Wessex Archaeology

Further Work on a Detached Roman Bath-house and Earlier Building at Truckle Hill, North Wraxall, Wiltshire
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme

Ref: 58522.01

March 2009

FURTHER WORK ON A DETACHED ROMAN BATH-HOUSE AND EARLIER BUILDING AT TRUCKLE HILL, NORTH WRAXALL, WILTSHIRE
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme

Produced for: Wiltshire County Council Archaeology Service Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre Cocklebury Road Chippenham Wiltshire SN15 3QN

By: Wessex Archaeology Portway House Old Sarum Park Salisbury Wiltshire SP4 6EB

March 2009 WA Document Ref. No. 58522.01

© Copyright Wessex Archaeology Limited 2009, all rights reserved Wessex Archaeology Limited is a Registered Charity No. 287786

FURTHER WORK ON A DETACHED ROMAN BATH-HOUSE AND EARLIER BUILDING AT TRUCKLE HILL, NORTH WRAXALL, WILTSHIRE
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme CONTENTS
Summary..................................................................................................................................iii Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................iv 1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................ 1 1.1. General ....................................................................................................................... 1 1.2. Previous work at the site............................................................................................. 1 1.3. Outreach..................................................................................................................... 3 2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.................................................................................................. 3 3. METHOD STATEMENT..................................................................................................... 4 4. STRUCTURAL SEQUENCE ............................................................................................. 4 4.1. Introduction................................................................................................................. 4 4.2. The bath-house .......................................................................................................... 4 4.3. Pre – bath-house building........................................................................................... 8 4.4. Lime / mortar preparation area ................................................................................. 10 5. FINDS .............................................................................................................................. 10 6. ENVIRONMENTAL REMAINS ........................................................................................ 11 7. DISCUSSION AND PROPOSALS .................................................................................. 11 7.1. Introduction............................................................................................................... 11 7.2. Structural sequence.................................................................................................. 11 7.3. Finds......................................................................................................................... 12 7.4. Environmental remains ............................................................................................. 12 7.5. Outreach................................................................................................................... 12 7.6. Publication ................................................................................................................ 13 7.7. Archive...................................................................................................................... 13 8. BIBLIOGRAPHY.............................................................................................................. 14 APPENDIX 1: Context Summary

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FIGURES Figure 1. Site location plan Figure 2. Plan of bath-house and earlier structural remains, as recorded in October 2008

PLATES Cover. Early building: painted plaster on wall 30 Plate 1. Bath-house: frigidarium (cold room) / cold bath 1; plunge pool partly excavated to floor level (scale = 2m; view from north-east) Plate 2. Bath-house: Caldarium (hot room); apsidal south end partly excavated to floor level (scale = 2m; view from north-west) Plate 3. Early building: detail of painted plaster on wall 30 (scale = 0.5m; view from east) Plate 4. Early building: wall 31 and associated post-hole 260 (scale = 0.5m; view from east) Plate 5. Early building: column base 34 exposed in base of Trench M (scale = 1m; view from north-west) Plate 6. Early building: window opening / niche in wall 32, adjacent to wall 20 of bathhouse (scale = 0.5m; view from east) Plate 7. Promontory (arrowed) north of bath-house; site of lime / mortar preparation area (view from south) Plate 8. Lime / mortar preparation area – Trench B1 (scale = 1m; view from east) Plate 9. Excavations in progress on lime / mortar preparation area – Trench B1 Plate 10. Pupils from Hardenhuish School investigate lime / mortar preparation area Back cover. Bath-house: frigidarium (cold room) / cold bath 1; plunge pool partly excavated, with remains of steps visible to rear

TABLES Table 1. Site Archive

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FURTHER WORK ON A DETACHED ROMAN BATH-HOUSE AND EARLIER BUILDING AT TRUCKLE HILL, NORTH WRAXALL, WILTSHIRE
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme
Summary

Wessex Archaeology, with the support of Wiltshire County Council Archaeology Service, undertook a second season of a continuing archaeological excavation and outreach programme to provide more information about a recently discovered Roman bath-house at Truckle Hill, North Wraxall, Wiltshire, centred on Ordnance Survey NGR 383700 176240. As in 2007 the success of the project has owed much to the support of the landowner and, especially, the large number of highly motivated and very competent volunteer excavators it has attracted. Previous work at and in the vicinity of the Truckle Hill Roman bath-house, culminating in the excavation of 2007, uncovered a particularly well-preserved structure, arguably one of the best surviving rural, detached bath-houses in the country, and also one of the largest. Subsequent conservation work was followed by targeted excavations in 2008 which revealed the cold bath in frigidarium / cold bath 1 to be unusually deep – a plunge pool rather than a bath, with an associated flight of steps. The floor within the apsidal end of the caldarium was also exposed, though with no evidence for a hypocaust or hot bath surviving, and the associated furnace has not yet been found. The most significant and unexpected discovery in 2008 was an earlier building beneath the bath-house. The high status of the building is indicated by the exceptional quality of some of the painted wall plaster, the remains of a mosaic floor, a few fragments of window glass and a probable column base. As yet, too little of this building has been exposed to ascertain its extent, layout and function, though an early 2nd century AD date has been provisionally suggested for its construction. It could be a bath-house, but other possibilities might include a temple or shrine, or perhaps a detached summer dining room. It may have been subsidence which led to it being abandoned and demolished, and it was subsequently replaced by the bathhouse, perhaps towards the end of the 2nd century AD. Large quantities of painted wall plaster recovered down-slope to the east of the bath-house may derive from this building or its predecessor. The sequence of deposits investigated in 2008 on the promontory to the north of the bath-house, has been interpreted as deriving from lime / mortar preparation and, if so, represents a rare discovery of what must have been a commonplace feature on many villa and other sites that had substantial stone structures. Although a Roman date has yet to be confirmed it does seem most likely. Proposed excavations in 2009 will aim to determine the extent and layout of the newly-discovered earlier building. There is considerable scope for well-preserved

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remains to survive to the west and south of the bath-house, which should provide further information about the internal decoration and dating, as well as contributing to an understanding of the function of the building. In 2010 it is hoped to investigate selected features revealed by geophysical survey on the top of Truckle Hill to provide more information about the setting of the villa as well as possibly revealing something of the pre-existing Iron Age landscape. In 2011, a post-excavation programme is proposed which will bring together the results of the 2009-10 investigations, integrate them with the results of the 2007-8 investigations, re-examine the evidence from the 19th excavations of the Truckle Hill (North Wraxall) villa, and place the whole in its context of Late Iron Age and RomanoBritish settlement in this part of the Wiltshire Cotswolds. It is anticipated that the results will be published as an article in the Wiltshire Archaeology and Natural History Magazine.

