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Chua, Fernandez, Joaquin, Kim and Palabay

CANON AND DIVISIONS

1. HOW WAS THE BIBLE CONSTRUCTED?


Passed orally Written down on scrolls and codices Rewritten for distribution and translated Redaction edited and assembled into cohesive text

1. HOW WAS THE BIBLE CONSTRUCTED?


Old testament books were mostly written by religious priests, kings, prophets, and judges in the history of Israel New testament books were mostly written by disciplines of Jesus Christ or contemporary believers

2. HOW WERE THE AUTHORS SELECTED?

Canonization
1)
2) 3) 4)

5)

Composition manuscripts were written from either oral stories and teachings or from scripts Community manuscripts were read, circulated and edited by religious communities Criteria different groups accepted different scriptures Collection scriptures were compiled in single scrolls, codices and books *note: the physical manner of collection also influenced canonical decisions Canon a defined group of scriptures in a single collection accepted by a religious community as The Bible

3. WHO COMPILED THE BOOKS IN THE BIBLE?

Jewish rabbis Scholars Early Christians

4. WHO ARRANGED THE BOOKS?

Stephen Langton

put the modern chapter divisions(commonly used today) into place around A.D. 1227 The Wycliffe English Bible of 1382 first adapted this chapter pattern After the Wycliffe Bible, almost all bible translations followed suit
divided the Hebrew OT into verses

Nathan, a Jewish rabbi in A.D. 1448

Robert Estienne, a.k.a Stephanus


First divided the NT into standard numbered verses in 1555 Used Nathans verse divisions for the OT Nearly all bible versions followed Stephanus divisions

5. IN WHAT ORDER ARE THE BOOKS IN THE BIBLE ARRANGED?


Septuagint Greek three-fold bible arrangement based on (Luke 24:44)He said to them, "This is what I told you while I was still with you: Everything must be fulfilled that is written about me in the Law of Moses, the Prophets and the Psalms Two-division arrangement - (Matthew 7:12) So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.

5. IN WHAT ORDER ARE THE BOOKS IN THE BIBLE ARRANGED?

The Order Of Gospels The order of the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John is known as the Augustinian order. This is named after the early Church Father, Augustine. Augustine concluded that the gospels were written in this chronological order Matthew the first and John the last. Most modern scholars assume that Mark was written first.

5. IN WHAT ORDER ARE THE BOOKS IN THE BIBLE ARRANGED?

The Order Of The New Testament Letters In the western Church, the letters of Paul are placed before the general letters. In the eastern Church this is reversed the general letters come before Paul's writings.

The Order Of Paul's Writings The thirteen letters of the Apostle Paul are not ordered as to when they were written but rather according to their length. The Book of Romans is the longest letter that Paul wrote to the churches while Colossians is the shortest. First Timothy is the longest letter that Paul wrote to an individual while Philemon is the shortest.

6. WHY WERE THE OTHER GOSPELS REMOVED FROM THE BIBLE?

Some almost made the canon:


Letter

of Clement; The Didache

Some were written too late:


First

Apology by Justin Martyr

Some were labeled heretical:


The

Gospel of Thomas (Gnostic manuscript) Gospel of the Hebrews

Some were not popular enough:


The

6. WHY WERE THE OTHER GOSPELS REMOVED FROM THE BIBLE?

Some were considered outrageous:

Infancy Gospel of Thomas

Speaks about a story where Jesus curses a boy and makes him wither up. In the next story, Jesus strikes dead a child who bumped into his shoulder.

Some were banned (said to contain heresies)

Gospel of Judas

Gnostic (Talked about Judas as a hero instead of a traitor)

Some were lost:

Many books were lost (ex. The Didache, and The Book of Jasher) Ecclesiastical History by Eusebius (essential document for the study of church history)

Some were dismissed as merely historical:

7. WHY IS THERE A NEW AND OLD TESTAMENT?

The Bible is separated into two, The old and the new testament. Old Testament records happened Before Christ while The New Testament indicate things that happened during Jesus' time and what followed it.

8. HOW MANY BOOKS SHOULD BE IN EACH TESTAMENT?

The Bible has a total of 73 books. Roman Catholic Old Testaments follow an ancient Christian Old Testament called the Septuagint, which includes all the same books as the Jewish Bible, plus seven more (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuturonomy, Joshua & Judges). Thus, Roman Catholic Old Testaments have 46 books, including Tobit; Judith, Wisdom; Ecclesiasticus, The Wisdom of Joshua, the Son of Sirach; Baruch; First Maccabees; Second Maccabees; and additions to the books or Daniel and Esther whilst the New Testament have 27 books, mainly the 4 Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke & John) and the acts of the apostles till Revelation.

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

Revelation 22:18-19 "I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book, and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book."

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

Proverbs 30:5-6 Every word of God proves true; he is a shield to those who take refuge in him. Do not add to his words, lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar.

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

Matthew 24:24 For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect.

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

John 20:30-31 The Purpose of This Book Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; 31 but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

Ephesians 2:20
Built

on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone I am the Lord, I do not change

Malachi 3:6
For

9. CAN YOU ADD TO THE BIBLE?

2 Corinthians 12:3,4

And I know that such a person whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God know was caught up into Paradise and heard things that are not to be told, that no mortal is permitted to repeat. And when the seven thunders spoke, I was about to write; but I heard a voice from heaven say, Seal up what the seven thunders have said and do not write it down

Revelation 10:4

10. WHY DOES THE BIBLE HAVE TO END WITH REVELATIONS?

Biblical chronology The Book of Revelations was one of the last to be accepted among the Biblical canons. Some communities did not accept the Book of Revelation (Apocalypse) as Scripture.

Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, also rejected it and forbade it's reading in public or private as well. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexanderia, accepted it as Scripture as it is shown in his festal letter of 367 A.D. Disputes over the canonicity of the Book of Revelation contributed to divisions in the Eastern Church communities, and some Greek Churches of today do not accept it as Sacred Scripture.

10. WHY DOES THE BIBLE HAVE TO END WITH REVELATIONS?

The Book of Genesis must be the first book of Scripture because it records the beginning of all created things. In the same manner, the Book of Revelation must stand last because it chronicles the end of all things present as well as the promise of a new heaven and a new earth.

SOURCES:
http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/bible/outside.stm http://www.catholicevangelism.org/hcanon1.shtml http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/bible/canons.stm http://www.bibletruths.net/Archives/BTAR125. htm