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@Generation Self-Determination

A call for a Europe of Peoples

European Free Alliance Youth


Political Manifesto 2014

reate! "# the $ureau of the European Free Alliance Youth% in cooperation &ith its mem"ers% a!opte! "# the General Assem"l# of 1' ( 1) Fe"ruar# 2014
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Fore&or!

*occu Garo"#% EFA# Presi!ent

On 25 May 2 !", the European people will elect their Members of the European #arliament. $urin% this campai%n, the European &ree 'lliance youth (E&'y) will defend, support and promote its manifesto, ideas and projects to radically chan%e and profoundly reform the European *nion (E*) towards a space based on solidarity between peoples and free citi+ens. The European people will have to ma,e crucial choices for the E* in the near future to ensure that there will still be one. -ut the youn% %eneration will have to ta,e part and be active in this process if it wants to have its future in its own hands. Our %eneration is re%ularly called the ../eneration Europe00 because we were born in a war1 free +one, the European *nion, with a free movement area, the 2chen%en area, with the possibility to have e3chan%es throu%h the Erasmus pro%ramme. 4hile it is true that we are the future of Europe, we are much more than that5 we don0t want to be the future of Europe we want to ma,e it6 Our %eneration is also the ..7ost /eneration00 because we are facin% an unprecedented financial, economic, social, environmental and democratic crisis in Europe and it has even more dramatic impacts on youn%sters5 leavin% them far from the educational system which becomes more and more e3pensive8 leavin% them far from the labour mar,et throu%h an unacceptable and unprecedented unemployment rate in the youn% %eneration, or by %ivin% to them mainly short1term unstable and underpaid jobs. 4hile we are sufferin% from the crisis and payin% an unacceptable share of it, we don0t want to be passive about it5 we want to chan%e radically the European *nion to ma,e it fairer, better and safer for every sin%le E* youn%ster, for every sin%le citi+en, for every sin%le E* person. -ut above all, our %eneration is mainly the ../eneration 2elf1determination00 because we believe in the basic and fundamental human ri%ht which is the ri%ht of self1determination. 'nd for the very first time in 2 !" and beyond, European stateless nations, re%ions and minorities will have the ri%ht to e3press their democratic will on the democratic structures they want to live in. 4hile the future of our peoples is in our hands, we don0t want to create a competition amon%st European peoples, but we want to build a subsidiarity1based European *nion, the ..Europe of peoples00. -ecause we are fundamentally pro1European, while contestin% the current undemocratic and imbalanced structure of the E*, we believe and we fi%ht for a simultaneous and massive transfer of competences from member states to both supra1state level (E* level) and sub1 state level (stateless nations, re%ions and minorities) as the ri%ht answer to continue buildin% a better, safer and fairer European *nion while primarily respectin% the democratic will of European peoples. -uildin% the ..Europe of peoples00 is our project for the European elections 2 !". -ecause we are deeply convinced that the diversity which unites us is our %reatest source of stren%th6 ../eneration self1determination00 stand up and fi%ht for your people and your Europe6 &i%ht for and vote for the ..Europe of peoples006

hapter 1+ Self-Determination
Self-determination is a fundamental democratic right. The European Union must safeguard this right and provide its democratic implementation. New states resulting from internal enlargement processes should automatically become member of the European Union, unless they themselves choose not to be.