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FURTHER WORK ON A DETACHED ROMAN BATH-HOUSE AND EARLIER BUILDING AT TRUCKLE HILL, NORTH WRAXALL, WILTSHIRE
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme
Acknowledgements

The programme of archaeological work in 2008 was commissioned by Wiltshire County Council, and we are most grateful to them and North Wiltshire District Council for providing funding for the excavation and outreach work. In this respect, the support of Melanie Pomeroy-Kellinger (County Archaeologist, Wiltshire County Council) has been instrumental in the success of the project. Further support has been provided by Wessex Archaeology through its community programme led by Margaret Bunyard. The interest and help provided by the landowner, Mr Antony Little, continues to be a major factor in the success of the project which, without his support, would not take place. Various individuals provided help during the course of the fieldwork. Particular thanks are due to Steven Hill (Dooey) and quad bike which together took all our equipment and finds to and from the site and daily replenished our water supplies. Paul Lysley kindly allowed parking on his land for the many volunteers and visitors. Dave Sabin undertook metal detecting across the site and also helped with the interpretation of various features, particularly the lime / mortar preparation area. Rachael Seager Smith advised on the collection and retention of the ceramic building material, while Mel Barge (English Heritage Inspector for the region) offered guidance on the excavation, cleaning and storage of the wall plaster, as well as highlighting its significance, and discussed the possibilities of future work at the site. We are grateful to Susan Clelland and Naomi Hall for undertaking the GPS survey of our trenches. As in 2007, the involvement of a large number of enthusiastic and very capable volunteers was the key factor in the success of the project, the total number reaching almost 30 over the two and a half week duration of the excavation. They included members of local groups, university students, museum volunteers, staff from Wiltshire County Council, English Heritage and Wessex Archaeology or ex-Wessex Archaeology staff, and individuals - some local, some from further afield - who were simply keen to be involved with the project. Paul Hadley, Jayne O’Connell and Clive Green were ever-present and their skill and experience was much appreciated, while Mary-Jane Harding sorted and cleaned all the painted wall plaster. However, all those who took part are greatly thanked for their help. The fieldwork was directed by Phil Andrews with the assistance Darren Baker. The project was managed for Wessex Archaeology by Margaret Bunyard, who also coordinated the team of volunteers and the participation of pupils from Hardenhuish School. We are especially grateful to Cally Longhurst and Cat McHarg for organising the Young Archaeologists Club visit and activities. This report was compiled by Phil Andrews, with graphics by Rob Goller.

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FURTHER WORK ON A DETACHED ROMAN BATH-HOUSE AND EARLIER BUILDING AT TRUCKLE HILL, NORTH WRAXALL, WILTSHIRE
Interim Report on the 2008 Archaeological Excavation and Outreach Programme

1 1.1 1.1.1

INTRODUCTION General Wessex Archaeology, with the support of Wiltshire County Council Archaeology Service (WCAS), undertook a second season of the continuing archaeological excavation and outreach programme to provide more information about a newly-discovered Roman bath-house at Truckle Hill, North Wraxall, Wiltshire, centred on Ordnance Survey NGR 383700 176240 (Figure 1). The Truckle Hill Roman bath-house lies at a height of c. 84m aOD on the west side of a narrow, steep-sided valley within the parish of North Wraxall in North Wiltshire. It sits within the Wiltshire Cotswolds in a landscape rich in Romano-British archaeology – the Fosse Way Roman Road lies 1.5 km to the west as does the major shrine site at Nettleton Shrub. The bath-house is only some 150m away from the Truckle Hill (North Wraxall) Roman Villa, a substantial villa and probable farm estate centre, partly excavated by G. Poulet-Scrope in 1859-60 (Scheduled Monument W878; WAM 1862; Scott 1993, 205), which occupies a relatively flat, hilltop position. Further details relating to the setting and discovery of the bath-house can be found in the publication of the 2007 work on the site (Andrews 2009). Previous work at the site Following the partial exposure of the Roman bath-house in 2004 during smallscale stone quarrying activity by the landowner, a rapid recording exercise was undertaken by Wessex Archaeology (WA 2005). Subsequently, a rapid walkover survey was carried out by the English Heritage (EH) Archaeological Survey & Investigation team of the narrow valley containing the site. The EH Geophysics Team undertook an earth resistance survey of the immediate vicinity of the bath-house which produced clear results suggesting the presence of at least one further building and a complex of other archaeological features (Linford and Payne 2005). Initial conclusions of this preliminary work were that the entire head of the valley may have formed a managed landscape in Roman times, potentially of similar nature to the nearby site at Nettleton and probably attached to the Truckle Hill villa estate. The steep topography of the valley side upon which the bath-house was constructed has posed a difficult conservation problem since the time of the building’s discovery. Direct vehicle access to the site, especially for one carrying fill material, is virtually impossible. Unfortunately, co-ordinated

