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# 4.

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## 4.1 Setting up the Model

In this lesson you will learn how to create and develop a model. You will learn how to: Create and wor with re!erence !rames" #odies" \$oints and mar ers Create the %& graphical representation o! the physical parts 'se the more advanced model and !ile management !eatures 'se SIMP(C) to integrate the di!!erential e*uations generated !rom the model data. Su#se*uently you will learn how to calculate measurements and animate the model !rom the simulation results Manipulate the view o! the model in the Model Setup window

You will #uild a relatively simplistic model o! a pendulum which will #e developed into a dou#le+pendulum with a su#structure ,chapter -. and ../. 0igure 4.1. shows the pendulum which you will create in this section.

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## 4.2 Data for the Mechanical System Pendulum

3ody pendulum: mass centre o! gravity ,9"y":/ 5 5 4.6 , 6" 6" +6.;- / 10 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 1.0 7 g8 7m8

inertia tensor I

7 gm< 8

=oint: \$oint mo#ility initial \$oint state initial angular velocity 5 5 5 rotation a#out 9+a9is ,>61: ?evolute =oint al>/ 6.@6@ 6.6 7 rad 8 7 radAs 8

## Geometric data for the pendulum:

Prism" representing the pendulum: z y 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.7 6.6-

## coordinates o! the prism

7m8

thic ness

7m8

Cylinder" representing the rotational a9is: length diameter 5 5 6.; 6.67m8 7m8

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## 4.3 Opening the Model

Start a SIMP(C) session and clic on the DEpen Model> tool#ar #utton on File F Open Model !rom the Graphic 'ser Inter!ace. Ghe open model dialogue #o9 will appear: or

Figure 4.2.: The Open Model Dialogue Box You must now select a directory in which you want to create the new model. Clic on DHew> and enter the model name Dpendulum>. Iit ?eturn to accept.
4hen a new model is created" SIMP(C) automatically create a de!ault model with the !ollowing parameters: Inertia re!erence !rame" one #ody with a mar er" one \$oint" one sensor" a de!ault gravity vector and a de!ault %&+geometry.

Iint: 0or a #etter overview it is advisa#le to create an own !older !or each new model. Ghere!ore clic on !older name should #e e*ual/. and enter a name ,model name and

Go start the Model Setup either clic on or Pre-Processor F Model Se up. Gwo windows will appear on the screen. Ghe %& Model Setup window ,!igure ;.%./ and the Jcho (rea ,!igure ;.4./.

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## 4.4 Modeling the Pendulum

4.4.1 reating the Pendulum !ody
Select either D3odies> !rom the tool#ar or !rom the pull+down menu !lemen s F Bodies. Ghe 3odies list #o9 will appear on the screen.

Figure 4.".: Bodies lis #ox Select K3L3ody1 and clic . Jnter the new name Dpendulum>.

&ou#le clic on K3Lpendulum or select it with the mouse and then clic on . Ghe M3S &e!ine 3ody dialogue #o9 appears. 0or this model you will enter the data #y hand" #ut it is even possi#le to get it !rom the data#ase. 4ithin this dialogue #o9 you can enter the physical attri#utes o! the #ody. Ghese include the mass" centre o! mass and the inertia+tensor. You should now enter the data !rom 4.2 !or the #ody. 0igure 4.4. shows how the M3S &e!ine 3ody dialogue #o9 should loo .

