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Great Speeches: How To Make Them

Brought To You By: Michael Lee, Self-Help Specialist Author of How To Be An Expert ersua!er

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Table of Contents
Introduction What to Say How to Say It Sources of Power Figures of Em hasis "he #hetoric of Pu$%ic S ea&ing E(tem ore S ea&ing *esture and +ction +na%ysis of We$ster,s #e %y to Hayne "y es of S ea&ing +fter./inner S eeches 0ommemorati1e S eeches /idactic S eeches Eu%ogistic S eeches Inaugura% S eeches 4 10 17 23 3! 3' 4) )2 )7 '7-0 -112 14!

"his is the day of concise s eech2 "he tedious3 %ong.drawn.out oratory of former times is no %onger to%erated $y inte%%igent audiences2 "here is a si%ent $ut no %ess insistent demand that a s ea&er waste no time in words3 $ut gi1e e( ression to his ideas with reasona$%e $re1ity2 It is sur rising how much can $e said in the s ace of one minute $y a s ea&er who has his su$4ect we%% in hand2 "he most nota$%e e(am %e in a%% history of short s eech.ma&ing is 5inco%n,s *ettys$urg s eech3 which occu ied in de%i1ery %ess than three minutes2 +t the inauguration of the new resident of Har1ard 6ni1ersity3 the Hon2 7ohn /2 5ong3 resident of the 8oard of 91erseers3 carried out the im ressi1e ceremony of the day3 in1esting President 5owe%% with the ceremonia% em$%ems of the office3 in a s eech of three sentences3 as fo%%ows: +$$ott 5awrence 5owe%%3 you ha1ing $een du%y chosen to $e President of Har1ard 0o%%ege3 I now3 in the name of its go1erning $odies and in accordance with ancient custom3 dec%are that you are 1ested with a%% the owers and ri1i%eges of that office2 It is a great trust3 $ut it is %aid on you in fu%% confidence that you wi%% discharge it in the interest a%i&e of the co%%ege we %o1e and of the democracy it ser1es2 I de%i1er into your hands3 as $adges of your authority3 the co%%ege charter3 sea%s and &eys2 *od $%ess you2 "his was an occasion of unusua% interest3 thousands of ersons ha1ing gathered from a%% arts of the country2 "he tem tation to ma&e a ,, great s eech,, wou%d ha1e $een irresisti$%e to most men3 $ut President 5owe%%,s ac&now%edgment occu ied on%y a minute3 in these words : It is with a dee sense of res onsi$i%ity that I recei1e at your hands these insignia of the office to which the go1erning $oards ha1e chosen me2 ;ou ha1e charged me with a great trust3 second in im ortance to no other3 for the education of +merican youth3 and therefore for the inte%%ectua% and mora% we%fare of our country2 I ray that I may $e granted the wisdom3 the strength3 and the atience which are needed in no common measure< that Har1ard may stand in the future3 as she has stood under the %ong %ine of my redecessors3 for the de1e%o ment of true manhood and for the ad1ancement of sound %earning3 and that her sons may go forth with a chi1a%rous reso%1e that the wor%d sha%% $e $etter for the years they ha1e s ent within these wa%%s2 "here are rimari%y two things concerned in the ma&ing of a u$%ic s ea&er: =1> the ?an3 and =2> the ?essage2 "he @ua%ifications %aid down $y 0icero3 Auinti%ian3 and other great authorities are too se1ere and com rehensi1e for resent.day needs2 We thin& the fo%%owing are essentia% attri$utes of a good u$%ic s ea&er: 12 Ster%ing character2 22 High idea%s2 32 Sincerity2 42 /e1otion to truth2

)2 + good a


'2 + we%%.furnished mind2 72 *racefu% action2 !2 F%uency of %anguage2 -2 + cu%ti1ated 1oice2 102 + refined ronunciation2 112 6nfai%ing tact2 122 Sing%eness of ur ose2 132 Sym athy2 14 0ommon sense2 "he message shou%d ha1e the three @ua%ities of c%earness3 1ita%ity3 and time%iness2 "he attri$utes 4ust indicated are a matter of ac@uisition rather than natura% gifts2 Bo man shou%d $e dissuaded from de1e%o ing his s ea&ing owers $ecause he is not Ca $orn orator2C If he $e aff%icted with timidity3 or some other shortcoming3 %et him ta&e encouragement from the e( erience of many of the wor%d,s greatest orators2 "here is ins iration in the case of /emosthenes3 of whom it is recorded: In his first address to the eo %e he was %aughed at and interru ted $y their c%amors3 for the 1io%ence of his manner threw him into a confusion of eriods3 and a distortion of his argument2 8esides he had a wea&ness and a stammering in his 1oice3 and a want of $reath3 which caused such a distraction in his discourse that it was difficu%t for the audience to understand him2 +t %ast3 u on his @uitting the assem$%y3 Ennomus3 the "hracian3 a man now e(treme%y o%d3 found him wandering in a de4ected condition in the Pircus3 and too& u on him to set him right2 C;ou3C said he3 Cha1e a manner of s ea&ing %i&e that of Perietes3 and yet you %ose yourse%f out of mere timidity and cowardice2 ;ou neither $ear u against the tumu%ts of a o u%ar assem$%y3 nor re are your $ody $y e(ercise for the %a$or of the rostrum3 $ut suffer your arts to wither away $y nesr%igence and indo%ence2C +nother time3 we are to%d3 that when his s eeches had $een i%% recei1ed3 and he was going home with his head co1ered3 and in the greatest distress3 Satyrus3 the %a4er3 who was an ac@uaintance of his3 fo%%owed and went in with him2 /emosthenes %amented to him that3 tho he was the most %a$orious of a%% the oiators3 and had a%most sacrificed his hea%th to that a %ication3 yet he cou%d gain no fa1or with the eo %e< $ut drun&en seamen and other un%ettered ersons were heard3 and &e t the rostrum3 whi%e he was entire%y disregarded2 C;ou say true3C answered Satyrus< C$ut I wi%% soon ro1ide a remedy2 if you wi%% re eat to me some s eech in Euri ides or So hoc%es2C CWhen /emosthenes had done3 Satyrus ronounced he same s eech3 and he did it with such ro riety of action3 and so much in character3 that it a eared to the orator @uite a different assage2 He now understood so we%% how much grace and dignity of action %end to the $est

oration3 that he thought it a sma%% matter to remeditate and com ose3 if the ronunciation and ro riety of gesture were not a%so attended to2 "he rest is fami%iar to the reader3 how /emosthenes $ui%t a su$terranean room3 went there dai%y to train his 1oice and gesture3 committing to memory the su$stance of a%% the con1ersations and s eeches he heard3 disci %ining and de1e%o ing himse%f for the high %ace he was destined u%timate%y to fi%%2 He com %ete%y o1ercame his natura% defect of stammering and of indistinctness $y ractising his s eeches with e$$%es in his mouth3 and strengthened his wea& 1oice $y reciting a%oud oems and orations whi%e running or wa%&ing u hi%%2 Bumerous i%%ustrations of a simi%ar character might $e gi1en to the student who as ires to roficiency in this great art2 "he secret does not %ie so much in natura% gifts as in the iron @ua%ities of %uc& and erse1erance2 + man,s s eech re orts not on%y 2the inner wor&ings of his mind3 $ut a%so his character and tem erament2 + u$%ic s ea&er shou%d ha1e it said of him3 as 7ohnson said of 8acon: ,, His hearers cou%d not cough or %oo& aside without %oss2C Such a man ma&es e1ery word count2 Fu%%y rea%iDing that,, Bo train of thought is strengthened $y the addition of those arguments that3 %i&e cam .fo%%owers3 swe%% the num$er and the noise without $earing a art in the organiDation3C he a1oids.gi1ing e( ression to a sing%e su erf%uous thought2 Batura%ness in u$%ic s ea&ing is ower e( ressing itse%f sim %y and without conscious effort2 It arises from fran&ness and sincerity2 It ne1er C$eats a$out the $ush3C ne1er e@ui1ocates3 $ut goes straight to the oint without fear or @uestion2 + natura% s ea&er does not wish to a ear other than he rea%%y is3 and his modesty is a safeguard against s ea&ing often of himse%f2 "he ca%m and dignified ower of +$raham 5inco%n was due to this under%ying @ua%ity2 His sim %icity of s eech was the natura% e( ression of his great and tender.hearted nature2 Bo man des ised more than he e1en a suggestion of sham and artificia%ity2 His c%ear3 direct3 fran&3 and o en manner of e( ression was mere%y the outward mar& of su reme genuineness2 When urged to gi1e an account of himse%f3 he wrote these sim %e %ines: I was $orn Fe$ruary 123 1!0-3 in Hardin 0ounty3 Eentuc&y2 ?y arents were $oth $orn in Firginia3 of undistinguished fami%ies..second fami%ies3 erha s3 I shou%d say2 ?y mother3 who died in my tenth year3 was of a fami%y $y the name of Han&s3 some of whom now reside in +dams3 and others in ?acon 0ounty3 I%%inois2 ?y aterna% grandfather3 +$raham 5inco%n3 emigrated from Eoc&ingham 0ounty3 Firginia3 to Eentuc&y3 a$out 17!1 or 17!23 where a year or two %ater he was &i%%ed $y the Indians3 not in $att%e3 $ut $y stea%th3 when he was %a$oring to o en a farm in the forest2 His ancestors3 who were Aua&ers3 went to Firginia from 8er&s 0ounty3 Pennsy%1ania2 +n effort to identify them with the Bew Eng%and fami%y of the same name ended in nothing more definite than a simi%arity of 0hristian names in $oth fami%ies3 such as Enoch3 5e1i3 ?ordecai3 So%omon3 +$raham3 and the %i&e2 ?y father3 at the death of his father3 was $ut si( years of age3 and he grew u %itera%%y without education2 He remo1ed to Eentuc&y to what is now S encer 0ounty3 Indiana3 in my eighth year2 We reached our new home a$out the time the State came into the 6nion2 It was a wi%d region3 with many $ears and other wi%d anima%s sti%% in the woods2 "here I grew u 2 "here were some schoo%s3 so ca%%ed3 $ut no @ua%ification was e1er re@uired of a teacher $eyond Creadin,3 writin,3 and ci herin,C to the ru%e of three2 If a stragg%er su osed to understand 5atin ha ened to so4ourn in the neigh$orhood he was %oo&ed u on as a wiDard2 "here was a$so%ute%y nothing to e(cite am$ition for education2 9f course3 when I came of age I did not

&now much2 Sti%%3 somehow3 I cou%d read3 write3 and ci her to the ru%e of three3 $ut that was a%%2 I ha1e not $een to schoo% since2 "he %itt%e ad1ance I now ha1e u on this store of education I ha1e ic&ed u from time to time under the ressure of necessity2 I was raised to farm.wor&3 which I continued ti%% I was twenty. two2 +t twenty.one I came to I%%inois3 ?acon 0ounty2 "hen I got to Bew Sa%em3 at that time in Sangamon3 now in ?enard 0ounty3 where I remained a year as a sort of c%er& in a store2 "hen came the 8%ac& Haw& war3 and I was e%ected a ca tain of 1o%unteers3 a success which ga1e me more %easure than any I ha1e had since2 I went into the cam aism3 was e%ected< ran for the %egis%ature the same year =1!32>3 and was $eaten..the on%y time I e1er ha1e $een $eaten $y the eo %e2 "he ne(t three succeeding $iennia% e%ections I was e%ected to the %egis%ature2 I was not a candidate afterward2 /uring this %egis%ati1e eriod I had studied %aw and remo1ed to S ringfie%d to ractise it2 In 1!4' I was once e%ected to the %ower house of 0ongress2 Was not a candidate for ree%ection2 From 1!4- to 1!)43 $oth inc%usi1e3 ractised %aw more assiduous%y than e1er $efore2 +%ways a Whig in o%itics3 and genera%%y on the Whig e%ectora% tic&ets3 ma&ing acti1e can1asses2 I was %osing interest in o%ities when the re ea% of the ?issouri 0om romise aroused me again2 What I ha1e done since then is retty we%% &nown2 If any ersona% descri tion of me is thought desira$%e3 it may $e said I am3 in height3 si( feet four inches3 near%y< %ean in f%esh3 weighing on an a1erage one hundred and eighty ounds< dar& com %e(ion3 with coarse $%ac& hair and gray eyes2 Bo other mar&s or $rands reco%%ected2 Batura%ness %itera%%y means to $e in harmony with nature2 It is that innate @ua%ity that ma&es a man o$edient to his $est se%f3 and is o osed to e1ery form of unrea%ity and e(aggeration2 It is de1e%o ed not $y aiming direct%y at it3 $ut rather $y aiming at those things that are &nown to roduce it2 +s 5owe%% says: C"o see& to $e natura% im %ies a consciousness that for$ids a%% natura%ness for. e1er2C "herefore the s ea&er,s most 1ita% concern shou%d $e a%ways to s ea& %ain truth3 to $e scru u%ous%y accurate and recise3 and to ma&e e1ery word ring with the unmista&a$%e @ua%ities of fran&ness and sincerity2 "he test of a successfu% s ea&er is the effect he roduces u on his audience2 He may e(haust a%% the arts of e%ocution3 rhetoric3 and %ogic< he may $e a master of Eng%ish sty%e3 $ut un%ess he ersuade his hearers to act he is not in the highest sense an orator2 "he s ea&er can $est $e in earnest $y aiming at the moti1es which roduce earnestness2 He must himse%f $e mo1ed $efore he attem ts to mo1e others2 "he ur ose of his s ea&ing shou%d $e c%ear%y denned in his own mind3 and un%i&e those who Caim at nothing and hit it3C he3 on the contrary3 wi%% ad1ance toward distinct and definite ends2 "here must $e no acting3 no retense3 no $om$ast3 no em ty and $oisterous dec%amation3 $ut a ersistent and sincere a %ication of his $est owers3 $oth of thought and fee%ing3 to the effecti1e de%i1ery of his message2 "he 1a%ue of ersona% character in the s ea&er is em hasiDed in the hrase3 CWhat you are re1ents me from hearing what you say2C What an audience may &now a$out a man goes to determine the menta% image they ha1e of him when he stands $efore them to s ea&3 and in a 1ery %arge degree does this affect the im ortance they attach to his utterance2 + snea& need not try to $e an orator3 for he can not $e2 His rea% character wi%% short%y $etray him3 if his re utation does not3 and he wi%% $e a raised at his true 1a%ue2 His sou%,s em hasis wi%% unconscious%y disc%ose the sou% itse%f2 "here is a wide difference $etween ha1ing something to say and ha1ing to say something2

"hought is a necessary art of successfu% s eech3 and if a man rea%%y has nothing to say it is dangerous for him to retend otherwise2 "he mind must $e cu%ti1ated as a fie%d3 and from 4udicious%y %anted seeds of &now%edge to yie%d a har1est of fresh3 origina% ideas2 ?an is a thin&ing anima%3 and his mind thin&s whether he wi%%s or not2 He can %earn to contro% his thoughts3 to determine the &ind of ideas he wi%% har$or in his mind3 and3 moreo1er3 he can concentrate u on definite su$4ects and direct his menta% owers in the ursuit of c%ear and definite o$4ects2 "o $ecome a great s ea&er a man must assiduous%y cu%ti1ate the ositi1e side of his character2 He shou%d a1oid3 es ecia%%y $efore an audience3 such negati1e e( ressions as CI may $e wrong3C CI am ha%f.inc%ined to thin&3C CI do not wish to $e too ositi1e3C CI am ready to $e corrected if I am wrong3,, and simi%ar hrases2 He must e@ui himse%f so thorough%y for his wor& that he wi%% $e a$%e truthfu%%y to say3 CI s ea& authoritati1e%y3C CI &now this to $e true3C C"here is not the shadow of a dou$t3C or CI sta&e my re utation on it2C + ositi1e nature is essentia% to %eadershi 2 ?en are unwi%%ing to entrust themse%1es to uncertainty and ine( erience2 "he man whom they fo%. %ow must $e one who &nows3 and &nows that he &nows2 Sensiti1eness is fata% in a u$%ic man3 $ecause it indicates a %ac& of one of the most fundamenta% @ua%ities of success..se%f.confidence2 6n%ess a man ha1e the courage of his con1ictions he can not ho e to win recognition as a teacher and %eader of men2 +n inestima$%e $enefit may $e deri1ed from studying some of the great and se%f.re%iant s ea&ers of Eng%and and +merica2 *%adstone,s s eeches $reathe throughout this @ua%ity of firmness and $e%ief2 7ames 8ryce says of him: It was $y his oratory that he first won fame3 and %arge%y $y it that he maintained his ascendency2 If ?s e%o@uence $e com ared either with that of the great ancient masters of the art3 or with such modern masters as Edmund 8ur&e and /anie% We$ster3 it does not show an e@ua% de th and 1o%ume of thought nor an e@ua% $eauty and o%ish of diction2 ?any thought the s eeches of 7ohn 8right su erior3 if considered as fine ieces of Eng%ish2 ?r2 *%adstone3 howe1er3 ossest three great gifts of the ar%iamentary orator2 He had a su er$ 1oice and de%i1ery2 His re. sources were ine(hausti$%e2 His @ui1er was a%ways fu%% of arguments3 and he was e@ua%%y s&i%fu% in the setting forth his own case in the most ersuasi1e form and in answering his o onent,s case on the s ur of the moment with s&i%% and s irit2 +nd3 a$o1e a%%3 he had great fighting force2 He en4oyed the c%ash of wits3 and the more formida$%e an attac& was3 the more did it rouse him to the highest oint of effecti1eness2 Indeed3 it was often said in Par%iament that his e(tem ore s eeches made in some conf%ict of de$ate that arose sudden%y were more te%%ing and ga1e a higher im ression of his owers than the discourses thought o1er $eforehand2 "his ower remained with him to the end2 It was this same @ua%ity of se%f.re%iance in We$ster that caused him to say to Hayne3 C5et the discussion roceed< I am ready now to recei1e the gent%eman,s fire2C He was a modest man3 $ut CHe carried men,s minds3 and o1erwhe%ming%y rest his thought u on them3 with the immense current of his hysica% energy2C His sty%e was ca%m and de%i$erate3 $ut a%ways suggested great ower in reser1e2 Hence it is that CWe$ster,s name has $een %in&ed with /emosthenes as the two greatest of the wor%d,s orators2 "o $e a great u$%ic s ea&er one must $e a great man2 + g%ance o1er the enduring s eeches

of the wor%d shows that not one was de%i1ered for a consideration2 /emosthenes s o&e in his own defense2 0icero e(ce%%ed a%% his other efforts in his oration against 0ati%ine2 "he s eeches that ha1e $een reser1ed in Eng%ish oratory were made in $eha%f of the country or for some other great cause2 8ur&e3 Pitt3 Ers&ine3 Fo(3 9,0onne%%3 ?acau%ay3 *%adstone3 and /israe%i s o&e at their $est when they s o&e for the common we%fare2 "he history of oratory in +merica testifies to this same @ua%ity of disinterestedness2 "he greatest s eeches were not ins ired $y any thought of ersona% reward2 CWe$ster3 5inco%n3 0%ay3 Sumner3 Phi%%i s3 and other great names are remem$ered for their de1otion to cause and country2 Henry Ward 8eecher3 with a%% his u% it e%o@uence3 ne1er s o&e so we%% as in his s eeches against s%a1ery2 When Seward made his e%o@uent defense of the negro Freeman3 he did it without com ensation2 He toi%ed for months3 s ent his own money3 %ost %ife%ong friends3 and was a$used and a%most mo$$ed $y an infuriated eo %e $ecause he dared to defend a he% %ess negro3 charged with murder3 whom he $e%ie1ed to $e insane2 "he greatest s eeches of a%% time in1aria$%y ha1e $een ins ired $y an o1erwhe%ming desire for u$%ic ser1ice2 It wi%% $e seen3 then3 that the greatness of a s ea&er,s sty%e is mere%y the e( ression of his great character3 and that %ie is one who is ready to offer himse%f3 if need $e3 a %i1ing sacrifice2 + great s ea&er %a$ors to ma&e men no$%er3 to ins ire them to higher idea%s3 and to ad1ance the we%fare of man&ind2 We are sometimes to%d that on%y a nationa% crisis3 or some other unusua% e1ent3 can roduce great orators2 8ut ne1er $efore3 not e1en in ancient *reece or #ome3 has there $een a time when men were so ready as now to $e mo1ed $y genuine e%o@uence2 Be1er $efore has there $een a time when so many 1ita% nationa%3 socia%3 and other ro$%ems confronted a eo %e for so%ution2 In a%% the history of the wor%d there has ne1er $efore $een so much serious and su$stantia% wor& for the we%%.trained orator2 His res onsi$i%ity is3 indeed3 a high one3 demanding thoroughness3 earnestness3 and se%f.sacrifice2 His sou% must $e set on fire with ardor for his cause3 and that cause must ru%e his heart and %ife2 In this way3 and on%y in this way3 may he ho e to $ecome a master of men3 and a tru%y great u$%ic s ea&er2

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"he student of u$%ic s ea&ing wi%% do we%% to confine his first efforts to sim %e forms of s eech.ma&ing2 P%ain narrati1e and c%ear statement of fact shou%d $e his rimary o$4ects2 "he ornamenta% graces of rhetoric and oratory may ad1antageous%y $e %eft for su$se@uent consideration2 His su$4ect may $e anything from a ersona% e( erience3 such as a 1isit to Bew ;or& or 5ondon3 to a discussion of some socia% or o%itica% @uestion of the day2 8ut whate1er theme he choose to s ea& u on3 it is im ortant that it $e time%y and of ro$a$%e interest to his hearers2 "he highest oratorica% ta%ents wi%% not atone for an ina ro riate choice of su$4ect2 "here are hundreds of 1ita% to ics3 in which most men are more or %ess interested2 + se%ection may $e made from these: "he 6nem %oyed2 Woman Suffrage2 0on1ict 5a$or2 Sunday 0%osing2 0a ita% Punishment2 0oeducation2 #estricted Immigration2 "he "heater2 +eria% Ba1igation2 0rime and Po1erty2 5ife Insurance2 0hi%d 5a$or2 Fi1isection2 "ria% $y 7ury2 Free "rade2 *am$%ing2 6ni1ersa% Peace2 "he Begro2 Stri&es2 +narchy2 8imeta%ism2 Free Wi%%2 /egeneration2 Fegetarianism2 "he Press2 Suicide2 0remation2 /i1orce2 Im eria%ism2 "rusts2 Socia%ism2 Pensions2 E1o%ution2

9 ortunity2 Prohi$ition2 Success2 8efore attem ting to write s eeches of his own3 the student wi%% find it rofita$%e to e(amine those of others3 a good se%ection of which is ro1ided in this 1o%ume2 0icero says: Since3 a%% the $usiness and art of an orator is di1ided into fi1e arts3 he ought first to find out what he shou%d say< ne(t3 to arrange and dis ose his matter3 not on%y in a certain order3 $ut with a sort of ower and 4udgment< then to c%othe and dec& his thoughts with %anguage< then to secure them in his memory< and %ast%y3 to de%i1er them with dignity and grace2 I had %earned and understood a%so that $efore we enter u on the main su$4ect3 the minds of the audience shou%d $e conci%iated $y an e(ordium< ne(t3 that the case shou%d $e c%ear%y stated< then3 that the oint in contro1ersy shou%d $e esta$%ished< then3 that what we may maintain shou%d $e su orted $y roof3 and that whate1er was said on the other side shou%d $e refuted< and that3 in the conc%usion of our s eech3 whate1er was in our fa1or shou%d $e am %ified and enforced3 and whate1er made for our ad1ersaries shou%d $e wea&ened and in1a%idated2 "he mind once fi(t u on a su$4ect3 that su$4ect $ecomes a oint of attraction3 and materia% gathers around it with sur riDing ra idity2 "hese s ontaneous thoughts shou%d $e committed immediate%y to a er3 and on%y after the student has e(hausted the natura% resources of his mind shou%d he ha1e recourse to $oo&s2 It is difficu%t to %ay down hard and fast ru%es as to the choice of $oo&s3 $ut in a genera% way the young s ea&er wi%% $e we%% ad1ised if he confines himse%f to those which ha1e stood the test of time2 It may $e said in assing that the fre@uent and regu%ar reading of standard $oo&s is not on%y usefu% far storing the mind with information3 $ut is an essentia% art of ractica% training in e(tem ore s ea&ing2 If much of this reading is done a%oud3 the resu%ts wi%% $e a%% the $etter3 since many words and hrases wi%% in this manner $e actua%%y fitted to the s ea&er,s mouth and made ready for instant use2 Pro$a$%y no e(ercise de1e%o s as this does the facu%ty of ready utterance2 History3 $iogra hy3 hi%oso hy3 science3 oetry and fiction shou%d $e %aid under tri$ute3 and each made to render its share toward forming the student,s s ea&ing sty%e2 +ssuming3 then3 that the s ea&er has now gathered his materia%..from his mind3 from $oo&s3 men3 con1ersation3 o$ser1ation3 and nature..he has $efore him a mass of genera% notes on his su$4ect2 His ne(t ste is to ma&e a %an and arrange this materia% in organiDed form2 It shou%d $e c%ear%y understood that this %an3 or $rief3 is mere%y an out%ine3 and not the s eech itse%f2 It is com riDed of sing%e statements arranged as headings and su$.headings3 each indicated $y a se arate %etter or numera%3 the who%e di1ided into three arts3 &nown as: "he Introduction3 "he /iscussion3 and "he 0onc%usion2 "his wi%% $e made c%ear $y the fo%%owing i%%ustration: Su$4ect: "#+/E.6BI9BS +#E + 8EBEFI" "9 "HE 5+89#IB* 05+SS IB"#9/60"I9B +2 "rade.unionism is one of the com %e( @uestions of the day3 since =1> "he re%ation of the %a$orer to the em %oyer is of 1ita% im ortance3 and

=2> /ifferences $etween them are ine1ita$%e2 /IS06SSI9B +2 "rade.unions $enefit the %a$oring c%ass3 $ecause =1> "hey afford rotection from %ow wages3 =2> "hey re1ent wor&ing o1ertime3 and =3> "hey remo1e many inhuman conditions of %ife2 82 "rade.unions gi1e to the %a$oring c%ass: =1> "he ad1antages of concentration3 =2> Protection for com etent men3 and =3> +n incenti1e for a high %e1e% of industria% efficiency2 02 "rade.unions confer other $enefits u on the wor&ing c%ass $y =1> ?a&ing ro1ision against i%%ness and accident3 and =2> Furthering the wor&ers, interests o%itica%%y2 09B056SI9B +2 "rade.unions confer a $enefit u on the wor&ing c%ass $ecause they =1> Insure a uniform sca%e of wages3 =2> Pre1ent undu%y %ong hours3 =3> #emo1e many in4ustices2 =4> +fford the ad1antages of concentration3 =)> Protect com etent men3 ='> Stimu%ate men to efficiency3 =7> Pro1ide against i%%ness and accident3 and =!> Fit their men as o%itica% re resentati1es2 82 "rade.unions are a ower for $enefit3 inasmuch as

=1> "hey now e(ist in e1ery ci1i%iDed country in the wor%d2 and =2> +re a$%e to wor& together for the internationa% so%idarity of %a$or2 "he time de1oted to the carefu% re aration of this out%ine or $rief wi%% $e we%% s ent2 It wi%% sa1e much rewriting and confusion in the s eech itse%f2 "his %an shou%d $e su$4ected to the se1erest ana%ysis $efore the first draft of the s eech ro er is made2 "he 1arious statements in the $rief shou%d $e arranged in the strongest and most %ogica% order3 and the who%e he%d together as an un$ro&en chain2 When this is fina%%y done the s ea&er is ready to write out his s eech with this $rief $efore him as his guide2 In the introduction of his s eech he wi%% set down what he thin&s is most %i&e%y to secure fa1ora$%e consideration on the art of his audience2 +nything that wi%% at once gain their attention3 res ect and sym athy may $e em %oyed in these o ening sentences2 + rimary re@uisite in an introduction is that it @uic&%y and $rief%y con1ey to the hearer whate1er information may $e necessary to a c%ear understanding of the su$4ect2 In his discussion3 or the main $ody of the s eech3 the student is e( ected to resent his facts3 and here articu%ar%y he must $e a$so%ute%y truthfu% and scru u%ous%y c%ear2 His ideas and arguments shou%d $e arranged with due regard to their natura% order and im ortance2 Fami%iar thoughts wi%% $e resented first3 and if the facts are ro er%y stated with direct reference to the conc%usion3 the statement of a forma% conc%usion may not $e necessary2 "he o$4ect of a s ea&er need not $e so much to secure new facts as to resent o%d and 1erified facts in new com$inations2 Particu%ar attention shou%d $e gi1en to transitions3 so that each idea wi%% a ear to grow natura%%y out of the receding one2 "he usua% treatment of the conc%usion is to sum u what has $een said3 gi1ing a c%ear and condensed 1iew of the who%e su$4ect2 + few ointed sentences wi%% sometimes roduce the desired effect2 If an a %ication is to $e made of what has $een said3 the s ea&er shou%d $e carefu% to see that his deductions are c%ear and accurate2 5et it $e remem$ered that it is disastrous to ma&e a %ong ending2 It wi%% $e seen how im ortant it is that a u$%ic s ea&er $e a man of inte%%ectua% cu%ture3 not for the ur ose mere%y of accumu%ating facts and ideas3 $ut in order that he may $e a$%e to turn the force of his mind u on a%most any su$4ect at wi%%2 "o im ress inte%%igent men3 and to mo1e them to action3 a s ea&er must enforce what he says with good and sufficient reasons2 If there $e the s%ightest dou$t in his own mind it wi%% swift%y communicate itse%f to his hearers2 It is $etter3 therefore3 to de1e%o a few thoughts thorough%y than to attem t to co1er at one time too %arge a fie%d2 ?any fai%ures of u$%ic s ea&ers ha1e $een due to saying too much rather than too %itt%e3 and an unwi%%ingness to resent their su$4ect with $ecoming sim %icity and conciseness2 + carefu%%y re ared s eech3 written according to a definite out%ine3 is one of the $est safeguards against diffuseness2 It ena$%es a s ea&er to determine in ad1ance recise%y what and what not to say2 "o &now what to say he must ossess a discerning and sensiti1e &now%edge of human nature2 He must &now how to meet men on their own ground3 to see things from their 1iew oint3 and to ada t his methods to the common mind and heart2 He must3 in short3 &now how to reach the sym athies of his hearers3 how to s ea& direct%y to them2 Hence from the moment he uts the first words of his s eech on a er he shou%d ha1e

his audience in his mind,s eye2 It is of distinct ad1antage to a s ea&er to &now in ad1ance something of the character of the audience he is to address2 + su$4ect and sty%e a ro riate to one c%ass of men may $e who%%y unsuited to an. other2 + scientific address wou%d $e out of %ace at an after.dinner function3 whi%e a humorous s eech from the u% it wou%d $e %i&e%y to shoc& a sensiti1e congregation2 In the re aration of his s eech the student shou%d a1oid e1en the suggestion of e(aggeration3 &nowing that his audience wi%% @uic&%y %ose faith in him shou%d they discern a tendency to o1erstate his case2 5et him constant%y $ear in mind that his o$4ect is truth3 and its resentation in the most attracti1e and con1incing form2 Howe1er gifted a man may $e in e(tem oraneous s eech he wi%% do we%% to ractise much in writing2 We ha1e the o inion of 5ord 8rougham on this oint2 CI shou%d %ay it down as a ru%e3C he says3 Cadmitting of no e(ce tion3 that a man wi%% s ea& we%% in ro ortion as he has written much< and that with e@ua% ta%ents he wi%% $e the finest e(tem ore s ea&er3 when no time for re aration is a%%owed3 who has re ared himse%f most sedu%ous%y when he had the o ortunity of de%i1ering a remeditated s eech2C "he im ortance of this re aration is a%so em hasiDed $y 8autain: CWriting is a whetstone3 or f%attening engine3 which wonderfu%%y stretches ideas3 and $rings out a%% their ma%%ea$%eness and ducti%ity2 If you ha1e time for re aration3 ne1er underta&e to s ea& without ha1ing ut on a er the s&etch of what you ha1e to say3 the %in&s of your ideas2 ;ou thus ossess your su$4ect $etter3 and conse@uent%y s ea& more c%ose%y and with %ess ris& of digressions2 When you write down a thought you ana%yDe it2 "he di1ision of the su$4ect $ecomes c%ear3 $ecomes determinate3 and a crowd of things which were not $efore ercei1ed resent themse%1es under the en2 S ea&ing is thin&ing a%oud3 $ut it is more< it is thin&ing with method and more distinct%y3 so that in em$odying your idea you not on%y ma&e others understand it3 $ut you understand it $etter yourse%f3 whi%e s reading it out $efore your own eyes and unfo%ding it $y words2 Writing adds sti%% more to s eech3 gi1ing it more recision3 more fi(ity3 more strictness3 and $y $eing forced more c%ose%y to e(amine what you wish to write down you e(tract hidden re%ations3 you reach greater de ths3 wherein may $e dise%osed rich 1eins or a$undant %odes2 E( erience teaches us that we are ne1er fu%%y conscious of a%% that is in our own thoughts3 e(ce t after ha1ing written it out2 So %ong as it remains shut u in the mind it reser1es a certain haDiness2 We do not see it com %ete%y unfo%ded3 and we can not consider it in a%% its as ects and $earings2 ?a&e your %an at the first im u%se3 and fo%%ow your ins iration to the end< after which %et things a%one for a few days3 or at %east for se1era% hours2 "hen reread attenti1e%y what you ha1e written3 and gi1e a new form to your %an..that is3 rewrite it from one end to the other3 %ea1ing on%y what is necessary3 what is essentia%2 Stri&e out ine(ora$%y whate1er is su erf%uous2 9n%y ta&e ains to ha1e the rinci a% features we%% mar&ed3 1i1id%y $rought out3 and strong%y connected3 in order that the di1ision of the discourse may $e c%ear and the %in&s firm%y we%ded2 Enough has $een said to show the im ortance of the most thorough re aration for u$%ic s ea&ing2 ?any s eeches must $e de%i1ered on short notice2 "here is no o ortunity for s ecia% research3 nor much time for carefu% writing and re1ision2 "he s ea&er is thrown %arge%y u on his own re. sources2 "he wor& he has a%ready done in gathering materia% and erfecting his Eng%ish sty%e wi%% now he% him in this necessari%y hurried3 effort2 +ny one who as ires to $ecoming a u$%ic s ea&er shou%d rea%iDe the serious res onsi$i%ity that rests u on him in this matter of re1ious re aration2 +%% his natura% a$i%ities must $e @uic&ened and assiduous%y de1e%o ed2 +s 0icero says3 C"here ought to $e certain %i1e%y

owers in the mind and understanding which may $e acute to in1ent3 ferti%e to e( %ain and adorn3 and strong and retenti1e to remem$er2 ,, Few men rea%iDe the e(tent of their owers of mind unti% they ha1e di%igent%y set a$out to cu%ti1ate them2 "hought and imagination grow through use< hence3 dai%y ractise is a more im ortant thing than natura% ta%ent2 It is we%% to remind the student of u$%ic s ea&ing that he shou%d ha1e a %arge fund of i%%ustrations2 "hese he wi%% gather rinci a%%y from $oo&s and o$ser1ation3 and his mind must $e trained so as to $e @uic& to see3 to arrange3 and to ada t such materia% to ractica% uses2 Some men ha1e the gift of o$ser1ation in reeminent degree3 whi%e others go a$out with their eyes o en and minds shut Some there are who find $ut 1ery many are $%ind to the teachings of wisdom which are to $e found on e1ery side2 It is difficu%t for some men to $e serious students< yet this is the on%y way $y which they can $ecome distinguished in u$%ic s ea&ing2 I can not for$ear gi1ing a @uotation from Wirt on the su$4ect of hard study for $oth its common sense and its stimu%ating s irit: "a&e it for granted that there is no e(ce%%ence without great %a$or2 Bo mere as irations for eminence3 howe1er ardent3 wi%% do the $usiness2 Wishing3 and sighing3 and imagining3 and dreaming of greatness wi%% ne1er ma&e you great2 If you wou%d get to the mountain,s to 3 on which the tem %e of fame stands3 it wi%% not do to stand sti%%3 %oo&ing and admiring3 and wishing you were there2 ;ou must gird u your %oins and go to wor& with a%% the indomita$%e energy of Hanni$a% sea%ing the +% s2 5a$orious study and di%igent o$ser1ation of the wor%d are $oth indis ensa$%e to the attainment of eminence2 8y the former you must ma&e yourse%f master of a%% that is &nown of science and %etters< $y the %atter3 you must &now man at %arge3 and articu%ar%y the character and genius of your own countrymen2 We can not a%% $e Fran&%ins3 it is true< $ut3 $y imitating his menta% ha$its and unwearied industry3 we may reach an eminence we shou%d ne1er otherwise attain2 Bor wou%d he ha1e $een the Fran&%in he was if he had ermitted himse%f to $e discouraged $y the ref%ection that we can not a%% $e Bewtons2 It is our $usiness to ma&e the most of our own ta%ents and o ortunities< and3 instead of discouraging ourse%1es $y com arisons and im ossi$i%ities3 to $e%ie1e a%% things imaginary ossi$%e3 as3 indeed3 a%most a%% things are to a s irit $ra1e%y and firm%y reso%1ed2 Fran&%in was a fine mode% of a ractica% man3 as contradistinguished from a 1isionary theorist3 as men of genius are 1ery a t to $e2 He was great in the greatest of a%% good @ua%ities..sound3 strong common sense2 + mere $oo&worm is a misera$%e dri1e%er< and a mere genius a thing of gossamer fit on%y for the winds to s ort with2 /irect your inte%%ectua% efforts rinci a%%y to the cu%ti1ation of the strong3 mascu%ine @ua%ities of the mind2 5earn =I re eat it> to thin&Gthin& dee %y3 com rehensi1e%y3 owerfu%%y< and %earn the sim %e3 ner1ous %anguage which is a ro riate to that &ind of thin&ing2 #ead the %ega% and o%itica% arguments of 0hief 7ustice ?arsha% and those of +%e(ander Hami%ton2 #ead them3 study them3 and o$ser1u with what an omni otent swee of thought they range o1er the who%e fie%d of e1ery su$4ect they ta&e in hand3 and that with a scythe so am %e and so &een that not a straw is %eft standing $ehind them2 8race yourse%f u to these great efforts2 Stri&e for this giant character of mind3 and %ea1e rettiness and fri1o%ity to trif%ers2 It is erfect%y consistent with these Hercu%ean ha$its of thin&ing to $e a %a$orious student and to &now a%% that $oo&s can teach2 ;ou must ne1er $e satisfied with the surface of things< ro$e them to the $ottom3 and %et nothing go ti%% you understand it as thorough%y as your owers wi%% ena$%e you2 SeiDe the moment of e(cited curiosity on any su$4ect to so%1e your dou$ts< for3 if you %et it ass3 the desire may ne1er return3 and you remain in ignorance2 "he ha$its which I ha1e $een recommending are not mere%y for co%%ege $ut for %ife2 Fran&%in,s ha$its of constant and dee e(cogitation c%ung to him to his %atest hour2 Form these ha$its

now2 5oo& at 8rougham3 and see what a man can do if we%% armed and we%% reso%1ed2 With a %oad of rofessiona% duties that wou%d3 of themse%1es3 ha1e $een a a%%ing to most of our countrymen3 he stood3 ne1erthe%ess3 at the head of his arty in the House of 0ommons3 and at the same time set in motion and su er. intended 1arious rimary schoo%s and 1arious eriodica% wor&s3 the most instructi1e and usefu% that ha1e e1er issued from the 8ritish ress3 for which he furnished with his own en some of the most master%y contri$utions3 and yet found time not on%y to &ee ace with the rogress of the arts and sciences $ut to &ee at the head of those whose ecu%iar and e(c%usi1e occu ations these arts and sciences were2 "here is a mode% of industry and usefu%ness worthy of a%% your emu%ation2 "he 1arious methods of fi(ing a s eech in the mind wi%% $e considered in the ne(t cha ter3 $ut whether the student aims to $e an e(tem oraneous s ea&er or not3 he wi%% find that the ha$it of com osition wi%% suggest to him3 e1en in im rom tu efforts3 the $est word and the most effecti1e , sentence2 It is true that the greatest thoughts are sometimes struc& from the mind whi%e in the g%ow heat of actua% s ea&ing3 $ut the e( erience of the greatest orators of the wor%d testifies to the necessity and ad1antage of the most se1ere re aration2

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E&ercises For 'nl! ( to ) *inutes Each Da! Can +ive You a Strong, Deep, Se&! $oice.