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attempts to adequately protect the exposed remains through the winter months of 2004-6 were not successful, and deterioration of the site accelerated at an alarming pace. 1.2.3 Following a site visit in May 2007 it was felt that that the maximum effort should go immediately into the urgent preservation by record of the most vulnerable parts of the bath-house. To achieve this aim a partnership project (WCAS, EH and WA) was proposed which would provide the resources and people to undertake controlled excavation of the site and maximise the opportunities thus afforded. Excavations in September-October 2007 (Andrews 2009) uncovered the complete suite of rooms, of two phases, with initial construction probably taking place during the 2nd century AD, perhaps in the second half of that century. The use of the bath-house continued until the end of the 3rd or, more likely, the 4th century AD. There is a possibility that the new, phase 2 frigidarium / cold bath remained unfinished at the time the bath-house ceased operation. The chronological relationship to the bath suite in the Truckle Hill villa excavated in the mid-19th century is uncertain, but it is suggested that the two co-existed, although the use of the latter may have superseded the detached bath-house which was subsequently abandoned. A surprisingly small assemblage of finds, particularly metalwork (excluding nails), was present. However, the small quantity of decorative material recovered in 2007 (painted wall plaster and window glass) indicated that the bath-house was relatively sumptuously appointed, though it had been extensively robbed of re-usable materials, probably soon after it was abandoned. The quality of the decoration, as well as the large size of the bath-house, suggested that it may have been used by the occupants and visitors to the villa rather than being a separate bath-house for estate workers. Like some other detached bath-houses, it was subsequently used for agricultural purposes, perhaps as a barn, and a corn-drying kiln was constructed within part of the shell of the abandoned building, probably in the 4th century AD. Samples from deposits associated with this activity were exceptionally rich in cereal remains, comprising predominately glumes and spikelet forks of spelt wheat. These are highly indicative of mass de-husking on a scale probably far exceeding the needs of the nearby villa’s inhabitants. The most likely reason for this is that pure, cleaned grain was being produced to supply military needs and towns, for example Bath which lay less than 15 kilometres to the south-west along the Fosse Way. There is convincing evidence that parts of the bath-house were excavated in the 19th century with G. Poulet-Scrope, excavator of the nearby villa, remaining the most likely candidate for this work. There is also a possibility that the exposed bath-house structure was consolidated and retained as a landscape feature at that time. Following completion of work in 2007, the archaeological trenches were backfilled and fill material generated from the excavation was strategically placed (over Teram) to protect the vulnerable and exposed structural elements that could not be preserved by consolidation. Over the winter of 2007-8 the more robust of the exposed bath-house walls were packed and repointed with lime mortar and the wall heads ‘soft capped’ with turf by

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specialist contractors to aid their long-term preservation, this conservation work being funded locally by WCAS via the Monument Management Scheme. 1.2.9 Subsequently, the villa and adjacent hilltop area were subject to geophysical survey which has pinpointed the location and confirmed the orientation of the villa complex as well as recording a variety of other features, some likely to be of Iron Age date. Furthermore, LiDAR data indicates the presence of a road approaching the north side of the villa through what is now dense woodland (Archaeological Surveys Ltd 2008). Outreach The landowner, Antony Little, is very interested in the history of his site and favourably disposed to further investigation. He has generously agreed to cordon off the area of the Roman bath-house and make it and the surrounding part of the valley available for investigation over several seasons. Not only is the site of intrinsic interest and worthy of research, but its position and state of preservation make it an ideal candidate for community involvement and outreach, extending the benefits of archaeology to a wider audience. It is not often that there is such a good opportunity to involve members of the local community in a significant archaeological investigation. Education and outreach were therefore considered as central to this project, and not as an additional feature. The involvement of local community groups was planned into each relevant phase of the work. Furthermore, the involvement of volunteers and students has allowed a greater level of investigation to take place than would otherwise have been possible within the constraints of the budgets in 2007 and 2008. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The principal aims of the 2008 archaeological excavation were to: • • • • further examine the cold bath in frigidarium / cold bath 1 to establish its depth, the survival of any lining and the drain arrangements; establish the presence or otherwise of a hot bath at the apsidal (south) end of the caldarium; excavate an area further to the rear (west) of the bath-house to expose more of the construction terrace and locate the furnace(s); excavate an area / trench to the front (east) of the bath-house to locate any surviving surface(s) and, further down the terrace slope, to recover a representative assemblage of robbed and discarded building materials; excavate a trench across the top of a small promontory at the north end of the valley where geophysical survey indicated further, buried building remains;

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An integral part of this project was the outreach programme, the aim of which was to enable members of the public, local societies and students to take part in the process and delivery of a worthwhile project. The objective was to

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encourage community and outreach activities and provide training in field survey and excavation techniques. 2.3 A further objective was to provide archaeological data of sufficient quality to inform the designation of the site, in combination with other research data. This will also increase understanding of the archaeological resource represented on the site and inform revision and further focusing of the longer-term research project. METHOD STATEMENT No specific method statement was prepared for the 2008 excavation, but that contained in the Project Design for the 2007 excavation (WA 2007) was also used for the 2008 works, including finds collection and environmental sampling strategies. As in 2007, all trenches were hand-excavated and, following conclusion of the 2008 programme, all trenches were backfilled, with care taken to use the appropriate material to cover exposed areas of painted wall plaster.

3 3.1

4 4.1 4.1.1

STRUCTURAL SEQUENCE Introduction The excavation was undertaken over a two-and-a-half week period at the end of September and the beginning of October 2008. The exceptional volunteer response resulted in an average daily workforce of 10 people, enabling all the aims of the excavation to be addressed. Thirteen trenches were excavated, designated Trenches A – M (Figures 1 and 2). Prior to excavation it was assumed that the results would relate to the bathhouse or (at the time) undefined features / activity on the promontory at the north end of the valley. However, during the course of the bath-house excavation it became clear that this occupied the site of an earlier building and, therefore, the discoveries relating to this are described separately below. The bath-house (Figure 2) Frigidarium (cold room) / cold bath 1 (Trench D; Figure 2 and Plate 1)

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This lay on the east side of the apodyterium (changing room), north of the entrance corridor, and extended almost as far as the eastern edge of the cutand-fill terrace which the bath-house occupied. The frigidarium / cold bath 1 was exposed during excavation in 2007 and shown to be divided internally by wall 13 which separated the upper, western part from the lower, eastern part occupied by the apsidal-ended cold bath. The cold bath was subject to relatively limited investigation in 2007, but this revealed it to have a substantial, square east end (wall 18). The relatively massive nature of this structure was necessary not only to hold the weight of the water in the bath, but also to provide a substantial foundation in the