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Figure 4.4. MBS De\$ine Bod% dialogue #ox You will now change the #ody !rom a cu#oid to a prism to loo li e the hand o! a cloc . Clic on and the %& geometry window appears. 4ithin this window you will !ind the de!ault ensem#le KJLpendulum and the de!ault primitives o! this ensem#le. Ghere is the primitive KPLpendulumLcu#oid. Select the cu#oid and clic KPLpendulumLhand. on and change the name to

Clic on to change the primitive parameters o! the Dhand>. Ghe Primitive &e!inition window appears. Change the Primitive type to M6-: Prism #y CoordinatesN. 3ac in the Primitive &e!inition window change the prism thic ness to 6.6and the Ho. o! shape points to 4. In the shapeAline list #o9 enter the !our shape points as given in chapter 4.2

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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In the Model Setup window the cu#oid should have changed to a prism with the shape o! a hand o! a cloc . Go #ring the #ody in the right position li e it is in !igure 4.1. you have to rotate it. Ghere!ore you have to edit the #uilt+in vector and rotation matri9: + + ?otate primitive + B6O on y+a9is ,3eta/ ?otate primitive P B6O on :+a9is ,Gamma/

0igure 4.-. shows how the primitive dialogue #o9 should loo .

## to get #ac to the 3odies window.

Iint: 3ecause SIMP(C) does not have an undo !acility #ut only a reload !acility it is necessary to save your model !rom time to time ,#est a!ter each modi!ication/. Ghere!ore clic on or select File F Sa(e !rom the pull+down menu.

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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I! you want to remove a num#er o! changes then you have to reload the model !rom the last save. Jither clic on or File + +eload

## 4.4.2 Modifying the "eference #rame

Jither clic on D?e!erence 0rames> !lemen s F +e\$erence Frames or !rom the pull+down menu

## Ghe !ollowing dialogue #o9" !igure 4... will appear:

Figure 4.,.: +e\$erence Frames 0rom this dialogue #o9 you should now either dou#le clic on the re!erence !rame K3LIsys or select it and then clic on . Ghe !ollowing dialogue #o9" !igure 4.@. will appear.

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Figure 4.-.: +e\$erence Frames Dialogue Box Select . Ghe %& Geometry window appears. Ghis windows shows the ensem#les and primitives that are associated with this re!erence !rame. 'nder DPrimitives o! Selected Jnsem#les> clic on .

In the input #o9 that then appears you should enter the name DIsysLa9le> ,remem#er: DKPL> will #e attached automatically/. Ghen clic on . Ghe Primitive &e!inition window appears. Change the type to D;: Cylinder>. You will now change the parameters diameter and length according to 4.2. Go rotate the cylinder in its right position you need to edit the #uild+in vector matri9 as !ollows: + ?otate primitive P B6O on :+a9is ,Gamma/

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Figure 4...: 'omple ed Primi i(e De\$ini ion )indo* Clic three times on window. to get #ac to the ?e!erence 0rames

## 4.4.3 Modifying the \$oint

Select D=oints> !rom the tool#ar or !rom pull+down menu !lemen s F /oin s In the appearing dialogue #o9 dou#le clic on K=Lpendulum or clic . Ghe dialogue #o9 M3S &e!ine =oint will appear. on

Iere you will now de!ine the mar ers which are associated with a \$oint. In this case the is the de!ault mar er KMLIsys set #y SIMP(C) on the re!erence !rame. Select KMLpendulum" the de!ault mar er on the pendulum" as . It is necessary to select a \$oint type to allow de!ined degrees o! !reedom. Clic on and select D61: ?evolute =oint al> ,rotation a#out 9+a9is/ !rom the =oint Gype Qist. Press .

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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In the M3S &e!ine =oint &ialogue #o9 clic on the !irst line ,D?otation a#out al 7rad8>/ o! the initial state #o9. In the !ollowing input window you can enter the initial state o! the \$oint in terms o! #oth position and velocity. Jnter the !ollowing modi!ications into the input panel" as they are given in 4.2. + + Position 1elocity 5 5 6.@6@ 6 . Ghe M3S &e!ine =oint window should loo li e !igure

Clic on 4.B.

Figure 4.0.: 'omple ed MBS De\$ine /oin Dialogue Box Ghe Pendulum is !inished now and should loo li e 0igure 4.16.

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## Figure 4.11.: 'omple ed Pendulum

Congratulations you have just finished your first SIM !C" Model

Ghe !ollowing steps will show you how to animate your model" change the view and modi!y it to a dou#le+pendulum.