The ri%ht to the self1determination The main principles of the European *nion are peace and democracy. 2elf1determination is just one dimension of democracy. 9f we can choose who is %oin% to represent us for the ne3t few years, we must be able to decide our collective future as a nation. This is the main principle of the positive liberty, defined by 9saiah -erlin durin% the 2 th century. The first precedents of the ri%ht to the self1determination are the :&ourteen #oints; of #resident 4oodrow 4ilson, which appeared in !<!< and were used as a base for the creation of the 7ea%ue of =ations. 9n the Charter of the *nited =ations, the *niversal $eclaration of >uman ?i%hts, and the 9nternational Covenant on Civil and #olitical ?i%hts, the principle of self1determination as a fundamental ri%ht is established, both on the individual and the collective level. The ri%ht to the self1determination was initially used in order to allow colonies to become independent states, and to allow the independence of many republics from the *22?. >owever, after the first waves of independence and democratisation, the application of the ri%ht to the self1 determination became more restrictive because of the interests of the powerful states. That@s why the *= resolutions !5!"ABC of !<D and 2D25ABBC of !<E only allow for self1 determination in case of colonial submission, military occupation, or inte%ration in a non1 democratic state. The ri%ht to decide 9saiah -erlin defined positive liberty with the sentence :9 am my own master.; 's our own masters, we have the ri%ht to decide what to do with our own life and this means that as a %roup, we are able to be our own masters and we are able to decide our collective future. 4e can find in Fuebec the Clarity 'ct ruled by the 2upreme Court of Canada, with re%ard to the soverei%nty process %oin% on at that time in Fuebec. The new political status of the -asGue 'utonomous Community passed by the -asGue #arliament in 2 5, and denied afterwards by the 2panish Cortes /enerales (2panish #arliament) without even openin% a discussion over, also enclosed the ri%ht to decide. The 2Hrd Ianuary 2 !H the #arliament of Catalonia passed the 2overei%nty $eclaration in which was stated the ri%ht to decide of the Catalan people. On =ovember the <th 2 !" Catalonia will hold its referendum, and 2cotland will do the same on the !Jth 2eptember of the very same year. The ri%ht to decide is defined as the ri%ht of peoples and persons to be soverei%n5 just another way to say the ri%ht to the self1determination. Even if the ri%ht to decide does not have any le%al effect, it has a bi% influence in society. Everyone has to decide many thin%s durin% his life, that@s why it@s easier for people to understand the meanin% of the ri%ht to decide, than the ri%ht to self1determination.

Our proposal The European *nion, as a %uarantor of democracy and the %uardian of the treaties, must ensure the ri%ht to self1determination. That means that the E* must mediate between a secedin% member state and its former member state when this ri%ht is not foreseen, because if the ri%ht to the self1determination is banned, democracy is also banned. 9f a member state doesn@t allow a part of it to decide its future throu%h democratic methods, the principle of democracy must prevail in favour of the principle of non1intervention in the internal affairs of a state. 9f E* citi+enship e3ists, the E* must safe%uard the democratic ri%hts of that citi+enship. The current situation of E* internal enlar%ement The European *nion has had many enlar%ements. 9n !<5J, there were only D states in the European Community, but there are currently 2J states in the European *nion. This means that 22 states have become members throu%h different enlar%ement processes. $espite the e3istence of several rules and re%ulations that allow the mechanisms of enlar%ement of the E*, there is not any mechanism that e3plains how to proceed with an internal enlar%ement. The real problem is that there has not been any case of secession inside the European *nion, so until now this has not been a problem. Our #roposal The European *nion must define the procedure of an internal enlar%ement. This can include creatin% a new E* pro%ram aimed at preparin% the inte%ration of a new secessionist member state in the E*. 4e consider that new states created by a secession process must automatically become member states, if they decide it in a democratic way. 9n other words, the E* cannot withdraw the European citi+enship from its citi+ens, unless they decide it. 4e also ur%e to the European *nion institutions to chan%e laws and treaties to protect territories which decide to develop a democratic process of self1determination.

hapter 2+ ,uman *i-hts


Self-determination is a basic human right, to be respected on the individual level, as well as the collective level. Each individual has the right to his or her own culture in order to be able to fully develop his personality. Citi ens ought to be able to get all services necessary for their health and wellbeing in their own language when residing in the region or nation where this language originated. The EU must protect the privacy of its citi ens. Challenges facing the youth of today mean that youth rights must be protected and developed.