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made-ground at the front of the terrace on the steeply sloping valley side. The bath itself was semi-circular with an apsidal east end, with maximum dimensions of 4.5m by 2.25m, the roof probably vaulted and with a halfdome at this end. 4.2.3 Further excavation in 2008 revealed the base of the cold bath or, perhaps more correctly, plunge pool at 81.80m aOD, approximately 1.7m below the surviving wall tops. Also exposed were the remains of four or possibly five steps in the south-west corner of the plunge pool, built into the upper part of cross-wall 13, which here was 0.80m wide (see back cover). Only the southern half of the plunge pool was investigated and so the northern extent of the steps was not revealed, but small-scale exploratory work in 2007 showed that they did not continue the full length of wall 13. The steps had been robbed of any ashlar or covering material and only the rubble core survived, but this indicated steps each between 0.1 and 0.15m high; no floor surface survived in the upper, western part of the frigidarium. The bottom step was approximately 1.3m above the base of the plunge pool which comprised a 40mm-thick layer of opus signinum directly overlying clayey terrace-fill material. There was no surviving lining on the exposed walls of the plunge pool, although opus signinum appears to have been used to seal the walls, as some was present in joints between the stones and also in the backfill of the plunge pool. The extent and nature of this mortar both here and in the base of the pool, where it survived discontinuously, indicates extensive robbing after the structure went out of use. No evidence for a drain was found, but this was almost certainly located in the east side of the plunge pool and below the level of excavation in this area. There was, however, what may have been the blocking of a water inlet towards the base, near the southern end of wall 13, represented by a small, irregular patch of tile fragments with their edges exposed. Alternatively, this blocking might simply indicate an area of repair. The plunge pool was filled with a sequence of deposits (249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 270, 271) largely resulting from the robbing and possible demolition of frigidarium / cold bath 1. Layer 270, 0.45m thick, was particularly noteworthy as it comprised almost entirely square- or rectangular-section cut / sawn tufa blocks (typically between 360 x 150 x 60mm and 300 x 160 x 80mm) representing collapsed roof structure. Layer 252 was a continuation of the previously recorded (and analysed) crop-drying deposit, almost certainly deriving from the post-bath-house crop-dryer built into the entrance corridor, and above this was a layer of Pennant roof tiles, some complete or near complete. A moderate quantity of box flue tile fragments was also recovered, and the upper fill of the plunge pool comprised a substantial deposit of stone rubble and mortar (layers 249 and 250). It has been suggested that frigidarium / cold bath 1 was abandoned as a result of subsidence, perhaps towards the end of the 3rd century, and replaced by cold bath 2 which was built on the north side of the bath-house. Some evidence for subsidence was apparent on the outer face of the north wall (9) which was very ragged, and it could be seen in several places that parts of this wall had broken away. Internally, several cracks were present in the wall and a number of loose stones reflect the structure’s poor condition and instability.

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Caldarium (hot room) (Trench C; Figure 2 and Plate 2) 4.2.7 This occupied the south-west corner of the bath-house, the apodyterium lying to the north and the tepidarium to the east. Extensive investigation in 2007 revealed the entire plan, and a section was excavated through the infill deposits at the northern end. The excavation at the north end, adjacent to wall 15, revealed a 1.3m-deep sequence of demolition / collapse deposits overlying a 0.18m thick charcoal-rich deposit. The underlying deposit comprised mortary material, probable construction debris, but only a very small area was exposed and this was not further investigated in 2007. As in the tepidarium no remains of a hypocaust were found. Excavations in 2008 investigated the western half of the apsidal south end of the caldarium, with the specific aims of establishing the floor level and the presence (or absence) of a hot bath within this part of the room. No evidence for a hot bath was identified, nor any traces of a hypocaust. However, a mortar surface (281) 20-30mmm thick was exposed at 83.90m aOD, approximately 1.7m below the surviving wall tops. This was constructed over a rubble foundation (282), similar to that recorded elsewhere within the interior of the bath-house. At approximately 1.15m above mortar surface 281 were two possible putlog holes in the inner face of apsidal wall 19. These were 1.3m apart, 0.2m deep, 0.2m high, with that to the south 0.2m wide and that to the west only 0.12m wide. The arrangement suggests a matching pair may be present in the eastern, unexposed half of apsidal wall 19, and perhaps these holes held joists that supported a floor. Two other possible putlog holes were recorded at a similar height in 2007 in the north-west corner of the caldarium (in walls 15 and 16), and it may be significant that no other internal examples have been recorded elsewhere within the bath-house.

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4.2.10 Excavation in 2008 also showed that the springer on the west wall - for what was presumably an arched opening between the apsidal end and the northern part of the caldarium - was slightly skewed to the wall alignment. However, the struck pointing here and on the inner face of the apsidal wall demonstrated a high standard of finish, quite different to the rough finish in frigidarium / cold bath 1 which appears to have been robbed of its facing of opus signinum or other material (see above). The caldarium was filled with a sequence of robbing and demolition / collapse deposits (212, 213, 214, 280) that overlay mortar surface 281. Layer 214 differed from the others in that it comprised a discontinuous burnt deposit; this visually did not resemble the spreads of crop drying debris found elsewhere, and it probably equates with the charcoal-rich deposit recorded within the north end of the caldarium in 2007. External features and deposits (Figure 2) 4.2.11 Several small-scale investigations were undertaken around the exterior of the bath-house in 2008 in order to establish the presence and nature of any external surfaces and features. 4.2.12 It is almost certain that the area immediately east of the entrance corridor and the tepidarium would have been surfaced, probably paved, perhaps with steps leading up to the entrance. There was no surviving evidence for any paving, but remnants of two successive mortar surfaces (276, 277), possibly