"he natura%ness and effecti1eness of a s eech de end in no sma%% measure u on the attitude of the s ea&er,s mind toward his su$4ect and the occasion2 If he sets out with the e( ress ur ose of ma&ing a great oration3 or of e%ectrifying his audience3 the chances are ten to one he wi%% fa%% into e(tra1agance and artificia%ity2 If3 on the other hand3 he is guided from the $eginning $y a desire to $e thorough%y sincere3 to resent his facts sim %y3 c%ear%y3 and concise%y3 and to im ress men with the truth rather than with himse%f3 he need not great%y concern himse%f a$out the u%timate effect of his s ea&ing2 + short3 cris sentence at the $eginning of a s eech arrests the attention of the %istener2 "he genera% sty%e of de%i1ery shou%d $e c%ear and de%i$erate2 It is high%y im ortant that the introduction $e $rief and c%ear%y understood3 since u on the first few sentences of a s eech may de end the who%e su$se@uent argument2 It acts in fa1or of a s ea&er3 too3 if he con1ey at the 1ery outset the im ression of modesty2 +n a o%ogy3 howe1er3 is the worst ro%og2 It was the custom of some ancient orators to assume a modest demeanor in s ea&ing in order to win fa1or with their audience2 0icero e1en goes so far as to recommend a certain degree of timidity in the u$%ic s ea&er3 and says: "o me3 those who s ea& $est3 and s ea& with the utmost ease and grace3 a ear3 if they do not commence their s eeches with some timidity and show some confusion in the e(ordium3 to ha1e a%most %ost the sense of shame3 it is im ossi$%e that such shou%d not $e the case< for the $etter @ua%ified a man is to s ea&3 the more he fears the difficu%ties of s ea&ing3 the uncertain success of a s eech3 and the e( ectation of the audience2 8ut he who can roduce and de%i1er nothing worthy of his su$4ect3 nothing worthy the name of an orator3 nothing worthy the attention of his audience3 seems to me3 tho he $e e1er so confused whi%e he is s ea&ing3 to $e downright shame%ess< for we ought to a1oid a character for shame%essness3 not $y testifying shame $ut $y not doing that which does not $ecome us2 8ut the s ea&er who has no shame =as I see to $e the case with many> I regard as deser1ing not on%y of re$u&e3 $ut of ersona% castigation2 Indeed3 what I often o$ser1e in you I 1ery fre@uent%y e( erience in myse%f3 that I turn a%e in the outset of my s eech3 and fee% a tremor through my who%e thoughts3 as it were3 and %im$s2 + de%i$erate sty%e in s ea&ing is most desira$%e3 since it not on%y indicates se%f.contro%3 $ut ermits an audience the more readi%y to fo%%ow the s ea&er,s %ine of thought2 + further ad1antage of this sty%e of de%i1ery is that the s ea&er a ears to weigh his thought $efore gi1ing it utterance3 and $y in1esting it with3 a sense of im ortance %eads his audience to do %i&ewise2 When a s ea&er stands to address an audience he is esti. mated often $efore he has uttered a sing%e sy%%a$%e2 Face3 figure3 and ersona%ity con1ey a si%ent $ut none the %ess irresisti$%e im ression3 and if this first im ression $e a fa1ora$%e one it wi%% add great%y to the chances of success of the s ea&er2 "he @ua%ity of a man,s 1oice3 too3 %ays an im ortant art in these initia% moments of ad4ustment $etween s ea&er and hearer2 If it $e a we%%.trained instrument3 mar&ed $y c%earness3 f%e(i$i%ity and me%ody3 this wi%% act as a recommendation of the s ea&er2 5et us assume that the s ea&er has now $egun his s eech3 and has uttered the first few

words s%ow%y3 distinct%y3 and with due regard to his who%e audience2 "he first fee%ing of timidity3 if any3 soon disa ears3 and he enters more articu%ar%y into the heart of his su$4ect2 Here and there a word or a hrase is gi1en s ecia% em hasis3 a su$ordinate assage hurried o1er3 an effecti1e ause made3 and ossi$%y an occasiona% gesture introduced2 *radua%%y the s eech gains in ower3 momentum3 and 1ariety2 "he face and figure of the s ea&er $ecome more and more animated3 the gesture and action grow in siDe and significance3 the 1oice assumes a new 1ariety and intensity3 and at %ength the fee%ings of the s ea&er3 now unharnessed3 $ear him and his audience a%ong u on a mo1ing tide of e%o@uence2 "here are $rief moments for ause and re%a(ation3 $ut soon the s ea&er,s 1oice is heard again in a%% its ower and intensity2 Pointed hrase3 word icture3 te%%ing argument3 and 1i1id i%%ustration are used in turn to con1ince and ersuade the hearer2 Fina%%y the s ea&er reaches the cu%minating oint of his address3 dri1es home his message $y the fu%% force of his ersona%ity3 and with a%% con1enient s eed $rings his s eech to a fitting conc%usion2 "he re%ation of the s ea&er to his audience3 it wi%% $e seen3 is reci roca%2 +s *%adstone says3 C"he wor& of the orator from its 1ery ince tion is ine(trica$%y mi(ed u with ractise2 It is cast in the mo%d offered to him $y the mind of his hearers2 It is an inf%uence rinci a%%y recei1ed from his audience3 so to s ea&3 in 1a or3 which he ours $ac& u on them in a f%ood2C Here the s ea&er,s imagination3 authority3 and enthusiasm %ay an im ortant art2 He must3 indeed3 $ring a%% his own owers under su$4ection $efore he can ho e to master the minds of others2 His ersona%ity3 which is the sum of a%% the @ua%ities he has de1e%o ed within himse%f3 is what most counts in the fina% effort to im ress and ersuade men2 It shou%d $e the aim of e1ery u$%ic s ea&er so to train his emotions that they wi%% $e res onsi1e to his 1aried re@uirements2 Fee%ing is an intrinsic and essentia% art of oratory3 and without this ower at his ready command3 no man need as ire to great oratorica% achie1ement2 ?any of the s ea&er,s effects are necessari%y remeditated3 $ut they shou%d $e none the %ess natura% and sincere2 +rtificia% out$ursts of assion3 em ty dec%amation3 and 1io%ent c%ea1ing of the air may $e the wea ons of the $arnstorming. actor3 $ut they ha1e no %egitimate %ace in dignified u$%ic s ea&ing2 "he dictum of the ancients3 that a man must himse%f $e mo1ed with the sentiments he is e( ressing $efore he can ho e to mo1e others3 is as true to.day as it was then2 It is of aramount im ortance that a s ea&er determine definite%y in ad1ance how he intends to $egin and end his s eech3 as we%% as the %ength of time he wi%% occu y2 9ne of the most dangerous mista&es3 common to f%uent s ea&ers3 is that of ta%&ing on at great %ength3 sim %y $ecause they find themse%1es $eing we%% recei1ed $y the audience2 Such men3 tem ted into digressions from their origina% %an3 often find themse%1es at a %oss to reach a gracefu% conc%usion3 and at %ast ha1ing wearied and disa ointed the audience3 are o$%iged to end C%i&e a ha%f.e(tinguished cand%e going out in smo&e2C It is we%% &nown that many of the wor%d,s great orators3 tho e( onents of the e(tem ore sty%e of s ea&ing3 ga1e s ecia% attention to the re aration and memoriDing of the introduction and conc%usion of their s eeches2 "here are se1era% ways in which a s eech may $e re ared and de%i1ered2 "he s ea&er may write out his s eech3 and read it from the a er2 "his is the %east effecti1e of any3 $ecause of the o u%ar re4udice against the use of manuscri t2 E(ce t in scientific addresses3 or those re@uiring unusua%%y cautious statements3 it is ad1isa$%e not to ado t this method2 If3 howe1er3 a s ea&er must use a manuscri t3 %et him %earn to read it we%%2 He is %a$oring under a disad1antage3 and he must aim to offset this as much as it %ies in his ower2 He may at %east

try to read it as he wou%d s ea& it3 a1oiding the monotony and right.onwardness so common in the reading of s eeches2 He wi%% accom %ish3 the $est resu%ts $y assuming that he is rea%%y de%i1ering e1ery word and sentence of his s eech3 and not mere%y reading it2 He wi%% endea1or to ut into his 1oice a%% the e( ression3 energy3 and determination of e(tem ore s eech3 and a%tho %arge%y de ri1ed of the ad1antage of eye.to.eye communication and of $odi%y mo1ement3 he may3 ne1erthe%ess3 &ee his audience so 1i1id%y $efore his mind that he wi%% seem to $e addressing them direct%y2 "he s ea&er may write out his s eech and commit it to memory in fu%%2 "his is not on%y a %a$orious method3 $ut is attended with one great danger2 If the s ea&er %oses the drift of his remeditated %anguage3 he may $e so com %ete%y thrown off the trac& that he must either start again at the $eginning3 or e(tem oriDe as $est he may2 "his is not %i&e%y to ro1e successfu%3 since he has trained his mind to de end u on certain recise words3 and fai%ing these3 the greater ro$a$i%ity is that he wi%% $e co1ered with confusion2 +nother way is to write out the s eech in fu%%3 and commit to memory the introduction3 conc%usion3 and other im ortant arts2 "his has many ad1antages3 as it secures the s ea&er against uneasiness at the 1ita% oints of his address3 whi%e he is %eft free to e( ress many of his care. fu%%y thought.out ideas in the %anguage of the moment2 9ne caution is necessary here3 howe1er3 and that is that the s ea&er must ordinari%y ha1e such a command of %anguage that his im rom tu assages wi%% not $e noticea$%y inferior to those he has committed to memory2 "his is one of the se1erest criticisms assed u on Sheridan3 who went to the e(treme in rewriting3 o%ishing and memoriDing certain arts of his s eeches2 Sti%% another method3 and that which is recommended as the $est of a%%3 is to write out sim %y the main di1isions of the s eech3 with headings and su$headings3 to thin& out thorough%y the thought under each3 and %ea1e the actua% hraseo%ogy to the ins iration of the occasion2 "his %aces a s ea&er on his mett%e3 and a%% that is $est within him.. in 1oice3 thought3 fee%ing3 and ersona%ity..is cha%%enged to do its utmost2 "his Cthin&ing on one,s feet3C to $e re. eminent%y successfu%3 re@uires that a man $e thorough%y we%% read3 that he command a %arge and 1aried 1oca$u%ary from which to choose on the instant3 and that through ractise and e( erience3 he ha1e ossession of his s ea&ing owers2 9ne of the $est re arations for this form of ad. dress is to write out a s eech se1era% times3 1arying the %anguage as much as ossi$%e each time2 "hen at the time of de%i1ery3 it wi%% $e found that the mind3 ha1ing se1era% sets of words from which to choose3 wi%% not $e so %i&e%y to fai% as it wou%d if de endent u on on%y one set of hraseo%ogy2 What has here $een said a$out writing out on%y the main headings of a s eech im %ies3 of course3 that the s ea&er has a%ready had much ractise in com osition2 "he im ortance of fre@uent ractise with the en3 as a means to ready e( ression3 can not $e too strong%y em hasiDed2 E1ery student of u$%ic s ea&ing shou%d ta&e to heart the words of /r2 8%air: Without steady3 hard wor& it is im ossi$%e to e(ce% in anything2 We must not imagine that it is $y a sort of mushroom growth that one can rise to $e a distinguished %eader3 or reacher3 or s ea&er3 in any assem$%y2 It is not $y starts of a %ication3 or $y a few years, re aration and study3 afterward discontinued3 that eminence can $e o$tained2 Bo< it can $e attained on%y $y means of regu%ar industry3 grown u into a ha$it3 and ready to $e e(erted on e1ery occasion that ca%%s for industry.

+ s ea&er shou%d fee% that he is addressing himse%f direct%y to his audience3 much the same as he wou%d s ea& in con1ersation to one erson2 His su$4ect and the occasion may demand %arge effects of em hasis and intensity3 $ut a%% must $e done with ease and natura%ness2 "he s%ightest suggestion of dec%amation serious%y mi%itates against a s ea&er3 who is e( ected a$o1e a%% e%se to $e unostentatious2 "ruth3 to $e resented attracti1e%y3 must $e easi%y a rehended2 It is a good %an for a s ea&er to ta%& o1er his su$4ect in ad1ance with a friend3 and to in1ite his criticisms and suggestions2 "his rehearsing of a s eech ser1es to c%arify the s ea&er,s mind3 fami%iariDes him with many usefu% words and hrases3 and increases his fee%ing of se%f.confidence2 It is we%% not to $e so an(ious a$out words as a$out ideas2 "hin& intent%y enough a$out ideas3 and the words wi%% come of themse%1es2 9$1ious attem ts at word. ainting are rare%y effecti1e3 and the student wi%% $e we%%.ad1ised if he a1oids3 in his ear%y efforts3 a%% such em$e%%ishments2 What an audience rea%%y wants from the s ea&er is common sense3 the ower of c%ear statement3 and %ogica% de1e%o ment of ideas2 "he highest endowments of 1oice and manner wi%% not ma&e u for %ac& of these essentia% e%ements2 "he e(tem ore s ea&er finds it necessary to ha1e a %arge stoc& of words from which to choose on the instant2 "hese are among his most im ortant too%s3 since without them he can not e(ercise the owers of his mind free%y2 Howe1er %arge and 1aried his 1oca$u%ary may $e3 he must a%ways regard it as secondary to the thought of which it is mere%y the sym$o%2 Words are usefu% and necessary to the s ea&er on%y in so far as they con1ey truth3 $eauty3 and %easure to the hearer2 It has $een said that the orator himse%f must not wee 3 since he must at a%% times $e su erior to the occasion2 Here3 as in a%% forms of assion3 a s ea&er must $e carefu% to guard against the s%ightest sus icion of insincerity3 ranting3 or e(aggeration2 Fee%ing shou%d ne1er $e su erf%uous2 If it is not a natura% emanation from the heart3 the s ea&er wi%% do we%% to &ee to sim %e co%%o@uy2 When the orator $ecomes an actor3 inte%%igent eo %e refuse %onger to fo%%ow his %eadershi 2 Without3 howe1er3 fa%%ing into insincerity or mannerism3 the s ea&er shou%d &now how to ma&e his face interesting and e( ressi1e2 "he eyes and mouth articu%ar%y3 may $e made to con1ey most wonderfu% effects of ower3 con1iction3 earnestness3 and determination2 Parenthetica% statements shou%d $e used s aring%y2 If em %oyed fre@uent%y they wea&en the force and directness of the main argument2 When it is a$so%ute%y necessary to introduce a arenthetica% remar&3 the ru%es to $e o$ser1ed are: "o ause $efore and after it3 to s%ight%y %ower the itch of the 1oice3 and to @uic&en the rate of s ea&ing2 8ut as 4ust stated3 a arenthesis shou%d $e a1oided whene1er ossi$%e3 as it is usua%%y a ta( u on the %istener,s attention3 and3 moreo1er3 he dis%i&es too many detai%s and e( %anations2 ?usica% s ea&ing tones de end u on gent%e $reathing2 + s ea&er shou%d accustom himse%f3 through re1ious ractise3 to ta&e a $reath at e1ery ause2 9ne of the commonest fau%ts of untrained s ea&ers is that of s ea&ing right on unti% the $reath is e(hausted2 "his is a se1ere strain u on the throat and 1oice3 since the s ea&er is then rea%%y doing most of his wor& u on

on%y ha%f.fi%%ed %ungs2 "he guiding ru%e shou%d $e to &ee the %ungs we%% inf%ated whene1er ossi$%e3 and to uti%iDe e1ery o ortunity for ta&ing a fresh $reath2 "his form of dee $reathing wi%% ena$%e a erson to s ea& for hours3 if occasion demand3 without 1oca% fatigue2 + s ea&er shou%d not drin& whi%e ma&ing a s eech2 If he does3 the tendency wi%% $e to increase the dryness of the throat2 "he method of $reathing 4ust recommended wi%% ro$a$%y o$1iate any trou$%e of the &ind3 $ut if a s ea&er $efore rising to address an audience3 has a sensation of dryness of throat3 the $est %an is to chew a sma%% iece of a er2 "he day has gone $y when a s ea&er can safe%y fo%%ow the ad1ice to regard his audience Cas a fie%d of ca$$ages2C It is much $etter to emu%ate the e(am %e of 5inco%n3 who a%ways thought of his audience as ro$a$%y &nowing more a$out his su$4ect than he did3 and re aring himse%f according%y2 ?any men who can not themse%1es ma&e a good s eech readi%y &now a good s eech from a $ad one3 and as a usua% thing are the se1erest critics2 0onse@uent%y3 it is of the utmost im ortance that a s ea&er3 from the moment he $egins the re aration of his s eech unti% its fina% de%i1ery3 shou%d $ear in mind that he is to address inte%%igent eo %e who wi%% not $e easi%y con1inced nor ersuaded3 sa1e $y sound argument and genuine a ea%s to the heart2 + man shou%d s ea& in his own 1oice3 ha1ing first de1e%o ed its ower and res onsi1eness3 &nowing that no imitation of another man,s sty%e3 howe1er e(ce%%ent3 wi%% e1er ma&e him a great s ea&er2 "he conc%usion of a s eech3 which may ta&e the form of a reca itu%ation of what has $een said3 shou%d $e de%i1ered in such a way as to gi1e the %istener intimation that the s ea&er is a$out to c%ose2 It is usua%%y ad1isa$%e to end with considera$%e s irit and animation3 a%tho the genera% rate of s ea&ing $ecomes noticea$%y s%ow and measured2 8ut a s ea&er shou%d ne1er gi1e the im ression of finishing his s eech3 and then 4ust as e1ery one thin&s he has ended3 start off again u on some new hase of his su$4ect2 Pro%i(ity is a too common fau%t of s ea&ers3 and no. where is this so a arent as in the attem t to $ring a s eech to a conc%usion2 "he ad1ice of 8autain on this su$4ect is worthy of note: "here is a way of conc%uding which is most sim %e3 the most rationa%3 and the %east ado ted2 "rue3 it gi1es %itt%e trou$%e and affords no room for om ous sentences3 and that is why so many des ise it3 and do not e1en gi1e it a thought2 It consists mere%y of winding u $y a ra id reca itu%ation of the who%e discourse3 resenting in sum what has $een de1e%o ed in the 1arious arts3 so as to enunciate on%y the %eading ideas with their connection..a rocess which gi1es the o ortunity of a ner1ous and %i1e%y summary3 foreshortening a%% that has $een stated3 and ma&ing the remem$rance and rofita$%e a %ication of it easy2 +nd since you ha1e s o&en to gain some oint3 to con1ince and ersuade your hearer3 and thus inf%uence his wi%% $y im ressions and considerations3 and fina%%y $y some aramount fee%ing which must gi1e the finishing stro&e and determine him to action3 the e itome of the ideas must $e itse%f strengthened3 and3 as it were3 rendered %i1ing $y a few touching words which ins irit the fee%ing in @uestion at the %ast moment3 so that the con1inced and affected auditor sha%% $e ready to do what he is re@uired2 Such3 in my mind3 is the $est eroration3 $ecause it is a%i&e the most natura% and the most efficacious2 It is the straight aim of the discourse3 and as it issues from the 1ery $owe%s of the

su$4ect and from the direct intention of the s ea&er3 it goes right to the sou% %istener and %aces the two in unison at the c%ose2 I am aware that you may3 and with success3 ado t a different method of conc%uding3 either $y some ungent things which you reser1e for your eroration3 and which tend to maintain to the %ast and e1en to reawa&en the attention of the audience< or e%se $y we%%.turned eriods which f%atter the ear and e(cite a%% sorts of fee%ings3 more or %ess ana%ogous to the su$4ects..or3 in fine3 $y any other way2 6ndou$ted%y there are circumstances in which these oratorica% artifices are in &ee ing3 and may ro1e ad1antageous or agreea$%e< I do not re4ect them3 for in war a%% means3 not condemned $y humanity and honor3 and ca a$%e of rocuring 1ictory3 are a%%owa$%e..and u$%ic s ea&ing is a rea% conf%ict< I mere%y de ose that the sim %est method is a%so the $est3 and that the others3 $e%onging more to art than to nature3 are rather in the ro1ince of rhetoric than of true e%o@uence2 "he tru%y e%o@uent man3 tho not %ac&ing in oratorica% graces3 in1aria$%y gi1es the im ression that he is natura% and sincere2 He is earnest3 direct3 sim %e3 ada ta$%e3 and sym athetic3 and it is %arge%y these great @ua%ities which constitute the greatness of his s ea&ing2

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"he testimony of the greatest orators is that3 whate1er natura% gifts a man may ossess3 no rea%%y good s eech is e1er made without thorough re aration2 "here are3 of course3 many ways of re aring a s eech3 some of which are not to $e recommended2 For e(am %e3 to write out a com osition3 and then so to re1ise3 condense3 and o%ish it as to ta&e out a%% its 1ita%ity and natura%ness3 may roduce a good essay3 $ut it wi%% not ma&e a good s eech2 "horough re aration does not im %y that the s ea&er must necessari%y write out and commit to memory so many ages of words2 It means3 rather3 that whate1er method the s ea&er finds $est ada ted to fi( his s eech in mind3 he so thorough%y re ares the su$4ect.matter that his ideas are erfect%y c%ear in his mind3 and when he comes to Cthin& a%oud3C he does so with a recision and confidence $orn of second nature2 He is recommended3 therefore3 to s&etch in his mind3 whi%e out wa%&ing3 or in the so%itude of his %i$rary3 a c%ear and 1i1id out%ine of his su$4ect3 and3 the same as he wou%d do in writing3 menta%%y %ace under each di1ision of his out%ine such headings as he intends to s ea& u on2 He may carry the menta% rocess to the e(tent of thin&ing out what he wi%% say under each heading3 unti% at %ength the entire su$4ect is he%d in his mind with c%earness and accuracy2 "here can $e no dou$t that one of the greatest sources of ower in e(tem oraneous s ea&ing is that of re1ious ractise2 "he method of a distinguished mem$er of the House of 0ommons3 descri$ed $y 5ord /ufferin3 may $e fo%%owed to ad1antage2 When he intended to s ea& u on an im ortant su$4ect3 he wou%d write down his thoughts on a er as ra id%y as ossi$%e3 and then throw the a er into the fire2 "his he re eated se1era% times3 endea1oring at each effort to choose new hraseo%ogy3 and destroying his com osition as $efore2 It is said that when he su$se@uent%y stood $efore his co%%eagues to s ea&3 his mind was so stee ed in his su$4ect3 and he was so fortified with a ro riate word and hrase3 that his %isteners mar1e%ed at his de th and f%uency2 "he as irant to distinction in u$%ic s ea&ing shou%d accustom himse%f to memoriDing nota$%e assages from great orations and oems that ha1e found an enduring %ace in %iterature2 "hese $oth furnish and ferti%iDe the mind3 and after a few months, di%igent ractise gi1e to the s ea&er an accumu%ation of wor&ing materia% that wi%% $e to him an ine(hausti$%e source of ower2 Here3 again3 we ha1e the testimony of many of the wor%d,s great orators3 who ac&now%edge their inde$tedness to the ha$it of studying3 trans%ating3 or memoriDing3 the great s eeches of their redecessors2 "here is no ower in a s ea&er su erior to that of c%ear statement2 Bothing e%se wi%% atone for %ac& of it2 "act3 fe%icitous hrase3 oetica% em$e%%ishment3 and sonorous 1oice3 are ower%ess to con1ince inte%%igent men without that su$stratum of common sense u on which %ucid statement of fact has its foundation2 "here is a %amenta$%e want of strong reasoning in most men2 "he menta% machinery has not $een fine%y ad4usted to carry on its wor& with smoothness and accuracy2 0%earness of statement comes from c%earness of thought2 "he mind must $e ha$ituated to c%ose and se1ere reasoning3 to %in&ing thought with thought in %ogica% se@uence3 and to ma&ing c%ear%y defined deductions from stated remises2 "his does not im %y that a man is to gi1e his who%e mind to the study of a$stract @uestions and hi%oso hica% ro$%ems2 "he student of u$%ic s ea&ing wi%% concern himse%f more articu%ar%y with a% a$%e e1ery.day

@uestions of interest to men genera%%y3 and u on which they see& en%ightenment2 "he o$4ect of the rea% orator is not to $e a gracefu% and fau%t%ess dec%aimer3 $ut a man of ower and authority3 s ea&ing out of a fu%% mind and from a sou% &ind%ed $y enthusiasm and human affection2 When truth is ro er%y con1eyed $y a s ea&er3 it carries con1iction a%ong with it3 and the %istener $e%ie1es in the man $ecause the man $e%ie1es in himse%f2 Hence it is that he on%y is a great artist who has so cu%ti1ated and contro%%ed his owers that he can use them without undue effort and in 4ust such degree as wi%% most effecti1e%y con1ey the truth and force of his message to others2 It wi%% readi%y $e seen3 therefore3 why %ong and se1ere menta% disci %ine is necessary to success in this difficu%t art2 +%% great s ea&ers ha1e $een rofound and di%igent students3 and he who see&s a roya% road to oratorica% fame is doomed to disa ointment2 +n e(amination of the s eeches of /emosthenes does not disc%ose an unusua% gift of %anguage3 $ut what most im resses the reader is the strength and su remacy of the orator,s thought2 It is not the man we thin& of3 $ut of what he is saying3 and it is chief%y this characteristic which constitutes greatness in oratory2 "he rea% source of ower in s ea&ing is not in the 1oice3 the imagination3 or the emotions3 $ut in the intrinsic thought of the s ea&er2 "here is something unmista&a$%y assuring in a man who is master of the facts2 If he s ea&s de%i$erate%y3 as a dee thin&er is a%most sure to do3 the %istener fo%%ows the wor&ing of his mind at the moment of utterance3 and this trans arency of method acts as an e%ement of ower in fascinating and inf%uencing the auditor2 What the student of u$%ic s ea&ing rimari%y needs is a fran&3 truthfu%3 earnest ha$it of e(amining ideas and facts as they are resented to his mind in e1eryday %ife2 He shou%d %oo& at @uestions from e1ery 1iew oint3 as 5inco%n is said to ha1e done3 and determine to get the truth at any cost2 It is this fear%ess ursuit of truth that %eads to fear%ess e( ression3 and on%y after the thin&er has made the ground good under his own feet can he ho e to succeed as a guide and %eader of other men2 +nother im ortant e%ement of ower is earnestness2 "his is not to $e confounded with assumed and artificia% fee%ing ada ted conscious%y to certain ends3 neither is it sudden im u%se which may or may not do the right thing2 Earnestness comes main%y from concentration of the s ea&er,s energies u on his su$4ect2 It is a form of intensity $y which a%% his $est owers are en%isted in $eha%f of some cause3 and stimu%ated into action $y a rofound sense of duty3 atriotism3 or the desire for usefu% ser1ice2 "rue earnestness is $orn of sincerity and unse%fishness2 It is too great to intimidate3 too serious to amuse3 and too genuine to fa%% into $om$ast or em ty dec%amation2 "here is nothing that im arts sym athetic ower and a winning ersona%ity to a s ea&er %i&e innate goodness of heart and %ife2 CWhen a man shows that he $oth understands and fee%s what he says3 he is in a %arge way toward inf%uencing other men3 and of ersuading them to act as he desires2 It is the ower arising from %oftiness of sou% and su$%ime ur ose which touches the %i s of the orator3 as if $y magic3 and $ids them 1i$rate with the heart of humanity2 Inte%%igence oints the way3 earnestness gi1es wings for f%ight3 and consecrated unse%fishness carries con1iction and ersuasion to men2 It goes without saying that one source of ower in u$%ic s ea&ing comes from se%f. confidence2 + $ecoming modesty and e1en timidity often recommends itse%f at the $eginning of an address3 $ut the s ea&er3 in order to get ossession of his audience3 must first get ossession of himse%f2 Whi%e there is a Cf%utter of s irits3C or undue an(iety to %ease3 there wi%%

$e %itt%e chance of success2 Se%f.confidence3 %i&e earnestness3 is de1e%o ed from within3 $y dwe%%ing intent%y u on the im ortance of one,s su$4ect3 and $y %acing a high estimate u on one,s se%f2 + man who has trained himse%f in his e1ery.day con1ersation to thin& and s ea& in oise3 is %i&e%y to en4oy the ad1antages of de. %i$erate and se%f. ossest s ea&ing whi%e addressing an audience2 "his oise3 moreo1er3 wi%% manifest itse%f in his a$i%ity to thin& f%uent%y on his feet3 to hrase new sentences without confusion3 and to unctuate his thoughts with fre@uent and 4udicious auses2 "hese are a%% e%ements of ower in a s ea&er3 and are worthy of the highest cu%ti1ation2 "here is a ecu%iar ower in s&i%fu% re etition3 which ser1es to em hasiDe s ecia% thoughts and to im ress them u on the %istening mind2 + stri&ing e(am %e is that of the ?aster3 in St2 ?atthew3 7: 24.27: "herefore whosoe1er heareth these sayings of mine3 and doeth them3 I wi%% %i&en him unto a wise man3 which $ui%t his house u on a roc&: and the rain descended3 and the f%oods came3 and the winds $%ew3 and $eat u on that house< and it fe%% not: for it was founded u on a roc&2 +nd e1ery one that heareth these sayings of mine3 and doeth them not3 sha%% $e %i&ened unto a foo%ish man3 which $ui%t his house u on the sand: and the rain descended3 and the f%oods came3 and the winds $%ew3 and $eat u on that house< and it fe%%: and great was the fa%% of it2 + fine e(am %e of iteration3 not o1erdone3 is 5ord 8rougham,s c%osing argument for Aueen 0aro%ine3 which he is said to ha1e com osed ten times: Such3 my %ords3 is the case now $efore youH Such is the e1idence in su ort of this measure.. e1idence inade@uate to ro1e a de$t< im otent to de ri1e of a ci1i% right< ridicu%ous to con1ict of the %owest offense< scanda%ous if $rought forward to su ort a charge of the highest nature which the %aw &nows< monstrous to ruin the honor3 to $%ast the name of an Eng%ish AueenH What sha%% I say3 then3 if this is the roof $y which an act of 4udicia% %egis%ation3 a ar%iamentary sentence3 an e( ost facto %aw3 is sought to $e assed against this defense%ess womanI ?y %ords3 I ray you to ause2 I do earnest%y $eseech you to ta&e heedH ;ou are standing on the $rin& of a reci iceGthen $ewareH It wi%% go forth as your 4udgment3 if sentence sha%% go against the Aueen2 8ut it wi%% $e the on%y 4udgment you e1er ronounced3 which3 instead of reaching its o$4ect3 wi%% return and $ound $ac& u on those who gi1e it2 Sa1e the country3 my %ords3 from the horrors of this catastro he< sa1e yourse%1es from this eri%< rescue that country of which you are the ornaments3 $ut in which you can f%ourish no %onger3 when se1ered from the eo %e3 than the $%ossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree2 Sa1e that country that you may continue to adorn it< sa1e the crown3 which is in 4eo ardy< the aristocracy which is sha&en< sa1e the a%tar3 which must stagger with the $%ow that rends its &indred throneH ;ou ha1e said3 my %ords3 you ha1e wi%%ed..the 0hurch and the Eing ha1e wi%%ed ..that the Aueen shou%d $e de ri1ed of its so%emn ser1iceH She has3 instead of that so%emnity3 the heartfe%t rayers of the eo %e2 She wants no rayers of mine2 8ut I do here our forth my hum$%e su %ications at the throne of mercy3 that the mercy may $e oured down u on the eo %e3 in a %arger measure than the merits of its ru%ers may deser1e3 and that your hearts may $e turned to 4usticeH "he great orators of a%% time ha1e $een essentia%%y of serious mind and manner2 It has $een o$ser1ed that in none of the immorta% s eeches is there to $e found either wit or humor2 It is true that humor has its %egitimate %ace3 $ut it shou%d ne1er $e used to deface a serious

s eech2 "he student of u$%ic s ea&ing can not too ear%y rea%iDe that his ha$itua% attitude of mind toward the su$4ects he is studying shou%d $e essentia%%y serious3 and that his u%timate ur ose is to resent them to his audience with a%% the dignity and ower at his command2 5et him e1er remem$er that ersona% character and dis osition constitute one of the highest e%ements of ower in s ea&ing2 8%air says: In order to $e a tru%y e%o@uent or ersuasi1e s ea&er3 nothing is more necessary than to $e a 1irtuous man2 Bothing con. tri$utes more to ersuasion than the o inion which we entertain of the ro$ity3 disinterestedness3 candor3 and other good mora% @ua%ities of the erson who endea1ors to ersuade us2 "hese gi1e weight and force to e1erything which he utters3 nay3 they add $eauty to it3 they dis ose us to %isten with attention and %easure3 and create a secret artia%ity in fa1or of that side which he es ouses2 Whereas if we entertain a sus icion of craft and disingenuity3 of a corru t or a $ase mind in the s ea&er3 his e%o@uence %oses a%% its rea% effect2 It may entertain and amuse3 $ut it is 1iewed as artifice3 as tric&3 as the %ay on%y of s eech3 and 1iewed in this %ight3 whom can it ersuadeI We e1en read a $oo& with more %easure when we thin& fa1ora$%y of its author3 $ut when we ha1e the %i1ing s ea&er $efore our eyes3 addressing us ersona%%y on some su$4ect of im ortance3 the o inion we entertain of his character must ha1e a much more owerfu% effect2 "he @uestion is sometimes as&ed whether this re aration is worth whi%e3 and if3 after a%%3 a man might not otherwise s end his time and energy3 to greater ersona% and u$%ic ad1antageI "wo $rief @uotations on this su$4ect wi%% $e sufficient to dis e% any such misa rehension2 "he first is from 0icero: Bo e(ce%%ence is su erior to that of a consummate orator2 For to say nothing of the ad1antages of e%o@uence3 which has the highest inf%uence in e1ery we%%.ordered and free state3 there is such de%ight attendant on the ower of e%o@uent s ea&ing3 that nothing more %easing can $e recei1ed into the ears or understanding of man2 What music can $e found more sweet than the ronunciation of a we%%.ordered orationI What oem more agreea$%e than the s&i%fu% structure of roseI What actor has e1er gi1en greater %easure in imitating3 than the orator in su orting truthI What enetrates the mind more &een%y than an acute and @uic& succession of argumentsI What is more admira$%e than thoughts i%%umined $y $ri%%iancy of e( ressionI What nearer to erfection than a s eech re %ete with e1ery 1ariety of matter< for there is no su$4ect susce ti$%e of $eing treated with e%egance and effect3 that may not fa%% under the ro1ince of the orator I It is his3 in gi1ing counse% on im ortant affairs3 to de%i1er his o inions with c%earness and dignity< it is his to rouse a eo %e when they are %anguid3 and to ca%m them when immoderate%y e(cited2. 8y the same ower of %anguage3 the wic&edness of man is $rought to destruction3 and 1irtue to security2 Who can e(hort to 1irtue more ardent%y than the oratorI Who rec%aim from 1ice with greater energyI Who can re ro1e the $ad with more as erity3 or raise the good with $etter graceI Who can $rea& the force of un%awfu% desire $y more effecti1e re rehension I Who can a%%e1iate grief with more soothing conso%ationI If there $e any other art which rofesses s&i%% in se%ecting words< if any one3 $eside the orator3 is said to form a discourse3 and to 1ary and adorn it with certain distinctions of words and thoughts< if any method of argument3 or e( ression of thoughtC3 or distri$ution and arrangement of matter3 is taught3 e(ce t $y this one art3 %et us confess that either that3 of which this art ma&es rofession3 is foreign to it3 or ossest in common with some other art2 "he other @uotation3 from Sheridan3 is u on the magica% effect of oratory:

