%an&an+ $%t als& t& $e han#in#
,ithin &ne lan#%a#e 'a(ily+ as in C%eh%an. Alth&%#h C%eh%an !"&$a$ly has a shall&,
ti(e5de!th+ the Evidential syste(s have al"eady dive"#ed t& a e"tain e6tent. Li*e As!et
and 7&dality+ and t& a e"tain e6tent als& Tense+ the !"esent data &n'i"( that Evidential
ate#&"ies a"e n&t sta$le and !"&ne t& han#e inte"nal t& lan#%a#e 'a(ilies as ,ell as t&
di''%si&n $ey&nd 'a(ily $&%nda"ies. A&"din# t& .ih(an 3 E&l(an /i$id+ ;;2+ ate#&"ies
that a"e &nditi&ned $y !"a#(ati 'at&"s a"e #ene"ally %nsta$le+ ,hih (ay als& $e an
e6!lanati&n '&" the insta$ility &' Evidentiality.

6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 8U77ARY 8U77ARY 8U77ARY 8U77ARY
This ha!te" investi#ated the ty!&l&#ial+ #e&#"a!hial+ and #eneal&#ial !atte"ns &'
Evidentiality (a"*in# in the sa(!le. The lan#%a#es ,e"e analy)ed a&"din# t& -IR8TEAND+
NON5-IR8TEAND+ 8ECONDEAND+ VI8UAL+ CUOTATIVE+ IN-ERRED+ and A88U7ED Evidentiality. De'initi&ns
,e"e #iven in seti&n 6.2+ ,hih a"e l&sely (&deled &n Ai*henvald /20042.

1
Data '&" Ta"(a and Aya%h& C%eh%a '"&( Adelaa" 3 7%ys*en /20042A '&" Aya%h& C%eh%a
additi&nally '"&( 8&t& R%i) /10762.
0
This s%''i6 is #iven as @&nGet%"e? $%t als& as @d%$itative? /Adela" 3 7%ys*en 2004+ 2102. It has $een
added he"e $ea%se &' its si(ila"ity t& C%)& C%eh%a IN-ERRED and A88U7ED+ $%t its Evidential stat%s is
n&t &n'i"(ed.
10
A&"din# t& 8&t& R%i) /1076+ 1242+ 5cha in Aya%h& C%eh%a (eans &nGet%"e and !&ssi$ility.
-R8T N-R8T 8CND CUOT VI8 IN-R A87
I($a$%"a
C%eh%a
-mi@ -mari 5 5shi /5nin:

5 5 /5ch8ri2^2 5
E%alla#a
C%eh%a
5mi 5shi 5 5 5 /5chi^2 5
C%)&
C%eh%a
5mi 5 5si 5 5 5ch 5ch
Ta"(a
C%eh%a
5m ^ 5] ^ ^ /5^^2
0
^
Aya%h&
C%eh%a
5mi ^ ^ ^ ^ /5cha
10
^2 ^
244 6.7 8%((a"y

A "elatively hi#h n%($e" &' lan#%a#es in the sa(!le (a"* Evidentiality (&"!h&5
syntatially< 40 &%t &' 6; e6hi$it at least &ne &' the Evidential ate#&"ies h&sen '&" this
st%dy. O' these 40 lan#%a#es+ 22 (a"* a di"et ,itness /i.e. -IR8TEAND andK &" VI8UAL2+ and 46
an indi"et ,itness Evidential /i.e. NON5-IR8TEAND+ andK &" 8ECONDEAND+ andK &" CUOTATIVE+
andK &" IN-ERRED andK &" A88U7ED2. An inte"setin# set &' 20 lan#%a#es (a"* $&th di"et and
indi"et ,itness. The (&st '"e9%ently (a"*ed ate#&"y is 8ECONDEAND /;12+ '&ll&,ed $y
-IR8TEAND /172+ IN-ERRED /1F2+ NON5-IR8TEAND /112+ A88U7ED /102+ VI8UAL /F2+ and CUOTATIVE /22. 2;
lan#%a#es in the sa(!le (a"* &ne Evidential ate#&"y+ 11 (a"* 2+ 0 (a"* ;+ 4 (a"* 4+ and 2
(a"* F. One lan#%a#e+ E(["ill&n+ (a"*s di"et Evidentiality &nly. A&"din# t& De Eaan
/20112 and T&""es 8Snhe) /20012+ the"e a"e ve"y 'e, lan#%a#es ,&"ld5,ide &nly (a"*in#
di"et Evidentiality.
The lan#%a#es in the sa(!le an $e #"&%!ed int& Evidential syste(s &' (a"*in# &ne
Evidential ate#&"y t& 'ive ate#&"ies. 8yste(s ,ith &ne ate#&"y !"&(inently inl%de
8ECONDEAND and a"e the (&st '"e9%ent. The"e a"e t,& lan#%a#es (a"*in# 'ive ate#&"ies<
Ta"iana and 7a(aindV.
The #e&#"a!hial dist"i$%ti&n &' (&"!h&5syntati Evidentiality is t& a hi#h de#"ee
hete"&#ene&%s. Evidentiality (a"*in# &%"s eve"y,he"e &n the &ntinent ,ith n&
a!!a"ent l%ste"s. The"e is n& !a"ti%la" !atte"nin# &' Evidentiality in the L%a!&"[5
7a(&"[+ as has $een lai(ed+ $%t $ea%se the sa(!le is t&& s(all this ann&t $e stated ,ith
e"tainty.
Evidentiality is in e"tain ases #eneal&#ially &nditi&ned. C&#nates a"e '&%nd in
C%eh%an /-IR8TEAND 5mi+ 8ECONDEAND 5shi+ and !"&$a$ly IN-ERRED 5chaK 5chi2+ T%!Nan
/8ECONDEAND2+ and Nadah%! /8ECONDEAND2. Ca"i$an and A"a,a*an+ &n the &the" hand+ a"e
&(!letely hete"&#ene&%s.
7. Discussion and Conclusions 245