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the foundations for paving, were found (in Trench E) within the angle at the south-east corner of the tepidarium at a height of approximately 84.30m aOD. 4.2.13 To the rear (west) of the bath-house five investigations were undertaken (Trenches A, I, J, K and L), where the primary aim was to locate the bathhouse furnace(s), as well as expose part of the terrace. Discoveries made in three trenches (A, I and L) are relevant here. The most significant observation in terms of the bath-house is that no furnace was present in this area, which was its anticipated location. This finding was further confirmed by the absence of any flue opening along either the inner face of the west wall (16) or the western half of the apsidal south wall (19) of the caldarium (this is discussed further below). 4.2.14 The rear of the terrace appeared to be defined (in Trench A) by a wall (30) which was subsequently shown to be part of a pre – bath-house building (see below). This wall would have acted as a revetment and left a gap of just over 3m at the rear of bath-house here, just less than half that predicted on the basis of the 2007 excavation. However, it now seems certain that the entire terrace was created for the construction of the earlier building rather than the bath-house, and the latter would have been simply fitted into the available space following the demolition of the earlier building. 4.2.15 There was no surviving paving or mortar surface on the base of the terrace behind the bath-house in Trench A, as was found to the north in the 2007 excavation (layer 114, a rough mortar surface, west of the apodyterium). West of the caldarium post - bath-house crop drying debris (211) directly overlay rubble make-up layer 263 (also found to the north in the 2007 excavation) at 84.25m aOD. This debris was approximately 0.1m thick in Trench A, 0.4m thick in Trench L to the north, but petered out to the south, not extending as far as Trench I. It was also recorded further to the north, adjacent to the apodyterium, in 2007, where subsequent analysis showed it to be exceptionally rich in charred cereal remains, though it may not necessarily have derived from the crop dryer constructed within the bathhouse entrance corridor. 4.2.16 Above crop drying debris 211 was a remarkably homogeneous layer of what is best described as ‘oolitic sand’ (209), up to 0.75m thick and containing lenses of Pennant rooftile fragments but few other inclusions. It is hoped to establish the source / nature of this material through further analysis of a monolith sample, but it clearly post-dated the use of the bath-house and the subsequent crop drying activity. Overlying deposit 209 in Trench A were layers 208 and 279 representing demolition / collapse and slope-wash deposits respectively, sealed by topsoil (207). The sequence was broadly similar in Trenches I and L, though the former had a greater thickness of ‘oolitic sand’ than the latter and a correspondingly shallower thickness of demolition / collapse / slopewash deposits. The deposits in Trenches A, I and L were undisturbed, and there was no evidence for probable antiquarian investigation as was recorded to the north behind the bath-house in 2007. 4.2.17 Three small investigations (1m² test-pits, approximately 10m apart) were undertaken on the steeply sloping terrace side between 10m and 30m east of the tepidarium. Previous very limited work had indicated the presence not only of ceramic building material, but also wall plaster (some of it painted) and window glass (one sherd), thought likely to derive from the robbing of

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the bath-house, probably in the late 3rd or 4th century. The 2008 excavation confirmed the presence of significant quantities of structural debris, particularly wall plaster, on this slope, at least 0.9m thick in Trench F at the top of the slope, 0.7m thick in Trench G, and 0.2m thick lower down in Trench H. There was some evidence (in Trench G) that the slope had been terraced in places when created, but there was no indication within the very limited areas exposed that it had been revetted. It is currently thought that much if not all of the structural debris may derive from the robbing and demolition of the building preceding the bath-house, rather than the bathhouse itself as previously believed. 4.3 4.3.1 Pre - bath-house building (Figure 2) During the course of investigations immediately to the south and west of the bath-house elements of an earlier structure were revealed. This was an unexpected discovery and, at present, the extent, layout and function of this building remain unknown, but its rich decoration indicates high status. An early 2nd century AD date is suggested on the basis of the small quantity of pottery and style of wall painting, but the evidence at present is tenuous. It went out of use and was demolished prior to the bath-house being constructed, probably in the second half of the 2nd century AD. West of the bath-house 4.3.2 The most substantial remains were in Trench A to the west of the bathhouse where a 2m length of wall 30 was uncovered. Initially this was thought to be a revetment at the rear of the terrace behind the bath-house, but the presence of wall plaster on the east face indicated that this was not the case. Wall 30 survived to a height of 1.15m, was at least 0.3m wide and, from what little could be seen, was built of limestone rubble. A thin layer of opus signinum (265) on the east face formed the base for the initial layer of plaster (266) which was painted pink, with irregular splashes of dark red paint. Only the upper part of wall plaster 266 was visible, with the remainder obscured by the second (and final) layer of wall plaster (267). The earlier layer, in relatively poor condition, had been pecked all over to provide keying for the second layer which was notable for the quality of the painting and the ‘polished finish’ of the plaster (Plate 3 and front cover). Although only a 1m width of the wall face was exposed this was sufficient to show several details of the decorative scheme of wall plaster 267, the colouring imitating various marbles. Along the bottom was a 0.2m high dado (or perhaps the dado baseboard) painted pink with red and black speckling, separated by a black line from a bright orange-yellow mottled and streaked field at least 0.45m high. Within this field were the corners of two panels of mottled buff colour with red speckling, the panels defined by black borders. At the base of the dado was one, in places two rows of small pale red tesserae (269) laid on a base of opus signinum (268), undoubtedly the remains of the border of a mosaic floor, the rest presumably removed after the building was abandoned and before the bath-house was built. In this area at least, the bath-house foundations were deeper than the floor level (at c. 84m aOD) of the earlier building and thus had destroyed any associated deposits. The remains of the mosaic were sealed by collapsed wall material including some wall plaster (210); fragments of wall plaster in this deposit were recorded in two dimensions in order to reconstruct, if possible, details