Imagine to yourse%1es a /emosthenes3 addressing the most i%%ustrious assem$%y in the wor%d3 u on a oint whereon the fate of the most i%%ustrious of nations de ended2 How awfu% such a meetingH How 1ast the su$4ectH Is man ossest of ta%ents ade@uate to the great occasionI +de@uateH ;es3 su erior2 8y the ower of his e%o@uence3 the augustness of the assem$%y is %ost in the dignity of the orator3 and the im ortance of the su$4ect3 for a whi%e3 su erseded $y the admiration of his ta%ents2 With what strength of argument3 with what owers of fancy3 with what emotions of the heart3 does he assau%t and su$4ugate the who%e man3 and at once ca ti1ate his reason3 his imagination3 and his assionsH "o effect this must $e the utmost effort of the most im ro1ed state of human nature2 Bot a facu%ty that he ossesses is here unem %oyed: not a facu%ty that he ossesses $ut is here e(erted to its highest itch2 +%% his interna% owers are at wor&< a%% his e(terna% testify their energies2 Within3 the memory3 the fancy3 the 4udgment3 the assions3 are a%% $usy< without3 e1ery musc%e3 e1ery ner1e is e(erted< not a feature3 not a %im$3 $ut s ea&s2 "he organs of the $ody3 attuned to the e(ertions of the mind3 through the &indred organs of the hearers3 instantaneous%y 1i$rate those energies from sou% to sou% ..notwithstanding the di1ersity of minds in such a mu%titude3 $y the %ightning of e%o@uence3 they are me%ted into one mass.. the who%e assem$%y3 actuated in one and the same way3 $ecomes3 as it were3 $ut one man3 and has $ut one 1oice..the uni1ersa% cry is3 5et us march against Phi%i 3 %et us fight for our %i$erties3 %et us con@uer or dieH "he ower of the human 1oice is incom ara$%e2 When the #e1erend 7ohn #2 Pa(ton was in the trenches3 during the 0i1i% CWar3 he was o1ercome $y an uncontro%%a$%e fear2 He endea1ored to reassure himse%f $y ca%%ing to mind a%% the deeds of heroism and %uc&y ad1entures he had e1er read3 $ut without a1ai%2 His fear increased the more3 unti% sudden%y he heard a distant cheer of so%diers3 and the 1oice of the genera% shouting CHancoc& e( ects e1ery man to do his duty2C His confidence at once returned3 and the day went down in 1ictory2 Such is the ower of the human 1oice in s eech2

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"here are many effects em %oyed $y great orators that gi1e additiona% force and 1i1idness to their de%i1ery2 "he use of simi%e3 for e(am %e3 stimu%ates the imagination of the hearer $y showing him oints of %i&eness $etween two things2 "hrough com arisons and simi%itudes3 his interest is more articu%ar%y aroused3 and the chances of fa1ora$%e 4udgment are increased2 "he simi%e is a com arison in which the resem$%ance is stated3 whi%e in meta hor it is mere%y im %ied2 "he ro er use of this figure re@uires that it $e not too o$1ious nor far.fetched3 and that it $e drawn from a corres onding c%ass of ideas2 When a s ea&er says of a eo %e that they are Chunting after their own ad1antage with a ste as steady as time3 and an a etite as &een as death3C he instant%y en%i1ens the imagination of the hearer2 8ut figures of s eech are dangerous wea ons3 and may easi%y react u on the s ea&er3 as in the case of the fiery orator who said3 C*ent%emen3 the a %e of discord has $een thrown into our midst< and if it $e not ni t in the $ud3 it wi%% $urst into a conf%agration that wi%% de%uge the entire g%o$eHC + simi%e may utter%y destroy the s ea&er,s ur ose if it $e ridicu%ous3 as in the case of the c%ergyman who reached at Bew.gate after the esca e of 7ac& She ard3 when he said: CHow de(terous%y did he ic& the ad%oc& of his chain with a eroo&ed nai%3 $urst his fetters asunder3 c%im$ u his chimney3 wrench out an iron $ar3 $rea& his way through a stone wa%%3 ma&e the strong door of a dar& entry f%y $efore him3 reach the %eads of the rison3 fi( a $%an&et to the wa%% with a s i&e sto%en from the cha e%3 descend to the to of the turner,s house3 cautious%y ass downstairs3 and ma&e his esca e at the street door2 I sha%% s iritua%iDe these things2 5et me e(hort ye3 then3 to o en the %oc&s of your hearts with the nai% of re entance< $urst asunder the fetters of your $e%o1ed %usts< mount the chimney of ho e< ta&e thence the $ar of good reso%ution< $rea& through the stone wa%% of des air3 and force the strongho%d in the dar& entry of the 1a%%ey of the shadow of death< raise yourse%f to the %eads of di1ine meditation< fi( the $%an&et of faith with the s i&e of the 0hurch< %et yourse%1es down to the turner,s house of resignation< descend the stairs of humi%ity2 So sha%% you come to the door of de%i1erance from the rison of ini@uity3 and esca e from the c%utches of that o%d e(ecutioner3 the de1i%HC "he use of the figure of interrogation gi1es increased energy and em hasis $y ma&ing a direct a ea% to the hearer2 It strengthens assertion $y cha%%enging contradiction3 or it is used to im %y the 1ery o osite of what is as&ed2 "here is no e( ectation of an audi$%e answer3 tho the hearer may and usua%%y does answer it in his own mind2 It must not $e em %oyed too often3 %est it %ose its force2 9ne or two e(am %es wi%% ser1e as i%%ustrations2 "he first is from 0hief 7ustice ?arsha%%3 on the Federa% 0onstitution: What are the fa1orite ma(ims of democracy I + strict o$ser1ance of 4ustice and u$%ic faith and a steady adherence to 1irtue2 "hese3 sir3 are the rinci %es of a good go1ernment2 Bo mischief3 no misfortune3 ought to deter us from a strict o$ser1ance of 4ustice and u$%ic faith2 Wou%d to hea1en that these rinci %es had $een o$ser1ed under the resent go1ernmentH Had this $een the ease the friends of %i$erty wou%d not $e so wi%%ing now to art with it2 0an we $oast that our go1ernment is founded on these ma(imsI 0an we retend to the en4oyment of o%itica% freedom or security when we are to%d that a man has $een3 $y an act of +ssem$%y3

struc& out of e(istence without a tria% $y 4ury3 without e(amination3 without $eing confronted with his accusers and witnesses3 without the $enefits of the %aw of the %andI Where is our safety when we are to%d that this act was 4ustifia$%e $ecause the erson was not a Socrates I What has $ecome of the worthy mem$er,s ma(imsI Is this one of them I Sha%% it $e a ma(im that a man sha%% $e de ri1ed of his %ife without the $enefit of %awI Sha%% such a de ri1ation of %ife $e 4ustified $y answering that a man,s %ife was not ta&en secundem artem3 $ecause he was a $ad manI Sha%% it $e a ma(im that go1ernment ought not to $e em owered to rotect 1irtueI It shou%d $e noted that each of these @uestions is significant3 and is as&ed for a we%%.defined ur ose2 It is the %ega% mind utting swift @uestions for swift ends2 8ut in the fo%%owing e(am %e from 0icero we o$ser1e that emotion enters more articu%ar%y into the interrogation: When3 9 0ati%ine3 do yon mean to cease a$using our atienceI How %ong is that madness of yours sti%% to moc& usI When is there to $e an end of that un$rid%ed audacity of yours3 swaggering a$out as it does nowI /o not the night%y guards %aced on the Pa%atine Hi%%. do not the watches osted throughout the city..does not the a%arm of the eo %e3 and the union of a%% good men..does not the recaution ta&en of assem$%ing the senate in this most defensi$%e %ace..do not the %oo&s and countenances of this 1enera$%e $ody here resent3 ha1e any effect u on youI /o you not fee% that your %ans are detected I /o you not see that your cons iracy is a%ready arrested and rendered ower%ess $y the &now%edge which e1ery one here ossesses of itI What is there that you did %ast night3 what the night $efore..where is it that you were..who was there that you summoned to meet you..what design was there which was ado ted $y you3 with which you thin& that any one of us is unac@uainted I "he figure of e(c%amation is used to e( ress increased fee%ing3 a$ru tness3 sur riDe3 and &indred emotions2 It is e(ceeding%y effecti1e in arresting attention and arousing the sym athies of an audience2 +%% the great orators ha1e more or %ess em %oyed this figure3 as in the fo%%owing e(tract from We$ster,s 8un&er Hi%% s eech: 8ut ahH HimH the first great martyr in this great causeH HimH the remature 1ictim of his own se%f.de1oting heartH HimH the head of our ci1i% counci%s3 and the destined %eader of our mi%itary $ands3 whom nothing $rought hither $ut the un@uencha$%e fire of his own s iritH HimH cut off $y Pro1idence in the hour of o1erwhe%ming an(iety and thic& g%oom< fa%%ing ere he saw the star of his country rise< ouring out his generous $%ood %i&e water3 $efore he &new whether it wou%d ferti%iDe a %and of freedom or of $ondageH..how sha%% I strugg%e with the emotions that stif%e the utterance of thy nameH 9ur oor wor& may erish< $ut thine sha%% endureH "his monument may mo%der away< the so%id ground it rests u on may sin& down to a %e1e% with the sea< $ut thy memory sha%% not fai%H Wheresoe1er among men a heart sha%% $e found that $eats to the trans orts of atriotism and %i$erty3 its as irations sha%% $e to c%aim &indred with thy s iritH +ntithesis3 $y %acing thoughts in contrast3 gi1es increased energy and interest to s eech2 8y o osing one idea to another3 $oth are $rought out into greater rominence2 "he rinci a% ru%e to $e o$ser1ed is that the contrasted c%auses $e as near%y a%i&e as ossi$%e2 /emosthenes often used this figure3 nota$%y in his s eech C9n the 0rown3C of which the fo%%owing is an e(am %e: 0ontrast now the circumstances of your %ife and mine3 gent%y and with tem er3 +Eschines< and

then as& these eo %e whose fortune they wou%d each of them refer2 ;ou taught reading3 I went to schoo%: you erformed initiations3 I recei1ed them: you danced in the chorus3 I furnished it: you were assem$%y. c%er&3 I was a s ea&er: you acted third arts3 I heard you: you $ro&e down3 and I hissed: you ha1e wor&ed as a states. man for the enemy3 I for my country2 I ass $y the rest< $ut this 1ery day I am on my ro$ation for a crown3 and am ac&now%edged to $e innocent of a%% offense< whi%e you are a%ready 4udged to $e a ettifogger3 and the @uestion is3 whether you sha%% continue that trade3 or at once $e si%enced $y not getting a fifth art of the 1otes2 + ha y fortune3 do you see3 you ha1e en4oyed3 that you shou%d denounce mine as misera$%eH "he figure of denunciation is another form of assionate and em hatic e( ression3 which is sometimes em %oyed with te%%ing effect2 It usua%%y signifies its disa ro1a% of such men or course of action as the s ea&er thin&s detrimenta% to the genera% we%fare2 It may easi%y antagoniDe the hearers3 howe1er3 and shou%d3 therefore3 $e used s aring%y and with discretion2 + good e(am %e is that from Wi%%iam Pitt the e%der3 5ord 0hatham3 a s ea&er of great enthusiasm and determination3 in his address ,C 9n +merican +ffairs3,, de%i1ered in the House of 5ords3 Bo1em$er 1!3 17772 5ord Suffo%& defended the em %oyment of Indians in the war3 maintaining that ,, it was erfect%y 4ustifia$%e to use a%% the means that *od and nature ut into our hands3C where. u on 5ord 0hatham e(c%aimed: I am astonished3 shoc&ed to hear such rinci %es confest..to hear them a1owed in this House3 or in this country< rinci %es e@ua%%y unconstitutiona%3 inhuman3 and unchristian2 "hen he continued: "hese a$omina$%e rinci %es3 and this more a$omina$%e a1owa% of them3 demand the most decisi1e indignation2 I ca%% u on that right re1erend $ench3 those ho%y ministers of the *os e%3 and ious astors of our 0hurch..I con4ure them to 4oin in the ho%y wor&3 and 1indicate the re%igion of their *od2 I a ea% to the wisdom and the %aw of this %earned $ench to defend and su ort the 4ustice of the country2 I ca%% u on the $isho s to inter ose the unsu%%ied sanctity of their %awn< u on the %earned 4udges3 to inter ose the urity of their ermine3 to sa1e us from this o%%ution2 "he figure of a ea% to deity3 %i&e that of denunciation3 must $e used with great caution3 as it may easi%y $ecome ridicu%ous2 It is most a ro riate in great out$ursts of assion3 as when #o$ert Emmet says in his 1indication: I a ea% to the immacu%ate *od..I swear $y the throne of hea1en3 $efore which I must short%y a ear..$y the $%ood of the murdered atriots who ha1e gone $efore me..that my conduct has $een through a%% this eri% and a%% my ur oses3 go1erned on%y $y the con1ictions which I ha1e uttered3 and $y no other 1iew3 than that of their cure3 and the emanci ation of my country from the su erinhuman o ression under which she has so %ong and too atient%y tra1ai%ed< and that I confident%y and assured%y ho e that3 wi%d and chimerica% as it may a ear3 there is sti%% union and strength in Ire%and to accom %ish this no$%e enter rise2 9f this I s ea& with the confidence of intimate &now%edge3 and with the conso%ation that a ertains to that confidence2 "hin& not3 my %ords3 I say this for the etty gratification of gi1ing you a transitory uneasiness< a man who ne1er yet raised his 1oice to assert a %ie3 wi%% not haDard his character with osterity $y asserting a fa%sehood on a su$4ect so im ortant to his country3 and on an occasion %i&e this2 ;es3 my %ords3 a man who does not wish to ha1e his e ita h written unti% his

country is %i$erated3 wi%% not %ea1e a wea on in the ower of en1y: nor a retense to im each the ro$ity which he means to reser1e3 e1en in the gra1e to which tyranny consigns him2 It is on%y when an orator rises to conscious su eriority that he can safe%y em %oy the figure of command2 /emosthenes and 0icero $oth used it3 as did a%so 8rougham3 8ur&e3 0%ay3 Patric& Henry3 and many other modern s ea&ers2 "he fo%%owing e(am %e is from 5ord 8rougham3 in his s eech on CEmanci ation for the BegroC: So now the fu%ness of time is come for at %ength discharging our duty to the +frican ca ti1e2 I ha1e demonstrated to you that e1erything is ordered..e1ery re1ious ste ta&en..a%% safe3 $y e( erience shown to $e safe3 for the %ong.desired consummation2 "he time has come3 the tria% has $een made3 the hour is stri&ing< you hate no %onger a rete(t for hesitation3 or fa%tering or de%ay2 "he s%a1e has shown3 $y four years, $%ame%ess $eha1ior and de1otion to the ursuits of eacefu% industry3 that he is as fit for his freedom as any Eng%ish easant3 ay3 or any %ord whom I now address2 I demand his rights< I demand his %i$erty without stint2 "n the name of 4ustice and of %aw3 in the name of reason3 in the name of *od3 who has gi1en you no right to wor& in4ustice2 I demand that your $rother $e no %onger tram %ed u on as your s%a1eH I ma&e my a ea% to the 0ommons3 who re resent the free eo %e of Eng%and3 and I re@uire at their $ands the erformance of that condition for which they aid so enormous a rice..that condition which a%% their constituents are in $reath%ess an(iety to see fu%fi%%edH I a ea% to this HouseH Hereditary 4udges of the first tri$una% in the wor%d3 to you I a ea% for 4usticeH Patrons of a%% the arts that humaniDe man. &ind3 under your rotection I %ace humanity herse%fH "o the mercifu% so1ereign of a free eo %e3 I ca%% a%oud for mercy to the hundreds of thousands for whom ha%f a mi%%ion of her 0hristian sisters ha1e cried out< I as& their cry may not ha1e risen in 1ain2 8ut3 first3 I turn my eye to the "hrone of a%% 4ustice3 and de1out%y hum$%ing myse%f $efore Him who is of urer eyes than to $eho%d such 1ast ini@uities3 I im %ore that the curse ho1ering o1er the head of the un4ust and the o ressor $e a1erted from us3 that your hearts may $e turned to mercy3 and that o1er a%% the earth His wi%% may at %ength $e doneH In the figure of 1ision3 the s ea&er resents a menta% icture of something as if actua%%y $efore him2 It may $e a scene of the ast or of the future3 and its 1i1idness wi%% %arge%y de end u on the intensity of his fee%ing at the moment of descri tion2 CWhen ro er%y em %oyed3 it ma&es a rofound im ression2 In the case of the murder of 0a tain 7ose h White3 We$ster used this figure with stri&ing effect: "he deed was e(ecuted with a degree of se%f. ossession and steadiness e@ua% to the wic&edness with which it was %anned2 "he circumstances now c%ear%y in e1idence s read out the who%e scene $efore us2 /ee s%ee had fa%%en Jon the destined 1ictim3 and on a%% $eneath his roof2 + hea%thfu% o%d man3 to whom s%ee was sweet3 the first sound s%um$ers of the night he%d him in their soft3 $ut strong em$race2 "he assassin enters3 through the window a%ready re ared3 into an unoccu ied a artment2 With noise%ess foot he aces the %one%y ha%%3 ha%f %ighted $y the moon< he winds u the ascent of the stairs3 and reaches the door of the cham$er2 9f this he mo1es the %oc&3 $y soft and continued ressure3 ti%% it turns on its hinges without noise< and he enters3 and $eho%ds his 1ictim $efore him2 "he room is uncommon%y o en to the admission of %ight2 "he face of the innocent s%ee er is turned from the murderer3 and the $eams of the moon3 resting on the gray %oc&s of his aged tem %e3 show him where to stri&e2 "he fata% $%ow is gi1enH and the 1ictim asses3 without a strugg%e or a motion3 from the

re ose of s%ee to the re ose of deathH It is the assassin,s ur ose to ma&e sure wor&< and he %ies the dagger3 tho it is o$1ious that %ife has $een destroyed $y the $%ow of the $%udgeon2 He e1en raises the aged arm3 that he may not fai% in his aim at the heart3 and re %aces it again o1er the wounds of the oniardH "o finish the icture3 he e( %ores the wrist for the u%seH He fee%s for it3 and ascertains that it $eats no %ongerH It is accom %ished2 "he deed is done2 He retreats3 retraces his ste s to the window3 asses out through it as he came in3 and esca es2 He has done the murder2 Bo eye has seen him3 no ear has heard him2 "he secret is his own3 and it is safe2 "he figure &nown as C redictionC usua%%y arises from the discussion or resentation of some great cause3 in which the orator e( resses his $e%ief in resu%ts he thin&s to $e ine1ita$%e2 It is mar&ed $y e(treme confidence3 intensity3 and earnestness3 as when Patric& Henry3 in his s eech in the second Firginia 0on1ention3 ?arch3 177)3 c%osed with this atriotic out$urst: 8esides3 sir3 we sha%% not fight our $att%es a%one2 "here is a 4ust *od3 who resides o1er the destinies of nations3 and who .wi%% raise u friends to fight our $att%es for us2 "he $att%e3 sir3 is not to the strong a%one< it is to the 1igi%ant3 the acti1e3 the $ra1e2 8esides3 sir3 we ha1e no e%ection2 If we were $ase enough to desire it3 it is now too %ate to retire from the contest2 "here is no retreat $ut in su$mission and s%a1eryH 9ur chains are forged2 "heir c%an&ing may $e heard on the %ains of 8ostonH "he war is ine1ita$%e..and %et it comeH I re eat it3 sir3 %et it comeH It is 1ain3 sir3 to e(tenuate the matter2 *ent%emen may cry3 PeaceH eaceH $ut there is no eace2 "he war has actua%%y $egunH "he ne(t ga%e that swee s from the north .wi%% $ring to our ears the c%ash of resounding armsH 9ur $rethren are a%ready in the fie%dH Why stand we here id%eI What is it that the gent%emen wishI what wou%d they ha1eI Is %ife so dear3 or eace so sweet3 as to $e urchased at the rice of chains and s%a1eryI For$id it3 +%mighty *od2 I &now not what course others may ta&e3 $ut3 as for me3 gi1e me %i$erty3 or gi1e me deathH #hetorica% re etition3 sometimes ca%%ed C"he gift of tauto%ogy3C is an effecti1e means of enforcing im ortant thoughts2 "he s ea&er re eats certain ideas3 tho usua%%y 1aried hraseo%ogy3 unti% such ideas are erfect%y c%ear to his audience2 It may $e a word or a hrase that is dri1en home $y re etition3 as in the c%ose of the s eech $y 0har%es 7ames Fo( C9n the #efusa% to Begotiate with France2C C8ut we must auseHC WhatH must the $owe%s of *reat 8ritain $e torn out..her $est $%ood $e s i%%ed..her treasures wasted..that you may ma&e an e( erimentI Put yourse%1es.. ohH that you wou%d ut yourse%1es in the fie%d of $att%e3 and %earn to 4udge of the sort of horrors that you e(citeH In former wars a man might3 at %east3 ha1e some fee%ing3 some interest3 that ser1ed to $a%ance in his mind the im ressions which a scene of carnage and of death must inf%ict2 If a man had $een resent at the $att%e of 8%enheim3 for instance3 and had in@uired the moti1e of $att%e3 there was not a so%dier engaged who cou%d not ha1e satisfied his curiosity3 and e1en3 erha s3 a%%ayed his fee%ings2 "hey were fighting3 they &new3 to re ress the uncontro%%ed am$ition of the *rand ?onarch2 8ut if a man were resent now at a fie%d of s%aughter3 and were to in@uire for what they were fighting..CFightingHC wou%d $e an answer< ,, they are not fighting< they are ausing2,, CWhy is that man e( iringI Why is that other writhing with agonyI

What means this im %aca$%e furyIC "he answer must $e: C;ou are @uite wrong3 sir< you decei1e yourse%f..they are not fighting..do not distur$ them..they are mere%y ausingH "his man is not e( iring with agony..that man is not dead.. he is on%y ausingH 5ord he% you3 sirH they are not angry with one another< they ha1e no cause of @uarre%< $ut their country thin&s that there shou%d $e a ause2 +%% that you see3 sir3 is nothing %i&e fighting..there is no harm3 nor crue%ty3 nor $%oodshed in it whate1er< it is nothing more than a o%itica% auseH It is mere%y to try an e( eriment to see whether 8ona arte wi%% not $eha1e himse%f $etter than heretofore< and in the meantime we ha1e agreed to a ause3 in ure friendshi HC +nd is this the way3 sir3 that you are to show yourse%1es the ad1ocates of orderI ;ou ta&e u a system ca%cu%ated to unci1i%iDe the wor%d..to destroy order..to tram %e on re%igion..to stif%e in the fyeart3 not mere%y the generosity of no$%e sentiment3 $ut the affections of socia% nature< and in the rosecution of this system3 you s read terror and de1astation a%% around you2 Pro$a$%y the most 1a%ua$%e of a%% the figures of em hasis is that of c%ima(3 since it is re@uired in greater or %ess degree in a%most e1ery s eech2 It em$odies the rinci %es of sus ense3 and the %eading from the wea&er to the stronger argument and mar&ed $y an ascending tendency2 When the emotion and interest are on a descending sca%e3 the mind of the %istener suffers disa ointment3 and the sty%e is ca%%ed $athos2 "he fo%%owing e(tract from W2 72 Fo(3 on Human 8rotherhood3 is a s %endid e(am %e of $oth c%ima( and o%ished Eng%ish: From the dawn of inte%%ect and freedom *reece has $een a watchword on the earth2 "here rose the socia% s irit to soften and refine her chosen race3 and she%ter3 as in a nest3 her gent%eness from the rushing storm of $ar$arism..there %i$erty first $ui%t her mountain throne3 first ca%%ed the wa1es her own3 and shouted across them a roud defiance to des otism,s $anded myriads< there the arts and graces danced around humanity3 and stored man,s home with comforts3 and strewed his ath with roses3 and $ound his $rows with myrt%e3 and fashioned for him the $reathing statue3 and summoned him to tem %es of snowy mar$%e3 and charmed his senses with a%% forms of e%o@uence3 and threw o1er his fina% s%ee their 1ei% of %o1e%iness< there s rang oetry3 %i&e their own fa$%ed goddess3 mature at once from the teeming inte%%ect3 girt with the arts and armor that defy the assau%ts of time and su$due the heart of man< there match%ess orators ga1e the wor%d a mode% of erfect e%o@uence3 the sou% the instrument on which they %ayed3 and e1ery assion of our nature $ut a tone which the master,s touch ca%%ed forth at wi%%< there %i1ed and taught the hi%oso hers of $ower and orch3 of ride and %easure3 of dee s ecu%ation and of usefu% action3 who de1e%o ed a%% the acuteness3 and refinement3 and e(eursi1eness3 and energy of mind3 and were the g%ory of their country3 when their country was the g%ory of the earth2 It shou%d $e remem$ered that c%ima( must $e in the thought $efore it can ro er%y $e in the de%i1ery2 It is not a mere outward em$e%%ishment3 $ut the natura% and s ontaneous e( ression of gradua%%y intensified thought2 Auinti%ian recommends it $y the name of Cgradation3C and gi1es this e(am %e: I not on%y did not say this3 $ut did not e1en write it< I not on%y did not write it3 $ut too& no art in the em$assy< I not on%y too& no art in the em$assy3 $ut used no ersuasion to the "he$ans2 +t the 0hicago con1ention Wi%%iam 7ennings 8ryan turned the nomination in his own fa1or $y the c%osing %ines of a s eech in which he said: Ha1ing $ehind us the roducing masses of this nation and the wor%d3 su orted $y the

commercia% interests3 the %a$oring interests3 and the toi%ers e1erywhere3 we wi%% answer their demand for a go%d standard $y saying to them: ;ou sha%% not ress down u on the $row of %a$or this crown of thorns< you sha%% not crucify man&ind u on a cross of go%d2 It wi%% $e seen that c%ima( is an e%ement of great ower when ro er%y used2 0arefu%%y note the c%ose of Sumner,s great oration on C"he "rue *randeur of BationsC: 8ut whi%e see&ing these $%issfu% g%ories for ourse%1es3 %et us stri1e to e(tend them to other %ands2 5et the $ug%es sound the truce of *od to the who%e wor%d fore1er2 5et the se%fish $oast of the S artan women $ecome the grand chorus of man. &ind3 that they ha1e ne1er seen the smo&e of an enemy,s cam 2 5et the iron $e%t of martia% music3 which now encom asses the earth3 $e e(changed for the go%den cestus of eace3 c%othing a%% with ce%estia% $eauty2 History dwe%%s with fondness on the re1erent homage that was $estowed3 $y massacring so%diers3 u on the s ot occu ied $y the se u%cher of the 5ord2 Fain manH to restrain his regard to a few feet of sacred mo%dH "he who%e earth is the se u%cher of the 5ord< nor can any righteous man rofane any art thereof2 5et us recogniDe this truth3 and now3 on this Sa$$ath of our country3 %ay a new stone in the grand tem %e of uni1ersa% eace3 whose dome sha%% $e as %ofty as the firmament of hea1en3 as $road and com rehensi1e as the earth itse%f2 In e1ery s eech of We$ster we find a discreet and s&i%fu% use of this figure of c%ima(2 "he c%osing %ines of C"he First 8un&er Hi%% ?onument 9ration3C which disc%oses his ower at its height3 is worthy of memoriDing: +nd %et the sacred o$%igations which ha1e de1o%1ed on this generation3 and on us3 sin& dee into our hearts2 "hose who esta$%ished our %i$erty and our go1ernment arc dai%y dro ing from among us2 "he great trust now descends to new hands2 5et us a %y ourse%1es to that which is resented to us3 as our a ro riate o$4ect2 We can win no %aure%s in a war for inde endence2 Ear%ier and worthier hands ha1e gathered them a%%2 Bor are there %aces for us $y the side of So%on3 and +%fred3 and other founders of states2 9ur fathers ha1e fi%%ed them2 8ut there remains to us a great duty of defense and reser1ation< and there is o ened to us3 a%so3 a no$%e ursuit3 to which the s irit of the times strong%y in1ites us2 9ur ro er $usiness is im ro1ement2 5et our age $e the age of im ro1ement2 In a day of eace3 %et us ad1ance the arts of eace and the wor&s of eace2 5et us de1e%o the resources of our %and3 ca%% forth its owers3 $ui%d u its institutions3 romote a%% its great interests3 and see whether we a%so3 in our day and generation3 may not erform something worthy to $e remem$ered2 5et us cu%ti1ate a true s irit of union and harmony2 In ursuing the great o$4ects which our condition oints out to us3 %et us act under a sett%ed con1iction3 and an ha$itua% fee%ing3 that these twenty.four States are one country2 5et our conce tions $e en%arged to the circ%e of our duties2 5et us e(tend our ideas o1er the who%e of the 1ast fie%d in which we are ca%%ed to act2 5et our o$4ect $e3 our country3 our who%e country3 and nothing $ut our country2 +nd3 $y the $%essing of *od3 may that country itse%f $ecome a 1ast and s %endid monument3 not of o ression and terror $ut of wisdom3 of eace3 and of %i$erty3 u on which the Kwor%d may gaDe with admiration fore1erH It is said of Edward E1erett that his treatment of e1ery s eech he made was so master%y Cthat one wou%d thin& the su$4ect then in hand had $een the s ecia% study of his %ife2C In the fo%%owing e(tract from his CEu%ogy on 5afayette3C he com$ines the figures of e(c%amation3 interrogation3 and c%ima(:

"here is not3 throughout the wor%d3 a friend of %i$erty who has not dro t his head when he has heard that 5afayette is no more2 Po%and3 Ita%y2 *reece3 S ain3 Ire%and3 the South +merican re u$%ics..e1ery country where man is strugg%ing to reco1er his $irthright..ha1e %ost a $enefactor3 a atron in 5afayette2 +nd what is it3 fe%%ow citiDens3 which ga1e to our 5afayette his s ot%ess fameI "he %o1e of %i$erty2 What has consecrated his memory in the hearts of good menI "he %o1e of %i$erty2 What ner1ed his youthfu% arm with strength3 and ins ired him2 in the morning of his days3 with sagacity and counse%I "he %i1ing %o1e of %i$erty2 "o what did he sacrifice ower3 and ran&3 and country3 and freedom itse%fI "o the horror of %icentiousness..to the sanctity of %ighted faith..to the %o1e of %i$erty rotected $y %aw2 "hus the great rinci %e of your #e1o%utionary fathers3 and of your Pi%grim sires3 was the ru%e of his %ife..the %o1e of %i$erty rotected $y %aw2 ;ou ha1e now assem$%ed within these ce%e$rated wa%%s to erform the %ast duties of res ect and %o1e3 on the $irthday of your $enefactor2 "he s irit of the de arted is in high communion with the s irit of the %ace..the tem %e worthy of the new name which we now $eho%d inscri$ed on its wa%%s2 5isten3 +mericans3 to the %esson which seems $orne to us on the 1ery air we $reathe3 whi%e we erform these dutifu% ritesH ;e winds3 that wafted the Pi%grims to the %and of romise3 fan2 in their chi%dren,s hearts3 the %o1e of freedomH 8%ood3 which our fathers shed3 cry from the groundH Echoing arches of this renowned ha%%3 whis er $ac& the 1oices of other daysH *%orious Washington3 $rea& the %ong si%ence of that 1oti1e can1asH S ea&3 s ea&3 mar$%e %i s< teach us the %o1e of %i$erty rotected $y %aw2 "he student of u$%ic s ea&ing shou%d ursue this study. further on his own account3 $y dissecting some of the wor%d,s great orations2 He shou%d note in them the use of these 1arious figures of em hasis..and see wherein they gi1e added c%earness and ower to s eech2 In this way he wi%% secure for himse%f something of the art $y which the master orators themse%1es $ecame distinguished2