7. 7. 7. 7. DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS
7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1 INTRODUCTION
The geograhical dis!ri"u!ion o# $orho%s&n!ac!ic TA'( $ar)ing in !he sa$le is *er&
he!erogeneous+ as ,as sho,n in cha!ers -%.. There are #e, clear regional a!!erns. The
genealogical dis!ri"u!ion #ares sligh!l& "e!!er. (seciall& !he TA'( s&s!e$s o# /uechuan
and 0ua&curuan #or$ dis!inc! uni!s. In con!ras!+ #a$ilies ,i!h $ore !i$e%de!h li)e Tu1an
and Ara,a)an are *er& he!erogeneous. The o*erall lac) o# clear a!!erns $a& "e
condi!ioned "& !he !e$oral ins!a"ili!& o# TA'( $ar)ing as I ,ill argue in sec!ion 7.5.
2hereas !he geograhical and genealogical dis!ri"u!ions o# !he indi*idual TA'( ca!egories
in*es!iga!ed in !his s!ud& ,ere discussed in cha!ers - !o .+ !his cha!er a!!e$!s !o shi#!
#ro$ indi*idual ca!egories !o,ards a co$rehensi*e ersec!i*e.
3or !ha! urose+ i! ,as co$u!ed ho, $an& TA'( ca!egories are $ar)ed "& each
language. In !o!al+ a $a4i$u$ o# -5 ca!egories could ossi"l& "e $ar)ed "& a single
language 5#i*e #or Tense+ eigh! #or Asec!+ 15 #or 'odali!&+ and se*en #or (*iden!iali!&6.
Ta"le 7.2 resen!s !hree di##eren! *alues #or each suerca!egor& er language. The #irs!
colu$n sho,s !he nu$"er o# $ar)ed ca!egories. The second colu$n sho,s !he ercen!age
o# $ar)ing o# !he resec!i*e ca!egor&. Colu$n !hree sho,s !he ercen!age o# $ar)ing
co$ared !o all ca!egories+ "u! ,i!h !he suerca!egories ha*ing !he sa$e ,eigh!. Thus+
Tense+ Asec!+ 'odali!&+ and (*iden!iali!& *alue 257 each. The !hird !o las! colu$n resen!s
!he su$ o# all $ar)ed ca!egories er language. The second%!o%las! and las! colu$ns resen!
!he ercen!ages o# ho, $an& ca!egories ou! o# -5 are $ar)ed+ ,i!h !he di##erence !ha! !he
la!!er e8ua!es !he ca!egories 5each 2576+ ,hereas !he #or$er does no!. 3or e4a$le+ Chi$ila
$ar)s one Tense ca!egor&+ one Asec!ual+ and 9ero 'odali!& and (*iden!iali!& 5resec!i*e
#irs! colu$ns6. In rela!ion !o !he resec!i*e ca!egor&+ Chi$ila $ar)s 2:7 Tense+ 257 Asec!+
and 9ero ercen! 'odali!& and (*iden!iali!& 5resec!i*e second colu$ns6. In rela!ion !o all
ca!egories Chi$ila $ar)s 57 Tense+ and ..257 Asec! 5resec!i*e !hird colu$n6. In !o!al+
Chi$ila $ar)s 11.257 o# ossi"le 1::7 ,hen all suerca!egories are e8ua!ed 5*er& las!
colu$n6+ and ;.-7 ,hen !he& are no! e8ua!ed 5second%!o%las! colu$n6. The languages are
ran)ed #ro$ leas! !o $os! $ar)ing o# !he second%!o%las! colu$n. 3or !he geograhical
dis!ri"u!ion o# !he nu$"er o# TA'( $ar)ings "ased on !he !hird%!o%las! colu$n see $a
7.1.
Resul!s sho, !ha! languages $ar) "e!,een !hree and 2- ca!egories+ or "e!,een ;..7
and .5.77 5e8ua!ed6< ;.-257 and .:.2757 5no! e8ua!ed6. The ran)ing di##ers ,i!h regard !o
,he!her !he suerca!egories are e8ua!ed or no!+ in so$e cases 8ui!e dras!icall&. 3or
e4a$le+ ,i!hou! e8ua!ion =anare scores 22.>7+ "u! -5.;7 ,i!h e8ua!ion.
Sec!ions 7.2 and 7.- resen! an o*er*ie, o# !he geograhic and genealogical dis!ri"u!ion
o# $orho%s&n!ac!ic TA'( $ar)ing in !he sa$le and o##er !en!a!i*e conclusions ,i!h
regard !o regional a!!erns and !he !i$e%de!h o# #a$ilies. Sec!ion 7.4 resen!s a s!a!is!ical
anal&sis o# !he da!a u!!ing !o !he !es! ?ha!@s 51>>>6 ro$inence !heor&. Sec!ion 7.5 resu$es
24. 7.2 0eograhical dis!ri"u!ion in !he sa$le