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## 4.% Manipulating the &ie'

You will learn" in this section" how to move the model within the %& Model Setup window. Iowever" #e!ore changing the view you should save the model. Go get #ac to the original view settings you only need to reload the model. Select 2ie* F 2ie* Se up !rom the pull+down menu. Ghe !ollowing dialogue #o9 !igure 4.11. appears.

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## Figure 4.12.: S andard 2ie*s

In the dialogue #o9 !igure 4.11. you can use slider #ars to :oom" translate and rotate your model. 4hen you clic on standard views as seen in !igure 4.1;. you can chose #etween some isometric and parallel views.

Iint: You can even change the view #y holding down the Dcontrol> ey and one o! the three mouse eys and moving the mouse: DQe!t mouse #utton> DMiddle mouse #utton> D?ight mouse #utton> 5 5 5 :oom in A out rotate translate .

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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In this case you will !ind a new !ile in your !older" which is called: D.SLsuiLg%dLg%d.!lag> It is necessary to delete this !ile to continue with SIMP(C).

## 4.( )nimate the Model

3e!ore animating the model SIMP(C) needs to !orm the e*uations o! motion and solve them. Ghe integration o! the di!!erential e*uations can #e done either o!!+ or on+line. En+line integration is when SIMP(C) animates the model while per!orming the integration process. E!!+line integration means that SIMP(C) integrates !or a de!ined start and end time. Ghe animation o! the model is per!ormed a!ter the integration.

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Ghe on+line integration is recommenda#le !or small models with only a !ew degrees o! !reedom li e our pendulum. Clic on or select 'alcula ion F Time 5n egra ion !rom the pull+down menu. Ghe dialogue #o9 !igure 4.1%. appears.

Figure 4.1".: On-6ine Time 5n egra ion )indo* Clic on DGo> to start the on+line integration and animate the pendulum in the model setup window.

## 4.(.2 Off*line +ntegration

E!!+line integration is normally used !or large comple9 models with a large num#er o! degrees o! !reedom. Ghe CP' time re*uired to integrate the e*uations may #e high" which ma es it impossi#le to animate the model while per!orming the time integration. 3e!ore starting an o!!+line integration" SIMP(C) must #e told what to per!orm in the integration. Important 1alues are the initial start time and the end time and the num#ers o! communications points ,these points determine how many times SIMP(C) writes data to the result !iles in the integration process/. Ghese calculations are done in the G'I. 1ehicle &ynamics 2 Multi+3ody Simulation Pro!. &r.+Ing. Michael 4ahle

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Select 'alcula ion F Time 5n egra ion F 'on\$igure !rom the pull+down menu. Ghe time integration window will appear. Jnter the !ollowing parameters: + + + Initial Gime Jnd Gime Hum#er o! Communication Points and then . 5 5 5 6.6 1-.6 1-66

Clic on

Hote: Ghe e9ample a#ove leads to a communication step si:e o! 6.61 s. Hormally the integrator chooses the integration stepsi:e during the integration procedure and varies it due to the integration sta#ility. It may #e necessary to de!ine a ma9imum integration stepsi:e to guarantee that the dynamic answer o! all important eigen!re*uencies is mapped.

Hote: 3e!ore per!orming the time integration it is necessary to save the model #ecause SIMP(C) reads the data !rom the model !iles while per!orming the calculations. Clic on ,in the G'I/ or select 'alcula ion F Time 5n egra ion F Per\$orm *i h Measuremen s You can !ollow the integration process in the echo area. Jnter D?eturn> to e9it the echo area when the process is !inished. In the model setup window select or chose 7nima ion F Time 8is or%. Ghe animation control window !igure 4.14. appears

## 4. Getting Started: Pendulum Model

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Figure 4.14.: 7nima ion 'on rol )indo* Clic on to start the animation. J9periment with the push#uttons to see the e!!ects they have on the animation. It is even possi#le to ma e short !ilms o! the animation" which are saved in the model !older.