4.3.3

8

of the decorative scheme on the upper part of the wall which had not survived in situ. 4.3.4 At present it is unknown whether wall 30 was the rear (west) wall of the earlier building and, if so, if it was free-standing with space between it and the back of the terrace or was built into the slope and acted as a revetment, or whether one or more rooms lay to the west and have subsequently been completely buried by hillwash. Further investigation is required to resolve this. Trench J, 1.8m to the south of Trench A, revealed wall 31, almost certainly a continuation of wall 30, sealed by collapse / demolition deposits containing some wall plaster (259), slopewash (258) and topsoil / subsoil (257). Only the upper part of the east side of wall 31 and surviving in situ plaster was revealed in order not to expose more wall plaster than was necessary, which here was painted cream and appeared to be plain (Plate 4). Of particular interest was the evidence for a possible opening or doorway in wall 31, defined to the north by stone-packed post-hole 260 built into the wall (the south side of the postulated opening lay beyond the limit of excavation), with the plaster appearing to lap up against the edge of the now-missing post. A timber-framed doorway would seem a little unusual in a building of this nature and clearly further excavation is needed to clarify this. Trench K, a 1m² test-pit 2.25m to the north of wall 30, showed that the wall did not continue this far. However, on the same alignment was what appeared to be a column base (34), assumed at present to be associated with the earlier building rather than the bath-house (Plate 5). Only the upper part of the column base was exposed, at a depth of 1.1m (at c. 84.35m aOD), and though heavily frost shattered it was at least 0.6m square (extending beyond the edges of the trench to the north and east), its precise form uncertain. It was sealed by a series of slopewash deposits (233, 234, 274) and topsoil (232). South of the bath-house 4.3.7 Trench M, immediately to the south of the tepidarium, was excavated to determine the survival of any external bath-house surfaces in this area. None was found, but adjacent and almost parallel to the bath-house wall (20) was an earlier wall (32) which extended for the full 2.8m length of the trench and continued beyond this to the east and west (Plate 6). Wall 32, lay at approximately 90º to walls 30 and 31 in Trenches A and K, was 0.6m wide and, although only the top was exposed, it was well-constructed of faced limestone with a rubble and mortar core. On the inner face was what was either a window opening or niche, or possibly a window opening converted to a niche, 1.1m wide, with a 0.25m deep splayed opening formed by finely-cut ashlars. This had been covered by plaster, painted cream but with no other decoration visible. Though not further excavated, there was a substantial quantity of similar plaster visible on the inside which had fallen off the wall face and subsequently been cut through by the construction of the bathhouse. The top of wall 32 lay at between 84.00m and 84.40m aOD and it seems almost certain, therefore, that the associated floor level (not exposed) must be lower than that of the mosaic (at 84.00m aOD) in Trench A. Trench N, 1.25m to the east of Trench M, did not reveal a continuation of wall 32 and it is likely, therefore, that this wall returns to the north between

4.3.5

4.3.6

4.3.8

9

the two trenches. There is a possibility, however, that it has suffered subsidence and collapse closer to the front edge of the terrace, and it was observed that the eastern part of the wall in Trench M was in much poorer condition than the western part, almost certainly a result of subsidence. A substantial mass of apparently in situ mortared masonry (33) occupying much of Trench N and extending to the north, south and east does not appear to be part of a wall, and may be some form of foundation or consolidation deposit associated with either the bath-house or, and perhaps more likely, the earlier building. 4.4 4.4.1 Lime / mortar preparation area (Figure 1) Trenches B1 (5.5m x 1m), B3 (4m x 1m) and B2 and B4 (both 1m x 1m) were excavated on the top of a pronounced promontory on the west side of the valley approximately 100m north of the bath-house (Plate 7). Earlier geophysical work had indicated the presence of possible structural remains here (Linford and Payne 2005), and visual inspection indicated what appeared to be a small, heavily overgrown quarry immediately to the west, dug into the valley side and partially backfilled with fairly modern debris including concrete and ironwork. Although a Roman date was considered possible, a medieval or post-medieval date could not be ruled out. The excavated remains have been interpreted as a quarry and associated lime slaking / mortar preparation area of probable Roman date, although no definitive dating evidence was recovered. All the trenches revealed similar sequences comprising limestone fragments (generally less than 0.2m in size), charcoal-rich layers and mortar ‘surfaces’, the latter probably naturally formed rather than deliberately laid, all sloping very gently to the west (Plate 8). The slope of these deposits gave the impression of filling a shallow semi-circular basin, estimated to be between 20m and 25m long and approximately 10m wide, the edge perhaps surrounded by a low, dry-stone wall or bank comprising larger stones (227) which was revealed in Trench B1. Only the upper metre or so of what is likely to be a fairly deep sequence was investigated, but the deposits have been provisionally interpreted as being associated with a lime-slaking pit or basin. Here, the lime would have been soaked in a shallow pool of water (perhaps tapped from the nearby stream or an adjacent spring) and allowed to settle prior to being removed, dried and then used in the production of mortar or plaster. The adjacent quarry would have been the source of the limestone which was then burnt in a kiln to produce lime (the charcoal-rich layers may represent burnt fuel), the lime kiln(s) presumably located nearby. The size of the promontory and, therefore, the likely substantial depth of deposits suggest activity over possibly a prolonged length of time. FINDS

4.4.2

4.4.3

5

5.1

The finds recovered during 2008 have yet to be fully processed and recorded but virtually all are of Roman date. Preliminary assessment indicates there to be a very small quantity of pottery and a few iron objects. There is also a moderate quantity of ceramic building material (mostly box flue tile), several pieces of stone (including tufa blocks from frigidarium / cold bath 1), a few fragments of window glass, and mortar samples from the lime

10

/ mortar preparation area. By far the largest category of material is painted wall plaster, much of it decorated, the painted surfaces of which have been gently washed and the material laid out to dry in trays. 6 ENVIRONMENTAL REMAINS

6.1

Eight bulk samples were taken in 2008 but have not yet been processed. Five come from a variety of deposits associated with the bath-house and three from charcoal-rich deposits in the lime / mortar preparation area. Most of those from the bath-house are likely represent crop drying debris deriving from the later Roman use of the building, while the charcoal-rich samples from Trench B1 are perhaps derived from fuel associated with lime burning. There is also one monolith from the ‘oolitic sand’ (layer 209 in Trench A). DISCUSSION AND PROPOSALS Introduction It was originally envisaged that 2008 would be the last season of excavation on the bath-house. However, the discovery of an earlier building beneath it has resulted in a revision to the proposed programme of work. It is now anticipated that a further season of excavation will be undertaken in 2009 to investigate the earlier building, followed in 2010 by investigation of selected features revealed by geophysical survey on the top of Truckle Hill, to the north and west of the villa site. It is hoped that the proposed 2010 excavation will provide more information about the setting of the villa as well as possibly revealing something of the pre-existing Iron Age landscape. Structural sequence There is probably little more to learn through further excavation of the bathhouse, although the failure to find a furnace remains perplexing; it may have been accommodated within, rather than outside the bath-house, but this seems unlikely and no evidence has been found to suggest that this was the case. The base of the cold bath in frigidarium / cold bath 1 was revealed in 2008 and shown to be unexpectedly deep – a plunge pool rather than a bath, and the remains of a flight of steps into the pool was also exposed. The floor within the apsidal end of the caldarium was uncovered, though with no evidence for a hypocaust or hot bath surviving. The discovery of an earlier building beneath the bath-house was unexpected as no evidence for this was found in 2007. The high status of the building is indicated by the exceptional quality of some of the painted wall plaster (Davey and Ling 1982, 46), the remains of a mosaic floor, a few fragments of window glass, a probable column base, as well as other details of the architecture. As yet, too little of this building has been exposed to ascertain its extent, layout and function, though an early 2nd century AD date has been provisionally suggested for its construction. It could be a bath-house, but other possibilities might include a temple or shrine, or perhaps a detached summer dining room. It may have been subsidence which led to it being abandoned and demolished, and it was subsequently replaced by the bath-house, perhaps towards the end of the 2nd century AD. It is now thought more likely that much if not all of the painted plaster recovered from the trenches on the slope below