The European &ree 'lliance Kouth hereby wishes to e3plicitly state its full en%a%ement towards the Universal !eclaration of "uman #ights as the basis for democratic politics. E&'y stresses that this $eclaration is to be respected in any situation, by each country, nation, political party or %roup, by each individual whether protestin% of supportin% any cause. =o distinction whatsoever is to be made based on %ender, race, reli%ion, a%e, se3uality or any other parameter. 2elf1determination E&'y hereby wishes to emphasise the importance of the second article ! of the $eclaration which defines the ri%ht to self determination as a human ri%ht. This includes the freedom of each individual to his own thou%ht, reli%ion and beliefs, without any e3ceptions based on ethnicity or race .2elf1determination also means the freedom to decide over one0s own body. Therefore, E&'y wants to e3plicitly e3press its support for abortion ri%hts for women, as well as eGual ri%hts for lesbian, %ay, bise3ual and trans%ender people, neither of whom should be treated differently in any way. E&'y also supports same1se3 marria%e as a fundamental ri%ht, and reco%ni+es the ri%ht of same1se3 couples to adopt. 's the youth branch of a political party of stateless territories, however, we underline that for E&'y, the ri%ht to self1determination includes the ri%ht for every territory to define its own soverei%nty. &or E&'y, this is the core issue that unites all our members. This ri%ht is further imposed by article 2! which states that :the will of the people shall be the basis of %overnment; and that :everyone has the ri%ht to ta,e part in %overnment, directly or throu%h freely chosen representatives;. >owever, we wish to stress that all articles in the *niversal $eclaration of >uman ?i%hts are to be respected by those who fi%ht for self1determination as well as by their opponents. The ri%ht to liberty and security of person, the ri%ht not to be subjected to cruel treatment or punishment and the ri%ht to eGual protection of the law, as stated in articles 5 to !!, are to be respected by all parties at all times.

! :Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty

Cultural and Educational EGuality 'lon% with the ri%ht to self1determination comes the ri%ht to culture and education. Each individual has the ri%ht to his or her own culture in order to be able to fully develop his personality. Therefore, each individual should be able to participate in the cultural life of his community as stated in 'rticle 2E of the *niversal $eclaration of >uman ?i%hts. 2ince lan%ua%e is often an indispensable aspect of this culture, we ur%e the European *nion and its Member 2tates to protect minority lan%ua%es and respect the ri%ht to cultural diversity, in life as well as in education by or%ani+in% public education in their citi+ens the native 7an%ua%e. 2ocial EGuality :Everyone is to have eGual access to public service;. 9n order to avoid poverty, social protection and %overnment help should also be made available to each and every citi+en of each and every re%ion. Therefore, E&'y believes that citi+ens ou%ht to be able to %et all services necessary for their health and well1bein% in their own lan%ua%e when residin% in the re%ion or nation where this lan%ua%e ori%inated. #rivacy ?eferrin% to recent events and decisions in this area, E&'y wishes to emphasise the importance of the ri%ht to privacy that still applies and ou%ht to forever apply to each individual. =o personal data should be intercepted or used neither by individuals nor by firms nor by any %overnment. 4e call upon the European *nion to continue studyin% to what e3tent the privacy of its citi+ens is still protected and to ta,e action to protect them from breaches of this ri%ht of any ,ind. Kouth ri%hts 's the youth branch of a European political party, E&'y also wishes to stress the importance of youth ri%hts. The situation of youth today in the E* presents us with unprecedented challen%es associated with poverty and limited access to resources, education, healthcare and employment, alon% with social discrimination and the lac, of participation in decision1 ma,in%. These challen%es are hinderin% youth development and the development of the society in a wider sense, while contributin% to ineGuality and social e3clusion. 4e ur%e %overnments to ta,e effective action to further promote and %uarantee full enjoyment of all human ri%hts and fundamental freedoms to all European citi+ens. 4e also call upon the European Member 2tates and European 9nstitutions to pay e3tra attention to Kouth ?i%hts in order to secure the positive development of the entire society. E&'y therefore as,s to promote inclusive and participatory mechanisms and instruments for the effective protection of Kouth ?i%hts as well as >uman ?i%hts.

hapter '+ Youth .ssues


The EU must triple its funding for Erasmus$ and the %outh Employment &nitiative programmes in order to combat the serious adversities the youth in Europe are facing.

