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Katie Dennison

04/18/2009
Period 2

Unit 7 Study Guide

1) Hitler's Mein Kampf ( My Struggle) was written by Hitler within the prison
walls of the fortress at Landsberg am Lech, Germany, where he spent
thirteen months of an original five year conviction for high treason (his failed
attempt to stage a coup against the then in-power German government). The
book contains two parts; Hitler’s autobiography and his plans for Germany.
Mein Kampf foreshadows the events that would and then did occur in WWII.
Hitler describes within his book how Germany needs more “Lenbensraum” or
living space. Hitler is saying that Germany needs more land. Also, Hitler
mentions the “Untermenschen”, or non-Aryan people, unsparingly. When the
non-Aryan people are mentioned he is saying that these sub-human people
need to be exterminated.

2) During the period leading up to World War II, there were two men who were
on opposing sides. These men were Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. These men
were each triumphant in their rise to power in their countries and they were
very comparable in the ways that they succeeded. Their success was mostly
due to their new ideas and politics. Both men were skilled users of
propaganda and they both had the ambition to make their countries powerful
in the world. Hitler and Stalin each rose to the highest position attainable in
their countries but in different ways. Hitler’s NAZI party became the majority
in the Reichstag. Because they held the majority, Hitler was appointed
Chancellor. Then, once the president died, Hitler became the Fuhrer of
Germany. Stalin became the leader of the U.S.S.R by winning an election. He
also exiled the man he was running against. Also during the period leading up
to World War II, there was another man in Italy who rose to power similarly to
Hitler. His name was Benito Mussolini. Both Hitler and Mussolini favored a
fascist form of government. Also, they both gathered small groups of
followers they would use to bully voters, Hitler's SS and Mussolini's Black
Shirt’s. Because of Mussolini’s Black Shirt’s bullying within the then current
government, he became named Il Duce, or the Chief.

3) The policy of appeasement can be described as giving a bully what he wants.


During the 1930's Britain and France let Hitler have whatever they
considered necessary to keep peace in Europe. These two countries did not
want to have another World War. They believed that Hitler had certain aims
and that once he had achieved these he would be satisfied. So, they allowed
him to rebuild his army, invade the Rhineland in 1936, complete the
Anschluss, or annexation, of Austria in 1938 and then take over the
Sudetenland. Hitler also formed an alliance with Italy’s fascist leader, Benito
Mussolini. This violated the Treaty of Versailles. Appeasement assumed
Hitler would keep his side of the bargain. Although, he didn’t.

4) Barely a year into World War 2, Germany had taken over the country of
France with great ease. France had fallen so quickly because of their
outdated defenses and inability to defend their borders properly. With the
construction of the Maginot Line after World War 1, France felt they were
better prepared for an attack from enemy countries, in this case Germany.
They used WW1 style defenses. These defenses were the use of trenches,
pill-boxes and mines. Along with their outdated defenses, the French did not
have troops at the Ardennes Forest. German’s would easily go around the
city of Belgium and then walk into the forest. Because of the lack of defense
on that line of forest , France fell quickly and easily to the German’s.

5) Franklin Delano Roosevelt went to great lengths to convince America to get


involved in World War 2 by promoting the "Lend Lease" act. The Lend-Lease
Act allowed England to buy or lease anything from the U.S. for the war effort
in Europe .America was isolationist after World War 1, thinking Europe should
solve its own problems. Lend Lease allowed us to help England financially
before the U.S. actually declared war on the Axis forces. Because of Lend-
Lease Act the United States was brought one step closer to entry into the
war.

6) On December 7th, 1941, the Japanese air force attacked Pearl Harbor on the
island of Oahu. The Japanese decided to attack this location because they
wanted to knock America out of a future war that the military government of
Japan knew was inevitable. America had disagreement to their actions of
taking over East Asia and the atrocities committed there. Through the
bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japan did not hope to defeat America but simply
buy enough time to dominate the Pacific and to gain a strategic advantage so
that America could not push through their defenses. Although, this failed
because the two aircraft carriers that were stationed there were on routine
maneuvering practice. So they were not destroyed and this lead to the
eventual downfall of the Japanese Empire.

7) During World War II, the American government controlled the economy in
order to benefit the war effort. There were many agencies that were created
on order to help the effort. Two of these agencies were the Office of Price
Administration and the War Production Board. The Office of Price
Administration was made to control prices. When the prices of things were
controlled, inflation was prevented. Also, the War Production Board turned
the peacetime industries of America into wartime industries. This meant that
car factories, for example, would stop making cars and make things such as
tanks.