!he discussion o# !he !e$oral s!a"ili!& o# TA'( #ea!ures+ and sec!ion 7.. resen!s #u!ure
a!hs o# research !o co$le$en! !his s!ud&.

7.2 0( 7.2 0( 7.2 0( 7.2 0(O0RA=AICAL DISTRI?UT O0RA=AICAL DISTRI?UT O0RA=AICAL DISTRI?UT O0RA=AICAL DISTRI?UTION IN TA( SA'=L( ION IN TA( SA'=L( ION IN TA( SA'=L( ION IN TA( SA'=L(
7.2. 7.2. 7.2. 7.2. 1 1 1 1 O*er*ie, O*er*ie, O*er*ie, O*er*ie,
2ha! are !he geograhical a!!erns o# TA'( $ar)ing in !he sa$le+ including !he ,ell%
)no,n !hough disu!ed $acro%areas o# !he Andes and A$a9onia and se*eral o!her
linguis!ic areasB !he ICana%DauEs 5Ai)hen*ald 1>>>+ (s 2::56+ !he 0uaorE%'a$orE
5Cre*els F Dan der Door! 2::;6+ !he Uer GingH 5Se)i 1>>>6+ and !he Chaco 5Co$rie e! al.
#or!hco$ing6I No clear e*idence #or an Andean *s. A$a9onian !&ological sli! could "e
#ound 5see "elo,6+ "u! !he Chaco and !he DauEs dis!inc!i*el& $ar) a *er& lo, and *er&
high nu$"er o# TA'( ca!egories+ resec!i*el&. In agree$en! ,i!h i!s genealogical di*ersi!&
!he 0uaorE%'a$orE sho,s a "road *arie!& in $ar)ing !he nu$"er o# TA'( ca!egories. As
!here are onl& !,o languages #ro$ !he Uer GingH in !he resen! sa$le 5Tru$ai and
Ja$aiurK6+ i! can onl& "e s!a!ed here !ha! !heir !endenc& is !o,ards !he $iddle range o#
$ar)ing.
In general+ !he nu$"er o# TA'( $ar)ers see$s !o "e highes! in !he $iddle range o#
Sou!h A$erica 5"roadl& in A$a9onia and adLacen! regions6+ and lo,er !o,ards !he sou!h
5!he Chaco6 and !he nor!h,es!ern corner 5!he Chi"chan shere6. Languages ,i!h !he $iddle
range o# TA'( $ar)ing eseciall& clus!er #ro$ cen!ral =eru !o sou!hern Colo$"ia+ ,hereas
!he highes! nu$"er occurs in and around !he DauEs and !he 0uaorE%'a$orE. Tha! is also
,here !he !,o $aLor clus!ers o# 3RUSTRATID( occur 5see also Ai)hen*ald 2:12 and O*erall
2:12 #or 3RUSTRATID( in A$a9onia6. Addi!ionall&+ !hree o# !he #our languages $ar)ing
ANT(RIOR occur in !hese !,o areas 5and !he #our!h in nor!h =eru6+ as ,ell as !he !,o
/UOTATID(S. All o!her ca!egories do no! sho, such conclusi*e geograhical a!!erning.

7.2.2 7.2.2 7.2.2 7.2.2 Andes *s. A$a9onia Andes *s. A$a9onia Andes *s. A$a9onia Andes *s. A$a9onia
One h&o!hesis do$inan! in SA !&olog& in !he las! decades is !he di*ision o# SA languages
in!o !,o di##eren! !&ological ro#iles !ha! are re#lec!ed "& !he geograhical and cul!ural
sli! o# Andean *s. A$a9onian. The !heor& "ehind !his sli! is !he assu$!ion !ha! !here is
enough e*idence #or a general+ no! Lus! linguis!ic+ sli! in SA !ha! is also re#lec!ed in
languageB MNiO! has "een a co$$on rac!ice a$ong linguis!s ,or)ing on Sou!h A$erican
languages !o $a)e an in!ui!i*e dis!inc!ion "e!,een PA$a9onian@ and PAndean@ languages on
!he assu$!ion !ha! !here ,ould "e !,o di##eren! language !&es corresonding !o !hese
la"els. O"*iousl&+ !his dis!inc!ion is largel& #ed "& geograhical and cul!ural considera!ionsQ
5Adelaar 2::;+ 2-6. Se*eral argu$en!s ha*e "een u! #or!h in #a*or o# an A$a9onian area
5e.g. Di4on F Ai)hen*ald 1>>>6 and ha*e "een reLec!ed 5=a&ne 2::16. Cons!enla 51>>16 did
no! #ind conclusi*e e*idence #or an Andean area+ and according !o Torres SKnche9 52::;6
!here is no signi#ican! dis!ri"u!ion o# (*iden!iali!& along an Andean *s. A$a9onian di*ide.
The anal&sis in !hese re*ious s!udies is ha$ered "& se*eral #ac!orsB !here is no
consensus o# !he e4ac! e4!ension o# ei!her PAndean@ or PA$a9onian@+ and !he s!udies
7. Discussion and Conclusions 247