The critical situation of the European youth =owadays, youn% people in Europe live in constant fear of bein% mistreated by local, re%ional, state or European %overnments. They suffer the most catastrophic unemployment fi%ures of the last century and face different state %overnments continuously cuttin% in education and youth policies, especially in the social sector. The economic and financial crisis is affectin% youth more than anyone and their voices are bein% stifled, for instance by tryin% to shut down several Kouth Councils. 't this moment the European youth faces the hi%hest youth unemployment fi%ures in the E*1era, while the European Commission ,eeps on spendin% more money on unattainable and bac,ward loo,in% pro%rammes rather than in social and youth oriented projects to prepare for the future. 9n the field of education, we are still seein% how different %overnments raise university %rants and other financial andLor technical barriers which increase the difficulty in accessin% hi%her education and trainin%, or how they rule a%ainst minority or unofficial lan%ua%es, tryin% to put local cultures aside. The youth does not feel respected by %overnments that do not play their crucial role in assistin% in youth emancipation and education, or that use the police, detentions and fines in order to harass our peoples0 youth or%anisations when involved in peaceful demonstrations a%ainst the reductions in social and national ri%hts and freedoms. 'ccess to housin%, starter jobs and education is becomin% more and more e3pensive and complicated, forcin% the youth to see, for a better situation away from their families, friends and home countries. Emi%ration in the last five years has become a common story amon% the youth in 2outhern and Eastern Europe, where thousands of youn% people had to pac, their lu%%a%e, buy a cheap tic,et to the *M or /ermany, and loo, for a job there. 2alaries have been continuously fallin% to mid J s levels, despite the cost of livin% ever increasin%, ma,in% it unaffordable to live in their home countries. ' u1turn in these policies is needed, and soon. The European *nion has a crucial role to play in order to prevent the loss of a whole %eneration, because a society with a lost youth %eneration becomes a society without future, doomed to failure. Our proposal &rom E&'y we propose to re1en%a%e the European *nion with its youth by ur%ently triplin% the E* fundin% for the ErasmusN pro%ramme and for the Kouth Employment 9nitiative in order to provide all youn% people leavin% the school system with a job, an internship or at least trainin% in their own home countries. 9t is a must to encoura%e the job creation for youn% people with social measures in this way, as well as to open the access to hi%her education to anyone5 a well educated society is always a richer society.

hapter 4+ Socio-Economics
EU policies must be put in place to protect wor'ers, ranging from ta( reductions for employee retention to increasing redundancy pay, and supporting internal fle(ibility. ) minimum wage policy at EU level must also be set. ) policy must be put in place that allows wor'ers to ta'e over a collapsing firm as a cooperative organisation. To protect the environment and public health, the EU must pursue policies designed to implement an environmentally and socially sustainable economic and production model. Economic and fiscal powers, as well as legislative powers, should be e(tended to the EU level and sub-state level to enhance their democratisation.

The value of the economy as a tool lies within its ability to serve people, but today it seems that it is people that serve the economy. This unsustainable situation that we are e3periencin%, a result of the abuses of supranational economic powers and the interest of certain countries that have abandoned the idea of communitarian eGuality, needs to be drastically revised. 's a result, E&'y0s socio1economic proposal is based on two main principles5 The economy for people and the economy for peoples. Economy for people 9n order to re1establish the people1economy hierarchy, certain modifications are needed when we act, all of them aimed at creatin% a real social justice. &irstly, the wei%ht of the crisis must not fall on people, and as such, we call for a labour policy that does not abandon wor,ers. 4e currently witness how states favour the power of bi% business throu%h the fle3ibilisation of employment law and the fall in the minimum wa%e, which means that we face hi%h rates of unemployment and a fall in the purchasin% power of wor,ers. 9n order to combat this tendency, we propose means of favourin% job creation usin% policies such as ta3 reduction for firms that maintain their wor,ers, raisin% the rate of redundancy pay, increasin% the notification period for redundancy, and financin% trainin% pro%rammes for wor,ers in order to increase internal fle3ibility within firms. 's re%ards to the minimum wa%e, we propose that a percenta%e rate is set for every state at an E* level. 2econdly, we cannot permit that a firm@s collapse leaves all of its wor,ers in the street. 4e propose therefore that the wor,ers have the option of ta,in% over the firm to convert it into a cooperative or%anisation with the condition of assessment and the offer of economic assistance. &urthermore, promotin% innovation, research, development and education is fundamental. 9ncreasin% financial initiatives to these sectors is necessary and could avoid the closure of firms, %ive wor, to a hi%hly Gualified sector of wor,ers while increasin% the number of jobs, and achieve advancements that could favour the creation of new firms with hi%her competitiveness in international trade. Therefore, the E* should increase its direct and indirect financial support as well as definin% a common cooperative framewor, as the E* has a hi%h levera%e effect. 9t is important not to for%et that the environment is a common %ood that we must preserve, thus tac,lin% climate chan%e should be one of the ,ey E* policies as a %lobal leader in the field. 2uch a policy should be implemented accordin% to both the principles of multi1level %overnance and of subsidiarity. 9n order to %uarantee the protection of the environment as

