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Results

Head loss through smooth and rough pipes and the relationship between the
friction factor ( f) and Re number:
The determination of the experimental head loss for the smooth and rough pipes was
determined through the following equation:

[1]
Where;

2,

is converted from (cm H 2O) to (N/m2), which is equivalent to (Pa) using Equation

is the density of the water, which equal to 997.0479 kg/m 3, and

is the gravity in (m/s 2).

The theoretical head loss was calculated using the pipe friction equation below (htheo)

Where; f is the friction Factor, L is the length of the pipe (all pipes are 1 m long),
and D is the inner diameter of pipe (m).
The velocity of the flow rate (m/s) was calculated using Equation 4.

[2]

Where; Q is the volumetric flow rate of the water in (m3/s).


Then Reynolds number needed to be calculated using Equation 5 in order to find the
friction factor ( f ) for all pipes (except the first pipe (d = 17mm)) from moody chart.
Also the relative roughness needed to be calculated using Equation 6.

[2]

[2]

Table 1: Data needed to calculate hexp for rough pipe (D = 17 mm) with = 1.12 mm.

Q
(L/min)
20

25

30

35

40

Q
(m3/s)
0.00033

0.00042

0.00050

0.00058

0.00067

D (m)

0.0170

0.0170

0.0170

0.0170

0.0170

u
(m/s)

Re

1.468

25928.

55896

9601

1.835

32411.

6987

2001

2.202

38893.

83844

4402

2.569

45375.

97818

6802

2.937

51857.

11792

9202

P
(cm
H2o)
35

55

83

117

157

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

3432

0.3509

.328

16

5393

0.5514

.658

8139

0.8321

.52

73

1147

1.1730

3.78

63

1539

1.5741

6.44

11

/
f
D
0.0

0.016

658

59491

82

0.0

0.016

658

56600

82

0.0

0.016

658

54666

82

0.0

0.016

658

53282

82

0.0

0.016

658

52243

82

htheo
(m)
0.429
21

0.669
472

0.962
915

1.309
538

1.709
341

Where; is the kinematic viscosity of water (0.9612 x 10-3 Pa.s ), and is the
surface roughness of the pipe (1.12 mm).
For Rough pipes

% error

18.24131

17.63063

13.5777

10.42157

7.911262

Table 1 shows, the pressure drop for each flow rate in (Pa), the experimental head loss, and
the percentage error between the theoretical and experimental head loss. The friction factor
for this pipe is calculated using the following correlation, not from moody chart because the
value of relative roughness is outside the range of moody chart

[2]

Figure 1: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for rough pipe (D = 17
mm).

Figure 1 are obtained by plotting the experimental and theoretical head loss in (m) versus the
water flow rate in (m3/s), while figure 2 represent the relation between the friction factor and
Reynolds's number, which is as Reynolds's number increase, the friction factor decrease.

Figure 2: Relation between f and Re for rough pipe (D = 17 mm).

Table 2: Data needed to calculate hexp for rough pipe (D = 23 mm) with rough () = 1.12 mm.
Q
(L/min
)
20

25

30

35

40

Q
(m3/s)
0.000
33
0.000
42
0.000
50
0.000
58
0.000
67

D
(m)
0.02
30
0.02
30
0.02
30
0.02
30
0.02
30

u (m/s)

Re

0.80229

19164.8

403

836

1.00286

23956.1

753

044

1.20344

28747.3

104

253

1.40401

33538.5

455

462

1.60458

38329.7

805

671

P
(cm
H2o)
5

9.7

14.5

20.5

27

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

/D

htheo
(m)

%
error

490.33

0.0501

0.0486

0.017

0.0983

49.035

25

31

96

24

64

46

951.24

0.0972

0.0486

0.017

0.1532

36.538

51

54

96

19

48

37

1421.9

0.1453

0.0486

0.017

0.2202

34.006

64

96

16

93

13

2010.3

0.2055

0.0486

0.017

0.2994

31.371

63

37

96

14

93

85

2647.7

0.2707

0.0486

0.017

0.3907

30.715

96

07

96

12

19

61

Figure 3: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for rough pipe (D = 23 mm).

Figure 4: Relation between f and Re for rough pipe (D = 23 mm).

For Smooth Pipes:


For smooth pipes the roughness of the pipe () equal zero.
Table 3: Data needed to calculate hexp for Smooth pipe (D = 6.5 mm).