7 7.1 7.1.1

7.2 7.2.1

7.2.2

11

the terrace derives from this earlier building rather than the bath-house, although during fieldwork it was noted that none of this material, with the exception of the plain cream-coloured pieces, matched that found in situ. 7.2.3 Proposed excavations in 2009 should aim to determine the extent and layout of the earlier building. There is considerable scope for well-preserved remains to survive to the west and on the continuation of the terrace to the south of the bath-house. Targeted excavation in these areas will also provide further information about the internal decoration and dating, as well as contributing to an understanding of the function of the building. The sequence of deposits on the promontory to the north of the bath-house has been interpreted as deriving from lime / mortar preparation and, if so, represents a rare discovery of what must have been a commonplace feature on many villa and other sites that had substantial stone structures (Davey and Ling 1982, 52-3; http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/mpp/mcd/sub/kiln3.htm). Although a Roman date has yet to be confirmed it does seem most likely. The pronounced magnetic response obtained during the earlier geophysical survey can now be attributed to the quantity of burnt debris present rather than structural remains (ie a building) as was previously suggested. No further excavation is currently proposed in this area but comparison of mortars recovered from the sequence of deposits here with those in the bath-house and earlier building may demonstrate a link, and one or more radiocarbon dates should be obtained to confirm whether or not the sequence is indeed Roman and, if so, to when in the Roman period the upper deposits which have been investigated belong. Finds The wall plaster has been cleaned and dried, but the other finds are still to be processed. It is envisaged that the remaining processing and recording will be undertaken within the next six months. Subsequent assessment and analysis will be integrated into the post-excavation programme following the proposed two further seasons of fieldwork in 2009 - 10. External specialist input is likely to be required to contribute to the publication of the important assemblage of painted wall plaster. Environmental remains The eight bulk samples have yet to be processed, but it is envisaged that this will be undertaken within the next six months. The charred plant remains and charcoal assemblages will be rapidly assessed to determine whether they are likely to represent crop drying debris, fuel from heating the bath-house or from the lime burning activity, or are from some other source. The monolith will be described and the material (‘oolitic sand’) characterised. Any subsequent analysis of the samples will be integrated into the post-excavation programme following the proposed two further seasons of fieldwork in 2009 - 10. Outreach Following the success of the outreach programme in 2007 and 2008 (Plates 9 and 10), which resulted in all of the excavation aims being achieved and in many cases exceeded, it is clear that work during further seasons may be undertaken on the same basis, involving volunteers drawn from a variety of sources.

7.2.4

7.3 7.3.1

7.4 7.4.1

7.5 7.5.1

12

7.5.2

The community nature of this project also provides an ideal opportunity to examine and record any surviving artefacts in museum collections (eg Devizes Museum) from the Truckle Hill villa, presumed to be the parent site of the bath-house and earlier building. This may provide evidence for connections between these two sites, refining the chronology, sequence of development and range / nature of the activities at both sites. With a small team of volunteers, recording to assessment level could be rapidly achieved with minimum specialist input, and the results included in the final publication. Publication In 2011, a post-excavation programme is proposed which will bring together the results of the 2009-10 investigations, integrate them with the results of the 2007-8 investigations, re-examine the evidence from the 19th excavations of the Truckle Hill (North Wraxall) villa, and place the whole in its context of Late Iron Age and Romano-British settlement in this part of the Wiltshire Cotswolds. It is anticipated that the results will be more than sufficient to justify publication of a short (approximately 30 pages) article in the county journal. It is also anticipated that the results will be disseminated via more ‘popular’ publications, both printed and web-based. Archive The complete site archive (Table 1) from the 2008 excavation, which will include paper and digital records, photographic records, graphics, artefacts and ecofacts, will be prepared following the standard conditions for the acceptance of excavated archaeological material by Devizes Museum, and in general following nationally recommended guidelines (SMA 1993; Museums and Galleries Commission 1994). It will eventually form part of the consolidated archive for the entire Truckle Hill project which will be deposited at either Devizes Museum or Chippenham Museum.

7.6 7.6.1

7.7 7.7.1

Table 1. Site Archive
WA Project Code File No. Details No. of sheets Format

58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521 58521

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Roll of drawings 1 1 1 -

Index to archive Copy of interim report Context index Day book Graphics register Sample index Photo registers Survey records Context sheets Context finds records Graphics Graphics Graphics Sample records B & W negs and contact sheets Digital photographs Finds boxes

1 22 4 4 1 1 8 7 88 XX 4 4 6 9 Approx 100 / 3 sheets Approx 150 -

A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A4 A1 A3 A4 A4 35mm CD X boxes

13

7.7.2

The site archive from the 2008 excavation is currently held at the offices of Wessex Archaeology under the reference number 58522. BIBLIOGRAPHY