part of our common herita%e from which we all benefit, a more solid European policy must be protected from the influence of lobbies and multinationals. 2uch a policy should focus on increasin% investment in clean ener%y, phasin% out nuclear power plants, supervisin% sustainable and local ener%y models, ener%y efficiency, and adoptin% a common policy in order to avoid environmental ineGualities within each country, between countries, and between the E* and third countries. ' stricter re%ulation of access is needed for multinationals and lobbies to European institutions. 7astly, but not in the sli%htest the least important factor, we must ensure that people are %uaranteed efficient and hi%h Guality public services. 4e propose that investment in public healthcare is favoured in order to ensure universal access to the latest technolo%ical advancements and the most effective treatments, and that the construction of infrastructure within territories is re%ulated in order to avoid administrative duplication and to reduce unnecessary red tape. ' public system must be set in place which is in contact with the personal realities of individuals that are in need of help, which %uarantees basic ri%hts such as adeGuate nutrition, housin% and di%nity, and which favours eGuality amon%st European citi+ens. Thus, the E* should create an E* common cooperative framewor, in this sector in order to promote better and fairer health care systems as well as definin% the minimum E* standards. Economy for #eoples 9n the European *nion, which is currently a failin% *nion of 2tates, the E* level as well as the stateless nations, re%ions and minorities have in their possession neither a fully fled%ed fiscal policy, nor fully fled%ed le%islative powers. Thus, the real economic power is either in the hands of undemocratic bodies (financial ban,s, the European Central -an,) or in the hands of oli%archic centralised administrations in the member states. 9n the Europe of peoples we are callin% for both levels, the supra1state level (E* level) and the sub1state (the stateless nations, re%ions, and minorities) to be %ranted fully fled%ed le%islative and fiscal powers in order to rebalance the repartition of the economic power to ma,e it serve the people, to brin% it closer to the people and to ma,e it more efficient. &rom a democratic and economic point of view, it is necessary, and ur%ently so, to provide all the peoples of Europe with economic and le%islative powers. Moreover, the E* should be %ranted the same powers by poolin% certain competences in order to define an E*1wide fiscal and le%islative framewor, in which the member states and the sub1state authorities should be free to ma,e their own policies accordin% to the subsidiarity principle. The E* should not lead to an unfair social and fiscal dumpin% amon%st European peoples but should rather help to improve and up%rade the economic social and environmental policies of the European peoples towards a sustainable inclusive and fair economic model, respectin% the subsidiarity principle and based on an enhanced democratisation of its structure. Moreover, the E* should defend, support and promote this sustainable inclusive and fair economic model in all international forums as part of its share to the %lobal answer for a better, safer and fairer world in which economics should serve people0s interests, respectin% the limits of the planet, and not an oli%archy stealin% the natural resources of peoples.

hapter )+ /an-ua-e an! ulture


Education should be dealt with at a stateless nation, regional or sub-state level. Education should be available to young people in the language of their choice. Sub-state and minority languages should be supported in situations outside of the educational system, such as in dealings with public institutions. ) new programme called *+ingua, must be created to support non-official EU languages, especially endangered ones. The EU should support youth participation in cultural events. The EU should support and promote broadcasting and press in sub-state and minority languages.