curren!l& a*aila"le dealing ,i!h !his sli! o#!en #ocus on a seci#ic grou o# languages or
#ea!ures+ and are no! per se co$ara"le 5c#. Dan 0iLn+ 2:1-6. As o# &e!+ !here has "een no
e4!ended s!ud& o# all languages in a de#ined region and o# all ar!s o# gra$$ar ,i!h resec!
!o an Andean *s. A$a9onian sli!+ and so !he !er$s PAndean@ and PA$a9onian@ con!inue !o
"e used inconsis!en!l&+ so$e!i$es alied in a geograhical sense+ so$e!i$es used in order
!o re#er !o !&ologicall& de#ined su"grouings. In !his ligh!+ i! see$s hardl& aroria!e !o
add ano!her s!ud&+ "u! "ecause TA'( ca!egories ha*e "een consicuousl& a"sen! #ro$ !he
discussion so #ar+ !he #ollo,ing aragrahs !a)e !he oor!uni!& !o #ill !he ga.
The $aLori!& o# linguis!ic #ea!ures roosed #or an Andean *s. A$a9onian ro#ile are
no! rela!ed !o TA'( ca!egories. The roosed lis! o# #ea!ures #or an A$a9onian linguis!ic
area #ro$ Di4on F Ai)hen*ald 51>>>+ >6 includes onl& one #ea!ure rela!ing !o TA'(+ i.e. !ha!
!he TA'( $ar)ers are usuall& su##i4esB MN$Oos! *er"al ca!egories 5e.g. !ense+ asec!+
$odali!&+ direc!ion6 are e4ressed !hrough o!ional su##i4esQ. Adelaar 52::;6 re#ers !o !he
rich *er"al $orholog& o# Andean languages and $en!ions !ha! a nu$"er o# Andean 5e.g.
/uechuan+ A&$aran+ Tsa#i)i+ =ae96 as ,ell as so$e re%Andean languages 5Tucanoan and
=anoan6 #ea!ure (*iden!ial s&s!e$s. Ao,e*er+ (*iden!iali!& in !his s!ud& has "een sho,n !o
#re8uen!l& occur !hroughou! !he con!inen! ,i!hou! #a*oring a secial region 5see sec!ion
..-6. I! does occur in Andean languages in !he sa$le 5e.g. in /uechuan+ A&$aran6+ "u! also
in A$a9onia 5e.g. Ai4)ar&ana+ Desano6 and o!her ar!s o# SA 5e.g. in Taie!e in !he Chaco6.
This lac) o# TA'( #ea!ures in !he Andean *s. A$a9onian sli! discussion 5,i!h !he
e4ce!ion o# (*iden!iali!&6 ossi"l& resul!s #ro$ !he #ac! !ha!+ a! leas! according !o !he
resen! s!ud&+ !here is no such sli!. Ins!ead+ !he da!a #ro$ !his sa$le sugges! a "roader
di*ision #or !he !hree ca!egories =R(S(NT+ 3RUSTRATID(+ and DISUAL ,hich are al$os!
e4clusi*el& a"sen! #ro$ ,es!ern SA. O*er!l& $ar)ed =R(S(NT occurs al$os! e4clusi*el& in
!he eas!ern ar! o# Sou!h A$ericaR in o!her ,ords+ i! is a"sen! along !he Andean range.
There are !,o e4ce!ionsB ($"era and A&$ara do ha*e o*er! =R(S(NT $ar)ing. A&$ara
encodes =R(S(NT in NON3UTUR( su##i4es and ($"era in =R(S(NT su##i4esR all o# !hese ha*e
*ar&ing addi!ional Asec!ual and (*iden!ial $eanings. The sa$e "road di*ide occurs in !he
3RUSTRATID( da!a 5,i!h !he e4ce!ions o# Aguaruna and 'auche6 and DISUAL. O# !hese !hree
ca!egories+ !he $os! li)el& candida!e #or an ac!ual areal #ea!ure is !he 3RUSTRATID(+ ,hich has
alread& "een roosed "& Ai)hen*ald 52:126 as a ro"a"le #ea!ure o# A$a9onia and< or !he
DauEs 5see sec!ion 5.1:.26. ?ecause DISUAL is *er& rare in !he sa$le+ i!s a"sence in ,es!ern
SA is no! conclusi*e.
The resen! s!ud& sho,s !ha! !here is li!!le e*idence #or an Andean or A$a9onian
ro#ile in !he da!a #or $os! o# !he TA'( ca!egories+ "u! ra!her an eas!ern *s. ,es!ern SA
dis!inc!ion o# $orho%s&n!ac!ic =R(S(NT+ 3RUSTRATID(+ and DISUAL $ar)ing. ?irchall 52:1-6
resen!s a reasoned anal&sis o# argu$en! reali9a!ion a!!erns across !he !,o $acro%areas
and argues #or a $ore general eas!%,es! sli!. Jrasnou)ho*a 52:126 #inds a $ore #ine%
grained areal dis!ri"u!ion #or noun hrase $orhos9n!a4. In general+ A$a9onia #ea!ures a
higher nu$"er o# $ar)ed TA'( ca!egories ,hereas !he Andean region ranges in !he
24; 7.2 0eograhical dis!ri"u!ion in !he sa$le