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"here is no $etter way to cu%ti1ate oratorica% sty%e than to study the mode%s of the wor%d,s great orators2 We sha%% find some of the distincti1e @ua%ities of their s eeches in their use of word3 hrase3 idiom3 meta hor3 and i%%ustration2 If Csty%e is the man3C then we may study the man and his method through his %anguage2 "he u%timate o$4ect of the oration is to con1ince and ersuade men2 It is to mo1e men to action2 Auinti%ian3 in his treatise on the education of an orator3 refers to the many ce%e$rated definitions of oratory $efore his time3 such as2 Coratory is the art of ersuading3C Cthe ower of ersuading $y s ea&ing3C Cthe %eading of men $y s ea&ing to that which the s ea&er wishes3C Cthe ower of finding out whate1er can ersuade in s ea&ing3C Cto say a%% that ought to $e said in order to ersuade3C Cthe ower of saying on e1ery su$4ect whate1er can $e found to ersuade3C Cthe ower of finding whate1er is ersuasi1e in s ea&ing3C Cthe ower of disco1ering and e( ressing3 with e%egance3 whate1er is credi$%e on any su$4ect whate1er2C Auinti%ian contents himse%f with the definition that C9ratory is the art of s ea&ing we%%3C and adds that CIts o$4ect and u%timate end must $e to s ea& we%%2,, "he difference $etween an oration and an essay shou%d $e c%ear%y defined2 +n oration is $ased u on a $rief3 or out%ine3 with a%% its di1isions distinct%y indicated in the s ea&er,s mind2 It is re ared for the ear3 whi%e th,e essay is in. tended for the eye2 In the one case the s ea&er may re eat his thought as often as he thin&s necessary to accom %ish his ur ose< in the other3 the reader may reread such ortions as are not c%ear to him2 "he oration may ha1e a wide range of thought3 whi%e the essay must strict%y o$ser1e unity and method throughout2 "he oration3 furthermore3 is designed to a ea% direct%y to the emotions3 and conse@uent%y is more 1i1id and 1aried than the essay2 First3 %et us read an e(tract from 8us&in,s essay3 C?odern PaintersC: It is a strange thing how %itt%e in genera% eo %e &now a$out the s&y2 It is the art of creation in which nature has done more for the sa&e of %easing man3 more for the so%e and e1ident ur ose of ta%&ing to him and teaching him3 than in any other of her wor&s3 and it is 4ust the art in which we %east attend to her2 "here are not many of her other wor&s in which some more materia% or essentia% ur ose than the mere %easing of man is not answered $y e1ery art of their organiDation< $ut e1ery essentia% ur ose of the s&y might3 so far as we &now3 $e answered if once in three days3 or therea$outs3 a great3 ug%y3 $%ac& rain.c%oud were $rought u o1er the $%ue3 and e1erything we%% watered3 and so a%% %eft $%ue again ti%% ne(t time3 with erha s a fi%m of morning and e1ening mist of dew2 +nd instead of this there is not a moment of any day of our %i1es when nature is not roducing scene after scene3 icture after icture3 g%ory after g%ory3 and wor&ing sti%% u on such e(@uisite and constant rinci %es of the most erfect $eauty that it is @uite certain that it is a%% done for us and intended for our er etua% %easure2 +nd e1ery man3 where1er %aced3 howe1er far from other sources of interest or of $eauty3 has this doing for him constant%y2 "he no$%est scenes of the earth can $e seen and &nown $ut $y few< it is not intended that man shou%d %i1e a%ways in the midst of them< he in4ures them $y his resence3 he ceases to fee% them if he $e a%ways with them: $ut the s&y is for a%%< $right as it is3 it is not it is fitted in a%% its functions for the er etua% comfort and e(a%ting of the heart3 for soothing it and urifying it from its dross and dust2 Sometimes gent%e3 sometimes ca ricious3 sometimes awfu%3 ne1er the same for two moments together3 a%most

human in its assions3 a%most s iritua% in its tenderness3 a%most di1ine in its infinity3 its a ea% to what is immorta% in us is as distinct as its ministry of chastisement or of $%essing to what is morta% is essentia%2 +nd yet we ne1er attend to it3 we ne1er ma&e it a su$4ect of thought3 $ut as it has to do with our anima% sensations: we %oo& u on a%% $y which it s ea&s to us more c%ear%y than to $rutes3 u on a%% which $ears witness to the intention of the Su reme that we are to recei1e more from the co1ering 1au%t than the %ight and the dew which we share with the weed and the worm3 on%y as a succession of meaning%ess and monotonous accident3 too common and too 1ain to $e worthy of a moment of watchfu%ness or a g%ance of admiration2 If in our moments of utter id%eness and insi idity we turn to the s&y as a %ast resource3 which of its henomena do we s ea& ofI 9ne says it has $een wet< and another3 it has $een windy< and another3 it has $een warm2 Who3 among the who%e chattering crowd3 can te%% me of the forms and the reci ices of the chain of ta%%3 white mountains that girded the horiDon at noon yesterdayI Who saw the narrow sun$eam that came out of the south and smote u on their summits unti% they me%ted and mo%dered away in a dust of $%ue rainI Who saw the dance of the dead c%ouds when the sun%ight %eft them %ast night and the west wind $%ew them $efore it %i&e withered %ea1esI +%% has assed3 unregretted as unseen< or if the a athy $e e1er sha&en off3 e1en for an instant3 it is on%y $y what is gross or what is e(traordinary< and yet it is not in the $road and fierce manifestations of the e%ementa% energies3 not in the c%ash of the hai% nor the drift of the whir%wind3 that the highest characters of the su$. %ime are de1e%o ed2 *od is not in the earth@ua&e nor in the fire3 $ut in the sti%%3 sma%% 1oice2 "hey are $ut the $%unt and the %ow facu%ties of our nature which can on%y $e addrest through %am $%ac& and %ightning2 It is in @uiet and su$dued assages of uno$trusi1e ma4esty3 the dee and the ca%m and the er etua%< that which must $e sought ere it is understood< things which the ange%s wor& out for us dai%y and yet 1ary eterna%%y3 which are ne1er wanting and ne1er re eated3 which are to $e found a%ways3 yet each found $ut once< it is through these that the %esson of de1otion is chief%y taught3 and the $%essing of $eauty gi1en2 "hese are what the artist of highest aim must study< it is these3 $y the com$ination of which his idea% is to $e created< these3 of which so %itt%e notice is ordinari%y ta&en $y common o$ser1ers that I fu%%y $e%ie1e3 %itt%e as eo %e in genera% are concerned with art3 more of their ideas of s&y are deri1ed from ictures than from rea%ity3 and that if we cou%d e(amine the conce tion formed in the minds of most educated ersons when we ta%& of c%ouds3 it wou%d fre@uent%y $e found com osed of fragments of $%ue and white reminiscences of the o%d masters2 Fundamenta% @ua%ities of an effecti1e oratorica% sty%e are sim %icity and directness2 "hese are the natura% e( ression of sincerity2 + good s ea&er des ises rhetorica% tric&s and artificia%ity2 He uses as far as ossi$%e ure Sa(on words3 gi1es reference to words that are short and concrete3 and a1oids am$iguity and circum%ocution2 "houghts3 not words3 shou%d $e great2 + man shou%d s ea& not in a %iterary sty%e3 $ut in the %anguage of the eo %e2 8eecher we%% says: CIn1o%1ed sentences3 croo&ed3 circuitous3 and arenthetica%3 no matter how musica%%y they may $e $a%anced3 are re4udicia% to a faci%e understanding of the truth2,, "o insure sim %icity of %anguage3 one shou%d ha1e a definite ur ose $efore him3 $oth in writing and de%i1ering his s eech2 + man who is thorough%y in earnest is ne1er grandi%o@uent2 "he s eeches of +$raham 5inco%n are mode%s of unaffected sim %icity2 His Farewe%% S eech3 de%i1ered at S ringfie%d3 11123 Fe$ruary 113 1!'13 is a characteristic e(am %e: ?y Friends: Bo one3 not in my situation3 can a reciate my fee%ing, of sadness at this arting2 "o this %ace3 and the &indness of these eo %e3 I owe e1erything2 Here I ha1e %i1ed a @uarter

of a century3 and ha1e assed from a young to an o%d man2 Here my chi%dren ha1e $een $orn3 and one is $uried2 I now %ea1e3 not &nowing when or whether e1er I may return3 with a tas& $efore me greater than that which rested u on Washington2 CWithout the assistance of that /i1ine 8eing who e1er attended him3 I can not succeed2 With that assistance3 I can not fai%2 "rusting in Him who can go with me3 and remain with you3 and $e e1erywhere for good3 %et us confident%y ho e that a%% wi%% yet $e we%%2 "o His care commending you3 as I ho e in your rayers you wi%% commend me3 I $id you an affectionate farewe%%2 "he s ea&er,s sty%e shou%d $e c%ear and com act3 $ut ne1er so concise as to $e o$scure2 E1ery student shou%d carefu%%y read Her$ert S encer,s essay on C"he Phi%oso hy of Sty%e3C in which he says: #egarding %anguage as an a aratus of sym$o%s for the con1eyance of thought3 we may say that3 as in a mechanica% a aratus3 the more sim %e and the $etter arranged its arts the greater wi%% $e the effect roduced2 In either case3 what. e1er force is a$sor$ed $y the machine is deducted from the resu%t2 + reader or %istener has at each moment $ut a %imited amount of menta% ower a1ai%a$%e2 "o recogniDe and inter ret the sym$o%s resented to him2 re@uires art of this ower: to arrange and com$ine the images suggested re@uires a further art< and on%y that art which remains can $e used for rea%iDing the thought con1eyed2 Hence3 the more time and attention it ta&es to recei1e and understand each sentence3 the %ess time and attention can $e gi1en to the contained idea< and the %ess 1i1id%y wi%% that idea $e concei1ed2 0onciseness wi%% guard the s ea&er from undue re etition3 ram$%ing3 and rosiness2 "he cris hrase de%ights the hearer3 $ecause he can gras it so easi%y2 It gi1es added strength3 force3 and 1i1idness to a s ea&er,s thought2 0are. fu%%y note this e(tract from Emerson,s oration on C"he +merican Scho%ar3C de%i1ered at 0am$ridge3 ?ass23 on +ugust 313 1!37: 8oo&s are the $est of things3 we%% used< a$used3 among the worst2 What is the right useI What is the one end3 which a%% means go to effectI "hey are for nothing $ut to ins ire2 I had $etter ne1er see a $oo& than to $e war ed $y its attraction c%ean out of my own or$it and made a sate%%ite instead of a system2 "he one thing in the wor%d of 1a%ue is the acti1e sou%2 "his e1ery man is entit%ed to< this e1ery man contains within him3 a%tho3 in a%most a%% men3 o$structed3 and as yet un$orn2 "he sou% acti1e sees a$so%ute truth3 and utters truth3 or creates2 In this action3 it is genius< not the ri1i%ege of here and there a fa1orite3 $ut the sound estate of e1ery man2 In its essence it is rogressi1e2 "he $oo&3 the co%%ege3 the schoo% of art3 the institution of any &ind3 sto with some ast utterance of genius2 "hat is good3 say they..%et us ho%d $y this2 "hey in me down2 "hey %oo& $ac&ward and not forward2 8ut genius %oo&s forward: the eyes of man are set in his forehead3 not in his hindhead< man ho es3 genius creates2 Whate1er ta%ents may $e3 if the man create not3 the ure eff%u( of the deity is not his< cinders and smo&e there may $e3 $ut not yet f%ame2 "here are creati1e manners3 there are creati1e actions3 and creati1e words< manners3 actions3 words ..that is3 indicati1e of no custom or authority3 $ut s ringing s ontaneous from the mind,s own sense of good and fair2 "he $est test of eu hony is to read a%oud2 Infe%icities of e( ression that may go uncha%%enged in si%ent reading are @uic&%y detected when sounded2 +w&ward com$inations3 4ing%ing recurrences3 harshness not ur ose%y em %oyed3 and e1erything offensi1e to the ear shou%d $e studious%y a1oided2

"he eu honious sty%e and $ri%%iant diction of 0ardina% Bewman is worthy of c%ose study2 He in1aria$%y read his sermons to the congregation3 and to some e(tent sacrificed de%i1ery to thought and sty%e3 $ut there was an indescri$a$%e fascination a$out him which &e t his hearers s e%%. $ound2 In commenting u on the disad1antage of manu. scri t s ea&ing3 a writer says of Bewman: C;ou must ta&e the man as a who%e< there was a stam and sea% u on him< the(e was a so%emn sweetness and music in the tone and the manner which made e1en his de%i1ery3 tho e(c%usi1e%y from written sermons3 singu%ar%y attracti1e2C Sti%% another says of him3 CCWhat de%icacy of sty%e3 yet what strengthH how sim %e3 yet how suggesti1eH how home%y3 yet how refinedH how enetrating3 yet how tender.hearted2C Bewman owed much of his incom ara$%e use of Eng%ish to his %o1e of music3 and his e(@uisite taste for harmony and cadence2 His constant use of the en3 and his study of 1erse3 may we%% $e emu%ated $y the student of u$%ic s ea&ing2 0icero was one of Bewman,s ear%iest mode%s2 For eu hony3 sim %icity3 e(actitude3 and c%earness3 it wou%d $e difficu%t to find anything su erior to the fo%%owing assage from 0ardina% Bewman,s address on C5iteratureC: + great author3 gent%emen3 is not one who mere%y has a co ia1er$orum3 whether in rose or 1erse3 and can3 as it were3 turn on at his wi%% any num$er of s %endid hrases and swe%%ing sentences< $ut he is one who has something to say and &nows how to say it2 I do not c%aim for him3 as such3 any great de th of thought3 or $readth of 1iew3 or hi%oso hy3 or saga.city3 or &now%edge of human nature3 or e( erience of human %ife3 tho these additiona% gifts he may ha1e3 and the more he has of them the greater he is< $ut I ascri$e to him3 as his characteristic gift3 in a %arge sense the facu%ty of e( ression2 He is the master of the twofo%d 5ogos3 the thought and the word3 distinct3 $ut inse ara$%e from each other2 He may3 if so $e3 e%a$orate his com ositions3 or he may our out his im ro1isations3 $ut in either ease he has $ut one aim3 which he &ee s steadi%y $efore him3 and is conscientious and sing%e.minded in fu%fi%%ing2 "hat aim is to gi1e forth what he has within him< and from his 1ery earnestness it comes to ass that3 whate1er $e the s %endor of his diction or the harmony of his eriods3 he has with him the charm of an incommunica$%e sim %icity2 Whate1er $e his su$4ect3 high or %ow3 he treats it suita$%y and for its own sa&e2 If he is a oet3 Cni% mo%itur ine te2C If he is an orator3 then3 too3 he s ea&s not on%y CdistincteC and ,Cs %endide3C $ut a%so Ca te2C His age is the %ucid mirror of his mind and %ife2 He writes assionate%y3 $ecause he fee%s &een%y< forci$%y3 $ecause he concei1es 1i1id%y< he sees too c%ear%y to $e 1ague< he is too serious to $e otiose< he can ana%yDe his su$4ect3 and therefore he is rich< he em$races it as a who%e and in its arts3 and therefore he is consistent< he has a firm ho%d of it3 and therefore he is %uminous2 When his imagination we%%s u 3 it o1erf%ows in ornament< when his heart is touched3 it thri%%s a%ong his 1erse2 He a%ways has the right word for the right idea3 and ne1er a word too much2 If he is $rief3 it is $ecause few words suffice< when he is %a1ish of them3 sti%% each word has its mar&3 and aids3 not em$arrasses3 the 1igorous march of his e%ocution2 He e( resses what a%% fee%3 $ut a%% can not say< and his sayings ass into ro1er$s among his eo %e3 and his hrases $ecome househo%d words and idioms of their dai%y s eech3 which is tesse%%ated with the rich fragments of his %anguage3 as we see in foreign %ands the mar$%es of #oman grandeur wor&ed into the wa%%s and a1ements of modern a%aces2 Such reeminent%y is Sha&es eare among ourse%1es< such reeminent%y ;ergi% among the 5atins< such in their degree are a%% those writers who in e1ery nation go $y the name of c%assics2 "o articu%ar nations they are necessari%y attached from the circumstances of the 1ariety of tongues3 and the ecu%iarities of each< $ut so far they ha1e a catho%ic and

ecumenica% character3 that what they e( ress is common to the who%e race of man3 and they a%one are a$%e to e( ress it2 If then the ower of s eech is a gift as great as any that can $e named..if the origin of %anguage is $y many hi%oso hers e1en considered to $e nothing short of di1ine..if $y means of words the secrets of the heart are $rought to %ight3 ain of sou% is re%ie1ed3 hidden grief is carried off3 sym athy con1eyed3 counse% im arted3 e( erience recorded3 and wisdom er etuated..if $y great authors the many are drawn u into unity3 nationa% character is fi(t3 a eo %e s ea&s3 the ast and the future3 the east and the west are $rought into communication with each other..if such men are3 in a word3 the s o&es. men and ro hets of the human fami%y..it wi%% not answer to ma&e %ight of %iterature or to neg%ect its study< rather we may $e sure that3 in ro ortion as we master it in whate1er %anguage3 and im$i$e its s irit3 we sha%% ourse%1es $ecome in our own measure the ministers of %i&e $enefits to others3 $e they many or few3 $e they in the o$scurer or the more distinguished wa%&s of %ife..who are united $y us $y socia% ties3 and are within the s here of our ersona% inf%uence2 CWhen a man aims direct%y at origina%ity3 he usua%%y misses it2 CWhen he tries to a ear to $e something other than he is3 he is a%most certain to $ecome unrea% and ineffecti1e2 Emerson said: CE%o@uence is the ower to trans%ate a truth into %anguage erfect%y inte%%igi$%e to the erson with whom you s ea&2C "he fo%%owing is an amusing $ut instructi1e i%%ustration of the assion for $ig words and unusua% e( ressions: ?y 8rethren: "he cosmica% changes continua%%y occurrins,3 manifest a concatenation of causes for the mu%tiferous forms that resent themse%1es for meditation and study2 +s we ursue our in1estigations in the 1arious de artments3 we rea%iDe more distinct%y the e1er resent and eterna% re%ation of things2 0osmo%ogica% hi%oso hy demonstrates that force is ersistent3 and hence is indestructi$%e3 therefore this indestructi$i%ity is grounded u on the a$so%ute2 "o ro1e this to your entire satisfaction3 it is on%y necessary for me to @uote the formu%a: L"he a$so% toid and the a$stractoid e%ementisms of $eing3 echo or rea ear $y ana%ogy within the concretoid e%a$orismus2C We re4ect the theory of the eternity of matter as we%% as the hy othesis of an infinite series3 and contend that matter in its rimordia% condition is $ut a term in a system of causations < that after i%%imita$%e duration assed through changes of manifo%d articu%arities which we ha1e u%timated in an end%ess mu%ti %icity of forms that ha1e roduced the resent com %icated condition of things2 Pro%i(ity soon wearies an audience2 "oo much $ri%%iancy of sty%e easi%y daDD%es the eyes3 and %oftiness of e( ression may shoot so high o1er the heads of the hearers as to defeat its ur ose2 Su$%ime thought does not necessari%y demand $ig words and e%egant %anguage2 C+nd *od said %et there $e %ight: and there was %ightC is an e%o@uent e(am %e of great thought in sim %e words2 0o%eridge once said: CIf men wou%d on%y say what they ha1e to say in %ain terms3 how much more e%o@uent they wou%d $eHC +mateur s ea&ers are too rone to %oo& at the o$4ecti1e effect of their %anguage3 instead of at the su$4ecti1e @ua%ity of their thought2 "his wi%% sometimes %ead them into Fourth.of.7u%y $om$ast3 such as this: "here is a di1inity that sha es our ends3 and that same di1ine ins iration re1ea%ed to the +merican atriots who fought against co%onia% o ression3 the sym$o% of %i$erty that was destined to f%oat in the cause of humanity unti% the end of time2 5oo&ing a%oft in the e1ening g%ow they saw a great3 white c%oud< the sun3 e,er setting3 smi%ed

on it and shot se1en go%den red rays through its f%eecy whiteness3 forming thirteen a%ternating stri es2 + s@uare iece of the s&y came down and fastened itse%f in the u er %eft corner3 whereu on thirteen g%orious stars %eft the firmament of hea1en3 formed a symmetrica% setting3 and g%owed from the $%ue union2 +to this em$%em was a guardian ange% ho%ding in her %eft hand the sca%es of 4ustice3 and in her right3 with oint down3 a sword3 not ty ica% of war3 $ut of a determination to u ho%d eace2 9n the shie%d that rested against her ro$e was the romise that whene1er a new State entered the 6nion another star wou%d descend from the s&y3 and guaranteeing to the generations to come that this ins ired f%ag wou%d $e a wor%d.res ected sym$o% of man,s humanity to man2 "here must $e aff%uence of thought $efore one can safe%y attem t e%egance of sty%e3 and e1en then it is $etter that it arise natura%%y and unconscious%y2 Here3 again3 the right foundation is to $e found in sincerity2 Some men thin& in %arge ways3 %i&e certain artists who aint with $road swee s of the $rush3 and in stri&ing co%ors2 "heir sou%s are too %arge for the edantic and forma%3 and they must find means of their own2 Such a man was We$ster3 who ga1e to common words a new im ort and ersona%ity3 as in his use of the word Cres ecta$%eC in the fo%%owing: I wou%d cheerfu%%y ut the @uestion to.day to the inte%%igence of Euro e and the wor%d3 what character of the century3 u on the who%e3 stands out in the re%ief of history3 most ure3 most res ecta$%e3 most su$%ime< and I dou$t not3 that3 $y a suffrage a roaching to unanimity3 the answer wou%d $e ,WashingtonH E%egance of %anguage has3 of course3 its %egitimate use3 and gi1es enduring %easure when e(hi$ited $y a rea% artist2 8ut it is a dangerous %aything for amateurs2 +n i%%ustration of master%y magnificence of sty%e is the fo%%owing assage from 5aeordaire: It might we%% ha1e $een thought that the force of that confession wou%d ne1er ha1e $een sur assed3 whether in regard to the genius of the man who wrote it3 the authority of his un$e%ief3 the g%ory of his name3 and the circumstances connected with the age which recei1ed it< $ut it wou%d ha1e $een an error2 +nother man3 another e( ression3 another g%ory3 another hase of un$e%ief3 another age3 another a1owa%3 were greater a%together3 if not in each se arate art3 than those you ha1e 4ust heard2 9ur age commenced $y a man who outstri t a%% his contem oraries3 and whom we3 who ha1e fo%%owed3 ha1e not e@ua%ed2 + con@ueror3 a so%dier3 a founder of em ire3 his name and his ideas are sti%% e1erywhere resent2 +fter ha1ing unconscious%y accom %ished the wor& of *od3 he disa eared3 that wor& $eing done3 and waned %i&e a setting sun in the dee waters of the ocean2 "here3 u on a $arren roc&3 he %o1ed to reca%% the e1ents of his own %ife< and from himse%f going $ac& to others who had %i1ed $efore him3 and to whom he had a right to com are himse%f3 he cou%d not fai% to ercei1e a form greater than his own u on that i%%ustrious stage whereon he too& his %ace2 He often contem %ated it< misfortune o ens the sou% to i%%uminations which in ros erity are unseen2 "hat form constant%y rose $efore him..he was com e%%ed to 4udge it2 9ne e1ening in the course of that %ong e(i%e which e( iated ast fau%ts and %ighted u the road to the future3 the fa%%en con@ueror as&ed one of the few com anions of his ca ti1ity if he cou%d te%% him what 7esus 0hrist rea%%y was2 "he so%dier $egged to $e e(cused< he had $een too $usy during his so4ourn in the wor%d to thin& a$out that @uestion2 C,WhatHC sorrowfu%%y re %ied the in@uirer3 Cyou ha1e $een $a tiDed in the 0atho%ic 0hurch3 and you can not te%% me3 e1en here u on this roc& which consumes us3 what 7esus 0hrist wasH We%%3 then3 I wi%% te%% youC: and3 o ening the *os e%3 not with his hands3 $ut from a heart fi%%ed $y it3 he com ared 7esus 0hrist with himse%f

and a%% the great characters of history< he de1e%o ed the different characteristics which distinguished 7esus 0hrist from a%% man&ind< and3 after uttering a torrent of e%o@uence which no Father of the 0hurch wou%d ha1e disc%aimed3 he ended with these words: CIn fine3 I &now men3 and I say that 7esus 0hrist was not a manHC "hese words3 gent%emen3 sum u a%% I wou%d say to you of the inner %ife of 7esus 0hrist3 and e( ress the conc%usion which3 sooner or %ater3 e1ery man arri1es at who reads the *os e% with 4ust attention2 ;ou who are yet young ha1e %ife $efore you< you wi%% see %earned men3 sages3 rinces3 and their ministers< you wi%% witness e%e1ations and ruins< sons of time3 time wi%% initiate you into the hidden things of man< and when you ha1e %earned them3 when you &now the measure of what is human3 some day3 erha s3 returning from those heights for which you ho ed3 you wi%% say a%so3 CI &now men3 and I say that 7esus 0hrist was not a manHC "he day3 too3 wi%% come when u on the tom$ of her great ca tain3 France wi%% gra1e these words3 and they wi%% shine there with more im. morta% %uster than the sun of the Pyramids and +uster%itDH "here is a sty%e that is so%e%y inte%%ectua% in character3 where$y the s ea&er aims to con1ince the hearer through his reason and 4udgment2 "here is no attem t to arouse the emotions3 $ut sim %y to win a fa1ora$%e decision $y an im artia% and accurate statement of facts2 "o this c%ass $e%ong most of the s eeches of 0ongress and the %aw court2 + short e(am %e3 from the argument of 7eremiah 8%ac& in the ?i%%igan case3 wi%% suffice: Eee ing the character of the charges in mind3 %et us come at once to the sim %e @uestion u on which the court $e%ow di1ided in o inion: Had the commissioners 4urisdiction..were they in1ested with %ega% authority to try the re%aters and ut them to death for the offense of which they were accusedI We answer3 no< and3 therefore3 the who%e roceeding from $eginning to end was utter%y nu%% and 1oid2 9n the other hand3 it is a$so%ute%y necessary for those who o ose us to assert3 as they do assert3 that the commissioners had com %ete %ega% 4urisdiction $oth of the su$4ect matter and of the arties3 so that their 4udgment u on the %aw and the facts is a$so%ute%y conc%usi1e and $inding3 not su$4ect to correction nor o en to in@uiry in any court whate1er2 9f these two o osite 1iews3 you must ado t one or the other< for there is no midd%e ground on which you can ossi$%y stand2 "he highest ty e of oratorica% sty%e com$ines con1incing with ersuasi1e e%ements3 $y which the s ea&er first ma&es a thing a ear ossi$%e or desira$%e3 then $y an a ea% to the heart mo1es the hearer to act as he wou%d ha1e him2 5ord Ers&ine was a master of the arts of c%ima( and ersuasion2 He wou%d throw himse%f so com %ete%y into his su$4ect that for the time he $ecame o$%i1ious to a%% e%se2 +%tho s%ender in form3 his sincerity3 earnestness3 and warmth of manner im arted to his sty%e and ersona%ity a magnetism that was irresisti$%e2 In the %i$e% case of 5ord Sandwich3 first 5ord of the +dmira%ty3 against 0a tain 8ai%%ie3 Ers&ine who as a youth ser1ed as a midshi man3 +1on his initia% success $efore a 4ury2 +t one oint of his address he was reminded that his %ordshi was not resent3 whereu on he $urst out 1ehement%y: I &now that he is not forma%%y $efore the court3 $ut3 for that 1ery reason3 I wi%% $ring him $efore the court2 He has %aced these men in the front of the $att%e3 in order to esca e under their she%ter3 $ut I wi%% not 4oin in $att%e with them< their 1ices3 tho screwed u to the highest itch of de ra1ity3 are not of dignity enough to 1indicate the com$at with me2 I wi%% drag him to %ia<ht who is the dar& mo1er $ehind this scene of ini@uity2 I assert that the Ear% of Sandwich has $ut one road to esca e out of this $usiness without o%%ution and disgrace..and that is3 $y u$%ic%y disa1owing the acts of the rosecutors3 and restoring 0a tain 8ai%%ie to his command2 2 2 2 If3

on the contrary3 he continues to rotect the rosecutors in s ite of the e1idence of their gui%t3 which has e(cited the a$horrence of the numerous audience who crowd this court3 if he &ee s this in4ured man sus ended3 or dares to turn that sus ension into a remo1a%3 I sha%% then not scru %e to dec%are him an accom %ice in their gui%t3 a shame%ess o ressor3 a disgrace to his ran&3 and a traitor to his trust2 ?y %ords3 this matter is of the %ast im ortance2 I s ea& not as an ad1ocate a%one..I s ea& to you as a man..as a mem$er of the state whose 1ery e(istence de ends u on her na1a% strength2 If our f%eets are to $e cri %ed $y the $anefu% inf%uence of e%ections3 we are %ost indeed2 If the seaman3 whi%e he e( oses his $ody to fatigues and dangers3 %oo&ing forward to *reenwich as an asy%um for infirmity and o%d age3 sees the gates of it $%oc&ed u $y corru tion3 and hears the mirth and riot of %u(urious %andsmen drowning the groans and com %aints of the wounded3 he% %ess com anions of his g%oryGhe wi%% tem t the seas no more2 "he admira%ty may ress his $ody indeed3 at the e( ense of humanity and the constitution3 $ut they can not ress his mind< they can not ress the heroic ardor of a 8ritish sai%or< and3 instead of a f%eet to carry terror a%% around the g%o$e3 the admira%ty may not $e a$%e much %onger to amuse us with e1en the eacea$%e3 unsu$stantia% ageant of a re1iew2 Fine and im risonmentH "he man deser1es a a%ace3 instead of a rison3 who re1ents the a%ace $ui%t $y the u$%ic $ounty of his country from $eing con1erted into a dungeon3 and who sacrifices his own security to the interests of humanity and 1irtueH "he gift of tauto%ogy is a 1a%ua$%e e%ement in oratorica% sty%e2 +n idea is re eated o1er and o1er again3 $ut in different as ects3 unti% it is dri1en dee %y and secure%y into the %istener,s mind2 /emosthenes3 0icero3 and other orators3 $oth of ancient and modern times3 ha1e ad1ocated and used this method of re etition2 Sometimes it ta&es the form of c%ima(3 in which a sing%e hrase is re eated3 as in this e(tract from an address $y Senator 8e1eridge: 5i&e President "aft2 I wanted on the free %ist many raw materia%s that needed no rotection2 ;et on%y one was so treated2 I cou%d not stand for the duties on these artic%es3 and I can not stand for them now2 5i&e President "aft3 I wanted free iron ore3 of which we ha1e the greatest de osits on earth3 and which the stee% trust chief%y contro%s2 I cou%d not stand for the duty that was assed3 and I can not stand for it now2 5i&e President "aft3 I wanted the ancient woo%%en schedu%e reduced2 It gi1es the woo%%en trust unfair contro%2 It raises the rice and reduces the weight of the eo %e,s c%othing2 I stood against the schedu%e when the $i%% was assed3 and I stand against it now3 I cou%d not stand for the duty on %um$er when the tariff $i%% was assed3 and I can not stand for it now2 Sometimes this re etition is made e(ceeding%y effecti1e throughout a %ong assage3 as in this @uotation from #o$ert Ingerso%%: + %itt%e whi%e ago3 I stood $y the gra1e of the o%d Ba o%eon ..a magnificent tom$ of gi%t and go%d3 a%most fit for a dead deity..and gaDed u on the sarco hagus of $%ac& Egy tian mar$%e3 where rest the ashes of that rest%ess man2 I %eaned o1er the $a%ustrade and thought a$out the career of the greatest so%dier of the modern wor%d2 I saw him wa%&ing u on the $an&s of the Seine contem %ating suicide2 I saw him at "ou%on< I

saw him utting down the mo$ in the streets of Paris< I saw him at the head of the army in Ita%y< I saw him crossing the $ridge of 5odi with the trico%or in his hand< I saw him in Egy t in the shadow of the yramids< I saw him con@uer the +% s and ming%e the eag%es of France with the eag%es of the crags< I saw him at ?arengn3 at 6%m3 and +uster%itD< I saw him in #ussia where the infantry of the snow and the ca1a%ry of the wi%d $%ast scattered his %egions %i&e winter,s withered %ea1es< I saw him at 5ei sic in defeat and disaster..dri1en $y a mi%%ion $ayonets $ac& u on Paris..c%utched %i&e a wi%d $east..$anished to E%$a2 I saw him esca e and reta&e an em ire $y the force of his genius2 I saw him u on the frightfu% fie%d of Water%oo3 where 0hance and Fortune com$ined to wrec& the fortunes of their former &ing3 and I saw him at St2 He%ena3 with his 5ands crossed $ehind him3 gaDing out u on the sad and so%emn I thought of the or hans and widows he had made3 of the tears that had $een shed for his g%ory3 and of the on%y woman he e1er %o1ed3 ushed from his heart $y the co%d hand of am$ition< and I said I wou%d rather ha1e $een a French easant and worn wooden shoes< I wou%d rather ha1e %i1ed in a hut with a 1ine growing o1er the door and the gra es growing ur %e in the rays of the autumn sun< I wou%d rather ha1e $een that oor easant with my %o1ing wife $y my side3 &nit. ting as the day died out of the s&y3 with my chi%dren a$out my &nee and their arms a$out me3 I wou%d rather ha1e $een that man and gone down to the tongue%ess si%ence of the dream%ess dust than ha1e $een that im eria% ersonification of force and murder2 Bothing is more effecti1e in oratorica% sty%e than the s&i%fu% use of c%ima(3 es ecia%%y at the c%ose of a s eech2 "he conc%usion of 5ord ?acau%ay,s s eech on Par%iamentary #eform3 de%i1ered in the House of 0ommons3 ?arch 23 1!313 is a s %endid s ecimen of his sonorous sty%e and his rare use of c%imactic effect: "urn where we may3 within3 around3 the 1oice of great e1ents is roc%aiming to us3 #eform that you may reser1e2 Bow3 therefore3 whi%e e1erything at home and a$road fore$odes ruin to those who ersist in a ho e%ess strugg%e against the s irit of the age< now3 whi%e the crash of the roudest throne of the continent is sti%% resounding in our ears< now3 whi%e the roof of a 8ritish a%ace affords an ignominious she%ter to the e(i%ed heir of forty &ings< now3 whi%e we see on e1ery side ancient institutions su$1erted and great societies disso%1ed< now3 whi%e the heart of Eng%and is sti%% sound< now3 whi%e o%d fee%ings and o%d associations retain a ower and a charm which may too soon ass away< now3 in this your acce ted time< now3 in this your day of sa%1ation3 ta&e counse%3 not of re4udice3 not of arty s irit3 not of the ignominious ride of a fata% consistency3 $ut of history3 of reason3 of the ages which are ast3 of the signs of this most ortentous time2 Pronounce in a manner worthy of the e( ectation with which this great de$ate has $een antici ated3 and of the %ong remem$rance which it wi%% %ea1e $ehind2 #enew the youth of the state2 Sa1e ro erty3 di1ided against itse%f2 Sa1e the mu%titude3 endangered $y its own ungo1erna$%e assions2 Sa1e the aristocracy3 endangered $y its own un o u%ar ower2 Sa1e the greatest3 and fairest3 and most high%y ci1i%iDed community that e1er e(isted from ca%amities which may in a few days swee away a%% the rich heritage of so many ages of wisdom and g%ory2 "he danger is terri$%e2 "he time is short2 If this $i%% shou%d $e re4ected3 I ray to *od that none of those who concur in re4ecting it may e1er remem$er their 1otes with una1ai%ing remorse amidst the wrec& of %aws3 the confusion of ran&s3 the s o%iation of ro erty3 and the disso%ution of socia% order2