Q
Q
(L/min (m3/s D
)
)
(m)
7

0.000
12

0.00
65

u (m/s)

Re

3.51585

23734.9

181

712

P
(cm
H2o)
171.5

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

16818
.4

%
error

htheo(
m)

1.719

0.00636

2.467

30.31

49

4729

679

953

11

13

17

0.000

0.00
65

15
0.000

0.00
65

18
0.000

0.00
65

22
0.000
28

0.00
65

4.52038

30516.3

09

915

5.52490

37297.8

999

118

6.52943

44079.2

908

322

8.53849

57642.0

726

728

238.6

350

450.1

737

23398

2.392

0.00597

3.830

37.55

.67

247

7145

818

257

34323

3.509

0.00568

5.442

35.52

.28

164

4683

573

381

44139

4.512

0.00545

7.290

38.10

.73

785

216

679

199

72275

7.389

0.00509

11.65

36.62

.01

297

8497

877

026

Figure 5: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) forSmooth pipe (D = 6.5 mm).

Figure 6: Relation between f and Re for smooth pipe (D = 6.5 mm).

Table 4: Data needed to calculate hexp for Smooth pipe (D = 16.5 mm).

Q
(L/m
in)
20

25

30

35

40

Q
(m3/s
)
0.000
33
0.000
42
0.000
50
0.000
58
0.000
67

D
(m)
0.01
65
0.01
65
0.01
65
0.01
65
0.01
65

u (m/s)

Re

1.55891

26714.6

107

862

1.94863

33393.3

884

577

2.33836

40072.0

661

292

2.72809

46750.7

438

008

3.11782

53429.3

215

723

P
(cm
H2o)
16.6

27.7

38.2

52

67

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

htheo
(m)

%
error

1627.

0.166

0.006179

0.185

10.301

904

435

304

549

65

2716.

0.277

0.005844

0.274

1.2893

442

725

025

19

05

0.005583

0.377

1.5266

632

241

38

3746.
14

0.383

5099.

0.521

0.005372

0.494

5.5268

458

362

545

056

81

6570.

0.671

0.005196

0.624

7.6337

456

754

155

111

95

Figure 7: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) forSmooth pipe (D = 16.5 mm).

Figure 8: Relation between f and Re for smooth pipe (D = 16.5 mm).

Table 5: Data needed to calculate hexp for Smooth pipe (D = 26.6 mm).

Q
Q
(L/mi (m3/s
n)
)
20

25

30

35

40

0.000
33
0.000
42
0.000
50
0.000
58
0.000
67

D
(m)
0.02
66
0.02
66
0.02
66
0.02
66
0.02
66

u
(m/s)

Re

0.59982

16571.1

693

399

0.74978

20713.9

366

249

0.89974

24856.7

039

099

1.04969

28999.4

712

949

1.19965

33142.2

385

798

P
(cm
H2o)
0.2

1.2

2.2

3.7

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

htheo
(m)

%
error

19.61

0.002

0.006962

0.019

89.556

33

005

881

201

52

117.6

0.012

0.006585

0.028

57.596

798

031

087

373

27

215.7

0.022

0.006291

0.039

43.496

463

058

674

037

11

362.8

0.037

0.006053

0.051

27.439

461

097

82

125

46

490.3

0.050

0.005855

0.064

22.378

325

131

062

584

35

Figure 9: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) forSmooth pipe (D = 26.6 mm).

Figure 10: Relation between f and Re for smooth pipe (D = 26.6 mm).

Determine the head loss for the fittings:


The experimental resistance coefficient (K) for a fitting can be calculated from
following correlation[2]:

Kexp =

(8)

For the Valves:


Table 6: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor gate valve (D = 23 mm).

Q
(L/mi
n)
20

25

30

35

40

Q
(m3/
s)
0.00
033
0.00
042

0.00
050

0.00
058

0.00
067

D
(m)
0.0
23
0.0
230

0.0
230

0.0
230

0.0
230

u
(m/s)

Re

0.802 1917
7

4.59

1.003 2396
375

8.24

1.204 2876
05

1.88

1.404 3355
725

5.53

1.605 3834
401

9.18

P
(cm
H2o)
0.2

1.2

2.7

6.1

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

Kexp

19.61 0.0020

0.061

33

06

05237

117.6 0.0120

0.234

798

471

3142

264.7 0.0270

0.366

796

361

70695

392.2 0.0401

0.398

66

76

04734

598.2 0.0611

0.465

057

584

59719

Kth
[5]

0.1
300
0.1
300

0.1
300

0.1
300

0.1
300

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 0.305247

10

htheo
(m)

h % K %
error error

0.004

53.03

53.03

2692

066

066

80.36

80.36

23

23

181.8

181.8

16

16

206.7

206.7

39

39

258.1

258.1

41

41

0.006
6707

0.009
6058

0.013
0746

0.017
077

Figure 11: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) forgate valve (D = 23 mm).