E&'y represents a broad ran%e of youth or%anisations from stateless nations and re%ions throu%hout Europe which have their own culture, lan%ua%e or sense of identity. ' different culture or lan%ua%e is often a definin% factor for many of the territories that we represent, and are therefore an important area of action for our individual or%anisations as well as for E&'y as a collective movement. 4e also realise that some or%anisations are at a different sta%e in the stru%%le for eGuality8 while some are consolidatin% a normalisation process, others are fi%htin% for the mere reco%nition of their lan%ua%e by state authorities. The diversity of our lan%ua%es and cultures shapes the identity of our continent, and is somethin% to celebrate. Education Education is a ,ey factor in the revival and safe%uardin% of our lan%ua%es. E&'y believes that education should be dealt with at a stateless nation, re%ional or sub1state level. 'll youn% people have the ri%ht to be tau%ht in their national lan%ua%e in a public, secular and a fairly funded schoolin% system. 4e condemn every state or re%ional %overnment that withholds this ri%ht and we will fi%ht to ensure the %rowth of minority and sub1state lan%ua%es in education throu%hout the European *nion. 4e believe that youn% people should be able to continue their education in the lan%ua%e of their choice after completin% obli%atory schoolin%. E&'y supports the introduction of sub1 state and minority lan%ua%es in universities and their use as a medium of teachin%. Cocational studies should also be offered in sub1state and minority lan%ua%es, reflectin% the need for a vibrant youn% wor,force with stron% lan%ua%e s,ills and cultural awareness. 7an%ua%e opportunities $espite the importance of teachin% sub1state and minority lan%ua%es in the education system, it is also ,ey to support initiatives that promote lan%ua%es outside the classroom. E&'y encoura%es the %rowth and promotion of e3tra1curricular activities, be they cultural, sportin% or leisure activities held in sub1state and minority lan%ua%es, and su%%ests that both state and European institutions invest to safe%uard these important initiatives. More often than enou%h, however, opportunities to use sub1state or minority lan%ua%es outside of a school environment are hard to come by. E&'y advocates more financial and institutional support for youth or%anisations that use sub1state or minority lan%ua%es, and believes that it is the responsibility of %overnments to ensure that a minimal e3tra1curricular service is provided to all those who study in minority or sub1state lan%ua%es.

9n many territories, it is almost impossible to use minority lan%ua%es in everyday life, especially while dealin% with public institutions. E&'y supports campai%ns to push for lan%ua%e eGuality throu%hout Europe, and advocates all youn% people0s basic ri%ht to use their lan%ua%e while dealin% with public administration. Cultural activities Culture enriches the lives of youn% people across the continent, but is often the first victim of bud%et cuts at the time of economic crisis. 4e defend a sustainable model that provides due reco%nition to the importance of culture throu%hout Europe and that encoura%es youn% people to participate in cultural activities. Koun% people are often barred from participatin% in cultural activities, such as the theatre, cinema and concerts due to economic problems. E&'y su%%ests that the European *nion provides fundin% to offer reduced rates to students and unemployed youth in every member state. 4e condemn all so1called cultural activities that involve the mistreatment of animals, such as bullfi%htin%, bear1baitin% and fo3 huntin%, and call for a Europe1wide moratorium of such cruel activities. 4e demand the creation of a new E* pro%ramme, ..7in%ua00 aimin% at supportin% all non1 official E* lan%ua%es, especially those which are endan%ered. -roadcastin% and the press -roadcastin% and the press in minority lan%ua%es should be supported and promoted by European institutions. 4e condemn the fact that the E* subsidises brutal sports such as bullfi%htin%, without %ivin% due attention to supportin% broadcastin% and the printed press in sub1state and minority lan%ua%es. 4e defend the creation of a new E* pro%ramme supportin% all TC, radio and newspapers throu%hout Europe. Many territories throu%hout Europe share a lan%ua%e with another member state, especially in border re%ions. 2trin%ent laws on broadcastin% often mean that minorities in other states are unable to receive television or radio si%nal from the nei%hbourin% state, ma,in% it difficult for minority lan%ua%e spea,ers to practise and live throu%h the medium of their mother ton%ue. This also applies to the internet, a medium that the majority of youn% people use to view television pro%rammes. E&'y calls for cooperation between member states to ensure that national minorities in nei%hbourin% states are able to view public television channels from the states with which they share a lan%ua%e. 4e call for European laws to be rela3ed on the broadcastin% of pro%rammes on the internet, providin% youn% people with access to television or radio in their lan%ua%e.