"o s ea& without manuscri t does not im %y %ac& of re aration2 + man who essays to stand $efore an audience and address them without de endence u on notes3 must ha1e his s eech 1ery c%ear%y and 1i1id%y im rest u on his own mind2 E(tem ore s ea&ing3 to $e successfu%3 rea%%y demands greater %a$or and di%igence than any other form of address2 It is undou$ted%y true3 as 8autain says3 that,, "here are some men organiDed to s ea& we%%3 as there are $irds organiDed to sing we%%3 $ees to ma&e honey3 and $ea1ers to $ui%d2C Some men are natura%%y ada ted to e(tem ore s ea&ing3 whi%e others $ecause of timidity3 menta% s%uggishness3 or some other @ua%ity of tem erament3 are from necessity s%a1es to a manuscri t2 Possi$%y e1ery man cou%d e1entua%%y $ecome an e(tem oraneous s ea&er3 if he set de%i$erate%y and ersistent%y a$out it3 $ut unfortunate%y the written age ser1es as an easy esca e from the more %a$orious method2 E(tem oraneous address is the idea% form of de%i1ery2 Po u%ar o inion has dec%ared itse%f against the reading of a s eech2 + manuscri t in the hands of a s ea&er acts as a wet $%an&et3 an o$stac%e3 or a re4udice $etween him and his hearers2 In e(tem ore s eech a man is more rea%3 s ontaneous3 and energetic2 He %oo&s at his audience and they %oo& at him2 + $ond of sym athy and mutua% interest is esta$%ished2 "hey ta&e %easure in watching the o eration of the s ea&er,s mind3 whi%e he3 in turn3 has the o ortunity to o$ser1e the effect of his words u on them2 5ightning.%i&e changes must often $e made whi%e the s eech is in rogress2 When the s ea&er sees that a thought of his is not @uite c%ear3 or %ac&ing in im ressi1eness3 he may at once e( ress it again in a new hrase3 or with more te%%ing em hasis2 Possi$%y a man at the $ac& of the ha%%3 with his hand $ehind his ear ser1es as a warning to the s ea&er that he is not $eing distinct%y heard2 +n inattenti1e auditor suggests the ossi$i%ity that the s ea&er fai%s to ma&e himse%f interesting2 "he sna ing of a watch may $e a o%ite hint that the s ea&er is s ea&ing too %ong2 For these and many other reasons an e(tem ore s ea&er has a decided ad1antage o1er one who must3 for the most art3 &ee his eyes g%ued to a manuscri t2 ?oreo1er3 an e(tem ore s ea&er3 $eing unham ered $y notes3 can gi1e ade@uate force and recision to his 1oice and gesture2 He can ause as often and as %ong as he thin&s necessary to enforce his thought2 It is not mere%y the memory that s ea&s3 $ut his entire ersona%ity2 It can net too often $e re eated that the s ea&er shou%d write much2 S&i%% and thri%% of en @uic&%y communicate themse%1es to the 1oice2 We ha1e the authority of 0icero on this im ortant su$4ect2 He says: "he chief oint of a%% is to write as much as ossi$%e2 Writing is said to $e the $est and most e(ce%%ent mode%er and teacher of oratory: and not without reason: for if what is meditated and considered easi%y sur asses sudden and e(tem orary s eech3 a constant and di%igent ha$it of writing wi%% sure%y $e of more effect than meditation and consideration itse%f< since a%% the arguments re%ating to the su$4ect on which we write3 whether they are suggested $y art3 or $y a certain ower of genius and understanding3 wi%% resent themse%1es3 and occur to us3 whi%e we e(amine and contem %ate it in the fu%% %ight of our inte%%ect< and a%% thoughts and words3 which are the most e( ressi1e of their &ind3 must of necessity come under and su$mit to the &eenness of our 4udgment whi%e writing< and a fair arrangement and co%%ocation of the words

is effected $y writing in a certain rhythm and measure3 not oetica%3 $ut oratorica%2 0icero goes on to say that $y means of ractise in writing3 the %anguage of a man3 when re@uired to s ea& on the s ur of the moment3 wi%% resem$%e the accuracy and recision of his written sty%e2 In this ractise of writing3 howe1er3 the student shou%d summon his audience $efore him in imagination3 and fre@uent%y test what he has written $y standing u and rendering it a%oud2 It is the $usiness of the s eech.ma&er not on%y to fit words to his thoughts3 $ut to fit words to his mouth2 "he chief danger of the e(tem ore sty%e is the tendency to $e diffuse2 + s ea&er shou%d rea%iDe that there is a distinct ad1antage in %ea1ing some things unsaid2 "he 5acedaemonians3 w e are to%d3 &new the ositi1e uses of the negation of s eech3 and $y re ression gained strength and intensity2 "heir u$%ic assem$%ies were short3 and the audience in1aria$%y remained standing2 +n e(tem ore s ea&er shou%d &now recise%y what he intends to say3 not the e(act words3 erha s3 $ut certain%y the nature and order of ideas2 "he chief o$4ection to the use of manuscri t is that the s ea&er usua%%y reads his words3 instead of s ea&ing them2 He reads too ra id%y3 in a uniform sty%e3 and often with no s ecia% regard for the immediate im ression he is ma&ing2 He %oses3 toe3 in directness3 in fire and enthusiasm3 and in ersona% magnetism2 C"he 1ita%ity of thought3C o$ser1es 8autain3 Cis singu%ar%y stimu%ated $y the necessity of instantaneous roduction3 $y this actua% necessity of se%f.e( ression3 and of communication to other minds2,, + great +merican orator was we%comed to 5ondon some months ago3 where he was in1ited to address an inf%uentia% society of that city2 He was hera%ded as one of the most gifted s ea&ers of the day3 and a distinguished audience greeted him with unusua% mar&s of enthusiasm2 8ut as he stood $efore them3 he too& from his oc&et a %arge manuscri t3 and roceeded to read his s eech2 Enthusiasm sudden%y changed to disa ointment3 and when the s ea&er at %ast had finished3 the unanimous fee%ing was that he had serious%y $%undered2 9ratory can not reach the heart through the rinted age2 If a man reads his s eech3 the mem$ers of the audience conc%ude that they might themse%1es read it @uite as we%% in the @uiet of their own homes2 +n e(tem ore s ea&er shou%d ha1e a ready 1oca$u%ary2 It matters not so much $y what method he gets it3 so %ong as it is %arge and 1aried2 He may ta&e words de%i$erate%y from his genera% reading3 ascertain their meaning and ro er usage3 and incor orate them at once into his dai%y con1ersation2 He may c%ose%y scrutiniDe the %anguage of recogniDed s ea&ers3 or he may co y down in his own hand. writing arts of master ieces of e%o@uence3 gi1ing s ecia% attention to the use of words3 hrases3 idioms3 and figures of s eech2 9ne of the $est e(ercises for the student of e(tem ore s eech is to accustom himse%f dai%y to ma&e short s eeches a%oud3 whi%e he is a%one3 and ut his a$i%ity to fre@uent test whi%e gaining articu%ate f%e(i$i%ity2 He may stand in his own room3 arrange some chairs as an audience3 and s ea& u on a current to ic se%ected from his dai%y news a er2 His aim here shou%d $e to secure f%uency rather than erfection2 "here is no $etter way than this for ac@uiring the a$i%ity of Cthin&ing on one,s feet2C In many men this is the one thing %ac&ing2 "hey can s ea& we%% at home or in $usiness3 $ut if sudden%y ca%%ed u on the stand on their feet and address a num$er of ersons3 their thoughts as sudden%y %ea1e them2 "his art2 %et it $e remem$ered3 can

$e ac@uired on%y through the most di%igent ractise2 "here must3 of course3 $e something more than f%uency in order to roduce a satisfactory s ea&er2 F%uency a%one may run to garru%ousness3 and an a$undance of words may easi%y o$scure instead of en%ighten a su$4ect2 8ehind the s o&en word there must $e the man3 and it is his thought and ersona%ity which after a%% im art 1a%ue to his %anguage2 9ne might &now a%% the words of an una$ridged dictionary3 yet $e s%ow of s eech2 It is not a C rofuse and intermina$%e f%ow of wordsC that is so much needed as a ready and recise &now%edge of their ro er a %ication2 When *%adstone was une( ected%y ca%%ed u on to c%ose a de$ate3 or to answer an antagonist3 he wou%d sometimes s ea& for some minutes without rea%%y saying anything worth whi%e3 in order to ta&e time to formu%ate his thought2 C+%% at once3C said an o$ser1er of the great orator3 Cthe c%oud c%eared away with a sudden gesture3 and you heard the words3 ,?r2 S ea&er2, "he orator then had made u his mind as to the sco e of his re %y3 and then fo%%owed a stream of sentences direct3 com act3 and ungentGcris as the cur%ing wa1e3 definite as the $u%%et2C "his is a s %endid i%%ustration of thin&ing on one,s feet3 of thin&ing ahead whi%e in the 1ery act of s ea&ing2 "he u$%ic s ea&er shou%d $e %i&e a s&i%fu% ca tain3 a$%e to shift his course to meet une( ected conditions2 + man who is tied down to set hraseo%ogy3 whether of memory or manuscri t3 is not un%i&e a schoo%$oy with his memoriDed recitation2 If he forgets his %ines3 he must $egin a%% o1er again3 or retire co1ered with confusion2 E(tem ore s ea&ing does not mean %ac& of re aration3 since a%% who s ea& we%% must re are for it3 $ut it im %ies that at the moment of de%i1ery the s ea&er has erfect freedom and faci%ity in his choice of %anguage3 and the a$i%ity to am %ify or a$ridge his remeditated thought at wi%%2 "he student of u$%ic s ea&ing is recommended to hear the $est u% it reachers and c%ose%y to study their method of de%i1ery2 ?any c%ergymen de end in their ear%y efforts u on the use of manuscri t3 $ut in most cases the a er is discarded after a few months or years for the freer and more effecti1e e(tem ore sty%e2 /r2 Storrs3 in his ins iring $oo& CPreaching Without Botes3C disc%oses one of his own secrets a$out effecti1e s ea&ing: CI ha1e %earned3,, he says3 Cthat the reco%%ecti1e forces of the mind3 which are in their nature su$ordinate and au(i%iary3 are to $e &e t strict%y in a$eyance..not to $e ca%%ed on for any ser1ice..so that the s ontaneous3 suggesti1e3 creati1e owers may ha1e continua% and unhindered %ay2 Bothing3 if ossi$%e3 shou%d $e %eft to $e reca%%ed at the time of s ea&ing3 $y a distinct act of the memory2 "he more you try to reco%%ect3 the %ess effecti1e you wi%% $e2C He insists that it is aggressi1e roducti1e energy that most mo1es an audience3 and3 we may add3 it is this that $est insures a natura% and sincere sty%e of de%i1ery2 "he story is fami%iar of how the +thenians ro osed to gi1e a go%den crown to /emosthenes in recognition of his 1a%ued ser1ices to his country3 and how the ro osa% was o osed $y +Echines2 When the %atter was in $anishment3 he one day re eated the s eech he had made against /emosthenes3 whereu on his hearers re@uested him a%so to read /emosthenes, re %y< which he did with re%uctance2 +fter the a %ause had su$sided3 +Eschines e(c%aimed3 CHow much more wou%d your admiration ha1e $een raised had you heard /emosthenes s ea& itHC "he mind shou%d $e stored with the choicest assages of great s ea&ers and writers3 not on%y

for training in Eng%ish sty%e3 $ut for use as @uotations when re@uired2 + $usiness man who has distinguished himse%f as a u$%ic s ea&er3 ascri$es much of his readiness and ower to the fact that for years he has committed gems of oetry to memory3 and these constant%y furnish him with 1a%ua$%e materia% for i%%ustration and am %ification2 + short oem memoriDed each day for a year wou%d re1o%utioniDe a man,s entire thin&ing ha$its3 and at the same time ro1ide him with a 1oca$u%ary and sty%e to satisfy a%% ordinary re@uirements2 9ur own great We$ster shows in many of his s eeches that he was a rofound student of the 8i$%e and the oets2 ?ost of the great s ea&ers of the wor%d ha1e ac&now%edged their inde$tedness to ins irationa% writers2 5ord 8rougham was an indefatiga$%e student and wor&er2 Whi%e he was com osing the eroration of one of his most im ortant s eeches3 he made it a oint to read /emosthenes for se1era% wee&s3 during which time he rewrote his own s eech twenty times2 Something shou%d $e said here a$out mannerisms in s ea&ing3 which not infre@uent%y are most manifest in e(tem ore de%i1ery2 Without a manuscri t to engage the s ea&er,s hands he is often at a %oss to &now what to do with these unru%y mem$ers2 "he answer is sim %e: do nothing with them un%ess they are s ecifica%%y needed for the more com %ete e( ression of a thought2 5et them remain at the sides in their natura% re%a(ed osition3 where they wi%% $e ready for instant use2 "o ress the fist in the ho%%ow of the $ac& in order to su ort the s ea&er3 to c%utch the %a e%s of the coat3 to s%a the hands audi$%y together3 to %ace the hands on the hi s in the attitude of C1u%gar ease3C to ut the hands into the oc&ets3 to wring the hands as if washing them with in1isi$%e soa 3C or 1io%ent%y to stri&e the ta$%e or des&3 these are a%% o$4ectiona$%e mannerisms and shou%d $e studious%y a1oided2 +t the $eginning of a s eech it wi%% gi1e the a earance of ease to %ace the hands $ehind the $ac&3 $ut this osition %ac&s force3 and shou%d not $e %ong sustained2 5eaning or %ounging of e1ery &ind3 $ending at the &nees3 e1idence of wea&ness or weariness3 draw%ing and dawd%ing3 shou%d $e a1oided2 Hoc&ing the $ody to and fro3 rising on the toes to em hasiDe3 crouching3 stam ing the foot3 s ringing from side to side3 o1eracting and im ersonating3 and3 in. deed3 1io%ence and e(tra1agance of e1ery descri tion3 are not in &ee ing with dignified u$%ic s ea&ing2 *estures that are too fre@uent and a%i&e soon %ose their significance2 If they are attem ted at a%%3 they shou%d $e 1aried and com %ete3 suggesting freedom and s ontaneity2 When on%y ha%f made they ca%% attention to the discre ancy3 and may easi%y retard the thought they are designed to he% 2 "he continuous use of gesture is dis %easing to the eye2 gi1ing an im ression of %ac& of oise2 "he student shou%d not imitate the sty%e of other s ea&ers2 He may hear them3 and note their 1irtues and fau%ts3 $ut his constant aim shou%d $e to de1e%o his own ower and indi1idua%ity2 What is erfect%y natura% te one man may $e ridicu%ous in another2 0ardina% Bew.man s o&e with unusua% de%i$erateness3 enunciating e1ery sy%%a$%e with care and recision3 whi%e Phi%%i s 8roo&s sent forth an a1a%anche of words at the rate of two hundred or more to the minute2 "hese two e(am %es wou%d certain%y $e dangerous recedents for the a1erage man to fo%%ow2 "he e(tem ore s ea&er shou%d ta&e ad1antage of his great o ortunity to $e thorough%y a%i1e2 9ne man s ea&s from his head3 another from his heart3 and another from his imagination3 $ut a rea% orator s ea&s from his entire ersona%ity2 Some men a ear uniform%y tired3 and in the effort to address an audience assume a ha%f.hearted tone2 "his %ife%essness of 1oice and manner soon communicates itse%f to the audience3 and enthusiasm or success are rendered

im ossi$%e2 "he we%%.e@ui ed s ea&er is one who has a su erior cu%ture of 1oice and $ody2 +%% the instruments of e( ression must $e made his o$edient ser1ants3 that at his $idding they may erform their wor& natura%%y and s ontaneous%y2 He must $e a$%e3 whi%e s ea&ing3 to a$andon himse%f who%%y to his su$4ect3 confident that as a resu%t of re1ious and conscientious training his de. %i1ery can safe%y $e %eft to ta&e care of itse%f2 +nother undesira$%e mannerism of the 1oice is that of gi1ing a rising inf%ection at the c%ose of successi1e sentences that are o$1ious%y com %ete2 "he s ea&er,s thought is %eft sus ended in the air3 the hearer fee%s a sense of dou$t or disa ointment3 and ossi$%y the entire meaning is er1erted2 "houghts de%i1ered in this manner3 un%ess they distinct%y demand a rising inf%ection3 %ac& em hasis3 force3 and ersuasion2 +rtificia%ity3 affectation3 om osity3 mouthing3 1ehemence3 monotony3 and e1erything that detracts in the s%ightest degree from the sim %icity and genuine fer1or of a s ea&er,s sty%e shou%d $e carefu%%y a1oided2 "oo much em hasis may dri1e a thought $eyond the mar&3 and a conscious determination to ma&e Ca great s eechC may easi%y &ee the s ea&er in a state of an(iety throughout its entire de%i1ery2 + c%ear and correct enunciation is essentia%3 $ut it shou%d ne1er $e edantic nor attract attention to itse%f2 E(aggerated o ening of the mouth3 audi$%e smac&ing of the %i s3 ho%ding tenacious%y to fina% consonants3 ro%onged hissing of si$i%ants3 are fau%ts to $e condemned2 Hesitation3 stum$%ing o1er difficu%t com$inations3 o$scuring fina% sy%%a$%es3 coa%escing the %ast sound of one word with the first sound of the fo%%owing word3 are ine(cusa$%e in a trained s ea&er2 When the same modu%ation of the 1oice is re eated too often3 it $ecomes a mannerism3 a &ind of monotony of 1ariety2 "o the fre@uent @uestion whether a musica% ear is an aid to the s ea&er3 the answer must $e in the affirmati1e2 "he man who can discriminate $etween one &ey of the 1oice and another3 $etween the %ight and shade of the 1oice as manifest in force3 and &nows what is ra id and what is s%ow in the mo1ement of his utterance3 has a mar&ed ad1antage o1er one with ear untrained2 It may $e fitting here to resent two or three short s ecimens of un remeditated s eech2 "he first is $y Sir +emi%ius Ir1ing3 of "oronto3 0anada3 in a farewe%% address to the Hon2 Featherston 9sier: I $eg3 on $eha%f of the $ar3 that you wi%% a%%ow me to address a few words to the court3 and3 to some e(tent3 to himse%f2 "he attorney.genera% wou%d ro er%y and with gratification to himse%f $e resent to ta&e art in this function3 $ut he is una$%e to tra1e% the %ong distance he wou%d ha1e to come3 since %earning that this was to ta&e %ace2 He is rostrated3 as it were3 and has $een ad1ised that for him to come wou%d $e im ractica$%e2 8ut he has $een good enough to refer to me to s ea& in some measure for him2 "he occasion on which we are now assem$%ed is to do honor to an i%%ustrious mem$er of the $ench who is a$out to retire from it2 "he im ortance of the occasion and the de th of fee%ing that has $een e1o&ed are the $est roof3 and I do not wish a higher testimonia% than the num$er resent to testify their %oya%ty and affection to the friend..if I may $e ermitted to use that affectionate term..to the friend with whom they wi%% not $e in contact as in the ast2

"hat re resentation is3 of course3 %arge%y $y the 5aw Society and the 8enchers3 $ut two other associations are ta&ing art3 and ha1e indicated to me their desire to $e named3 the ;or& 0ounty 5aw +ssociation3 and the 9ntario 8ar +ssociation3 so that it may $e fair%y said that we who are now $efore you are as %arge a re resentation of the $ar of 9ntario as cou%d $e gathered together here3 considering a%% the circumstances2 "his tri$ute3 for such it is3 is not on%y one of ersona% res ect3 $ut it is the discharging $y the $ar of a $ounden duty toward itse%f to %ose no o ortunity of e( ressing its sense of the 1a%ue to the rofession3 the u$%ic3 and to the country3 of the ser1ice which must necessari%y come to an end2 I sha%% not $estow terms of encomium on ?r2 7ustice 9sier2 "hey wou%d $e out of %ace at this tri$una%2 "he urity and %earning of the $ench concerns the u$%ic and %ies near the foundation of u$%ic %i$erty2 "o this august $ody these are the moti1es that rom t us2 8efore this august $ody there shou%d $e no com arisons2 We esteem a%% the 4udges3 the great $ody I am addressing:3 and the High 0ourt as we%%3 $ut we go no further in reference to the indi1idua%2 "his is not a sad occasion< we are not %osing a 1ery rinci a% man from our socia% circ%e< we are not wee ing o1er his gra1e< we are3 on the other hand3 congratu%ating him on the trium hant resu%t of his %ong %ife2 He has good hea%th3 he is surrounded with 4oys..he has a$ound him honor3 %o1e3 o$edience the affection of his chi%dren and troo s of friends He has the right to %oo& forward3 as we ho e and e( ect3 to the %ong en4oyment .which his satisfactory hea%th gi1es him e1ery e( ectation to rea%iDe I am directed $y the 0or oration of the 5aw Society and the 8enchers in congregation to communicate that they hai% with gratification the ros ect of his ta&ing his %ace as of %ight in their go1erning $ody3 and that his accession to that wi%% $e a great gratification to the ro1ince genera%%y and to the rofession2 It wi%% $e o$ser1ed that this s eech is in easy3 sim %e sty%e "he 4udicia% mind of the s ea&er is3 of course3 e1ident3 $ut %ong ha$it of instant%y turning his thought into a ro riate hrase stands him to good ur ose Sir 0har%es ?oss3 the 0hief 7ustice of 9ntario3 s ea&ing on the same occasion3 fo%%owed the %ast s ea&er3 with these words2 9n $eha%f of my co%%eagues and myse%f3 I e( ress the desire that he shou%d $e associated in the most em hatic manner with a%% the remar&s which you ha1e so fee%ing%y and a ro riate%y e( rest concerning our $rother 9sier2 It a%most goes without saying that no words cou%d ade@uate%y e( ress our own sense of %oss a%i&e to the $ench3 the $ar3 and the u$%ic3 occasioned $y his retirement3 and a%so our sense of ersona% %oss2 If any. thing can $e added to what you ha1e so 4ust said3 we wish it to $e understood as ha1ing $een said in the most am %e manner2 "here is no sign of remeditation in this short s eech $ut it has the unmista&a$%e mar&s of sincerity3 dignity3 and dee fee%ing Fina%%y3 %et us e(amine the re %y of the Hon Featherston 9sier himse%f3 who3 we are to%d3 s o&e on this occasion with 1isi$%e emotion: "hose of you who &now me wi%%3 I am sure3 &now how difficu%t it is for me at this moment to

e( ress in any ade@uate way my sense of the honor .which has $een conferred u on me2 I may say3 in the words of the *erman oet3 that I am now en4oying the highest moment of my %ife2 +fter fi%%ing such an office o1er thirty.one years3 and to $e a%%owed to %ea1e it with the en4oyment of the a ro1a% of a most critica% $ody %i&e the 9ntario $ar3 is indeed gratifying2 I ha1e3 during my connection with the $ench3 stri1en to %i1e u to the high standard I set for myse%f on acce ting a osition on it2 I fee% it a high honor to $e a%%owed to @uit it3 not in co%d si%ence of the most critica% rofession in the wor%d3 $ut with their a ro1a% as you ha1e e( rest it2 +s for the fai%ures I ha1e $een gui%ty of3 some were ca a$%e of correction and some were not3 $ut I ha1e the ha iness of &nowing that the court which3 whi%e it has the right to ardon3 has a%so the rerogati1e to condemn3 has e(tended its ardon to me 5et me wish you a%% ha iness and ros erity3 and through you to the se1era% associations for their &indness in 4oining in this e( ression2 +nd %et me now $id you my 4udicia% farewe%%2 "his is $oth fe%icitous and touching2 "hese three s eeches are somewhat a%i&e in their @ua%ity of tender sim %icity and directness3 and as e(am %es of easy e(tem ore s ea&ing are worthy of c%ose study and ana%ysis2

re !ou al#a!s tired, because !ou keep repeating these ( crucial mistakes0

%lick )ere To +ind &ut


"he use of gesture must often $e determined $y the taste and 4udgment of the s ea&er2 "here are sim %e s eeches and informa% occasions when much $odi%y action wou%d $e entire%y ina ro riate3 and there are others where an a$sence of mo1ement wou%d gi1e the im ression of wea&ness and inade@uacy2 "oo %itt%e gesture is $etter than too much3 and there are times when a owerfu% effect is con1eyed $y s ea&ing with great intensity whi%e standing motion%ess2 It is said that dee concentrated fee%ing is ne1er %oud3 and it may $e added that action and gesture of a great s ea&er are ne1er 1io%ent2 "he ur ose of gesture is to em hasiDe3 i%%ustrate3 or in some degree add c%earness or force to a s ea&er,s thought2 If it fai%s to accom %ish one of these o$4ects3 it wi%% hinder rather than he% the s ea&er2 "he who%e art of gesture may $e summed u in three words: sim %icity3 a 1ariety2 ro riateness3 and

Sim %icity means that a gesture arises from the natura% animation of a s ea&er3 and is so ine(trica$%y $ound u with the thought that it does not attract attention to itse%f2 "he arms and hands3 if ro er%y trained3 mo1e in cur1es3 the straight %ine mo1ements $eing reser1ed for s ecia% em hasis2 Sim %icity means3 too3 that nothing is o1erdone2 ?any men3 $ecause of their sedentary %i1es3 are aw&ward and se%f.conscious in the attem t to gesticu%ate whi%e s ea&ing in u$%ic3 and determined not to a ear tame or untutored3 indu%ge in a%% &inds of grotes@ue and unseem%y mo1ements2 Sim %icity wi%% guard a s ea&er from many undesira$%e fau%ts which sometimes go $y the %ausi$%e name of indi1idua%ity and mannerism2 + ro riateness im %ies that a gesture is the one $est suited to inter ret or enforce a articu%ar thought2 "here is no 1a%id o$4ection to a student standing $efore a %oo&ing. g%ass in order to o$ser1e his use of gesture and conscious%y to study those mo1ements most a ro riate to the e( ression of his thought2 If he has the fundamenta% @ua%ities for great s ea&ing3 there wi%% $e no danger of such ractise ma&ing him fo ish or undu%y se%f. conceited2 Fariety of gesture is necessary to the ro er e( ression of 1aried thought2 "he s ea&er does not resent mere%y one hase of his su$4ect3 nor does he s ea& in a monotone2 "he many. sidedness of his theme demands constant changes of 1oice and fee%ing3 hence if he uses gesture and action they must $e in harmony with his utterance2 "he statement that if a man $e rea%%y in earnest he wi%% gesticu%ate ro er%y does not ho%d good in fact2 9ne who is aw&ward in ordinary con1ersation wi%% mere%y e(aggerate his aw&wardness when he attem ts to s ea& on a %arger occasion2 "he ro er study of gesture does not necessari%y ma&e a s ea&er artificia% and se%f.conscious any more than the ractise of fi1e.finger e(ercises ma&es the ianist mechanica%3 or the study of dancing renders a man ungain%y2 +%% great art must $e receded $y a conscious ana%ysis of the right and the wrong thing to do3 and the art of e( ression is no e(ce tion to this ru%e2 "his de%i$erate study is intended so to inf%uence and train the student,s 1isi$%e e( ression that u%timate%y it wi%% erform its wor& natura%%y and in1o%untari%y2

"he tendency to gesticu%ate e(c%usi1e%y with the right hand shou%d $e a1oided2 It gi1es a one. sided3 un1aried effect to gesture3 and when %ong continued3 may easi%y $ecome wearisome to an audience2 Beither shou%d gestures $e a%ternated too regu%ar%y3 as in the we%%.&nown e( ression Con the one hand3C and Con the other hand2C Fariety is the s ice of gesture3 as it is of %ife3 and the discriminating s ea&er wi%% gi1e it most carefu% consideration2 /ou$%e arm gestures are 1a%ua$%e aids in e( ressing intensity and $readth of thought3 $ut shou%d $e used s aring%y since too much action of the &ind often suggests $ewi%derment and %ac& of oise2 "he correct standing osition is to %ace one foot in ad1ance of the other3 with the toes s%ight%y turned out2 "he width of the $ase must $e determined $y a man,s height3 as the ta%%er the man the wider his feet shou%d $e a art2 "he osition of the feet shou%d $e changed occasiona%%y3 not $y conscious%y %oo&ing down at them3 $ut refera$%y during the act of s ea&ing2 "oo much shifting a$out is %i&e%y to con1ey an im ression of rest%essness3 and %ac& of dignity2 "he %egs shou%d $e straight3 the head erect3 and the arms when not in action dro t natura%%y at the sides2 "he im ortance of what has $een urged here regarding the cu%ti1ation of gesture is referred to $y +ddison3 when he says: It is certain that ro er gestures and 1ehement e(ertions of the 1oice can not $e too much studied $y a u$%ic orator2 "hey are a &ind of comment u on what he utters3 and enforce e1erything he says3 with wea& hearers3 far $etter than the strongest argument he can ma&e use of2 "hey &ee the audience awa&e3 and fi( their attention to what is de%i1ered to them< at the same time they show that the s ea&er is in earnest3 and himse%f affected with what he so assionate%y recommends to others2 Fio%ent gesture and 1ociferation natura%%y sha&e the hearts of the ignorant3 and fi%% them with a &ind of re%igious horror2 Bothing is more fre@uent than to see women wee and trem$%e at the sight of a mo1ing reacher3 tho he is %aced @uite out of hearing< as we 1ery fre@uent%y see eo %e %u%%ed to s%ee with so%id and e%a$orate discourses of iety3 who wou%d $e warmed and trans orted out of themse%1es $y the $e%%owings and distortions of enthusiasm2 If nonsense3 when accom anied with such an emotion of 1oice and $ody3 has such an inf%uence on men,s minds3 what might we not e( ect from many of those admira$%e discourses which are rinted in our tongue3 were they de%i1ered with a $ecoming fer1or and with the most agreea$%e graces of 1oice and gesture2 Bo $etter ad1ice u on the su$4ect has e1er $een gi1en than that of Ham%et,s instruction to the P%ayers to Csuit the action to the word< the word to the action2,, It is reasona$%e to thin& that a man facing an audience wi%% $e so animated and ins ired as to fee% the necessity of using gesture and action in his s ea&ing2 ;et how often do we hear men e( ressing their ideas u on momentous @uestions with a arent%y no ersona% interest in what they are saying2 +gain3 how ridicu%ous it is to %isten to a man who has nothing worthwhi%e to say3 $ut who 1ain%y tries to enforce it with wi%d gesticu%ation and 1io%ent agitation of $ody2 *esture shou%d $e fast or s%ow3 %arge or sma%%3 as determined $y the thought2 It is usua%%y made on the word or words to which it articu%ar%y refers3 and is sustained as %ong as the thought demands it2 "he hand shou%d not $e 4er&ed $ac& to its %ace3 $ut $e a%%owed to dro gent%y and uno$trusi1e%y to its natura% osition2 *estures that are s%ow%y made3 and a%%owed to

g%ide easi%y one into the other3 are most effecti1e and gracefu%2 It is ne1er ermissi$%e to oint across the $ody2 If a gesture is to $e made to the %eft3 use the %eft hand3 and if to the right3 use the right hand3 a%ways remem$ering that the arm shou%d mo1e in cur1es3 not in straight %ines3 and that the mo1ement shou%d $e made whene1er ossi$%e from the shou%der2 "he natura% desire for gesture and action in u$%ic s ea&ing is one of the $est arguments for the e(tem ore sty%e2 "o see the s ea&er great%y enhances the %easure of the auditor3 and to o$ser1e animation in his face3 arms3 and $ody is one of the strongest e1idences of his earnestness and rea%ity2 Whether one shou%d attem t to use gesture whi%e reading from a manuscri t can not $e sett%ed $y an ar$itrary ru%e3 since much must de end u on the tem erament and s&i%% of the man3 and the form of his manuscri t2 Ha%com$e says: + ro riate gesture in s ea&ing arises from the mind either antici ating some forci$%e e( ression3 or finding .words on the s ur of the moment inade@uate fu%%y to con1ey its meaning2 "his at once accounts for the fact of so few ersons3 when reading from the ages of a written com osition3 ha1ing the ower of enforcing their words $y this a arent%y sim %e and natura% e( edient2 For in reading3 the mind is genera%%y &ee ing ace retty e1en%y with the written matter3 oftener %agging $ehind than outstri ing it whi%e the words s o&en in1aria$%y recede the menta% conce tion2 "hus the gesture of readers is often go1erned $y the 1ery re1erse of the ru%e of nature2 When they are une(cited and treating of a com arati1e%y unim ortant art of their su$4ect they use action< $ut when sufficient%y im rest with it to forget themse%1es they are erfect%y motion%ess3 showing at once what is natura% to them under such circumstances2 "he reader may3 howe1er3 $y ractise ac@uire the ha$it of occasiona%%y enforcing or he% ing out his words $y his action3 tho to do this without effort wi%% re@uire him to $e a$%e to merge the reader in the s ea&er to an e(tent which is attaina$%e $y 1ery few2 "he s ea&er can not $e too fre@uent%y warned against indu%gence in o$4ectiona$%e mannerisms2 0onstant sha&ing of the head in order to em hasiDe what one is saying3 soon %oses its significance2 Pacing the %atform may easi%y gi1e the im ression of un re aredness2 #oc&ing $ac& and forth on the toes is suggesti1e of the fami%iar and common %ace2 "he c%enched fist may $e a ro riate on rare occasions3 $ut the audi$%e s%a ing of the hands together $e%ongs rather to the cart.tai% s e%%$inder than to the omshed orator2 + s ea&er u on rising to his feet is not e( ected to %unge head%ong into his su$4ect3 $ut after @uiet%y sur1eying his audience shou%d $egin to s ea& in an easy and de%i$erate manner2 "here wi%% $e %itt%e action3 if any3 unti% he has made considera$%e rogress with his address3 $ut as his thought and fee%ing $ecome intensified3 his gesture3 facia% e( ression3 and $odi%y mo1ement wi%% increase in due ro ortion2 Earnest and assionate utterance wi%% demand %arger effects than ordinary con1ersationa% sty%e3 and it is in these sudden out$ursts that the s ea&er shou%d $e articu%ar%y trained to a1oid a%% aw&ward and angu%ar mo1ements of the hands and arms2 It is when he %ets himse%f go that his fau%ts are most %i&e%y to disc%ose themse%1es2 Some o$ser1ations u on this su$4ect3 $y CWi%%iam #usse%%3 are re rinted here for their suggesti1e 1a%ue2 He is ad. dressing himse%f to the c%ergyman3 $ut what he says is e@ua%%y a %ica$%e to a%% c%asses of u$%ic s ea&ers3 when he says: 9ur con1entiona% modes of %ife3 .which @uench or su ress e( ression $y withho%ding

cor orea% action3 which is the natura% accom animent of s eech3 are as fau%ty in oint of true taste as they are fa%se to nature2 "he 1ery condition of e%o@uence in address is that we $ecome sufficient%y e(a%ted $y thought and emotion to rise a$o1e such ha$its and to gi1e sentiment an e( ression and a character to the eye as we%% as to the ear2 6ndisci %ined ha$it may3 it is true3 cam this3 as any other mode of e( ression3 to e(cess2 8ut the theory which founds on this fact a swee ing o$4ection to the we of action in s ea&ing3 is not at a%% more rationa% than wou%d $e that which shou%d en4oin a$stinence from a%iment3 on the ground of the tendency of ungo1erned a etite to e(cess in eating and drin&ing2 *enuine cu%ture wou%d rescri$e in this3 as in other de artments of e( ression3 a strict guard against fau%ts of e(cess3 no %ess an(ious%y than it wou%d so%icit and cherish the ower and the $eauty of a ro riate and ro ortioned action2 M +nother current error on this su$4ect of gesture is that it is a thing not ca a$%e of $eing reduced to study or systematic ractice< that it is a ure resu%t of unconscious im u%se3 and $eyond the reach of the understanding2 So was musica% sound thought to $e3 ti%% man had the atience to o$ser1e it attenti1e%y and trace its re%ations and its rinci %es2 Faithfu% o$ser1ation of henomena and effects was the condition on which the $eautifu%3 the rofound science of music was constructed3 and in conse@uence of which it $ecame a definite and inte%%igi$%e art3 in1o%1ing rocesses of systematic e(ecution2 +%% e( ressi1e arts ha1e a common groundwor& of rinci %es Patient a %ication disco1ers and defines these3 and em$odies them in ru%es2 Study and ractise fo%%ow3 in due order3 and the resu%t is a recogniDed form of $eauty or of ower2 /e th3 $readth3 force3 truth3 and grace3 are each the same thing3 in whate1er art3 $e it architecture3 scu% ture3 ainting3 music3 oetry or oratory2 "he mind which su$mits to the re@uisite conditions of atient and s&i%fu% in1estigation3 wi%% succeed in finding and naming and e(em %ifying them2 "he great im ediment to effecti1e s ea&ing3 so far as de ends on action3 %ies in the defecti1e character of ear%y education2 "he chi%d is origina%%y a mode% and a study for the scu% tor and the ainter3 in the s ontaneous erfection of attitude and gesture2 Education as genera%%y conducted does nothing to secure this natura% e(ce%%ence3 $ut2 on the contrary3 a%%ows it to die out of use3 and e1en dis %aces it $y a defecti1e routine of mechanica% ha$it2 "he aw&wardness of the schoo%$oy and the stiffness of the student are ro1er$ia%2 "he minister in the u% it natura%%y..we might a%most say necessari%yGe(hi$its the ha$itua% fau%ts of the student to their fu%%est e(tent2 His modes of %ife3 if not counteracted $y e( ress care and due se%f.cu%ti1ation3 %ead him to a co%d3 reser1ed3 ineffecti1e3 ine( ressi1e sty%e of action2 So much so that nothing is more fre@uent%y or more genera%%y a su$4ect of o u%ar remar& than the co%dness and the %ife%essness of the sti%e of s ea&ing usua%%y e(em %ified in the u% it2 In too many cases the saered recincts seem to $e occu ied $y an automaton or a statue endowed with nothing $eyond the ower of a mechanica% articu%ation2 Some ractica% hints may here $e offered to the student which he wi%% do we%% to fo%%ow in this $ranch of his study: 12 + s ea&er shou%d cu%ti1ate man%y grace of mo1ement at a%% times2 22 "he hands when not in use shou%d $e dro t at the sides2 32 "he student may ractise at home3 $ut ne1er $efore an audience2

42 "he &nees shou%d $e &e t straight2 )2 It is o$4ectiona$%e to s%a the hands audi$%y together2 '2 *estures3 if too fre@uent3 %ose force2 72 "he hands shou%d not $e rested on the hi s3 nor %aced in the oc&ets2 !2 "o rise on the toes is %i&e%y to ha1e a %udicrous effect2 -2 "he ro er gesture and action are %arge%y determined $y the su$4ect and occasion2 102 +%% stiffness shou%d $e a1oided2 112 When the arms mo1e in cur1es they gi1e the im ression of ease and grace2 122 "he feet must $e &e t firm%y on the f%oor2 132 It is we%% not to use the inde( hand too muchGthis is3 the hand with forefinger e(tended2 +udiences do not %i&e to $e admonished2 . 142 "he head and $ody shou%d $e mo1ed together2 1)2 When the chest is he%d high and fu%%3 it gi1es man%iness to the s ea&er,s attitude2 1'2 "he wa%& to the %atform shou%d $e reasona$%y s%ow and dignified2 172 It is not necessary to $ow3 e(ce t to ac&now%edge unusua% recognition from the audience2 1!2 If the chin is e%e1ated it may gi1e an unfa1ora$%e im ression of ride or arrogance2 1-2 When two gestures are made in @uic& succession3 one shou%d3 if ossi$%e3 g%ide into the other2 202 8oth arms are used for intensity3 $readth3 a ea%3 or unusua% energy2

212 + change of standing osition shou%d not $e made during a ause3 $ut whi%e s ea&ing2 222 "he manner of the s ea&er wi%% $est recommend itse%f to an audience $y $eing modest and natura%2 232 + s ea&er shou%d ne1er %ean or %ounge whi%e on the %atform2 242 5oo&ing down suggests %a se of memory or shyness2 2)2 If a $ow is used3 it shou%d $e a s%ight $ending from the waist3 not from the head2