$iddle. 2he!her !his holds on a $ore de!ailed le*el and ,he!her !his is erhas due !o !he
s!a"ili!& o# !he ca!egories ,ill ha*e !o "e sho,n in !he #u!ure.

7.2.- 7.2.- 7.2.- 7.2.- The Chaco The Chaco The Chaco The Chaco
Un!il recen!l& no! enough da!a ,as a*aila"le #or a de!ailed s!ud& o# !he e4ac! rela!ionshi
"e!,een 5unrela!ed6 languages in !he Chaco 5c#. Adelaar ,i!h 'u&s)en 2::4+ 4>>6. No,+
Co$rie e! al. 5#or!hco$ing6 roose !ha! !he Chaco cons!i!u!es a linguis!ic area on !he "asis
o# honological and $orho%s&n!ac!ic #ea!ures in =ilagK+ 2ich1+ Taie!e+ and Dilela. The&
#ur!her$ore sugges! !ha! !he 0ua&curuan and 'a!acoan%'a!agua&an languages #or$ a core
area and Dilela and Taie!e a eriheral area. In !he sa$le #or !his s!ud&+ languages in !he
Chaco are =ilagK and 'oco*1 50ua&curuan6+ 2ich1 5'a!acoan6+ and Taie!e 5Tu1an6. I! ,as
o"ser*ed in cha!ers - !o . !ha! !he 0ua&curuan languages are *er& oor in $orho%
s&n!ac!ic TA'( $ar)ingB !he& do no! $ar) an& Tense or CO''AND !&es+ onl& one 'odal
5D(SID(RATID(6+ a #e, Asec!uals 5CONTINUATID(+ AA?ITUAL+ CO'=L(TID(6+ and one (*iden!ial 5NON%
3IRSTAAND in =ilagK6. 0ua&curuan is also !he #a$il& ,i!h !he leas! TA'( $ar)ing in !he
,hole sa$le. ?& co$arison+ 2ich1 and Taie!e are sligh!l& $ore ela"ora!e+ "u! s!ill range
a! !he lo,er end o# $ar)ing. This can "e seen on $a 7.1+ ,here =ilagK and 'oco*1 are in
!he grou ,i!h !he lo,es! nu$"er o# $ar)ed TA'( ca!egories+ 2ich1 in !he second%lo,es!+
and Taie!e in !he $iddle grou.
Al!hough i! is necessar& !o include $ore languages in !he sa$le+ i! can "e said !ha! !he
languages in !he Chaco in !he resen! sa$le are no!a"le #or !heir lo, degree o# $orho%
s&n!ac!ic TA'( $ar)ing. Lo,es! is 0ua&curuan+ #ollo,ed "& 2ich1 and Taie!e+ ,hich has
$os! $ar)ing o# !he #our. =ossi"l&+ !he core area o# !he Chaco is charac!eri9ed "& lo, !o
al$os! no TA'( $ar)ing ,hich increases !o,ards !he eriheral area. Ao,e*er+ as
Jrasnou)ho*a 52:1-6 sho,s+ languages in !his area ha*e such deic!ic s&s!e$s !ha! o#!en
encode TA'( re#erence.