Figure 11 illustrate that the difference between the theoretical and experimental head
loss at each flow rate.

Table 7: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor ball valve (D = 20 mm).

Q
(L/mi
n)
20

25

30

35

Q
(m3/
s)
0.00
033
0.00
042

0.00
050
0.00
058

D
(m)
0.0
200
0.0
200

0.0
200
0.0
200

u
(m/s)

Re

1.061

2205

571

0.78

1.326

2756

964

3.47

1.592

3307

357

6.16

1.857

3858

749

8.86

P
(cm
H2o)
0.7

3.4

5.4

Kt

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

Kexp

heo

htheo
(m)

h % K %
error error

68.64

0.0070

0.122

0.

0.009

23.63

23.631

655

18328

19

16

1901

146

46

196.1

0.0200

0.223

0.

0.014

33

52367

433

16

3595

39.64

39.645

53

333.4

0.0340

0.263

0.

0.020

261

89024

775

16

6777

64.85

64.859

91

529.5

0.0541

0.307

0.

0.028

591

4139

79

16

1446

92.36

92.368

11

40

0.00
067

0.0
200

2.123

4410

142

1.55

7.5

735.4

0.0751

0.327

0.

0.036

988

96376

294

16

7603

86

104.5

104.55

59

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 0.248896

Figure 12: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for ball valve (D = 20 mm).

Table 8: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor angle valve (D = 15 mm).

Q
(L/mi
n)
20

25

30

35

Q
D
(m3/
(m)
s)
0.00
033
0.00
042
0.00
050
0.00
058

0.0
150
0.0
150
0.0
150
0.0
150

u
(m/s)

Re

1.887

2940

238

1.04

2.359

3675

047

1.29

2.830

4410

856

1.55

3.302

5145

666

1.81

P
(cm
H2o)
26.3

42.8

62.5

86.5

Kt

P
(Pa)

hexp
(m)

Kexp

2579.

0.2636

1.452

149

88624

571

4197.

0.4291

1.512

246

2065

883

6129.

0.6266

1.534

156

36463

19

8482.

0.8672

1.559

752

64865

989

12

heo
[5]

3.
00
3.
00
3.
00
3.
00

htheo(m
)

h % K %
error error

0.544

51.58

51.58

5972

098

098

0.850

49.57

49.57

9331

058

058

1.225

48.86

48.86

3437

035

035

1.667

48.00

48.00

8289

037

037

40

0.00
067

0.0
150

3.774

5880

475

2.07

114

1117

1.1429

1.574

9.58

84909

078

3.
00

2.178

47.53

47.53

3887

072

072

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 1.526742

Figure 13: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for angle seat valve (D = 15 mm).

Table 9: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor Diaphragm valve (D = 20 mm).

Q
(L/mi
n)
20

25

30

35

Q
(m3/s
)

D
(m
)

u
(m/s)

Re

0.00

0.

1.061

2205

033

02

571

0.78

0.00

0.

1.326

2756

042

02

964

3.47

0.00

0.

1.592

3307

050

02

357

6.16

0.00

0.

1.857

3858

058

02

749

8.86

P
P
(cm
(Pa)
H2o)
15.1

25

36.8

49.8

hexp
(m)

Kexp

1480.

0.15139

2.635

804

537

806

2451.

0.25065

2.792

663

4585

907

3608.

0.36896

2.854

847

355

971

4883.

0.49930

2.838

712

3934

505

13

Kth
[4]

2.3
0

2.3
0

2.3
0
2.3
0

htheo
(m)

h % K %
error error
-

14.60

14.60

02

02

21.43

21.43

07

07

24.12

24.12

92

92

0.404

5788

23.41

23.41

0.132
1074

0.206
4178

0.297
2416

40

0.00

0.

2.123

4410

067

02

142

1.55

67

6570.

0.67175

2.923

456

4289

824

2.3
0

0.528
4295

33

33

27.12

27.12

28

28

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 2.809203

Figure 14: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for diaphragm valve (D=20 mm).

For the elbows:


Table 10: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor 90 elbow (D = 25 mm).