8

Andrews, P., 2009 ‘The discovery, excavation and preservation of a detached Roman bath-house at Truckle Hill, North Wraxall’, Wilts. Archaeol. Nat. Hist. Mag., 102, xx-xx Archaeological Surveys Ltd 2008 Truckle Hill Roman Villa, North Wraxall, Wiltshire: Magnetometry and Earth Resistance Survey, unpublished report 226 Davey, N. and Ling, R., 1982 Wall-Painting in Roman Britain, Britannia Monograph 3 Linford, P. and Payne, A., 2005 Truckle Hill Roman Building, North Wraxall, Wiltshire: Report on geophysical survey, English Heritage Museums and Galleries Commission 1994 Standards in the museum care of archaeological collections, London, Museums and Galleries Commission Scott, E., 1994 A Gazetteer of Roman Villas in Britain, Leicester Univ. Archaeol. Monog. 1 Society of Museum Archaeologists [SMA] 1993 Selection, Retention and Dispersal of Archaeological Collections: guidelines for use in England, Wales and Northern Ireland WAM [Wiltshire Archaeology and Natural History Magazine] 1862, 7, 59-74 Wessex Archaeology 2005 Truckle Hill Roman Building, North Wraxall, Wiltshire: Rapid Building Recording , unpublished report 58520.01 Wessex Archaeology 2007 [August] Truckle Hill Roman Building, North Wraxall, Wiltshire: Project design for an Archaeological Research and Outreach Programme (ref. T10098.003) http://www.eng-h.gov.uk/mpp/mcd/sub/kiln3.htm [accessed 8/10/08]

14

APPENDIX 1: Context Summary
Context 30 31 32 33 34 Description Wall Wall Wall Masonry Column base Interpretation (Trench) Early building – north-south wall with painted plaster (A) Early building – north-south wall with painted plaster (J) Early building – east-west wall with painted plaster (M) Buttress / foundation? (N) Early building – portico? (K)

200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245

Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer

Topsoil (B1) Rubble (B1) Burnt layer (B1) Burnt layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Topsoil / subsoil (A) Collapse deposit (A) ‘Oolitic sand’ deposit (A) Collapse deposit, adjacent to wall 30 (A) Burnt dump – crop drying debris (A) Rubble fill in hot room (C) Rubble fill in hot room (C) Burnt layer in hot room (C) Tumble (I) Dump/demolition deposits (F) Dump/demolition deposits (G) Dump/demolition deposits (H) Rubble layer (B3) Mortar layer (B3) Mortar layer (B3) Mortar layer (B3) Rubble layer (B2) Mortar layer (B2) Slumped layer (B2) Burnt layer (B1) Rubble deposit – collapsed / revetment (B1) Rubble layer (B4) Mortar layer (B4) Rubble layer (B4) ‘Oolitic sand’ deposit (I) Topsoil (K) Subsoil / colluvium (K) Colluvium / slopewash (K) Redeposited colluvium ? (K) Burnt, charcoal-rich layer (B1) Soil layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Soil layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Rubble layer (B1) ? Burnt layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Burnt layer (B1)

15

Context 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 276 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282

Description Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Post-hole Fill Layer Layer Layer Wall surface Wall surface Wall surface Layer Floor Layer Layer Floor Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Floor Layer

Interpretation (Trench) Burnt layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Mortar layer (B1) Rubble in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Rubble in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Pennant rooftile deposit in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Burnt dump – crop drying debris in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Collapse / demolition layer in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Collapse deposit (L) ‘Oolitic sand’ deposit (L) Burnt dump – crop drying debris (L) Subsoil (J) Colluvium / slopewash (J) Collapse deposit, adjacent to wall 31 (J) ? Part of doorway / opening in wall 31 (J) Fill of post-hole 260 (J) Topsoil / subsoil (M) Rubble foundation / make-up layer (A) Slopewash / fill, W of wall 30 (A) Op sig layer on wall 30 (A) Painted wall plaster (earlier) on wall 30 (A) Painted wall plaster (later) on wall 30 (A) Floor make-up for mosaic (A) Remains of mosaic floor adjacent to wall 30 (A) Tufa blocks – collapsed roof structure / ceiling in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Demolition / collapse deposit in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Mortar base / floor in cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Terrace fill exposed in base of cold room / cold bath 1 (D) Collapse / colluvial deposit (K) Collapse / abandonment deposit (K) Mortar base / foundation for exterior surface (E) Mortar base / foundation for exterior surface (E) Topsoil (N) Collapse / demolition deposit (A) Collapse / demolition deposit in base of hot room (C) Mortar base / floor in hot room (C) Rubble foundation in hot room (E)

16

383700

176250

1

Cold bath 2 9 12 2 Terrace cut 151 3 11 Apodyterium (changing room) 4
176240

383710

Cold bath 1 18 13 17 Frigidarium (cold room) D Steps

114 5 16 ‘Pad’ 113 8 L

10 6 Entrance Corridor (Later) corndrying kiln 7 22

Column base 34

15 Masonry 33 14 Tepidarium (warm room) 21 E Caldarium (hot room) Wall 30 C A 19 M 20 Wall 32 N

K

176230

Wall 31

J

I

Key: Previously excavated bath-house Area of 2008 excavation Wall/feature of earlier building

0

5m

This material is for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction.

Date:

16/02/09

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Wessex Archaeology

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Plan of bath-house, and earlier structural remains (as recorded in October 2008)

Figure 2

Plate 3: Early building: detail of painted plaster on wall 30 (scale = 0.5m; view from east)

Plate 1: Bath-house: frigidarium (cold room)/cold bath 1; plunge pool partly excavated to floor level (scale = 2m; view from north-east)

Plate 2: Bath-house: Caldarium (hot room); apsidal south end partly excavated to floor level (scale = 2m; view from north-west)

Plate 4. Early building: wall 31 and associated post-hole 260 (scale = 0.5m; view from east)

This material for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction

Date: Scale: Path:

13/02/09 NTS

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Wessex Archaeology

Plates 1-4

Plate 7: Promontory (arrowed) north of bath-house; site of lime/mortar preparation area (view from south)

Plate 5: Early building: column base 34 exposed in base of Trench M (scale = 1m; view from north-west) Plate 6: Early building: window opening/niche in wall 32, adjacent to wall 20 of bath-house (scale = 0.5m; view from east)

Plate 8: Lime/mortar preparation area, Trench B1 (scale = 1m; view from east)

This material for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction

Date: Scale: Path:

13/02/09 NTS

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Wessex Archaeology

Plates 5-8

Plate 9: Excavations in progress on lime/mortar preparation area – Trench B1

Plate 10: Pupils from Hardenhuish School investigate lime/mortar preparation area

This material for client report only © Wessex Archaeology. No unauthorised reproduction

Date:

13/02/09 NTS

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Wessex Archaeology Plates 9-10

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Y:\PROJECTS\58522\Drawing Office\Report Figs\Assessment\09_02_13\A4_photo03.ai

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