/anie% We$ster3 the greatest of +merican orators3 has $een descri$ed as a handsome man3 of dar& com %e(ion3 with %arge head3 dee %y sun&en $%ac& eyes3 and a stern $ut agreea$%e countenance2 He was at once %awyer3 ad1ocate3 de$ater3 and orator2 0ar%y%e ca%%ed him a CPar%iamentary Hercu%es3C a great C%ogica% fencer2C His magnificence of sty%e and argumentati1e force3 com$ined with unusua% dignity of manner3 made him an irresisti$%e o onent in s eech or de$ate2 In his #e %y to Hayne he had on%y a sing%e night for his immediate re aration3 $ut he afterward ac&now%edged that the notes for his s eech had $een made months $efore3 and that Hayne cou%d not $etter ha1e fitted his address to these notes had he ur ose%y tried2 We$ster su$se@uent%y said of this occasion: CI fe%t as if e1erything I had e1er seen or read or heard was f%oating $efore me in one grand anorama3 and I had %itt%e e%se to do than to reach u and cu%% a thunder$o%t and hur% it at him2C +s a%ready suggested in this $oo&3 the student wi%% find it rofita$%e to study some of the great master ieces of oratory3 and we ha1e se%ected for ana%ysis the #e %y to Hayne $ecause it is regarded as We$ster,s most nota$%e s eech3 and the greatest in +merican history2 "he s eech was made on 7anuary 2'3 1!303 and the occasion for its de%i1ery was somewhat une( ected: ,C + reso%ution had $een introduced $y Senator Samue% +ugustus Foot3 of 0onnecticut3 mere%y ordering an in@uiry into the e( ediency of throwing restrictions around future sa%es of u$%ic %ands of the 6nited States2 Into the discussion of this reso%ution3 which %asted fi1e months3 was $rought a %arge num$er of artiDan %eas3 tariff arguments3 %oca% 4ea%ousies3 and @uestions of the right and wrong of s%a1ery3 and of the res ecti1e owers of the State and nationa% go1ernments2 #ecriminations3 and e1en ersona%ities were not infre@uent< and some of the Southern s ea&ers didN not refrain3 in defense of the new ,Cnu%%ification,1 doctrine3 from criticism of Bew Eng%and Federa%ism as ha1ing $een essentia%%y se%fish3 derisi1e3 and un atriotic2 Senator #o$ert Hayne C=17-1.1!40>3 of South 0aro%ina3 who had $een a mem$er of the Senate since 1!232 was cons icuous3 in this de$ate3 for his ad1ocacy of the idea that a State might sus end Federa% %aws at its discretion< and his assertions to that effect3 com$ined with shar criticisms of ?assachusetts3 %ed ?r2 We$ster to ma&e his famous re %y2 ?r2 Hayne was su$se@uent%y *o1ernor of South 0aro%ina3 at the time of the a%most armed co%%ision $etween that State and President 7ac&son3 in 1!323 o1er the nu%%ification of tariff %aws2 +t one time *o1ernor Hayne actua%%y issued a roc%amation of resistance to the authority of the genera% go1ernment< $ut su$se@uent%y 0ongress modified the o$4ectiona$%e tariff ro1isions and the State re ea%ed its nu%%ification ordinance3 which President 7ac&son,s firmness had certain%y made Cnu%%3 1oid3 and no %aw2C E1erett te%%s of ha1ing seen We$ster the night $efore a arent%y free in s irit and unconcerned3 $ut Cthe ne(t morning he was %i&e some mighty admira%3 dar& and terri$%e < casting the %ong %ine of his frowning tiers far o1er the sea that seemed to sin& $eneath him3C and C$earing down %i&e a tem est u on his antagonist3 with a%% his can1as strained to the wind3 and a%% his thunders roaring from his $roadsides2C We$ster had a 1oice %i&e a dee . toned $e%%3 and he $egan in his ca%m3 de%i$erate3 se%f. ossest sty%e:

?r2 President: When the mariner has $een tossed for many days in thic& weather3 and on an un&nown sea3 he natura%%y a1ai%s himse%f of the first ause in the storm3 the ear%iest g%ance of the sun3 to ta&e his %atitude3 and ascertain how far the e%ements ha1e dri1en him from his true course2 5et us imitate this rudence3 and3 $efore we f%oat farther on the wa1es of this de$ate3 refer to the oint from which we de arted3 that we may at %east $e a$%e to con4ecture where we now are2 I as& for the reading of the reso%ution $efore the Senate2 "he Secretary read the reso%ution as fo%%ows: C#eso%1ed3 "hat the 0ommittee on Pu$%ic 5ands $e instructed to in@uire and re ort the @uantity of u$%ic %ands remaining unso%d within each State and territory3 and whether it $e e( edient to %imit for a certain eriod the sa%es of the u$%ic %ands to such %ands on%y as ha1e heretofore $een offered for sa%e3 and are now su$4ect to entry at the minimum rice2 +nd3 a%so3 whether the office of Sur1eyor.*enera%3 and some of the %and offices3 may not $e a$o%ished without detriment to the u$%ic interest< or whether it $e e( edient to ado t measures to hasten the sa%es and e(tend more ra id%y the sur1eys of the u$%ic %ands2C We ha1e thus heard3 sir3 what the reso%ution is which is actua%%y $efore us for consideration< and it wi%% readi%y occur to e1ery one3 that it is a%most the on%y su$4ect a$out which something has not $een said in the s eech3 running through two days3 $y which the Senate has $een entertained $y the gent%eman from South 0aro%ina2 E1ery to ic in the side range of our u$%ic affairs3 whether ast or resent..e1erything3 genera% or %oca%3 whether $e%onging to nationa% o%itics or arty o%itics..seems to ha1e attracted more or %ess of the honora$%e mem$er,s attention3 sa1e on%y the reso%ution $efore the Senate2 He has s o&en of e1erything $ut the u$%ic %ands< they ha1e esca ed his notice2 "o that su$4ect3 in a%% his e(cursions3 he has not aid e1en the co%d res ect of a assing g%ance2 When this de$ate3 sir3 was to $e resumed3 on "hursday morning3 it so ha ened that it wou%d ha1e $een con1enient for me to $e e%sewhere2 "he honora$%e mem$er3 howe1er3 did not inc%ine to ut off the discussion to another day2 He had a shot3 he said3 to return3 and he wished to discharge it2 "hat shot3 sir3 which he thus &ind%y informed us was coming3 that we might stand out of the way3 or re are ourse%1es to fa%% $y it and die with decency3 has now $een recei1ed2 6nder a%% ad1antages3 and with e( ectation awa&ened $y the tone which receded it3 it has $een discharged3 and has s ent its force2 It may $ecome me to say no more of its effect than that3 if no$ody is found3 after a%%3 either &i%%ed or wounded it is not the first time3 in the history of human affairs3 that the 1igor and success of the war ha1e not @uite come u to the %ofty and sounding hrase of the manifesto2 "he gent%eman3 sir3 in dec%ining to ost one the de$ate3 to%d the Senate3 with the em hasis of his hand u on his heart3 that there was something ran&%ing here3 which he wished to re%ie1e2 =?r2 Hayne rose3 and disc%aimed ha1ing used the word ran&%ing2> It wou%d not2 ?r2 President3 $e safe for the honora$%e mem$er to a ea% to those around him3 u on the @uestion whether he did in fact ma&e use of that word2 8ut he may ha1e $een unconscious of it2 +t any rate3 it is enough that he disc%aims it2 8ut sti%%3 with or without the use of that articu%ar word3 he had yet something here3 he said3 of which he wished to rid himse%f $y an immediate re %y2 In this res ect3 sir3 I ha1e a great ad1antage o1er the honora$%e gent%eman2 "here is nothing here3 sir3 which gi1es me the s%ightest uneasiness: neither fear3 nor anger3 nor that which is sometimes more trou$%esome than either3 the consciousness of ha1ing $een in the wrong2

"here is nothing3 either originating here3 or now recei1ed here $y the gent%eman,s shot2 Bothing originating here3 for I had not the s%ightest fee%ing of un&indness toward the honora$%e mem$er2 Some assages3 it is true3 had occurred since our ac@uaintance in this $ody3 which I cou%d ha1e wished might ha1e $een otherwise< $ut I had used hi%oso hy and forgotten them2 I aid the honora$%e mem$er the attention of %istening with res ect to his first s eech3 and when he sat down3 tho sur riDed3 and I must e1en say astonished3 at some of his o inions3 nothing was farther from my intention than to commence any ersona% warfare2 "hrough the who%e of the few remar&s I made in answer2 I a1oided3 studious%y and carefu%%y3 e1erything which I thought ossi$%e to $e construed into dis. res ect2 +nd3 sir2 whi%e there is thus nothing originating here which I ha1e wished at any time3 or now wish3 to discharge3 I must re eat3 a%so3 that nothing has $een recei1ed here which ran&%es3 or in any way gi1es me annoyance2 I wi%% not accuse the honora$%e mem$er of 1io%ating the ru%es of ci1i%iDed war< I wi%% not say that he oisoned his arrows2 8ut whether his shafts were or were not di t in that which wou%d ha1e caused ran&%ing if they had reached their destination3 there was not3 as it ha ened3 @uite strength enough in the $ow to $ring them to their mar&2 If he wishes now to gather u those shafts3 he must %oo& for them e%sewhere< they wi%% not $e found fi(t and @ui1ering in the o$4ect at which they were aimed2 "he honora$%e mem$er com %ained that I had s%e t on this s eech2 I must ha1e s%e t on it3 or not s%e t at a%%2 "he moment the honora$%e mem$er sat down3 his friend from ?issouri rose3 and3 with much honeyed commendation of the s eech3 suggested that the im ressions which it had roduced were too charming and de%ightfu% to $e distur$ed $y other sentiments or other sounds3 and ro osed that the Senate shou%d ad4ourn2 Wou%d it ha1e $een @uite amia$%e in me3 sir3 to interru t this e(ce%%ent good fee%ingI ?ust I not ha1e $een a$so%ute%y ma%icious3 if I cou%d ha1e thrust myse%f forward3 to destroy sensations thus %easingI Was it not much $etter and &inder3 $oth to s%ee u on them myse%f3 and to a%%ow others a%so the %easure of s%ee ing u on themI 8ut if it $e meant3 $y s%ee ing u on his s eech3 that I too& time to re are a re %y to it3 it is @uite a mista&e2 9wing to other engagements3 I cou%d not em %oy e1en the inter1a% $etween the ad4ournment of the Senate and its meeting ne(t morning3 in attention to the su$4ect of this de$ate2 Be1erthe%ess3 sir3 the mere matter of fact is undou$ted%y true2 I did s%ee on the gent%eman,s s eech3 and s%e t sound%y2 +nd I s%e t e@ua%%y we%% on his s eech of yesterday3 to which I am now re %ying2 It is @uite ossi$%e that in this res ect3 a%so3 I ossess some ad1antage o1er the honora$%e mem$er3 attri$uta$%e3 dou$t%ess3 to a coo%er tem erament on my art< for3 in truth3 I s%e t u on his s eeches remar&a$%y we%%2 "he irony here3 a dangerous wea on in the hands of some men3 is used with consummate s&i%%2 We$ster then oints out that he was %ed to re %y sim %y $ecause of hearing the gent%eman,s s eech3 and with a first manifestation of fee%ing ta&es e(ce tion to the e(traordinary %anguage and e(traordinary tone of his o onent2 He roceeds: ?atches and o1ermatchesH "hose terms are more a %ica$%e e%sewhere than here3 and fitter for other assem$%ies than this2 Sir3 the gent%eman seems to forget where and what we are2 "his is a Senate3 a Senate of e@ua%s3 of men of indi1idua% honor and ersona% character3 and of a$so%ute inde endence2 We &now no masters3 we ac&now%edge no dictators2 "his is a ha%% for mutua% consu%tation and discussion< not an arena for the e(hi$ition of cham ions2 I offer myse%f3 sir3 as a match for no man< I throw the cha%%enge of de$ate at no man,s feet2 8ut then3 sir3 since the honora$%e mem$er has ut the @uestion in a manner that ca%%s for an answer3 I wi%% gi1e him an answer< and I te%% him3 that3 ho%ding myse%f to $e the hum$%est of the mem$ers here3 I yet &now nothing in the arm of his friend from ?issouri3 either a%one or when aided $y

the arm of his friend from South 0aro%ina3 that need deter e1en me from es ousing whate1er o inions I may choose to es ouse3 from de$ating whate1er I may choose to de$ate3 or from s ea&ing whate1er I may see fit to say3 on the f%oor of the Senate2 Sir2 when uttered as matter of commendation or com %iment3 I shou%d dissent from nothing which the honora$%e mem$er might say of his friend2 Sti%% %ess do I ut forth any retensions of my own2 8ut when ut to me as matter of taunt3 I throw it $ac&3 and say to the gent%eman that he cou%d ossi$%y say nothing %ess %i&e%y than such a com arison to wound my ride of ersona% character2 "he anger of its tone rescued the remar& from intentiona% irony3 which otherwise3 ro$a$%y3 wou%d ha1e $een its genera% acce tation2 8ut3 sir3 if it $e imagined that3 $y this mutua% @uotation and commendation< if it $e su osed that3 $y casting the characters of the drama3 assigning to each his art..to one the attac&3 to another the cry of onset< or if it $e thought that3 $y a %oud and em ty 1aunt of antici ated 1ictory3 any %aure%s are to $e won here< if it $e imagined3 es ecia%%y3 that any or a%% these things wi%% sha&e any ur ose of mine3 I can te%% the honora$%e mem$er3 once for a%%3 that he is great%y mista&en3 and that he is dea%ing with one of whose tem er and character he has yet much to %earn2 Sir3 I sha%% not a%%ow myse%f3 on this occasion3 I ho e on no occasion3 to $e $etrayed into any %oss of tem er< $ut if ro1o&ed3 as I trust I ne1er sha%% $e3 into crimination and recrimination3 the honora$%e mem$er may erha s find3 that3 in that contest3 there wi%% $e $%ows to ta&e as we%% as $%ows to gi1e< that others can state com arisons as significant3 at %east3 as his own< and that his im unity may ossi$%y demand of him whate1er owers of taunt and sarcasm he may ossess2 I commend him to a rudent hus$andry of his resources2 CWe$ster had an e(treme hatred for diffuseness and $om$ast3 and des ite his ower of retort3 dis%i&ed in1ecti1e and ersona%ities2 Fery rare%y did scorn or sarcasm fa%% from his %i s3 $ut as one has said of him3 CIf it was a ersona% insu%t that roused the s%um$ering %ion3 his roar or rage was a a%%ing3 and the s ring and death.$%ow that fo%%owed3 were %i&e %ightning in their suddenness2,, "he s ea&er ne(t refers to the charge of a coa%ition3 or an a%%eged com act $etween 7ohn Auincy +dams and Henry 0%ay3 $y which one to $e President and the other Secretary of State2 Hayne had as&ed in his s eech Whether Cthe ghost of the murdered 0oa%ition had come $ac&3 %i&e the ghost of 8an@uoIC and We$ster swift%y turns it to his o onent,s disad1antage:

8ut3 sir3 the 0oa%itionH "he 0oa%itionH +y3 Cthe murdered 0oa%itionH,, "he gent%eman as&s if I were %ed or frighted into this de$ate $y the s ecter of the 0oa%ition2 CWas it the ghost of the murdered 0oa%ition3C he e(c%aims3 Cwhieh haunted the mem$er from ?assachusetts< and which3 %i&e the ghost of 8an@uo3 wou%d ne1er turn downIC C "he murdered 0oa%itionH,, Sir3 this charge of a coa%ition3 in reference to the %ate administration3 is not origina% with the honora$%e mem$er2 It did not s ring u in the Senate2 Whether as a fact3 as an argument3 or as an em$e%%ishment3 it is a%% $orrowed2 He ado ts it3 indeed3 from a 1ery %ow origin3 and a sti%% %ower resent condition2 It is one of the thousand ca%umnies with which the ress teemed3 during an e(cited o%itica% can1ass2 It was a charge3 of which there was not on%y no roof or ro$a$i%ity3 $ut which was in itse%f who%%y im ossi$%e to $e true2 Bo man of common information e1er $e%ie1ed a sy%%a$%e of it2 ;et it was of that c%ass of fa%sehoods which3 $y continued re etition3 through a%% the organs of detraction and a$use3 are ca a$%e of mis%eading those who are a%ready far mis%ed3 and of further fanning assion a%ready &ind%ing into f%ame2 /ou$t. %ess it ser1ed in its day3 and in greater or %ess degree3 the end designed $y it2 Ha1ing done that3 it has sun& into the genera% mass of the sta%e and %oathed ca%umnies2 It is the 1ery cast.off s%ough of a o%%uted and shame%ess ress2 Inca a$%e of further mischief3 it %ies in the sewer3

%ife%ess and des ised2 It is not now3 sir3 in the ower of the honora$%e mem$er to gi1e it dignity or decency3 $y attem ting to e%e1ate it3 and to introduce it into the Senate2 He can not change it from what it is3 an o$4ect of genera% disgust and scorn2 9n the contrary3 the contact3 if he choose to touch it3 is more %i&e%y to drag him down3 down3 to the %ace where it %ies itse%f2 8ut3 sir3 the honora$%e mem$er was not3 for other reasons3 entire%y ha y in his a%%usion to the story of 8an@uo,s murder and 8an@uo,s ghost2 It was not3 I thin&3 the friends3 $ut the enemies of the murdered 8an@uo3 it whose $idding his s irit wou%d not down2 "he honora$%e gent%eman is fresh in his reading of the Eng%ish c%assics3 and can ut me right if I am wrong< $ut3 according to my oor reco%%ection3 it was at those who had $egun with caresses and ended with fou% and treacherous murder that the gory %oc&s were sha&en2 "he ghost of 8an@uo3 %i&e that of Ham%et3 was an honest ghost2, It distur$ed no innocent man2 It &new where its a earance wou%d stri&e terror3 and who wou%d cry out3 + ghostH It made itse%f 1isi$%e in the right @uarter3 and com e%%ed the gui%ty and the conscience.smitten3 and none others3 to start3 with3 CPrithee3 see thereH $eho%dH %oo&H %oH If I stand here3 I saw himHC "heir eye$a%%s were seared =was it not so3 sirI> who had thought to shie%d themse%1es $y concea%ing their own hand3 and %aying the im utation of the crime on a %ow and hire%ing agency in wic&edness< who had 1ain%y attem ted to stif%e the wor&ings of their own coward consciences $y e4acu%ating through white %i s and chattering teeth3 C"hou canst not say I did itHC I ha1e misread the great oet if those who had no way arta&en in the deed of the death3 either found that they were3 or feared that they shou%d $e3 ushed from their stoo%s $y the ghost of the s%ain3 or e(c%aimed to a s ecter created $y their own fears and their own remorse3 C+1auntH and @uit our sightHC "here is another articu%ar3 sir3 in which the honora$%e mem$er,s @uic& erce tion of resem$%ances might3 I shou%d thin&3 ha1e seen something in the story of 8an@uo3 ma&ing it not a%together a su$4ect of the most %easant contem %ation2 "hose who murdered 8an@uo3 what did they win $y itI Su$stantia% goodI Permanent owerI 9r disa ointment3 rather3 and sore mortification..dust and ashes3 the common fate of 1au%ting am$ition o1er%ea ing itse%fI /id not e1en.handed 4ustice ere%ong commend the oisoned cha%ice to their own %i sI /id they not soon find that for another they had Cfi%ed their mindCI that their am$ition3 tho a arent%y for the moment successfu%3 had $ut ut a $arren sce ter in their gras I +y3 sir3 Ca $arren sce ter in their gri e3 "hence to $e wrenched with an un%inea% hand3 Bo son of theirs succeeding2C Sir3 I need ursue the a%%nsion no farther2 I %ea1e the honora$%e gent%eman to run it out at his %eisure3 and to deri1e from it a%% the gratification it is ca%cu%ated to administer2 If he finds himse%f %eased with the associations3 and re ared to $e @uite satisfied3 tho the ara%%e% shou%d $e entire%y com %eted3 I had a%most said3 I am satisfied a%so< $ut that I sha%% thin& of2 ;es3 sir3 I wi%% thin& of that2 We$ster cou%d $e merci%ess%y se1ere if occasion demanded3 and as a consummate master of Eng%ish sty%e had not the s%ightest difficu%ty in di1erting the words of an antagonist to his own use2

He roceeds ne(t to the 9rdinance of 17!73 which rohi$ited s%a1ery from the Borthwest "erritory3 thus:,, "here sha%% $e neither s%a1ery nor in1o%untary ser1itude in the said territory3 otherwise than in the unishment of crimes whereof the arty sha%% ha1e $een du%y con1icted2C We$ster regarded the measure as one Cof great wisdom and foresight3C and e( resses his sur riDe that any words of his shou%d ha1e %ed his ad1ersary to ma&e a %a$ored defense of s%a1ery2 "hen he states succinct%y the grounds u on which he 1oted for grants of %and: We a roach3 at %ength3 sir3 to a more im ortant art of the honora$%e gent%eman,s o$ser1ations2 Since it does not accord with my 1iews of 4ustice and o%icy to gi1e away the u$%ic %ands a%together3 as a mere matter of gratuity3 I am as&ed $y the honora$%e gent%eman on what ground it is that I consent to 1ote them away in articu%ar instances2 How3 he in@uires3 do I reconci%e with these rofest sentiments3 my su ort of measures a ro riating ortions of the %ands to articu%ar roads3 articu%ar cana%s3 articu%ar ri1ers3 and articu%ar institutions of education in the WestI "his %eads3 sir3 to the rea% and wide difference in o%itica% o inion $etween the honora$%e gent%eman and myse%f2 9n my art3 I %oo& u on a%% these o$4ects as connected with the common good3 fair%y em$raced in its o$4ect and its terms< he3 on the contrary3 deems them a%%3 if good at a%%3 on%y %oca% good2 "his is our difference2 "he interrogatory which he roceeded to ut at once e( %ains the difference2 CWhat interest2C, as&s he3 Chas South 0aro%ina in a cana% in 9hioIC Sir3 this 1ery @uestion is fu%% of significance2 It de1e%o s the gent%eman,s who%e o%itica% system< and its answer e( ounds mine2 Here we differ2 I %oo& u on a road o1er the +%%eghanies3 a cana% round the fa%%s of the 9hio3 or a cana% or rai%way from the +t%antic to the Western waters3 as $eing an o$4ect %arge and e(tensi1e enough to $e fair%y said to $e for the common $enefit2 "he gent%eman thin&s otherwise3 and this is the &ey to his construction of the owers of the go1ernment2 He may we%% as& what interest has South 0aro%ina in a cana% in 9hio2 9n his system3 9hio and 0aro%ina are different go1ernments3 and different countries< connected here3 it is true3 $y some s%ight and i%%.defined $ond of union3 $ut in a%% main res ects se arate and di1erse2 9n that system3 0aro%ina has no more interest in a cana% in 9hio than in ?e(ico2 "he gent%e. man3 therefore3 on%y fo%%ows out his own rinci %es< he does no more than arrhe at the natura% conc%usions of his own doctrines< he on%y announces the true resu%ts of that creed which he has ado ted himse%f3 and wou%d ersuade others to ado t3 when he thus dec%ares that South 0aro%ina has no interest in a u$%ic wor& in 9hio2 Sir3 we narrow.minded eo %e of Bew Eng%and do not reason thus2 9ur notion of things is entire%y different2 We %oo& u on the States3 not as se arated3 $ut as united2 We %o1e to dwe%% on that union3 and on the mutua% ha iness which it has so much romoted3 and the common renown which it has so great%y contri$uted to ac@uire2 In our contem %ation3 0aro%ina and 9hio are arts of the same country< States3 united under the same genera% go1ernment3 ha1ing interests common3 associated3 interming%ed2 In whate1er is within the ro er s here of the constitutiona% ower of this go1ernment3 we %oo& u on the States as one2 We do not im ose geogra hica% %imits to our atriotic fee%ing or regard< we do not fo%%ow ri1ers and mountains3 and %ines of %atitude3 to find $oundaries3 $eyond which u$%ic im ro1ements do not $enefit us2 We who come here3 as agents and re resentati1es of these narrow.minded and se%fish men of Bew Eng%and3 consider ourse%1es as $ound to regard with an e@ua% eye the good of the who%e3 in whate1er is within our owers of %egis%ation2 Sir3 if a rai%road or cana%3 $eginning in South 0aro%ina and ending in South 0aro%ina3 a eared to me to $e of nationa% im ortance and nationa% magnitude3 $e%ie1ing3 as I do3 that the ower of go1ernment e(tends to the encouragement of wor&s of that descri tion3 if I were to stand u here and as&3 What interest

has ?assachusetts i%% a rai%road in South 0aro%ina f I shou%d not $e wi%%ing to face my constituents2 "hese same narrow.minded men wou%d te%% me that they had sent me to act for the who%e country3 and that one who ossest too %itt%e com rehension3 either of inte%%ect or fee%ing3 one who was not %arge enough3 $oth in mind and in heart3 to em$race the who%e3 was not fit to $e intrusted with the interest of any art2 Sir3 I do not desire to en%arge the owers of the go1ernment $y un4ustifia$%e construction3 nor to e(ercise any not within a fair inter retation2 8ut when it is $e%ie1ed that a ower does e(ist3 then it is3 in my 4udgment3 to $e e(ercised for the genera% $enefit of the who%e2 So far as res ects the e(ercise of such a ower3 the States are one2 It was the 1ery o$4ect of the 0onstitution to create unity of interests to the e(tent of the owers of the genera% go1ernment2 In war and eace we are one< in commerce3 one< $ecause the authority of the genera% go1ernment reaches to war and eace3 and to the regu%ation of commerce2 I ha1e ne1er seen any more difficu%ty in erecting %ight. houses on the %a&es than on the ocean< in im ro1ing the har$ors of in%and seas3 than if they were within the e$$ and f%ow of the tide< or in remo1ing o$structions in the fast streams of the West3 more than in any wor& to faci%itate commerce on the +t%antic coast2 If there $e any ower for one3 there is ower a%so for the other< and they are a%% and e@ua%%y for the common good of the country2 "here are other o$4ects3 a arent%y more %oca%3 or the $enefit of which is %ess genera%3 toward which3 ne1erthe%ess3 I ha1e concurred with others to gi1e aid $y donations of %and2 It is ro osed to construct a road3 in or through one of the new States3 in which this go1ernment ossesses %arge @uantities of %and2 Ha1e the 6nited States no right3 or3 as a great and unta(ed ro rietor3 are they under no o$%igation to contri$ute to an o$4ect thus ca%cu%ated to romote the common good of a%% the ro rietors3 themse%1es inc%udedI +nd e1en with res ect to education3 which is the e(treme case3 %et the @uestion $e considered2 In the first %ace3 as we ha1e seen3 it was made matter of com act with these States3 that they shou%d do their art to romote education2 In the ne(t %ace3 our who%e system of %and %aws roceeds on the idea that education is for the common good< $ecause in e1ery di1ision a certain ortion is uniform%y reser1ed and a ro riated for the use of schoo%s2 +nd fina%%y3 ha1e not these new States singu%ar%y strong c%aims3 founded on the ground a%ready stated3 that the go1ernment is a great unta(ed ro rietor3 in the ownershi of the soi%I It is a consideration of great im ortance3 that ro$a$%y there is in no art of the country3 or of the wor%d3 so great ca%% for the means of education3 as in these new States3 owing to the 1ast num$ers of ersons within those ages in which education and instruction are usua%%y recei1ed3 if recei1ed at a%%2 "his is the natura% conse@uence of recency of sett%ement and ra id increase2 "he census of these States shows how great a ro ortion of the who%e o u%ation occu ies the c%asses $etween infancy and manhood2 "hese are the wide fie%ds3 and here is the dee and @uic& soi% for the seeds of &now%edge and 1irtue< and this is the fa1ored season< the 1ery s ringtime for sowing them2 5et them $e disseminated without stint2 5et them $e scattered with a $ountifu% hand3 $roadcast2 Whate1er the go1ernment can fair%y do toward these o$4ects3 in my o inion3 ought to $e done2 +%% this is oratory of the highest ty e3 suggesting the ma4esty of se%f.contro%2 "he s ea&er &nows his own owers3 and s ea&s on de%i$erate%y and im ressi1e%y2 He uses few gestures3 $ut his gift of c%ear statement ma&es action a%most unnecessary2 +%ready he has the hearers in his iron gras 3 and he roceeds confident%y2 In answer to his o onent,s @uestions and insinuations3 the orator disa1ows any intention to retort3 $ut says he wi%% answer with facts2 "he tone is 1ery ositi1e throughout3 as he continues:

I wi%% te%% the gent%eman when3 and how3 and why Bew Eng%and has su orted measures fa1ora$%e to the West2 I ha1e a%ready referred to the ear%y history of the go1ernment3 to the first ac@uisition of the %ands3 to the origina% %aws for dis osing of them3 and for go1erning the territories where they %ie< and ha1e shown the inf%uence of Bew Eng%and men and Bew Eng%and rinci %es in a%% these %eading measures2 I shou%d not $e ardoned were I to go o1er that ground again2 0oming to more recent times3 and to measures of a %ess genera% character3 I ha1e endea1ored to ro1e that e1erything of this &ind3 designed for Western im ro1ement3 has de ended on the 1otes of Bew Eng%and< a%% this is true $eyond the ower of contradiction2 +nd now3 sir3 there are two measures to which I wi%% refer3 not so ancient as to $e%ong to the ear%y history of the u$%ic %ands3 and not so recent as to $e on this side of the eriod when the gent%eman charita$%y imagines a new direction may ha1e $een gi1en to Bew Eng%and fee%ing and Bew Eng%and 1otes2 "hese measures3 and the Bew Eng%and 1otes in su ort of them3 may $e ta&en as sam %es and s ecimens of a%% the rest2 In 1S20 =o$ser1e3 ?r2 President3 in 1!20>3 the eo %e of the West $esought 0ongress for a reduction in the rice of %ands2 In fa1or of that reduction3 Bew Eng%and3 with a de%egation of forty mem$ers in the other house3 ga1e thirty.three 1otes3 and one on%y against it2 "he four Southern States3 with more thanH fifty mem$ers3 ga1e thirty.two 1otes for it3 and se1en against it2 +gain3 in 1!21 =o$ser1e again3 sir3 the time>3 the %aw assed for the re%ief of the urchasers of the u$%ic %ands2 "his was a measure of 1ita% im ortance to the West3 and more es ecia%%y to the Southwest2 It authoriDed the re%in@uishment of contracts for %ands which had $een entered into at high rices3 and a reduction in other cases of not %ess than thirty.se1en and a ha%f er cent3 on the urchase money2 ?any mi%%ions of do%%ars3 si( or se1en3 I $e%ie1e3 ro$a$%y much more3 were re%in@uished $y this %aw2 9n this $i%%3 Bew Eng%and3 with her forty mem$ers3 ga1e more affirmati1e 1otes than the four Southern States3 with their fifty.two or fifty.three mem$ers2 "hese two are far the most im ortant genera% measures res ecting the u$%ic %ands which ha1e $een ado ted within the %ast twenty years2 "hey too& %ace in 1!20 and 1!212 "hat is the time when2 +s to the manner how3 the gent%eman a%ready sees that it was $y 1oting in so%id co%umn for the re@uired re%ief< and2 %ast%y3 as to the cause why3 I te%% the gent%eman it was $ecause, the mem$ers from Bew Eng%and thought the measures 4ust and sa%utary< $ecause they entertained toward the West neither en1y3 hatred3 nor ma%ice< $ecause they deemed it $ecoming them3 as 4ust and en%ightened u$%ic men3 to meet the e(igency which had arisen in the West with the a ro riate measure of re%ief< $ecause they fe%t it due to their own characters3 and the characters of their Bew Eng%and redecessors in this go1ernment3 to act toward the new States in the s irit of a %i$era%3 atroniDing3 magnanimous o%icy2 So much3 sir3 for the cause why< and I ho e that $y this time3 sir3 the honora$%e gent%eman is satisfied< if not3 I do not &now when3 or how3 or why he e1er wi%% $e2 Here we are again reminded of the s ea&er,s s&i%fu% use of words2 He in1ests them with an im ort suited to his own immediate ur oses2 We$ster not on%y ada ted his sty%e to his audience3 $ut he cou%d ma&e the most intracta$%e words o$edient to his wi%%2 He was no em ty ,, word.hunterC< it was the thought $ac& of the sym$o% that concerned him most2 "hen fo%%ows a assage in answer to Hayne,s attac& on Bew Eng%and3 unctuated with dramatic e(c%amation and rhetorica% interrogation2 "he student shou%d carefu%%y note these effects2 "he orator thunders forth:

Professing to $e ro1o&ed $y what he chose to consider a charge made $y me against South 0aro%ina3 the honora$%e mem$er3 ?r2 President3 has ta&en u a new crusade against Bew Eng%and2 5ea1ing a%together the su$4ect of the u$%ic %ands3 in which his success3 erha s3 had $een neither distinguished nor satisfactory3 and %etting go3 a%so3 of the to ic of the tariff3 he sa%%ied forth in a genera% assau%t on the o inions o%itics3 and arties of Bew Eng%and3 as they ha1e $een e(hi$ited in the %ast thirty years2 "his is natura%2 "he Cnarrow o%icyC of the u$%ic %ands had ro1ed a %ega% sett%ement in South 0aro%ina3 and was not to $e remo1ed2 "he Caccurst o%icyC of the tariff3 a%so3 had esta$%ished the fact of its $irth and arentage in the same State2 Bo wonder3 therefore3 the gent%eman wished to carry the war3 as he e( rest it3 into the enemy,s country2 Prudent%y wi%%ing to @uit these su$4ects3 he was3 dou$t%ess3 desirous of fastening on others3 which cou%d not $e transferred south of ?ason and /i(on,s %ine2 "he o%itics of Bew Eng%and $ecame his theme< and it was in this art of his s eech3 I thin&3 that he menaced me with such sore discomfiture2 /iscomfitureH Why3 sir3 when he attac&s any. thing which I maintain3 and o1erthrows it3 when he turns the right or %eft of any osition which I ta&e u 3 when he dri1es me from any ground I choose to occu y3 he may then ta%& of discomfiture3 $ut not ti%% that distant day2 What has he doneI Has he maintained his own chargesI Has he ro1ed what he a%%egedI Has he sustained himse%f in his attac& on the go1ernment3 and on the history of the Borth3 in the matter of the u$%ic %andsI Has he dis ro1ed a fact3 refuted a ro osition3 wea&ened an argument3 maintained $y meIC Has he come within $eat of drum of any osition of mineI 9h3 no< $ut he has Ccarried the war into the enemy,s countryHC 0arried the war into the enemy,s countryH ;es3 sir3 and what sort of a war has he made of itI Why3 sir3 he has stretched a drag net o1er the who%e surface of erished am h%ets3 indiscreet sermons3 frothy aragra hs3 and fuming o u%ar addressesGo1er whate1er the u% it in its moments of a%arm3 the ress in its heats3 and arties in their e(tra1agance3 ha1e se1era%%y thrown off in times of genera% e(citement and 1io%ence2 He has thus swe t together a mass of such things as3 $ut that they are now o%d and co%d3 the u$%ic hea%th wou%d ha1e re@uired him rather to %ea1e in their state of dis ersion2 For a good3 %ong hour or two we had the un$ro&en %easure of %istening to the honora$%e mem$er whi%e he recited with his usua% grace and s irit3 and with e1ident high gusto3 s eeches3 am h%ets3 addresses3 and a%% the et ceteras of the o%itica% ress3 such as warm heads roduce in warm times< and such as it wou%d $e ,, discomfiture indeed for any one3 whose taste did not de%ight in that sort of reading3 to $e o$%iged to eruse2 "his is his war2 "his it is to carry war into the enemy,s country2 It is in an in1asion of this sort that he f%atters himse%f with the e( ection of gaining %aure%s fit to adorn a Senator,s $rowH "his is assionate ersuasi1e oratory3 a rodiga% ouring forth of 1ita%ity and emotion2 It is a ra id and continuous stream of fee%ing that carries e1erything irresisti$%y a%ong with it2 We$ster goes on to treat of arty contest under the 0onstitution3 the o%itica% attac&s u on Washington3 and then gi1es utterance to one of the most e%o@uent and enduring assages of his entire oration3 his tri$ute to South 0aro%ina and defense of ?assachusetts2 9ne can icture the s ea&er drawing himse%f u to his fu%% height3 and in his rich and sonorous 1oice e(c%aiming: "he eu%ogium ronounced $y the honora$%e gent%eman on the character of the State of South 0aro%ina3 for her re1o%utionary and other merits3 meets my hearty concurrence2 I sha%% not ac&now%edge that the honora$%e mem$er goes $efore me in regard for whate1er of distinguished ta%ent3 or distinguished character3 South 0aro%ina has roduced2 I c%aim art of the honor3 I arta&e in the ride3 of her great names2 I c%aim them for countrymen3 one and a%%3 the 5aurenses3 the #ut. %edges3 the Pinc&neys3 the Sumters3 the ?arions3 +mericans a%%3

whose fame is no more to $e hemmed in $y State %ines3 than their ta%ents and atriotism were ca a$%e of $eing circumscri$ed within the same narrow %imits2 In their day and generation they ser1ed and honored the country3 and the who%e country< and their renown is of the treasures of the who%e country2 Him whose honored name the gent%eman himse%f $ears ..does he esteem me %ess ca a$%e of gratitude for his atriotism3 or sym athy for his sufferings3 than if his eyes had first o ened u on the %ight of ?assachusetts3 instead of South 0aro%inaI Sir2 does he su ose it in his ower to e(hi$it a 0aro%ina name so $right as to roduce en1y in my $osomI Bo3 sir3 increased gratification and de%ight3 rather2 I than& *od that3 if I am gifted with %itt%e of the s irit which is a$%e to raise morta%s to "he s&ies3 I ha1e yet none3 as I trust3 of that other s irit3 which wou%d drag ange%s down2 When I sha%% $e found3 sir3 in my %ace here in the Senate3 or e%sewhere3 to sneer at u$%ic merit3 $ecause it ha ens to s ring u $eyond the %itt%e %imits of my own State or neigh$orhood< when I refuse3 for any such cause or for any cause3 the homage due to +merican ta%ent3 to e%e1ated atriotism3 to sincere de1otion to %i$erty and the country< or3 if I see an uncommon endowment of Hea1en3 if I see e(traordinary ca acity and 1irtue3 in any son of the South3 and if3 mo1ed $y %oca% re4udice or gangrened $y State 4ea%ousy3 I get u here to a$ate the tithe of a hair from his 4ust character and 4ust fame3 may my tongue c%ea1e to the roof of my mouthH Sir3 %et me recur to %easing reco%%ections< %et me indu%ge in refreshing remem$rance of the ast< %et me remind you that3 in ear%y times3 no States cherished greater harmony3 $oth of rinci %e and fee%ing3 than ?assachusetts and South 0aro%ina2 Wou%d to *od that harmony might again returnH Shou%der to shou%der they went through the #e1o%ution3 hand in hand they stood round the administration of Washington3 and fe%t his own great arm %ean on them for su ort2 6n&ind fee%ing3 if it e(ist3 a%ienation3 and distrust are the growth3 unnatura% to such soi%s3 of fa%se rinci %es since sown2 "hey are weeds3 the seeds of which that same great arm ne1er scattered2 ?r2 President2 I sha%% enter on no encomium u on ?assachusetts< she needs none2 "here she is2 8eho%d her2 and 4udge for yourse%1es2 "here is her history< the wor%d &nows it $y heart2 "he ast3 at %east3 is secure2 "here is 8oston3 and 0on. cord3 and 5e(ington3 and 8un&er Hi%%: and there they wi%% remain fore1er2 "he $ones of her sons3 fa%%ing in the great strugg%e for inde endence3 now He ming%ed with the soi% of e1ery State from Bew Ham shire to *eorgia< and there they wi%% %ie fore1er2 +nd2 sir3 where +merican 5i$erty raised its first 1oice3 and where its youth was nurtured and sustained3 there it sti%% %i1es3 in the strength of its manhood and fu%% of its origina% s irit2 If discord and disunion sha%% wound it3 if arty strife and $%ind am$ition sha%% haw& at and tear it3 if fo%%y and madness3 if uneasiness under sa%utary and necessary restraint3 sha%% succeed in se arating it from that 6nion $y which a%one its e(istence is made sure3 it wi%% stand3 in the end3 $y the side of the crad%e in which its infancy was roc&ed< it wi%% stretch forth its arm with whate1er of 1igor it may sti%% retain o1er the friends who gather round it< and it wi%% fa%% at %ast3 if fa%% it must3 amid the roudest monuments of its own g%ory3 and on the 1ery s ot of its origin2 "his famous assage is dou$t%ess one of those which We$ster is said to ha1e re ared months $efore2 It is onward and ascending in thought3 ur ose3 and fee%ing3 and as a study in c%imactic effect is unsur assed2 If the friends of CWe$ster had any tre idation a$out his a$i%ity to re %y to Hayne,s fierce attac& of the day $efore3 it was now who%%y dissi ated2 "he s ea&er afterward said that ha1ing su$dued himse%f $y a strong effort3 a%% that he had e1er read or thought seemed to $e unro%%ed $efore him so that it was easy when he wanted a thunder$o%t Cto reach out and ta&e it as it went smo&ing $y2C "he orator then ta&es u the su$4ect of the