7. Discussion and Conclusions 24>

'a 7.1B Nu$"er o# $ar)ed TA'( ca!egories



25: 7.- 0enealogical dis!ri"u!ion in !he sa$le

7.- 0(N(ALO0ICAL DIS 7.- 0(N(ALO0ICAL DIS 7.- 0(N(ALO0ICAL DIS 7.- 0(N(ALO0ICAL DISTRI?UTION IN TA( SA' TRI?UTION IN TA( SA' TRI?UTION IN TA( SA' TRI?UTION IN TA( SA'=L( =L( =L( =L(
This sec!ion resen!s an o*er*ie, o# TA'( $ar)ing according !o language #a$ilies ,i!h
regard !o !heir ho$ogenei!& 5concordance o# ca!egor& $ar)ing6 and cognac& 5concordance
o# $ar)ers o# !he sa$e ca!egor&6. The #ollo,ing aragrahs "rie#l& su$$ari9e !he #indings
#or 'acro%0San+ Ara,a)an+ Tu1an+ Cari"an+ and /uechuan TA'( $ar)ing "e#ore !urning
!o !heir ossi"le ran)ing on a !i$e%de!h scale.
In !he #our 'acro%0San languages in !he sa$le rela!i*el& li!!le ho$ogenei!& could "e
#ound. There is no con#or$i!& in Asec! and 'odali!& $ar)ing+ "u! !he& do see$ !o share
5oor6 Tense $orholog& ,i!h usuall& onl& 3UTUR( $ar)ing. T,o languages $ar)
(*iden!iali!& 5S(CONDAAND6.
The Ara,a)an languages in !he sa$le sho, grea! *arie!& in all TA'( ca!egories. The&
are o*erall oor in Tense $orholog& 5e4ce! #or Tariana6 "u! ha*e co$le4 'odal
s&s!e$s. 'os! o# !he$ $ar) (*iden!iali!& 5S(CONDAAND6. 2hen Tense is $ar)ed+ i! is usuall&
3UTUR(. There are so$e cogna!es+ #or e4a$le =(R3(CTID( T-pe in ?aure and AurinU and
IRR(ALIS T%sia in ?aure+ =aresi+ AurinU+ and TerVna. Tariana di##ers grea!l& #ro$ !he o!her
Ara,a)an languages+ eseciall& in !ha! i! de*eloed a co$le4 (*iden!ial s&s!e$ due !o
con!ac! ,i!h Tucanoan.
Tu1an also sho,s a high *arie!& o# TA'( $ar)ing+ ,i!h a cer!ain nu$"er o# cogna!e
$orhe$es. Tense $ar)ing ranges #ro$ #airl& si$le !o 8ui!e ela"ora!e. Asec!+ 'odali!&+
and (*iden!iali!& s&s!e$s are li)e,ise he!erogeneous. Reduced (*iden!ial s&s!e$s occur in
all Tu1an languages and eseciall& !he S(CONDAAND and (is!e$ic 'odals sho, a rela!i*el&
high degree o# cognac&. O!her cogna!es can "e es!a"lished #or e4a$le #or Tpotal in 3UTUR(
$ar)ers in Taie!e and ($Erillon+ T%pab #or CO'=L(TID( in all 0uaran1 languages e4ce!
Taie!e+ 3RUSTRATID( in al$os! all Tu1an languages+ and Te% 5sg6+ Tpe% 5l6 #or I'=(RATID( in
Taie!e+ Tuina$"a+ and ($Erillon 5all 0uaran16. Three o# !he #i*e DISUAL $ar)ers in !he
sa$le occur in Tu1an.
In !his sa$le+ Cari"an languages are charac!eri9ed "& !heir high degree o# #usion
"e!,een Tense+ Asec!+ and 'odali!&+ "u! no! (*iden!iali!&. This $a& e4lain !heir rela!i*e
ho$ogenei!&. 3or e4a$le+ all Cari"an languages $ar) re$o!eness degrees in !he =AST "u!
no! in !he 3UTUR(+ and all ro$inen!l& $ar) =(R3(CTID( and I'=(R3(CTID(. (*iden!iali!& see$s
!o la& a $inor role in Cari"anB onl& Ai4)ar&ana has an (*iden!ial $ar)er 5!he S(CONDAAND
ar!icle t6. Cogna!es occur #or D(SID(RATID( and =UR=OSID(+ and as re#le4es o# NON=AST T%ya in
I'=(R3(CTID( 5=anare6+ =AST =(R3(CTID( and =AST I'=(R3(CTID( 5Ai4)ar&ana6+ and in 3UTUR(
=(R3(CTID(+ =R(S(NT I'=(R3(CTID(+ and =AST I'=(R3(CTID( 5Tiri&W6.
All !hree /uechuan languages in !he sa$le are highl& ho$ogeneous in TA'( $ar)ing.
3or e4a$le+ !here is onl& $inor *aria!ion in Tense $ar)ing 5in !he 3UTUR(6+ al$os! all
languages ha*e a 3IRSTAAND Su##i4 %mi+ a S(CONDAAND< NON3IRSTAAND $ar)er %shi+ and an IRR(ALIS
su##i4 %man. In co$arison+ Asec! $ar)ing see$s $ore *aried. Al!hough all languages
$ar) =(R3(CTID(+ !he& di##er ,idel& in ,hich o!her Asec!ual ca!egories are $ar)ed+ and !he
degree o# cognac& is lo,er !han in !he o!her ca!egories. (4ce! #or so$e Asec!uals+ al$os!
all $ar)ers are aaren!l& cogna!e.
7. Discussion and Conclusions 251