hapter 0+ Europe
E-)y calls for a more devolved but integrated European Union, where competences are clearly and rationally distributed, with a focus on selfdetermination and subsidiarity, a supporting internal enlargement. E-)y calls for more democratic EU institutions. The European .arliament should be stronger and must have full legislative powers, and the Commission should be democratically elected. The Council should also represent peoples democratically. Competences should be more evenly and rationally divided between the EU, state, and sub-state or national/regional levels, respecting the national sovereignty of the peoples. E-)y calls for more integration on the economic level in Europe, including a support of Euro one integration. -reedom of movement in the EU must be protected and supported.

E* 9nstitutions E&'y calls for a ..Europe of #eoples00 and defends an open, subsidiarity1based, stron%er, more democratic and more inclusive European *nion. ' different *nion 4e desire a more devolved European *nion. 9n accordance with the nations@ ri%ht to self1 determination, we defend the concept of internal enlar%ement. The peoples of Europe do themselves have the ri%ht to choose their political structures and should not be limited by boundaries which were arbitrarily set in the wars and tyrannies that rava%ed our continent in the previous centuries of our history. 9f a stateless nation or a re%ion within the European *nion desires to hold a referendum on independence, we always support their ri%ht to do so. =onetheless, we do not as an or%anisation support either side of such a referendum. The will of the people is the only possible source of le%itimacy for the e3istence of a state. 4e will thus always be on the side of the peoples, and their voice as e3pressed in free and fair referendums or democratic processes. 4e desire a more inte%rated European *nion A preferably a federal political union. 4e do nevertheless reject the concept of a centralised federation. 4e desire a lean political union where the competences are clearly and rationally distributed amon% the different political levels. Central to this is the democratic wei%ht, which holds the decisions as near to the people as possible. 4e reject violence as a political tool, top1down or bottom1up. The European peoples should not be forced to accept a treaty and self1determination movements should be led throu%h a non1violent process. ' more democratic European *nion 4e desire a stron%er European #arliament which is the only directly elected body of the E*. The election process should furthermore be democratised and made easier to understand for lay people, with a pan1European election system that ensures proportional representation of nation1states, stateless nations and electoral lists, and the presence of representatives from all re%ions and nations of the *nion.

4e desire a democratic election of the European Commission includin% its president. This could ta,e place throu%h the election of the president throu%h the European #arliament or by direct popular election. The Commission should subseGuently be nominated by the president and confirmed by parliament. 4e desire a more democratic Council. This body should no lon%er be a chamber of the %overnments. 4here the #arliament is the chamber of the people, the Council should be the chamber of the peoples, whose members should be democratically elected, with each state havin% eGually many representatives. Moreover, the votes and debates within the Council of Minister should be made public and transparent. E&'y calls for a more powerful Committee of ?e%ions which should be %ranted le%islative powers concernin% the European Cohesion policy1related le%islative te3ts. The possibility should be open to hold *nion1wide referendums concernin% matters of the *nion, when A for e3ample A a million si%natures for such a referendum have been collected and delivered to the Commission. E* Competences E&'y calls for a simultaneous transfer of competences from Member states to both supra1 state level (the *nion) and sub1state level (stateless national or re%ional level). The %uidin% principle should be that the *nion should be responsible for e3ternal affairs, %lobal issues (climate chan%e, peace, human ri%hts, people0s ri%hts, etc.) and economic fields (in order to fi%ht a%ainst internal and e3ternal unfair social and fiscal dumpin%, for e3ample by settin% the framewor, in which the member states and re%ional authorities could have the freedom to fi3 details accordin% to the E* common framewor,)8 the states shall be responsible for all affairs concernin% the redistribution of wealth8 and the re%ions shall be responsible for the direct contact to the peoples, and for all affairs relative to local culture, nature, lan%ua%e and identity, and development and stren%th of the re%ion. Overall distribution of competences 9n accordance with the above1mentioned %uidin% principle, we desire for the *nion to be responsible for forei%n affairs, developmental aid, international trade, defence, climate, competition, consumer protection, transport affairs of European importance, economic affairs, cross1border law enforcement and the enforcement of fundamental human and minority ri%hts. 4e desire for the states to be responsible for collection of income ta3es, social security, labour mar,et affairs, law enforcement and transport affairs of %reater importance. 4e desire for the re%ions to be responsible for internal affairs, education at all levels, health, culture, inte%ration of forei%ners, ethical matters, environmental protection, transport affairs of re%ional importance, local law enforcement, the application of fundamental human and minority ri%hts8 but also ener%y, a%riculture and fisheries, research and innovation while defined in an E*1wide framewor,. /lobal 'ffairs 4e desire for the *nion to be responsible for forei%n affairs, developmental aid, international trade and defence. #olitically, diplomatically, it ma,es more sense to move toward a more inte%rated Europe in the field of /lobal 'ffairs. This would allow the E* to be more independent from other powers by stren%thenin% both soft and hard power. 4e want human ri%hts to be the core %oal of the European e3ternal action. The E* should defend first and primarily the human ri%hts across the world, especially the nations@ ri%ht to