0onstitution2 His use of rhetorica% re etition in the hrase ,, I understandC shou%d $e carefu%%y noted2 "here yet remains to $e erformed3 ?r2 President3 $y far the most gra1e and im ortant duty which I fee% to $e de1o%1ed on me $y this occasion2 It is to state3 and to defend3 what I concei1e to $e the true rinci %es of the 0onstitution under which we are here assem$%ed2 I might we%% ha1e desired that so weighty a tas& shou%d ha1e fa%%en into other and a$%er hands2 I cou%d ha1e wished that it shou%d ha1e $een e(ecuted $y those whose character and e( erience gi1e weight and inf%uence to their o inions3 such as can not ossi$%y $e%ong to mine2 8ut3 sir2 I ha1e met the occasion3 not sought it: and I sha%% roceed to state my own sentiments3 without cha%%enging for them any articu%ar regard< with studied %ainness3 and as much recision as ossi$%e2 I understand the honora$%e gent%eman from South 0aro%ina to maintain that it is a right of the State %egis%atures to interfere whene1er3 in their 4udgment3 this go1ernment transcends its constitutiona% %imits3 and to arrest the o eration of its %aws2 I understand him to maintain this right3 as a right e(isting under the 0onstitution3 not as a right to o1erthrow it on the ground of e(treme necessity3 such as wou%d 4ustify 1io%ent re1o%ution2 I understand him to maintain an authority3 on the art of the States3 thus to interfere3 for the ur ose of correcting the e(ercise of ower $y the genera% go1ernment3 of chec&ing it3 and of com e%%ing it to conform to their o inion of the e(tent of its owers2 I understand him to maintain3 that the u%timate ower of 4udging of the constitutiona% e(tent of its own authority is not %odged e(c%usi1e%y in the genera% go1ernment3 or any $ranch of it< $ut that3 on the contrary3 the States may %awfu%%y decide for themse%1es3 and each State for itse%f3 whether3 in a gi1en case3 the act of the genera% go1ernment transcends its ower2 I understand him to insist that if the e(igency of the case3 in the o inion oO any State go1ernment3 re@uire it3 such State go1ernment may3 $y its own so1ereign authority3 annu% an act of the genera% go1ernment which it deems %ain%y and a% a$%y unconstitutiona%2 "he s ea&er does not deny the inherent right in the eo %e to reform the go1ernment3 $ut c%aims that the main de$ate $rings on the great @uestion3 CWhose rerogati1e it is to decide on the constitutiona%ity or unconstitutiona%ity of the %awsI He does not see how there can $e a midd%e course $etween re1o%ution and su$mission to constitutiona% %aws2 He a1ows it is the eo %e,s go1ernment3 and that to $e the su reme %aw2 He in@uires into the source of the go1ernment ower3 whether it $e the agent of the state go1ernment or that of the eo %e2 C It is3,, he affirms3 ,, the eo %e,s 0onstitution3 the eo %e,s go1ernment3 made for the eo %e3 made $y the eo %e3 and answera$%e to the eo %e2C "he genera% go1ernment and the State go1ernment deri1ed their authority from the eo %e2 Bu%%ification wou%d ma&e uniformity of %aw im ossi$%e3 and the who%e 6nion wou%d $ecome a ro e of sand2 "he s ea&er touches u on the @uestions of em$argo and the tariff3 and dec%aring it his duty to su ort the constitutiona% ower of the eo %e3 to assert their rights3 dec%ines to admit the com etency of South 0aro%ina3 to rescri$e his constitutiona% duty for him2 Bu%%ification wou%d %ead to disunion3 $ut the constitution can $e a%tered on%y $y the eo %e3 who ha1e $ecome attached to it through $oth ha iness and ros erity2

"he c%ose of CWe$ster,s s eech is a magnificent word icture on the reser1ation of the 6nion2 It is remar&a$%e for its c%earness3 force3 tenderness3 and atriotism2 "he student of oratory wi%% find it rofita$%e to commit the entire assage to memory2 ?r2 President3 I ha1e thus stated the reasons of my dissent to the doctrines which ha1e $een ad1anced and maintained2 I am conscious of ha1ing detained you and the Senate much too %ong2 I was drawn into the de$ate with no re1ious de. %i$eration3 such as is suited to the discussion of so gra1e and im ortant a su$4ect2 8ut it is a su$4ect of which my heart is fu%%3 and I ha1e not $een wi%%ing to su ress the utterance of its s ontaneous sentiments2 I can not3 e1en now3 ersuade myse%f to re%in@uish it3 without e( ressing once more my dee con1iction3 that3 since it res ects nothing %ess than the union of the States3 it is of most 1ita% and essentia% im ortance to the u$%ic ha iness2 I rofess3 sir3 in my career hitherto3 to ha1e &e t steadi%y in 1iew the ros erity and honor of the who%e country3 and the reser1ation of our Federa% 6nion2 It is to that 6nion we owe our safety at home3 and our consideration and dignity a$road2 It is to that 6nion that we are chief%y inde$ted for whate1er ma&es us most roud of our country2 "hat 6nion we reached on%y $y the disci %ine of our 1irtues in the se1ere schoo% of ad1ersity2 It had its origin in the necessities of disordered finance3 rostrate commerce3 and ruined credit2 6nder its $enign inf%uences3 these great interests immediate%y awo&e3 as from the dead3 and s rang forth with newness of %ife2 E1ery year of its duration has teemed with fresh roofs of its uti%ity and its $%essings< and a%tho our territory has stretched out wider and wider3 and our o u%ation s read farther and farther3 they ha1e not outrun its rotection or its $enefits2 It has $een to us a%% a co ious fountain of nationa%3 socia%3 and ersona% ha iness2 I ha1e not a%%owed myse%f3 sir3 to %oo& $eyond the 6nion3 to see what might %ie hidden in the dar& recess $ehind2 I ha1e not coo%%y weighed the chances of reser1ing %i$erty when the $onds that unite us together sha%% $e $ro&en asunder2 I ha1e not accustomed myse%f to hang o1er the reci ice of dis. union3 to see whether3 with my short sight3 I can fathom the de th of the a$yss $e%ow< nor cou%d I regard him as a safe counse%or in the affairs of this go1ernment3 whose thoughts shou%d $e main%y $ent on considering3 not how the 6nion may $e $est reser1ed3 $ut how to%era$%e might $e the condition of the eo %e when it shou%d $e $ro&en u and destroyed2 Whi%e the 6nion %asts3 we ha1e high3 e(citing3 gratifying ros ects s read out $efore us3 for us and our chi%dren2 8eyond that I see& not to enetrate the 1ei%2 *od grant that3 in my day3 at %east3 that curtain may not riseH *od grant that on my 1ision ne1er may $e o ened what %ies $ehindH When my eyes sha%% $e turned to $eho%d for the %ast time the sun in hea1en3 may I not see him shining on the $ro&en and dishonored fragments of a once g%orious 6nion< on States disse1ered3 discordant3 $e%%igerent< on a %and rent with ci1i% feuds3 or drenched3 it may $e2 in fraterna% $%oodH 5et their %ast fee$%e and %ingering g%ance rather $eho%d the gorgeous ensign of the #e u$%ic3 now &nown and honored throughout the earth3 sti%% fu%% high ad1anced3 its arms and tro hies streaming in their origina% %uster3 not a stri e erased or o%%uted3 nor a sing%e star o$scured3 $earing for its motto no such misera$%e interrogatory as CWhat is a%% this worthIC nor those other words of de%usion and fo%%y3 C5i$erty first and 6nion afterwardC< $ut e1erywhere3 s read a%% o1er in characters of %i1ing %ight3 $%aDing on a%% its am %e fo%ds3 as they f%oat o1er the sea and o1er the %and3 and in e1ery wind under the who%e hea1ens3 that other sentiment3 dear to e1ery true +merican heart..5i$erty and 6nion3 now and fore1er3 one and inse ara$%eH

"he history of oratory is re %ete with names of men who ha1e distinguished themse%1es as thin&ers3 rhetoricians3 re. formers3 and %eaders2 It is not the intention here to trace the history of oratory3 since that has a%ready $een we%% done $y CWi%%iam ?athews3 nor to discuss the @uestion whether oratory is a %ost art2 It is confident%y $e%ie1ed there is soon to $e a re1i1a% of a%% that is $est in oratory as a %ied to modern re@uirements of effecti1e u$%ic s ea&ing2 It wi%% $e rofita$%e3 therefore3 for the student to fami%iariDe himse%f with some of the wor%d,s greatest orators and their master ieces2 "he fo%%owing notes and e(tracts are intended to stimu%ate the student,s interest in this su$4ect2 It is fitting to $egin with /emosthenes3 the greatest of *recian orators3 and $y many considered the greatest orator of a%% time2 Be(t 0icero is @uoted as re resenting the *o%den +ge of #oman e%o@uence "he names of 0hatham3 8ur&e3 8rougham3 and *%adstone3 are re resentati1e of 8ritish orators3 whi%e those of Patric& Henry3 We$ster3 E1erett3 and Wende%% Phi%%i s shou%d $e sufficient to awa&en interest in the study of +merican oratory2 /E?9S"HEBES2 3!4 8202..322 8202 "he oratory of /emosthenes remains the most i%%ustrious e(am %e of defects o1ercome $y atient and erse1ering effort2 +ff%icted $y stammering and other hysica% short. comings that wou%d ha1e discouraged the a1erage man3 he trained himse%f so methodica%%y and ersistent%y that he u%timate%y $ecame the greatest orator the wor%d has &nown2 His most famous s eech3 ,C9n the 0rown3C was the outcome of a ro osa% of 0tesi hon that /emosthenes shou%d recei1e a crown of go%d in recognition of his ser1ices to his country2 "his was strong%y o osed $y +Eschines u on the ground that it was i%%ega%2 "he occasion has $een de. scri$ed as the greatest com$at of e%o@uence that the wor%d e1er witnessed2 "he fo%%owing e(tract from this s eech is of suggesti1e 1a%ue: 0ertain am I that you are a%% ac@uainted with my o onent,s character3 and $e%ie1e these charges to $e more a %ica$%e to him than to me2 +nd of this I am sure3 that my oratory.. %et it $e so: tho indeed I find that the s ea&er,s ower de ends for the most art on the hearers< for according to your rece tion and fa1or it is that the wisdom of a s ea&er is esteemed ..if I3 howe1er3 ossess any a$i%ity of this sort3 you wi%% find it has $een e(hi$ited a%ways in u$%ic $usiness on your $eha%f3 ne1er against you2 or on ersona% matters< whereas that of +Eschines has $een dis %ayed not on%y in s ea&ing for the enemy3 $ut against a%% ersons who e1er offended or @uarre%ed with him2 It is not for 4ustice or the good of the common. wea%th that he em %oys it2 + citiDen of ,worth and honor shou%d not ca%% u on 4udges im ane%ed in the u$%ic ser1ice to gratify his anger or hatred3 or anything of that &ind< nor shou%d he come $efore you u on such grounds2 "he $est thing is not to ha1e these fee%ings< $ut3 if it can sot $e he% ed3 they shou%d $e mitigated and restrained2 9n what occasions ought an orator and statesman to $e 1ehementI Where any of the commonwea%th,s main interests are in 4eo ardy3 and he is o osed to the ad1ersaries of the eo %e2 "hose are the occasions for a generous and $ra1e citiDen2 8ut for a erson who ne1er sought to unish me for any offense3 either u$%ic or ri1ate3 on the State,s $eha%f or on

his own3 to ha1e got u an accusation $ecause I am crowned and honored3 and to ha1e e( ended such a mu%titude of words ..this is a roof of ersona% enmity and s ite and meanness3 not of anything good2 +nd then3 his %ea1ing the contro1ersy with me3 and attac&ing the defendant3 com riDes e1erything that is $ase2 I shou%d conc%ude3 +Eschines3 that you undertoo& this cause to e(hi$it your e%o@uence and strength of %ungs3 not to o$tain satisfaction for any wrong2 8ut it is not the %anguage of an orator3 +Eschines3 that has any 1a%ue3 nor yet the tone of his 1oice3 $ut his ado ting the same 1iews with the eo %e3 and his hating and %o1ing the same ersons that his country does2 He that is thus minded wi%% say e1erything with %oya% intention: he that courts ersons from whom the commonwea%th a rehends danger to herse%f3 rides not on the same anchorage with the eo %e3 and therefore has not the same e( ectation of safety2 8ut..do you seeI..I ha1e: for my o$4ects are the same with those of my countrymen< I ha1e no interest se arate or distinct2 Is that so with youI How can it $e..when immediate%y after the $att%e you went as am$assador to Phi%i 3 who was at that eriod the author of your country,s ca%amities3 notwithstanding that you had $efore ersisted in refusing that office3 as a%% men &nowI +nd who is it that decei1es the StateI Sure%y3 the man who s ea&s not what he thin&s2 9n whom does the crier ronounce a curseI Sure%y3 on such a man2 What greater crime can an orator $e charged with than that his o inions and his %anguage are not the sameI Such is found to $e your character2 +nd yet you o en your mouth3 and dare to %oo& these men in the facesH /o you thin& they don,t &now youI ..or are sun& a%% in such s%um$er and o$%i1ion as not to remem$er the s eeches which you de%i1ered in the assem$%y cursing and swearing that you had nothing to do with Phi%i 3 and that I $rought that charge against you out of ersona% enmity3 without foundationI Bo sooner came the news of the $att%e than you forgot a%% that< you ac&now%edged and a1owed that $etween Phi%i and yourse%f there su$sisted a re%ation of hos ita%ity and friendshi ..new names3 these3 for your contract of hire2 For u on what %ea of e@ua%ity or 4ustice cou%d +Eschines3 son of *%aucothea3 the tim$re%. %ayer3 $e the friend or ac@uaintance of Phi%i I I can not see2 BoH ;ou were hired to ruin the interests of your countrymen: and yet3 tho you ha1e $een caught yourse%f in o en treason3 and informed against yourse%f after the fact3 you re1i%e and re roach me for things which you wi%% find any man is chargea$%e with sooner than I2 0I0E#92 10' 8202..43 8202 "he great #oman orator has to%d us in his own words that: CI dec%are that when I thin& of the moment when I sha%% ha1e to rise and s ea& in defense of a c%ient3 I am not on%y distur$ed in mind3 $ut trem$%e in e1ery %im$ of my $ody2C He3 too3 o1ercame a natura%%y wea& and ner1ous constitution3 $y rudent %i1ing and e(ercise2 "he sty%e of 0icero is worthy of ainsta&ing study2 His method is c%ear and con1incing3 his sentences in1aria$%y round and sonorous3 and a%% his s eeches are mar&ed $y om and $eauty2 From this rince of orators we @uote one assage of his s eech wherein he announces 0ati%ine,s de arture "his is a stri&ing use of in1ecti1e3 when he says: Ha y country3 cou%d it $e drained of the im urities of this cityH "o me the a$sence of 0ati%ine a%one seems to ha1e gi1en it fresh $%oom and $eauty2 Where is the 1i%%ainy3 where is the gui%t3 that can enter into the heart and thoughts of man that did not enter into hisI In a%% Ita%y3 what risoner3 what g%adiator3 what ro$$er3 what cut.throat3 what arasite3 what forger3 what rasca%3 what ruffian3 what de$aucher3 is there found among the corru ted3 among the a$andoned of

our country3 that did not own an intimate fami%iarity with 0ati%ineI Wou%d his com anions $ut fo%%ow him3 wou%d his des erate3 his rof%igate $and de art from #ome3 we%% might I ronounce ourse%1es ha y3 our country fortunate3 and my consu%ate g%orious2 For men ha1e now attained to an e(tra1agance in gui%t: their crimes a ear not now the crimes of men< as they are inhuman3 so are they into%era$%e2 ?urders3 $urnings3 and ra ine3 now engross their thoughts2 "heir atrimonies they ha1e s@uandered< their fortunes they ha1e gormandiDed< %ong ha1e they $een without money3 and now they $egin to $e without credit3 whi%e they retain the rage of desire without the means of en4oyment2 /id they3 in their re1e%s and gam$%ing3 aim on%y at the de%ights of the $ow%3 their case were indeed des erate< sti%%3 it might $e $orne with3 $ut who can suffer that the coward shou%d $etray the $ra1e3 the wit%ess the wise3 the sottish the so$er3 the indo%ent the industrious< that %o%%ing at their re1e%s3 crowned with gar%ands3 $esmeared with ointments3 wea&ened with de$auchery3 they shou%d $e%ch out in what manner the 1irtuous are to fa%% under their swords3 and this city to sin& in f%ames I 59#/ 0H+"H+?2 170!..177! Wi%%iam Pitt3 the first Ear% of 0hatham3 was the most distinguished orator of his time2 He made /emosthenes his mode%3 and it is said that he trans%ated into Eng%ish many of the s eeches of that great orator3 in order to ac@uire an e( ressi1e and owerfu% sty%e2 He had s %endid natura% endowments in 1oice and figure3 $ut3 ne1erthe%ess3 de1oted himse%f to assiduous ractise in e%ocution and u$%ic s ea&ing2 He has $een descri$ed as of %ofty $earing3 generous in sentiment3 with a fu%%.toned3 musica% 1oice3 and an indescri$a$%e ower of facia% e( ression and gesture2 E@ua%%y @ua%ified to conci%iate and su$due3 his e%o@uence has ne1er $een sur assed for $o%dness and disastrous effects u on an antagonist2 9ne of his $est &nown s eeches is the #e %y to Wa% o%e3 from which this e(tract is ta&en: "he atrocious crime of $eing a young man3 which the honora$%e gent%eman has3 with such s irit and decency3 charged u on me3 I sha%% neither attem t to a%%iate nor deny3 $ut content myse%f with wishing that I may $e one of those whose fo%%ies may cease with their youth3 and not of that num$er who are ignorant in s ite of e( erience2 Whether youth can $e im uted to any man as a re roach3 I wi%% not3 sir3 assume the ro1ince of determining< $ut sure%y3 age may $ecome 4ust%y contem ti$%e if the o ortunities which it $rings ha1e assed away without im ro1ement3 and 1ice a ears to re1ai% when the assions ha1e su$sided2 "he wretch who3 after ha1ing seen the conse@uences of a thousand errors3 continues sti%% to $%under3 and whose age has on%y added o$stinacy to stu idity3 is sure%y the o$4ect ,of either a$horrence or contem t3 and deser1es not that his gray hairs shou%d secure him from insu%t2 ?uch more3 sir3 is he to $e a$horred who3 as he has ad1anced in age3 has receded from 1irtue and $ecomes more wic&ed with %ess tem tation < who rostitutes himse%f for money which he can not en4oy3 and s ends the remains of his %ife in the ruin of his country2 8ut youth3 sir2 is not my on%y crime< I ha1e $een accused of acting a theatrica% art2 + theatrica% art may either im %y some ecu%iarities of gesture3 or a dissimu%ation of my rea% sentiments and an ado tion of the o inions and %anguage of another man2 In the first sense3 sir2 the charge is too trif%ing to $e confuted3 and deser1es on%y to $e mentioned to $e des ised2 I am at %i$erty3 %i&e e1ery other man3 to use my own %anguage< and tho3 erha s3 I may ha1e some am$ition to %ease this gent%e. man3 I sha%% not %ay myse%f under any restraint3 nor 1ery so%icitous%y co y his diction or his mien3 howe1er matured $y age or mode%ed $y e( erience2 If any man sha%%3 $y charging me with theatrica% $eha1ior3 im %y that I utter any sentiments $ut my own3 I sha%% treat him as a ca%umniator and a 1i%%ain< nor

sha%% any rotection she%ter him from the treatment he deser1es2 I sha%%3 on such an occasion3 without scru %e3 tram %e u on a%% those forms with which wea%th and dignity entrench themse%1es3 nor sha%% anything $ut age restrain my resentment.age3 which a%ways $rings one ri1i%ege3 that of $eing inso%ent and su erci%ious without unishment2 8ut3 with regard3 sir3 to those whom I ha1e offended3 I am of o inion that if I had acted a $orrowed art I shou%d ha1e a1oided their censure2 "he heat that offended them is the ardor of con1iction3 and that Dea% for the ser1ice of my country which neither ho e nor fear sha%% inf%uence me to su ress2 I wi%% not sit unconcerned whi%e my %i$erty is in1aded3 nor %oo& in si%ence u on u$%ic ro$$ery2 I wi%% e(ert my endea1ors3 at whate1er haDard3 to re e% the aggressor and drag the thief to 4ustice3 whoe1er may rotect them in their 1i%%ainy3 and whoe1er may arta&e of their %under2 86#EE2 1730..17-7 "his eminent Irish orator is $est &nown for his master%y s eeches on C0onci%iation with +mericaC and C"he Im eachment of Warren Hastings2C His de%i1ery3 we are to%d3 was mar&ed $y 1ehemence3 assionate earnestness3 and im ressi1e ower2 He e(ce%%ed in de$ate where Cin the s ace of a few moments3 he wou%d $e athetic and humorous3 acrimonious and conci%iating3 now gi1ing 1ent to his indignant fee%ings in %ofty dec%amation3 and again3 a%most in the same $reath3 con1u%sing his audience $y the most %augha$%e e(hi$itions of ridicu%e or $ur%es@ue2C 8ur&e was distinguished for his inte%%ectua% inde endence3 am %itude of mind3 and rodigious gras of his su$4ect2 "he fo%%owing is one of his many assages of $ri%%iant e%o@uence: +%% this3 I &now we%% enough3 wi%% sound wi%d and chimerica% to the rofane herd of those 1u%gar and mechanica% o%iticians3 who ha1e no %ace among us< a sort of eo %e who thin& that nothing e(ists $ut what is gross and materia%3 and who3 therefore3 far from $eing @ua%ified to $e directors of the great mo1ement of em ire3 are not fit to turn a whee% in the machine2 8ut to men tru%y initiated and right%y taught3 these ru%ing and master rinci %es3 which3 in the o inion of such men as I ha1e mentioned3 ha1e no su$stantia% e(istence3 are3 in truth3 e1erything and a%% in a%%2 ?agnanimity in o%itics is not se%dom the truest wisdom< and a great em ire and %itt%e minds go i%% together2 If we are conscious of our situation3 and g%ow with Dea% to fi%% our %ace as $ecomes our station and ourse%1es3 we ought to aus icate a%% our u$%ic roceeding on +merica with the o%d warning of the 0hurch3 sursum cordaH We ought to e%e1ate our minds to the greatness of that trust to which the order of Pro1idence has ca%%ed us2 8y ad1erting to the dignity of this high ca%%ing3 our ancestors ha1e turned a sa1age wi%derness into a g%orious em ire3 and ha1e made the most e(tensi1e and the on%y honora$%e con@uests3 not $y destroying3 $ut $y romoting the wea%th3 the num$er3 the ha iness of the human race2 5et us get an +merican re1enue as we ha1e3 got an +merican em ire2 Eng%ish ri1i%eges ha1e made it a%% that it is< Eng%ish ri1i%eges a%one wi%% ma&e it a%% it can $e2 P+"#I0E HEB#;2 173'..17-In this orator we ha1e a cons icuous e(am %e of one who ga1e %itt%e romise in youth3 yet rose to great u$%ic distinction $y force of s irit and character2 His 1ictories as an orator were won s%ow%y at first3 $ut u%timate%y Patric& Henry $ecame the ido% of the eo %e2 He was ta%%3 s%ight3 and dar& in a earance3 and once u on his feet to s ea& ho he%d his head high3 whi%e the entire man seemed to undergo a wonderfu% transformation2 +%tho modest and e1en hesitating at times3 he was one of the most se%f. ossest s ea&ers in the resence of a crisis2 In his famous s eech against the Stam +ct in the Firginia House of 8urgesses3 when there

came from e1ery art of the House the cry of C"reasonHC he defiant%y e(c%aimed3 CIf this $e treason3 ma&e the most of itHC His 1oice was c%ear and f%e(i$%e3 and his gesture and action were in1aria$%y mar&ed $y s irit and animation2 When thorough%y aroused3 he rose to heights of grace and mayesty3 carrying his audience com %ete%y with him $y the ower of his assionate and ersuasi1e utterance2 "he fo%%owing e(tract is from his we%%. &nown s eech CWe3 the Peo %e3 or We3 the StatesIC de%i1ered in the Firginia 0on1ention3 7une 43 17!!3 on the ream$%e and the first two sections of the first artic%e of the Federa% 0onstitution: I re eat it again3 and I $eg gent%emen to consider3 that a wrong ste made now3 wi%% %unge us into misery3 and our #e u$%ic wi%% $e %ost2 It wi%% $e necessary for this con1ention to ha1e a faithfu% historica% detai% of the facts that receded the session of the Federa% 0on1ention3 and the reasons that actuated its mem$ers in ro osing an entire a%teration of go1ernment..and to demonstrate the dangers that awaited us2 If they were of such awfu% magnitude as to warrant a ro osa% so e(treme%y eri%ous as this3 I must assert that this con1ention has an a$so%ute right to a thorough disco1ery of e1ery circumstance re%ati1e to this great e1ent2 +nd here I wou%d ma&e this in@uiry of those worthy characters who com osed a art of the %ate Federa% 0on1ention2 I am sure they were fu%%y im rest with the necessity of forming a great conso%idated go1ernment3 instead of a confederation2 "hat this is a conso%idated go1ernment is demonstra$%y c%ear3 and the danger of such a go1ernment is2 to my mind3 1ery stri&ing2 I ha1e the highest 1eneration for those gent%emen< $ut3 sir2 gi1e me %ea1e to demand what right had they to say3 CWe3 the Peo %eIC ?y o%itica% curiosity3 e(c%usi1e of my an(ious so%icitude for the u$%ic we%fare3 %eads me to as& who authoriDed them to s ea& the %anguage of CWe3 the Peo %e3C instead of CWe3 the StatesCI States are the characteristics and the sou% of a confederation2 If the States $e not the agents of this com act3 it must $e one great conso%idated nationa% go1ernment of the eo %e of a%% the States2 I ha1e the highest res ect for those gent%emen who formed the con1ention< and were some of them not here3 I wou%d e( ress some testimonia% of esteem for them2 +merica had3 on a former occasion3 ut the utmost confidence in them ..a confidence which was we%% %aced< and I am sure3 sir3 I wou%d gi1e u anything to them< I wou%d cheerfu%%y confide in them as my re resentati1es2 8ut3 sir3 on this great occasion3 I wou%d demand the cause of their conduct2 E1en from that i%%ustrious man3 who sa1ed us $y his 1a%or3 I wou%d ha1e a reason for his conduct< that %i$erty which he has gi1en us $y his 1a%or te%%s me to as& this reason3 and sure I am3 were he here3 he wou%d gi1e us that reason: $ut there are other gent%emen here who can gi1e us this information2 "he eo %e ga1e them no ower to use their name2 "hat they e(ceeded their ower is erfect%y c%ear2 It is not mere curiosity that actuates me< I wish to hear the rea%3 actua%3 e(isting danger3 which shou%d %ead us to ta&e those ste s so dangerous in my conce tion2 /isorders ha1e arisen in other arts of +merica3 $ut here3 sir3 no dangers3 no insurrection or tumu%t3 has ha ened< e1erything has $een ca%m and tran@ui%2 8ut notwithstanding this3 we are wandering on the great ocean of human affairs2 I see no %andmar& to guide us2 We are running3 we &now not whither2 /ifference in o inion has gone to a degree of inf%ammatory resentment in different arts of the country3 which has $een occasioned $y this eri%ous inno1ation2 "he Federa% 0on1ention ought to ha1e amended the o%d system< for this ur ose they were so%e%y de%egated: the o$4ect of their mission e(tended to no other consideration2 ;ou must3 therefore3 forgi1e the so%icitation of one unworthy mem$er to &now what danger cou%d ha1e arisen under the resent confederation3 and what are the causes of this ro osa% to change our go1ernment2 8#96*H+?2 177!..1!'!