To su$$ari9e+ Ara,a)an and Tu1an are "o!h highl& he!erogeneous ,i!h regard !o
,hich ca!egories are $ar)ed+ "u! Tu1an has a higher degree o# cognac&. Cari"an TA'(
$ar)ing is $ore ho$ogeneous !han Ara,a)an or Tu1an "u! less so !han /uechuan+ ,hich
sho,s !he highes! degree o# ho$ogenei!& in !he sa$le. 'acro%0San does sho, so$e
ho$ogenei!& in Tense "u! no! in !he o!her ca!egories. This erhas re#lec!s di##eren! !i$e%
de!hs o# !hese #a$ilies+ according !o ,hich /uechuan ,ould ha*e !he shallo,es! !i$e%
de!h+ Tu1an and Ara,a)an !he deees! #ollo,ed "& 'acro%0San+ and Cari"an ,i!h a
$ediu$ one. The o!her language #a$ilies in !he sa$le ran)+ ,i!h regard !o concordance o#
ca!egor& $ar)ing and cognac&+ "e!,een !he !,o e4!re$es resen!ed "& /uechuan
5shallo,6 and Ara,a)an< Tu1an 5dee6. 3or e4a$le+ according !o Loos 51>>>+ 2276+ =anoan
has Ma #airl& shallo, !i$e%de!h and recen! e4ansion and sli!Q. The !hree =anoan
languages in !he sa$le 5'a!ses+ Shii"o%Joni"o+ and Xa$inahua6 do sho, so$e
concordance in Tense $ar)ing+ "u! are o!her,ise no! as ho$ogeneous as e.g. /uechuan.
The 0ua&curuan languages are ro"a"l& neares! !o !he /uechuan degree o# ho$ogenei!&+
al!hough !heir s!ri)ing charac!eris!ic is !he a"sence o# $os! TA'( $ar)ing ra!her !han a
high degree o# cognac& and ho$ogenei!&. Ranging !o,ards !he $ediu$ le*el+ li)e Cari"an+
is Na$"i),aran.
Considering !he ercen!age o# TA'( $ar)ing 5see !a"le 7.16+ i! is also o"ser*a"le !ha!
$os! o# !he language #a$ilies sho, a ,ide range+ ,i!h so$e in!ernal su"regulari!ies in
Tu1an and Ara,a)an. The $os! ho$ogeneous #a$il& is again /uechuan. All !hree
/uechuan languages $ar) around 4:7 o# TA'( "o!h e8ua!ed and non%e8ua!ed. The
Ara,a)an languages 5,i!hou! Tariana6 di##er "e!,een 257 and -77 5non%e8ua!ed6 and 217
and -:7 5e8ua!ed6. Tariana $ar)s ..7 and 5;7+ resec!i*el&+ ,hich is 8ui!e ou!side !he
range o# !he o!her Ara,a)an languages. Tariana is also !he language ,i!h !he highes!
ercen!ages o# TA'( $ar)ing in !he co$le!e sa$le. The Tu1an range o# $ar)ing is e*en
$ore *aried !han !he Ara,a)an oneB Jari!iana ran)s lo,es! ,i!h 2-7 <277+ and Coca$a%
Coca$illa highes! ,i!h 457 and 4;7. Jaro also has a high e8ua!ed *alue 54;76+ "u! shares
!he non%e8ua!ed *alue o# -47 ,i!h Sa!erE%'a,E+ Ja$aiurK+ and Taie!e. This is due !o i!s
high nu$"er o# (*iden!iali!& $ar)ing 546. In!eres!ingl&+ !here is no grouing o# 0uaran1
,i!hin Tu1an according !o !he nu$"er o# $ar)ed TA'( ca!egoriesR 0uaran1 is Lus! as
di*erse as non%0uaran1.
The ran)ing o# !he language #a$ilies in !he sa$le resen!s a !en!a!i*e order #ro$
shallo, !o dee !i$e%de!h according !o ho$ogenei!& and cognac& o# TA'( $ar)ing. 'ore
research is necessar& !o *alida!e !his order+ "& e.g. e4anding !he sa$le and co$aring
!he resul!s ,i!h o!her do$ains o# gra$$ar. I! ,ould "e in!eres!ing !o see ,he!her
$e$"ers o# Ara,a)an+ Cari"an+ 'acro%0San+ /uechuan+ and Tu1an no! in !he sa$le
#ollo, !he ercen!age ranges resen!ed a"o*e. I! ,ould "e e4ec!ed !ha! /uechuan
languages sho, *alues around 4:7+ "u! !ha! *alues #or !he o!her #a$ilies di##er Lus! as in !he
sa$le.