self1determination, the ri%hts of minorities, the ri%hts of women and children and the ri%hts of all humans to a life in di%nity. 4e desire for the European *nion to relentlessly push for a reduction of both the %lobal %reenhouse %asses emission and nuclear arsenal in all relevant international forums. Economic framewor, 4e desire for the *nion to have the overall responsibility for economic stability and sustainable economic %rowth. The instrument of monetary policy is partially in European hands, but reforms are reGuired to ma,e the European Central -an, a fully fled%ed Central -an, (no conditionality between supportin% economic development and fi%htin% a%ainst inflation, and the possibility to be the lender of last resort). Moreover, the other tools of economic policy (fiscal power for instance) should be added to this one. 4e desire a stron%er inte%ration within the E* on the economic fields with additional economic, social and fiscal coordination. The E* level should define the European common framewor, in which the Member states or re%ional authorities should have the freedom to fi3 details and rate such as the C'T. 4e desire a harmonisation of the European Corporate Ta3 base, to avoid unfair competition amon% member states on this component of the ta3ation system while member state or re%ional authorities should be able to fi3 the rate. E&'y as,s for a stron%er European -ud%et finance by %enuine own resources as the &inancial Transaction Ta3, a centralised European Corporate Ta3 andLor pi%ovian ta3es. This would provide the *nion with the central macro1economical tool of fiscal policy to recover from this and prevent other crises Euro+one inte%ration 4e support the Euro and on the lon% term, we desire for all member states to join the common currency. 4e desire a stron%er inte%ration within the member states of the Euro+one area, with where appropriate additional economic, social re%ulations and coordination and fiscal capacity. 4e desire a better coordination between Member states of the Euro+one area and those who should join it in the future. Toward new internal and e3ternal enlar%ements5 4e defend the principle of internal enlar%ement5 all stateless nations which want to become an independent member state of the E* should be able to become a new Member state after a democratic process. 4e defend the principle of e3ternal enlar%ement5 states which respect and accept both the le%al construct of the European *nion and the Copenha%en Criteria shall be able to join the *nion if they democratically decide it. &reedom of Movement in 2chen%en 'rea 4e defend freedom of movement within the 2chen%en area which is a ,ey policy for minorities, peoples and stateless nations split due to Member states0 borders. 4e plead for stricter controls at the common e3ternal borders, possibly stren%thenin% current rule, establishin% a lon%er and more efficient phasin%1in period for new Member states to enter into the 2chen%en area. This includes better coordination between Member states,

responsible for controllin% at their borders, and the E*, responsible for settin% the rules and for mana%in% the system, as well as better coordination between E* members states within the 2chen%en area and those outside to limit the ne%ative borders effects within the E* especially in the application of the freedom of movement.