Q (L/min)

Q
(m3/s)

20

0.00033

25

0.00042

30

0.00050

35

0.00058

40

0.00067

D
(m)
0.025
0
0.025
0
0.025
0
0.025
0
0.025
0

u (m/s)

Re

P
P (Pa)
(cm H2o)

hexp
(m)

Kexp [5]

Ktheo[2]

htheo (m

0.679406 17640.62 1.5

147.0998 0.015039275 0.639246 0.74

0.0174

0.849257 22050.78 3.4

333.4261 0.034089024 0.927332 0.74

0.0272

1.019108 26460.93 6.1

598.2057 0.061159719 1.155377 0.74

0.0391

1.18896

902.2118 0.092240887 1.280231 0.74

0.0533

1225.831 0.125327293 1.331762 0.74

0.0696

30871.09 9.2

1.358811 35281.24 12.5

14

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 1.06679

Figure 15: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for90 elbow (D = 25 mm).

Table 11: Data needed to calculate hexp andKexpfor 45 elbow (D = 25 mm).

Q
(L/
min)
20

Q
D
(m3 (m
/s)
)

u
(m/s
)

Re

0.0

0.67

176

940

40.6

003
3
0.0

25

004
2
0.0

30

005
0
0.0

35

005
8

0.0
25
0
0.0
25
0
0.0
25
0
0.0
25
0

P
(cm
H 2o
)

K
hexp
(m)

Kexp

88.2

0.009

0.38

598

0235

354

65

0.84

220

215.

0.022

0.60

0.01

925

50.7

746

0576

003

1028 100.

100.

04

013

013

1.01

264

313.

0.032

0.01

910

60.9

812

0837

5880 102.

102.

87

033

033

308

598.

0.061

0.84

0.02

205

1597

884

1615 182.

182.

19

95

1.18
896

71.0
9

0.9

2.2

3.2

6.1

th
e

htheo(
m)

h % K %
erro erro
r
r

P
(Pa)

[5]

15

0.60
61

0.00
7058

27.8

27.8

491

491

95

0.0
40

006
7

0.0
25
0

1.35

352

881

81.2

8.9

872.

0.089

0.94

0.02

791

2330

821

8231 216.

216.

32

071

071

The average experimental fitting constant equals to 0.67735

Figure 16: The relation between the head loss (h) and the flow rate (Q) for45 elbow (D = 25 mm).

16

Determine the discharge coefficient of orifice and venturi meters:


To determine the discharge coefficient for the orifice and venturi meters, the
following equation will be used[2]:

[3]

Where; V2 is the velocity in (m/s).

Venturi meter:
Table 12: Data needed to calculate Cvexp forVenturi meter (D = 0.02m).

Q
Q
(L/min) (m3/s)

D
(m)

u
(m/s)

Re

20

0.00033

0.02

0.8884

25

0.00042

0.02

30

0.00050

35
40

P
(cm H2o)

P
(Pa)

Cvexp

Cvtheo

% error

18453.733 3.4

333.4261

1.1949

0.97

23.19

1.1802

24514.351 6

588.399

1.1244

0.98

14.73

0.02

1.4850

30846.549 9.5

931.63175

1.0723

0.97

10.54

0.00058

0.02

1.8220

37845.373 14.3

1402.35095 1.0196

0.98

4.05

0.00067

0.02

2.1166

43966.656 19.3

1892.68345 1.0031

0.99

1.32

Table 12 represents the discharge coefficient for the venturi meter at each flow rate,
and the error between them.
Orifice plate:

Table 13: Data needed to calculate Cvexpfor Orifice plate (D1 = 32 mm, D2=20mm).

Q
Q
(L/min) (m3/s)

D2
(m)

D1
(m)

D2/D1

u
(m/s)

Re

P
(cm H2o)

P
(Pa)

Cvexp

Cvtheo[6]

%
error

20

0.00033

0.0200

0.0320

0.6250

1.4850

30846.55 9.5

931.63175 0.71

0.64

11.70

25

0.00042

0.0200

0.0320

0.6250

1.9452

40405.32 16.3

1598.484

0.635

7.43

30

0.00050

0.0200

0.0320

0.6250

2.3848

49536.79 24.5

2402.6293 0.67

0.63

5.99

35

0.00058

0.0200

0.0320

0.6250

2.8626

59460.99 35.3

3461.7475 0.65

0.635

2.20

40

0.00067

0.0200

0.0320

0.6250

3.3484

69553.40 48.3

4736.612

0.62

2.27

17

0.68

0.63

Table 13 represents the discharge coefficient for the orifice meter at each flow rate,
and the error between them.

18

Sample Calculation:
For the rough pipe D=17 mm

To find the we calculated from:

For the first pipe D = 17mm

For other pipes from moody chart by getting Reynolds number and the relative
roughness

19

For the fittings:


For the gate valve D = 23 mm

= htheor

Kexp =

20

For the venturi and orifice meter

For the orifice meter:

21