8) The Eastern front of the war was composed of battles between the German
Reich and the U.S.S.R. It was the largest theatre of war and was notorious for
its ferocity, destruction, and large loss of life. More people fought and died on
the Eastern Front than in all other theatres of World War 2. The U.S.S.R. was
very hard on its soldiers. If any men of the Soviet Union army retreated, they
were to be shot on sight by their leaders. Also, the German and Soviet army
showed no mercy for each other. When the German’s had taken over
Stalingrad, the U.S.S.R sent one million reinforcement s to surround the city.
They would then send in their troops and have them kill as many German’s
as they could. Also at one point, the German’s needed supplies. So, they used
Soviet children to go and get water from the Volga River. The Soviet’s did not
like this. So, they killed all of the children who were helping the German’s.
Neither side showed mercy for each other.

9) The second front refers to Stalin's wish for the Allies to open another front or
fronts in Europe against the Germans to take the pressure of the Russians on
the Eastern Front. He wanted the Allies to invade mainland Europe as soon as
possible to force the Germans to withdraw some of their troops. At this time,
Roosevelt was willing to launch an invasion but Churchill and the British did
not think it would be successful. The allies were not militarily prepared. They
did not have any landing crafts or air superiority. Also, the British Army was
still under prepared and unequipped to face the German army in Europe
again. While the British had a powerful naval and Air force more was still
needed. The American's were also in the process of putting an army together.
The U.S.’s war industry was only just beginning and they had no troops with
any combat experience. Its navy was involved in the Pacific and new units
would be needed for the European Front. Also, the air force had old and
outdated planes which would have been no match for the Luftwaffe, or
German air force. Although, once the U.S. and England were well prepared
they entered the War as soon as possible.

10)On June 6th, 1944, American and Allied forces landed on Omaha beach,
located on the Northern coast of France. At this time, the conditions of the
weather and the beach were horrible and made it difficult for troops to get
past the Atlantic Wall (German defenses along the coast of France). It was
rainy and windy on D-Day. When troops were deployed close enough to shore
they would run into the water of the Atlantic and try to get to shore as fast as
they can. German troops would shoot at the men as they exited Higgins
Boats that they had used for transport. Allied troops had to get out of the
boats so far from shore because German’s had put blockades along the
shoreline. This would prevent boats from going on shore. Many men died
because of this. The water on the beach became blood red as soon as the
men landed.

11)Before D-Day, General George Patton was suspended from his post as
because he went around military hospitals and hit and verbally abused
soldiers. Because of this suspension on June 6th 1944, Patton was sitting in
England at the head of a fake army. He was part of the largest and most
successful deception operation of World War II. Operation Quicksilver was
part of a larger deception plan called Operation. The plan was used to
disguise the build up of the Allied Army and the destination of the invasion.

12)The Battle of Midway was a major naval battle. It is widely regarded as the
most important battle of the Pacific Campaign during World War II. Because
American’s were able to break the Japanese code, the U.S. was forewarned of
the attack on Midway. The United States Navy defeated a Japanese naval unit
attack and inflicted irreparable damage on Japanese carrier forces. Since
there was so much damage done to the carriers, the U.S. was able to defeat
Japan more easily. The Battle of Midway was seen as the turning point of the
war.

13)After the Battle of Midway, the United States launched a counter-offensive


known as "island-hopping”. Using this tactic the U.S. established island bases
as well as air control in the Pacific. The idea of “island hopping” was to
capture certain key islands, one after another, until Japan was within range of
American bombers.

14)The United States decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki was completely justified. The Japanese are a proud, courageous and
determined people. Japanese men, women and children were willing to die for
the emperor. The population of Japan would have slaughtered U.S.
servicemen if they had invaded Japan. Although an invasion was necessary
the United States had to choose between sending hundreds of thousands of
US soldiers, many fresh off the battlefields in Europe, to invade Japan killing
and being killed by hundreds of thousands of Japanese, or dropping a newly
developed weapon, the atomic bomb, on two cities in Japan. When the
atomic bomb was dropped, it resulted in tens of thousands of civilian lives
with little cost to U.S. servicemen. The main priority of the U.S. was to save
as many servicemen as possible but hurt as many Japanese as we possibly
could. The Japanese had also committed atrocities against the Chinese when
they had invaded East Asia. Why should the U.S. have had to show mercy
against an empire that wouldn’t show mercy for others? Also, the Japanese
had a secret atomic bomb program going on the same time as the United
States. It would have only been a matter of time before they had taken more
American lives.