252 7.- 0enealogical dis!ri"u!ion in !he sa$le

Ta"le 7.1B Su$ o# TA'( ca!egories $ar)ed "& language #a$ilies




























Language Language Language Language 3a$il& 3a$il& 3a$il& 3a$il&. .. . T TT TOTAL OTAL OTAL OTAL 7 77 7
5 55 5O3 O3 O3 O3 -56 -56 -56 -56
T TT TOTAL OTAL OTAL OTAL 7 77 7 O3 ALL O3 ALL O3 ALL O3 ALL
CAT(0ORI(S CAT(0ORI(S CAT(0ORI(S CAT(0ORI(S
(/UAT(D (/UAT(D (/UAT(D (/UAT(D
Xanesha@ Ara,a)an 25.7 27.>75
=aresi Ara,a)an 2;.. 27..75
AurinU Ara,a)an -4.- 21.11
?aure Ara,a)an -7.1 -:.;25
Tariana Ara,a)an .5.7 5;.225
=anare Cari"an 22.> -5.;
Ai4)ar&ana Cari"an 42.> 44.575
Tiri&W Cari"an 51.4 4>.1
Jaingang 'acro%0San 17.1 1>.575
Ti$"ira 'acro%0San 17.1 17..75
?ororo 'acro%0San 22.> 22.>75
Ri)"a)!sa 'acro%0San 2;.. -:.>75
Cu9co /uechua /uechuan -7.1 4:.175
Auallaga /uechua /uechuan 4: 41.:25
I$"a"ura /uechua /uechuan 42.> 41.2
Jari!iana Tu1an 22.> 2..725
Nheenga!H Tu1an+ 0uaran1 -1.4 2>.4
Sa!erE%'a,E Tu1an -4.- -2.>
Ja$aiurK Tu1an+ 0uaran1 -4.- 2>.>5
Taie!e Tu1an+ 0uaran1 -4.- ->.>5
Jaro Tu1an -4.- 4;.-4
($Erillon Tu1an+ 0uaran1 -7.1 -4.575
'e)ens Tu1an 4: ->.575
Coca$a%Coca$illa Tu1an+ 0uaran1 45.1 4;.:75
7
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T(NS( T(NS( T(NS( T(NS( 5 555'AG 'AG 'AG 'AG . ... 56 56 56 56
T TTT(NS ( (NS ( (NS ( (NS ( 7 777 5 555O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( T TTT(NS(S (NS(S (NS(S (NS(S6 666
T TTT(NS( (NS( (NS( (NS( 7 777 5 555O3 O3 O3 O3 1::7 1::7 1::7 1::7 Y YYYALL ALL ALL ALL
CAT(0O0I(S (/UAT(D CAT(0O0I(S (/UAT(D CAT(0O0I(S (/UAT(D CAT(0O0I(S (/UAT(D6 666
AS=(CT AS=(CT AS=(CT AS=(CT 5 555'AG 'AG 'AG 'AG. ... ;6 ;6 ;6 ;6
A AAAS=(CT S=(CT S=(CT S=(CT 7 777 5 555O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L(
A AAAS=(CTUA S=(CTUA S=(CTUA S=(CTUALS LS LS LS6 666
A AAAS=(CT S=(CT S=(CT S=(CT 7 777 5 555O3 O3 O3 O3 1::7 1::7 1::7 1::7 Y YYYALL ALL ALL ALL
CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D6 666
'ODALITX TOTAL 'ODALITX TOTAL 'ODALITX TOTAL 'ODALITX TOTAL 5 555 'AG 'AG 'AG 'AG 156 156 156 156
' '''ODALITX ODALITX ODALITX ODALITX 7 777 5 555O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L(
' '''ODALS ODALS ODALS ODALS6 666
' '''ODALUTX ODALUTX ODALUTX ODALUTX 7 777 5 555O3 O3 O3 O3 1::7 1::7 1::7 1::7 Y YYYALL ALL ALL ALL
CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D6 666
(DID(NTIALITX (DID(NTIALITX (DID(NTIALITX (DID(NTIALITX 5 555'AG 'AG 'AG 'AG. ... 76 76 76 76
( (((DIDNTIALITX DIDNTIALITX DIDNTIALITX DIDNTIALITX 7 777 5 555O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L( O3 =OSSI?L(
( (((DID(NTIALS DID(NTIALS DID(NTIALS DID(NTIALS6 666
( (((DID(NTIALITX DID(NTIALITX DID(NTIALITX DID(NTIALITX 7 777 5 555O3 O3 O3 O3 1::7 1::7 1::7 1::7 Y YYYALL ALL ALL ALL
CAT(0O CAT(0O CAT(0O CAT(0ORI(S (/UAT(D RI(S (/UAT(D RI(S (/UAT(D RI(S (/UAT(D6 666
NU'?(R O3 'ARJ(D CAT NU'?(R O3 'ARJ(D CAT NU'?(R O3 'ARJ(D CAT NU'?(R O3 'ARJ(D CAT(0ORI(S (0ORI(S (0ORI(S (0ORI(S
5 555'AG 'AG 'AG 'AG. ... -56 -56 -56 -56
T TTTOTAL OTAL OTAL OTAL 7 777 5 555O3 O3 O3 O3 -56 -56 -56 -56
T TTTOTAL OTAL OTAL OTAL 7 777 O3 ALL CAT(0ORI(S O3 ALL CAT(0ORI(S O3 ALL CAT(0ORI(S O3 ALL CAT(0ORI(S
(/UAT(D (/UAT(D (/UAT(D (/UAT(D
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