"he sty%e of 5ord 8rougham was im etuous3 fresh3 and energetic2 His 1oice is descri$ed as ha1ing $een unmusica% and often harsh3 $ut his strong indi1idua%ity and remar&a$%e %oo&s and gestures ena$%ed him to dri1e home his thoughts with o1erwhe%ming force2 When he s o&e it was to stri&e and stri&e hard2 His ro$ust constitution3 natura% energy of fee%ing3 and ine(hausti$%e su %y of %anguage3 made him a formida$%e o onent2 "he c%ose of his argument for Aueen 0aro%ine is in his characteristic sty%e: Such3 my %ords3 is the ease now $efore youH Such is the e1idence in su ort of this measure.. e1idence inade@uate to ro1e a de$t< im otent to de ri1e of a ci1i% right< ridicu%ous to con1ict of the %owest offense< scanda%ous if $rought forward to su ort a charge of the highest nature which the %aw &nows< monstrous to ruin the honor3 to $%ast the name of an Eng%ish AueenH What sha%% I say3 then3 if this is the roof $y which an act of 4udicia% %egis%ation3 a ar%iamentary sentence3 an e( ost facto %aw3 is sought to $e assed against this defense%ess woman I ?y %ords3 I ray you to ause2 I do earnest%y $eseech you to ta&e heedH ;ou are standing on the $rin& of a reci ice ..then $ewareH It wi%% go forth as your 4udgment3 if sentence sha%% go against the Aueen2 8ut it wi%% $e the on%y 4udgment you e1er ronounced3 which3 instead of reaching its o$4ect3 wi%% return and $ound $ac& u on those who gi1e it2 Sa1e the country3 my %ords3 from the horrors of this catastro he< sa1e yourse%1es from this eri%< rescue that country3 of which you are the ornaments3 $ut in which you can f%ourish no %onger3 when se1ered from the eo %e3 than the $%ossom when cut off from the roots and the stem of the tree2 Sa1e that country3 that you may continue to adorn it< sa1e the crown3 which is in 4eo ardy< the aristocracy3 which is sha&en< sa1e the a%tar3 which must stagger with the $%ow that rends its &indred throneH ;ou ha1e said3 my %ords3 you ha1e wi%%ed..the 0hurch and the Eing ha1e wi%%ed..that the Aueen shou%d $e de ri1ed of its so%emn ser1iceH She has3 instead of that so%emnity3 the heart. fe%t rayers of the eo %e2 She wants no rayers of mine 2 8ut I do here our forth my hum$%e su %ications at the throne of mercy3 that that mercy may $e oured down u on the eo %e3 in a %arger measure than the merits of its ru%ers may deser1e3 and that your hearts may $e turned to 4usticeH WE8S"E#2 17!2..1!)2 "he oratorica% sty%e of /anie% We$ster was dee 3 massi1e3 and dignified2 CBature had set her sea% of greatness 1isi$%y u on him3C says a commentator2 He was a$so%ute%y free from rhetorica% tric&ery3 de ending for his ower u on rugged common sense2 His addresses were re ared with conscientious care3 and were inters ersed with fe%icitous @uotations2 "ho he read much3 he confined himse%f to a few $oo&s3 articu%ar%y the 8i$%e3 Sha&es eare3 ?i%ton3 and 8ur&e2 He was of commanding a earance3 with dee 3 enetrating eyes3 and a 1oice %i&e a cathedra% organ2 He seemed a man of ine(hausti$%e resources3 and ming%ed argument3 %ogic3 wit3 and athos3 with master%y effect2 9ne of his most e%o@uent assages is that in which3 in his commemoration address on the %i1es and ser1ices of 7ohn +dams and "homas 7efferson3 in Faneui% Ha%%3 8oston3 +ugust 23 1!2'3 he descri$es the oratory of +dams: "he e%o@uence of ?r2 +dams resem$%ed his genera% character3 and formed3 indeed3 a art of it2 It was $o%d3 man%y3 and energetic< and such the crisis re@uired2 When u$%ic $odies are to $e addrest on momentous occasions3 when great interests are at sta&e3 and strong assions e(cited3 nothing is 1a%ua$%e in2 s eech further than as it is connected with high inte%%ectua% and mora%. endowments2 0%earness3 force3 and earnestness are the @ua%ities which roduce con1iction2 "rue e%o@uence3 indeed does not consist in s eech2 It can not $e $rought from far2

5a$or and %earning may toi% for it3 $ut they wi%% toi% in 1ain2 CWords and hrases may $e marsha%ed in e1ery way3 $ut they can not com ass it2 It must e(ist in the man3 in the su$4ect3 and in the occasion2 +ffected assion3 intense e( ression3 the om of dec%amation3 a%% may as ire to it< they can not reach it2 It comes3 if it come at a%%3 %i&e the out$rea&ing of a fountain from the earth3 or the $ursting forth of 1o%canic fires3 with s ontaneous3 origina%3 nati1e force2 "he graces taught in the schoo%s3 the cost%y ornaments and studied contri1ances of s eech3 shoc& and disgust men3 when their own %i1es3 and the fate of their wi1es3 their chi%dren3 and their country3 hang on the decision of the hour2 "hen words ha1e %ost their ower3 rhetoric is 1ain3 and a%% e%a$orate oratory contem ti$%e2 E1en genius itse%f then fee%s re$u&ed and su$dued3 as in the resence of higher @ua%ities2 "hen atriotism is e%o@uent< then se%f. de1otion is e%o@uent2 "he c%ear conce tion3 outrunning the deductions of %ogic3 the high ur ose3 the firm reso%1e3 the daunt%ess s irit3 s ea&ing on the tongue3 $eaming from the eye3 informing e1ery feature3 and urging the who%e man onward3 right onward to his o$4ect..this3 this is e%o@uence< or rather3 it is something greater and higher than a%% e%o@uence..it is action3 no$%e3 su$%ime3 god%i&e action2 E/W+#/ EFE#E""2 17-4..1!') In the fie%d of occasiona% address Edward E1erett must $e awarded a foremost %ace2 He was a scho%ar of unusua% attainments3 and a%% his cu%ture was $rought to $ear u on a s ea&ing sty%e remar&a$%e for its %iterary finish and o%ished recision2 Some commentators ha1e criticiDed his method of de%i1ery as artificia%3 $ut a%tho he was the studied rhetorician3 his sense of fitness sa1ed him from serious fau%ts of s eech or manner2 He $%ended many graces in one3 and his s eeches are worthy to $e studied as mode%s of oratorica% sty%e2 "he fo%%owing e(tract is from one of his most o%ished efforts3 an address at +mherst 0o%%ege3 de%i1ered in 1!3)3 on CEducation Fa1ora$%e to 5i$erty3 ?ora%s and Enow%edgeC: What is human &now%edgeI It is the cu%ti1ation and im ro1ement of the s iritua% rinci %e in man2 We are com osed of two e%ements< the one3 a %itt%e dust caught u from the earth3 to which we sha%% soon return: the other3 a s ar& of that di1ine inte%%igence3 in which and through which we $ear the image of the great 0reator2 8y &now%edge3 the wings of the inte%%ect are s read< $y ignorance3 they are c%osed and a%sied3 and the hysica% assions are %eft to gain the ascendency2 Enow%edge o ens a%% the senses to the wonders of creation< ignorance sea%s them u 3 and %ea1es the anima% ro ensities un$a%anced $y ref%ection3 enthusiasm and taste2 "o the ignorant man3 the g%orious om of day3 the s ar&%ing mysteries of night3 the mayestic ocean3 the rushing storm3 the %enty.$earing ri1er3 the sa%u$rious $reeDe3 the ferti%e fie%d3 the doci%e anima% tri$es3 the $road3 the 1arious3 the une(hausted domain of nature3 are a mere outward ageant3 oor%y understood in their character and harmony3 and riDed on%y so far as they minister to the su %y of sensua% wants2 How different the scene to the man whose mind is stored with &now%edgeH For him the mystery is unfo%ded3 the 1ei%s %ifted u 3 as one after another he turns the %ea1es of the great 1o%ume of 0reation3 which is fi%%ed in e1ery age with the characters of wisdom3 ower and %o1e< with %essons of truth the most e(a%ted< with images of uns ea&a$%e %o1e%iness and wonder< arguments of Pro1idence< food for meditation< themes of raise2 9ne no$%e science sends him to the $arren hi%%s3 and teaches him to sur1ey their $ro&en reci ices2 Where ignorance $eho%ds nothing $ut a rough3 inorganic mass3 instruction discerns the inte%%igi$%e record of the rima% con1u%sions of the wor%d< the secrets of ages $efore man was< the %andmar&s of the e%ementa% strugg%es and throes of what is now the terra@ueous g%o$e2 8uried monsters3 of which the races are now e(tinct3 are dragged out of dee strata3 dug out of eterna% roc&s3 and $rought a%most to %ife3 to $ear witness to the ower

that created them2 8efore the admiring student of Bature has rea%iDed a%% the wonders of the e%der wor%d3 thus3 as it were3 recreated $y science3 another de%ightfu% instructress3 with her microsco e in her hand3 $ids him sit down and %earn at %ast to &now the uni1erse in which he %i1es3 and contem %ate the %im$s3 the motions3 the circu%ations of races of anima%s3 dis orting in their tem estuous ocean..a dro of water2 "hen3 whi%e his who%e sou% is enetrated with admiration of the ower which has fi%%ed with %ife3 and motion and sense these a%% $ut non. resistant atoms..9h3 then3 %et the di1inest of the ?uses3 %et +stronomy a roach3 and ta&e him $y the hand< %et her %ead him to the mount of 1ision< %et her turn her hea1en. iercing tu$e to the s ar&ing 1au%t< through that %et him o$ser1e the serene star of e1ening3 and see it transformed into a c%oud.encom assed or$3 a wor%d of rugged mountains and stormy dee s< or $eho%d the a%e $eams of Saturn3 %ost to the untaught o$ser1er amid myriads of $righter stars3 and see them e( and into the $road dis& of a no$%e %anet..the se1en attendant wor%ds Gthe wondrous rings..a mighty system in itse%f3 $orne at the rate of twenty.two thousand mi%es an hour on its $road athways through the hea1ens< and then %et him ref%ect that Saturn and his stu endous retinue is $ut a sma%% art3 fi%%s3 itse%f3 in the genera% structure of the uni1erse3 $ut the s ace of one fist star< and that the ower which fi%%ed the dro of water with mi%%ions of %i1ing $eings3 is resent and acti1e throughout this i%%imita$%e creationH ;es3 yes3 C+n unde1out astronomer is madHC *5+/S"9BE2 1!0-..1!-! Wi%%iam Ewart *%adstone has $een descri$ed as the greatest orator of his time2 His 1oice was remar&a$%e for its c%earness3 me%ody3 and carrying ower2 "o a manner a%ways considerate%y courteous3 he had the rare gift of finding the fitting word and of de%i1ering it with the force of wi%% rather than that of assion2 His ferti%ity of thought ena$%ed him to Cthin& on his feet3C so that he readi%y gained distinction as an e(tem oraneous and im rom tu s ea&er2 He was ecu%iar%y free from indu%gence in ersona%ities and in1ecti1e2 His sentences3 Ccris as the cur%ing wa1e3 definite as the $u%%et3C were usua%%y de%i1ered with @uiet3 dignified force3 and a%% his utterances seemed rom ted $y a rofound sense of duty2 "he fo%%owing is the c%ose of his s eech on Home #u%e3 in the House of 0ommons3 7une 73 1!!': "here has $een no great day of ho e for Ire%and3 no day when you might ho e com %ete%y and definite%y to end the contro1ersy3 ti%% now..more than ninety years2 "he %ong eriodic time has at %ast run out3 and the star has again mounted into the hea1ens2 What Ire%and was doing for herse%f in 17-) we at %ength ha1e done2 "he #oman 0atho%ics ha1e $een emanci ated.. emanci ated after a wofu% disregard of so%emn romises through twenty nine years3 emanci ated s%ow%y3 su%%en%y3 not from good wi%%3 $ut from a$4ect terror3 with a%% the fruits and conse@uences which wi%% a%ways fo%%ow that method of %egis%ation2 "he second ro$%em has $een a%so so%1ed3 and the re resentation of Ire%and has $een thorough%y reformed< and I am than&fu% to say that the franchise was gi1en to Ire%and on the read4ustment of %ast year with a free heart3 with an o en hand3 and the gift of that franchise was the %ast act re@uired to ma&e the success of Ire%and in her fina% effort a$so%ute%y sure2 We ha1e gi1en Ire%and a 1oice< we must a%% %isten for a moment to what she says2 We must a%% %isten3 $oth sides3 $oth arties..I mean as they are di1ided on this @uestion..di1ided3 I am afraid3 $y an a%most immeasura$%e ga 2 We do not under1a%ue or des ise the forces o osed to us2 I ha1e descri$ed them as the forces of c%ass and its de endants< and that as a genera% descri tion..as a s%ight and rude out%ine of a descri tion..is3 I $e%ie1e3 erfect%y true2 I do not deny that many are against us whom we shou%d ha1e e( ected to $e for us2 I do not deny that some whom we see against us ha1e caused us $y their conscientious action the $itterest disa ointment2 ;ou ha1e

ower3 you ha1e wea%th3 you ha1e ran&3 you ha1e station3 you ha1e organiDation2 What ha1e weI We thin& that we ha1e the eo %e,s heart< we $e%ie1e and we &now we ha1e the romise of the har1est of the future2 +s to the eo %e,s heart3 you may dis ute it3 and dis ute it with erfect sincerity2 5et that matter ma&e its own roof2 +s to the har1est of the future3 I dou$t if you ha1e so much confidence3 and I $e%ie1e that there is in the $reast of many a man who means to 1ote against us to.night a rofound misgi1ing3 a roaching e1en to a dee con1iction3 that the end wi%% $e as we foresee3 and not as you do..that the e$$ing tide is with you3 and the f%owing tide is with us2 Ire%and stands at your $ar3 e( ectant3 ho efu%3 a%most su %iant2 Her words are the words of truth and so$erness2 She as&s a $%est o$%i1ion of the ast3 and in that o$%i1ion our interest is dee er than e1en hers2 ?y right honora$%e friend3 the mem$er for East Edin$urgh3 as&s us to. night to a$ide $y the traditions of which we are the heirs2 What traditionsI 8y the Irish traditionsI *o into the %ength and $readth of the wor%d3 ransac& the %iterature of a%% countries3 find3 if you can3 a sing%e 1oice3 a sing%e $oo&..find3 I wou%d a%most say3 as much as a sing%e news a er artic%e3 un%ess the roduct of the day3 in which the conduct of Eng%and toward Ire%and is anywhere treated e(ee t with rofound and $itter condemnation2 +re these the traditions $y which we are e(horted to standI Bo< they are a sad e(ce tion to the g%ory of our country2 "hey are a $road and $%ac& $%ot u on the ages of its history< and what we want to do is to stand $y the traditions of which we are the heirs in a%% matters e(ce t our re%ations with Ire%and3 and to ma&e our re%ations with Ire%and to conform to the other traditions of our country2 So we treat our traditions..so we hai% the demand of Ire%and for which I ca%% a $%est o$%i1ion of the ast2 She as&s a%so a $oon for the future< and that $oon for the future3 un%ess we are much mista&en3 wi%% $e a $oon to us in res ect of honor3 no %ess than a $oon to her in res ect of ha iness3 ros erity and eace2 Such3 sir3 is her rayer2 "hin&3 I $eseech you3 thin& we%%3 thin& wise%y3 thin&3 not for the moment3 $ut for the years that are to come3 $efore you re4ect this $i%%2 WEB/E55 PHI55IPS2 1!11..1!!4 "his great orator is $est &nown for his un ara%%e%ed s eeches in $eha%f of the anti.s%a1ery cause2 He is a s %endid e(am %e of a s ea&er achie1ing the greatest effects $y the sim %est means2 His sty%e was distinguished for its natura%ness and con1ersationa% sim %icity2 What most im rest the hearer was the undou$ted earnestness and no$i%ity of character of this eminent atriot2 Wende%% Phi%%i s wi%% e1er $e &nown as one Cwith a sou% as firm and as true as was e1er consecrated to unse%fish duty2,, From his Eu%ogy of Wi%%iam 5%oyd *arrison3 de%i1ered at the funera% of *arrison3 ?ay 2!3 1!7-3 we @uote this e%o@uent conc%usion: +nd he ne1er grew o%d2 "he ta$ernac%e of f%esh grew fee$%er3 and the ste was %ess e%astic2 8ut the a$i%ity to wor&3 the serene faith and unf%agging ho e3 suffered no change2 "o the day of his death he was as ready as in his $oyhood to confront and defy a mad ma4ority2 "he &een insight and c%ear 4udgment ne1er fai%ed him2 His tenacity of ur ose ne1er wea&ened2 He showed nothing either of the inte%%ectua% s%uggishness or the timidity of age2 "he $ug%e ca%% which %ast year wo&e the nation to its eri% and duty on the Southern @uestion showed a%% the o%d fitness to %ead and mo%d a eo %e,s course2 ;ounger men might $e confused or daDed $y %ausi$%e retensions3 and ha%f the Borth was $efoo%ed< $ut the o%d ioneer detected the fa%se ring as @uic&%y as in his youth2 "he words his dying hand traced3 we%coming the Southern e(odus and forete%%ing its resu%t3 had a%% the defiant courage and ro hetic so%emnity of his youngest and $o%dest days2

Serene3 fear%ess3 mar1e%ous manH ?orta%3 with so few shortcomings H Farewe%%3 for a 1ery %itt%e whi%e3 no$%est of 0hristian menH 5eader3 $ra1e3 tire%ess3 unse%fishH When the ear heard thee3 then it $%est thee< the eye that saw thee ga1e witness to thee2 ?ore tru%y than it cou%d e1er heretofore $e said since the great atriarch wrote it3 C"he $%essing of Him that was ready to erishC was thine eterna% great reward2 "ho the c%ouds rest for a moment to.day on the great wor& that you set your heart to accom %ish3 you &new3 *od in His %o1e %et you see3 that your wor& was done< that one thing3 $y his $%essing on your efforts3 is fi(t $eyond the ossi$i%ity of change2 Whi%e that ear cou%d %isten3 *od ga1e what He has so rare%y gi1en to man3 the %audits and rayers of four mi%%ions of 1ictims3 than&ing you for emanci ation< and through the c%ouds of to.day your heart3 as it ceased to $eat3 fe%t certain3 that3 whether one f%ag or two sha%% ru%e this continent in time to come3 one thing is sett%ed..it ne1er henceforth can $e trodden $y a s%a1eH

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?r2 President:..I &now of no act of my %ife which 4ustifies your assertion that I am an e( ert on this @uestion2 I can 1ery we%% understand why it is that the toast to ,, Woman,, shou%d fo%%ow the toast to ,, the Press2,, P5aughter2Q I am ca%%ed u on to res ond to the $est3 the most suggesti1e3 and the most im ortant sentiment which has $een de%i1ered this e1ening3 at this midnight hour3 when the 1aried and cease%ess f%ow of e%o@uence has e(hausted su$4ects and audience3 when the chairs are main%y 1acant3 the $ott%es em ty3 and the o%dest 1eteran and most 1a%iant #oman of us a%% scarce dares meet the doom he &nows awaits him at home2 P5aughter2Q 8isho 8er&e%ey3 when he wrote his $eautifu% 1erses u on our Western Wor%d3 and enned the %ine3 C"ime,s no$%est offs ring is the %ast3C descri$ed not so near%y our ro hetic future as the %ast and $est creation of the +%mighty..woman.. whom we $oth %o1e and worshi 2 P+ %ause2Q We ha1e here the President of the 6nited States and the *enera% of our armies< around these ta$%es is gathered a ga%a(y of inte%%ect3 genius and achie1ement se%dom resented on any occasion3 $ut none of them wou%d merit the a %ause we so enthusiastica%%y $estow3 or ha1e won their high honors3 had they not $een guided or ins ired $y the woman they re1ered or %o1ed2 I ha1e noticed one ecu%iarity a$out the toasts this e1ening 1ery remar&a$%e in the Bew Eng%and Society: e1ery one of them is a @uotation from Sha&es eare2 If E%der 8rewster and 0ar1er and 0otton ?ather3 the ear%y di1ines of ?assachusetts3 and the who%e co%ony of P%ymouth cou%d ha1e $een co%%ected together in genera% assem$%y3 and ha1e seen with ro hetic 1ision the f%ower of their descendants ce%e$rating the 1irtues of this ancestry in sentiments e1ery one of which was couched in the %anguage of a %aywright3 what wou%d they ha1e saidI P5aughter2Q "his imagination can not com ass the emotions and the utterances of the occasion2 8ut I can understand why this has $een done2 It is $ecause the most 1ersati%e and distinguished actor u on our munici a% stage is the resident of the Bew Eng%and Society2 P5aughter and a %ause2Q We %i1e in an age when from the highest offices of our city the incum$ent see&s the stage to achie1e his greatest honors2 P5aughter2Q I see now our worthy resident3 ?r2 8ai%ey3 industrious%y thum$ing his Sha&es eare to se%ect these toasts2 He admires the airy grace and f%itting $eauty of "itania< he wee s o1er the misfortunes of /esdemona and 9 he%ia2 Each indi1idua% hair stands on end as he contem %ates the character of 5ady ?ac$eth< $ut as he s ends his night with 7u%iet3 he soft%y murmurs3 CParting is such sweet sorrow2C P5oud %aughter2Q ;ou &now that it is a hysio%ogica% fact that $oys ta&e after their mothers3 and re roduce the characteristics and inte%%ectua% @ua%ities of the materna%3 and not the aterna%3 side2 Standing here in the resence of the most worthy re resentati1es of P%ymouth3 and &nowing3 as I do3 your mora% and menta% worth3 the %aces you fi%%3 and the commercia%3 financia%3 humane3 and catho%ic im etus you gi1e to our metro o%itan %ife3 how can I do otherwise than on $ended &nee re1erence the Bew Eng%and mothers who ga1e you $irthH P+ %ause2Q ;our resident3 in his s eech to. night3 s o&e of himse%f as a descendant of 7ohn +%den2 In my 4udgment3 Prisci%%a uttered the sentiment which ga1e the ;an&ee the &ey.note of success3 and condensed the rima% e%ements of his character3 when she said to 7ohn +%den3 CPrythee3 why don,t you s ea& for yourse%f3 7ohnIC P5aughter2Q "hat motto has $een the s ear in the rear and the star in the 1an of the Bew Eng%ander,s rogress2

It has made him the most audacious3 se%f.re%iant3 and irre ressi$%e mem$er of the human fami%y< and for i%%ustration we need %oo& no farther than the resent descendant of Prisci%%a and 7ohn +%den2 P5aughter and a %ause2Q "he on%y way I can reci rocate your ca%% at this %ate hour is to &ee you here as %ong as I can2 I thin& I see now the descendant of a ?ayf%ower immorta% who has $een %istening here to the g%ories of his ancestry3 and %earning that he is Cthe heir of a%% the ages3C as uffed and swo%%en with ride of race and history3 he stands so%itary and a%one u on his doorste 3 ref%ects on his $ro&en romise of an ear%y return3 and remem$ers that within Cthere is a di1inity which sha es his end2C P+ %ause and %aughter2Q In a%% ages woman has $een the source of a%% that is ure3 unse%fish3 and heroic in the s irit and %ife of man2 It was for %o1e that +ntony %ost a wor%d2 It was for %o1e that 7aco$ wor&ed se1en %ong years3 and for se1en more< and I ha1e often wondered what must ha1e $een his emotions when on the morning of the eighth year he awo&e and found the home%y3 scrawny3 $ony 5eah in. stead of the %o1e%y and $eautifu% resence of his $e%o1ed Eache%2 P5aughter2Q + distinguished French hi%oso her answered the narrati1e of e1ery e1ent with the @uestion3 CWho was sheIC He%en con@uered "roy3 %unged a%% the nations of anti@uity into war3 and ga1e that ear%iest3 as it is sti%% the grandest3 e ic which has come down through a%% time2 Poetry and fiction are $ased u on woman,s %o1e3 and the mo1ements of history are main%y due to the sentiments or am$itions she has ins ired2 Semiramis3 Reno$ia3 Aueen E%iDa$eth3 c%aim a co%d and distant admiration< they do not touch the heart2 8ut when F%orence Bightinga%e3 or *race /ar%ing3 or Ida 5ewis3 unse%fish and unhera%ded3 eri% a%% to succor and to sa1e3 the rofoundest and ho%iest emotions of our nature render them tri$ute and homage2 P+ %ause2Q ?r2 President3 there is no as iration which any man here to.night entertains3 no achie1ement he see&s to accom %ish3 no great and honora$%e am$ition he desires to gratify3 which is not direct%y re%ated to either or $oth a mother or a wife2 P+ %ause2Q From the hearth.stone around which %inger the reco%%ections of our mother3 from the fireside where our wife awaits us3 come a%% the urity3 a%% the ho e3 and a%% the courage with which we fight the $att%e of %ife2 P+ %ause2Q "he man who is not thus ins ired3 who %a$ors not so much to secure the a %ause of the wor%d as the so%id and more recious a ro1a% of his home3 accom %ishes %itt%e of good for others or of honor for himse%f2 I c%ose with the ho e that each of us may a%ways ha1e near us3 ,, + erfect woman3 no$%y %anned3 "o warn3 to comfort3 and command3 +nd yet a s irit sti%%3 and $right With something of an ange% %ight2,, +F"E#./IBBE# SPEE0H 8; SI# HEB#; 5;""9B 865WE# ?r2 0hairman and gent%emen3 if it $e true3 that I ha1e $een so fortunate as to contri$ute in any way to the friend%y re%ations which at resent e(ist $etween the two countries3 it is sim %y $ecause I ha1e ta&en a %ain3 downright course for effecting this su$4ect2 "he fact of it is3 gent%emen3 that3 according to o%d customs3 when any causes for difference3 howe1er s%ight3 e(isted $etween our two go1ernments3 down sat Her mayesty,s re resentati1e at his des&3 and down sat the 6nited States Secretary of State3 and each enned to the other 1ery ith and ertinent dis atches3 showing the great moti1es for grie1ance there on $oth sides3 and then those dis atches were carefu%y circu%ated throughout $oth countries3 $ut when there

were on%y causes for mutua% good. wi%% and satisfaction3 no one thought it worth whi%e to ta&e notice of so sim %e a fact3 nor to state to the Eng%ish and +merican u$%ic what strong reasons3 $oth in sentiment and interest3 there e(isted3 for their maintaining the c%osest and most friend%y re%ations with each other2 "his was the o%d schoo% of di %omacy3 gent%emen< $ut I am of the new schoo%..and my theory and ractise are 4ust the re1erse of what I ha1e $een descri$ing2 I am for &ee ing as @uiet as ossi$%e a%% those sma%% differences which must occasiona%%y ta&e %ace $etween any two great States3 ha1ing 1ast and com %icated interests< $ut which differences are a%ways easy of ad4ustment when they are not aggra1ated $y unfriend%y and untime%y discussion2 +nd I am for ma&ing as u$%ic as ossi$%e3 on a%% occasions3 those great oints of union that must connect two nations3 which not on%y3 as my honora$%e friend ?r2 5awrence has said3 ha1e one origin3 and s ea& one %anguage3 $ut which a%so transact their greatest amount of $usiness with each other2 Why3 gent%emen3 in what ossi$%e manner can difficu%ties of serious character arise $etween two nations thus situated3 e(ce t through mutua% re4udices3 which3 ha1ing $een suffered to grow u 3 wi%% $e a t3 unti% eradicated3 to create a wrong im ression as to the rea% o%icy and fee%ings of the one and the other I ?y endea1ors3 then3 gent%emen3 ha1e $een to remo1e a%% such re4udices< ay3 and to re %ace them $y sym athies2 For this ur ose3 as my friend ?r2 CWa%&er 4ust%y said3 I ha1e addrest myse%f not mere%y to the +merican mind3 $ut to the +merican heart2 For this ur ose3 I ha1e thought it essentia%3 not mere%y to corres ond forma%%y with your State /e artment3 $ut a%so to ha1e fran& and free communication with your no$%e and inte%%igent eo %e2 For this ur ose I ha1e mi(ed with your u$%ic men3 studied your institutions3 ta&en an interest in your affairs3 ar. ta&en of your festi1ities3 conformed to your ha$its3 and a%ways $een wi%%ing3 not on%y to eat a good dinner with you3 $ut to ma&e a $ad s eech after one2 *ent%emen3 I shou%d $e @uite satisfied to ta&e3 as my reward for these efforts3 the e%o@uent and far more than deser1ed ecomium which has $een assed u on me $y the distinguished gent%e. man who ro osed the toast I am res onding to2 8ut my mission had a%so another reward..another resu%t..which3 if I am not wearying you3 I wi%% state as $eing not on%y interesting to our two communities3 $ut to the wor%d at %arge< I mean a treaty $y which *reat 8ritain and the 6nited States3 without infringing on the rights of the hum$%est indi1idua% or the sma%%est State3 ha1e agreed3 on one condition3 to rotect the construction and guarantee the security when constructed3 of any cana% or rai%way which may o en a assage across 0entra% +merica3 $etween the +t%antic and Pacific 9cean2 +nd what was that one condition on which our two go1ernments thus insistedI Why3 that they shou%d not3 either se arate%y or con4oint%y3 ossess one sing%e ri1i%ege or ad1antage3 with res ect to such cana% or rai%way3 which shou%d not $e offered3 on e@ua% terms3 to e1ery other nation on the face of the g%o$e2 *ent%emen3 I do confess that I am roud that such a treaty as this shou%d ha1e $een entered into $y the 6nited States and *reat 8ritain< and I wi%% a%so add that I ha1e an hum$%e ride in stating that one of the signatures attached to that con1ention is the name of the indi1idua% who has now the honor of addressing you2 *ent%emen3 I %ay a great stress u on this fact3 $ecause I fe%t when I signed that instrument to which I am referring3 that I %aid the foundation stone of a great and e@uita$%e a%%iance $etween our two countries..an a%%iance which shou%d not ha1e for its o$4ect the wronging or des oi%ing3 $ut the $enefiting and rotecting the rest of man&ind< and sure%y3 gent%emen3 if such a union were e1er re@uired3 it is at this moment..for at this moment the wor%d is3 as it were3 1io%ent%y 1i$rating $etween two e(tremes3 and a ears of necessity to demand some regu%ating inf%uence3 to moderate and steady its osci%%ations..and where3 gent%emen3 can such an inf%uence $e $etter found than in the cordia% union of *reat 8ritain and the 6nited StatesI It is true that you %i1e under a re u$%ic3 and we under a monarchy< $ut what of thatI "he foundations of $oth societies are %aw and re%igion2 "he ur ose of $oth go1ernments is %i$erty and order2 "he more you %o1e your #e u$%ic3 gent%emen3 the more you

detest those rinci %es of confusion and di1ision which wou%d destroy it2 "he more we %o1e our ?onarchy3 the more we cherish and c%ing to those rinci %es of e@uity and freedom which reser1e it2 In this3 indeed3 %ies the great mora% strength of our c%ose connection2 Hand in hand3 we can stand together3 a%i&e o osed to the anarchist3 who ca%%s himse%f the friend of the eo %e3 and to the a$so%utist3 who ca%%s himse%f the friend of the throne2 5ong3 then3 gent%emen3 %et us thus stand together3 the cham ions of eace $etween nations3 of conci%iation $etween o inions ..and if notwithstanding our e(am %e and our efforts3 the trum et of war shou%d sound3 and that war to which it ca%%s us shou%d $e a war of o inion3 why3 sti%% %et us stand together2 9ur friends3 in that day of conf%ict3 sha%% $e chosen from the most wise3 the most moderate3 and the most 4ust< nor3 whi%e we %ant the red cross of Eng%and $y the side of the stars and stri es of +merica3 do I for one instant dou$t that we sha%% %ea1e reco%%ections to our osterity worthy of those which we ha1e inherited from our ancestors2 "HE A6+5I"IES "H+" WIB 8; 0H+#5ES S6?BE# ?r2 President and 8rothers o Bew Eng%and:..For the first time in my %ife I ha1e the good fortune to en4oy this famous anni1ersary festi1a%2 "ho often honored $y your most tem ting in1itation3 and %onging to ce%e$rate the day in this good%y com any of which a%% ha1e heard so much3 I cou%d ne1er e(cuse myse%f from duties in another %ace2 If now I yie%d to we%%.&nown attractions3 and 4ourney from Washington for my first ho%iday during a rotracted u$%ic ser1ice3 it is $ecause a%% was enhanced $y the a ea% of your e(ce%%ent resident3 to whom I am $ound $y the friendshi of many years in 8oston3 in Bew ;or&3 and in a foreign %and2 P+ %ause2Q It is much to $e a $rother of Bew Eng%and3 $ut it is more to $e a friend Pa %auseQ3 and this tie I ha1e %easure in confessing to.night2 It is with much dou$t and humi%ity that I 1enture to answer for the Senate of the 6nited States3 and I $e%ie1e the %east I say on this head wi%% $e most rudent2 P5aughter2Q 8ut I sha%% $e entire%y safe in e( ressing my dou$t if there is a sing%e Senator who wou%d not $e g%ad of a seat at this generous $an@uet2 What is the SenateI It is a com onent art of the Bationa% *o1ernment2 8ut we ce%e$rate to.day more than any com onent art of any go1ernment2 We ce%e$rate an e och in the history of man&ind..not on%y ne1er to $e forgotten3 $ut to grow in grandeur as the wor%d a reciates the e%ements of true greatness2 9f man&ind I say..for the %anding on P%ymouth #oc&3 on /ecem$er 223 1'203 mar&s the origin of a new order of ages3 $y which the who%e human fami%y wi%% $e e%e1ated2 "hen and there was the great $eginning2 "hroughout a%% time3 from the dawn of history3 men ha1e swarmed to found new homes in distant %ands2 "he "yrians2 s&irting Borthern +frica3 sto t at 0arthage< 0arthaginians dotted S ain3 and e1en the distant coasts of 8ritain and Ire%and< *ree&s gemmed Ita%y and Sici%y with art.%o1ing sett%ements< #ome carried mu%titudinous co%onies with her con@uering eag%es2 Sa(ons3 /anes and Bormans 1io%ent%y ming%ed with the origina% 8ritons2 +nd in more modern times3 Fenice2 *enoa3 Portuga%3 S ain3 Prance3 and Eng%and3 a%% sent forth emigrants to eo %e foreign shores2 8ut in these 1arious e( editions3 trade or war was the im e%%ing moti1e2 "oo often commerce and con@uest mo1ed hand in hand3 and the co%ony was incarnadined with $%ood2 9n the day we ce%e$rate3 the sun for the first time in his course %oo&ed down u on a different scene3 $egun and continued under a different ins iration2 + few conscientious Eng%ishmen3 in

o$edience to the monitor within3 and that they might $e free to worshi *od according to their own sense of duty3 set sai% for the un&nown wi%ds of the Borth +merican continent2 +fter a 1oyage of si(ty.four days in the shi ?ayf%ower3 with 5i$erty at the row and 0onscience at the he%m Pa %auseQ3 they sighted the white sand$an&s of 0a e 0od3 and soon thereafter in the sma%% ca$in framed that $rief com act3 fore1er memora$%e3 which is the first written constitution of go1ernment in human history3 and the 1ery corner.stone of the +merican #e u$%ic< and then these Pi%grims %anded2 "his com act was on%y foremost in time3 it was a%so august in character3 and worthy of er etua% e(am %e2 Be1er $efore had the o$4ect of the Cci1i% $ody u$%icC $een announced as Cto enact3 constitute3 and frame such 4ust and e@ua% %aws and ordinances3 acts3 constitutions3 and offices from time to time as sha%% $e thought most meet and con1enient for the genera% good of the co%ony2C How %oftyH how trueH 6ndou$ted%y3 these were the grandest words of go1ernment with the %argest romise of any at that time uttered2 If more were needed to i%%ustrate the new e och3 it wou%d $e found in the arting words of the 1enera$%e astor3 7ohn #o$inson3 addrest to the Pi%grims3 as they were a$out to sai% from /e%fsha1en..words often @uoted3 yet ne1er enough2 How sweet%y and $eautifu%%y he says: C+nd if *od shou%d re1ea% anything to you $y any other instrument of his3 $e as ready to recei1e it as e1er you were to recei1e any truth $y my ministry< $ut I am confident that the 5ord hath more %ight and truth yet to $rea& forth out of his ho%y word2C +nd then how 4ust%y the good reacher re$u&es those who c%ose their sou%s to truthH C"he 5utherans3 for e(am %e3 can not $e drawn to go $eyond what 5uther saw3 and whate1er art of *od,s wi%% he hath further im arted to 0a%1in3 they wi%% rather die than em$race3 and so the 0a%1inists stic& where he %eft them2 "his is a misery much to $e %amented3 for tho they were recious3 shining %ights in their times3 *od hath not re1ea%ed his who%e wi%% to them2C 8eyond the merited re$u&e3 here is a %ain recognition of the %aw of human rogress %itt%e discerned at the time3 which teaches the sure ad1ance of the human fami%y3 and o ens the 1ista of the e1er.$roadening3 ne1er.ending future on earth2 9ur Pi%grims were few and oor2 "he who%e outfit of this historic 1oyage3 inc%uding O12700 of trading stoc&3 was on%y O234003 and how %itt%e was re@uired for their succor a ears in the e( erience of the so%dier3 0a tain ?i%es Standish3 who2 $eing sent to Eng%and for assistance Gnot mi%itary3 $ut financia%..=*od sa1e the mar&H>3 succeeded in $orrowing..how much do you su oseI..O1)0 ster%ing2 P5aughter2Q Something in the way of he% < and the historian adds3 Ctho at fifty er cent3 interest2C So much for a 1a%iant so%dier on a financia% e( edition2 P5aughter3 in which *enera% Sherman and the com any 4oined2 7 + %ater agent3 +%%erton3 was a$%e to $orrow for the co%ony O200 at a reduced interest of thirty er cent2 P%ain%y3 the money. shar&s of our day may trace an undou$ted edigree to these 5ondon merchants2 P5aughter2Q 8ut I &now not if any son of Bew Eng%and3 o rest $y e(or$itant interest3 wi%% $e conso%ed $y the thought that the Pi%grims aid the same2 +nd yet this sma%% eo %e..so o$scure and outcast in condition..so s%ender in num$ers and in means..so entire%y un&nown to the roud and great..so a$so%ute%y without name in contem orary records..whose de arture from the 9%d Wor%d too& %itt%e more than the $reath of their $odies ..are now i%%ustrious $eyond the %ot of men< and the ?ay. f%ower is immorta% $eyond the *recian +rgo3 or the state%y shi of any 1ictorious admira%2 "ho this was %itt%e foreseen in their day3 it is %ain now how it has come to ass2 "he highest greatness sur1i1ing time and storm is that which roceeds from the sou% of man2 P+ %ause2Q ?onarchs and

ca$inets3 genera%s and admira%s3 with the om of courts and the circumstance of war3 in the gradua% %a se of time disa ear from sight< $ut the ioneers of truth3 tho oor and %ow%y3 es ecia%%y those whose e(am %e e%e1ates human nature and teaches the rights of man3 so that go1ernment of the eo %e3 $y the eo %e3 and for the eo %e sha%% not erish from the earth Pgreat a %auseQ3 such har$ingers can ne1er $e forgotten3 and their renown s reads coe(tensi1e with the cause they ser1ed2 I &now not if any whom I now ha1e the honor of addressing ha1e thought to reca%% the great in ran& and ower fi%%ing the gaDe of the wor%d as the ?ayf%ower3 with her com any3 fared forth on their ad1enturous 1oyage2 "he foo%ish 7ames was yet on the Eng%ish throne3 g%orying that he had C e ered the Puritans2C "he morose 5ouis SIII3 through whom #iche%ieu ru%ed3 was Eing of France2 "he im$eci%e Phi%i III swayed S ain and the Indies2 "he ersecuting Ferdinand the Second3 tormentor of Protestants3 was Em eror of *ermany2 Pau% F3 of the House of 8orghese3 was Po e of #ome2 In the same rince%y com any3 and a%% contem oraries3 were 0hristian IF3 Eing of /en. mar&3 and his son 0hristian3 Prince of Borway< *usta1us +do% hus3 Eing of Sweden< Sigismund the "hird3 Eing of Po%and< Frederic&3 Eing of 8ohemia3 with his wife3 the unha y E%iDa$eth of Eng%and3 rogenitor of the House of Hano1er< *eorge Wi%%iam3 ?argra1e of 8randen$urg3 and the ancestor of the Prussian house that has gi1en an em eror to *ermany< ?a(imi%ian3 /u&e of 8a1aria< ?aurice3 5andgra1e of Hesse: 0hristian2 /u&e of 8runswic& and 5unen$urg< 7ohn Frederic&3 /u&e of Wiirtem$erg and "ec&< 7ohn3 0ount of Bassau< Henry3 /u&e of 5orraine: Isa$e%%a3 Infanta of S ain and ru%er of the 5ow 0ountries< ?aurice3 fourth Prince of 9range< 0har%es Emanue%3 /u&e of Sa1oy and ancestor of the Eing of 6nited Ita%y< 0osmo de ?edici3 third *rand /u&e of F%orence< +ntonio Priu%i3 ninety.third /oge of Fenice3 4ust after the terri$%e tragedy commemorated on the Eng%ish stage as CFenice Pre. ser1edC< 8eth%ehem *a$or3 Prince of 6nitarian "ransy%1ania3 and e%ected Eing of Hungary3 with the countenance of an +frican< and the Su%tan ?usta ha3 of 0onstantino %e3 twentieth ru%er of the "ur&s2 Such at that time were the crowned so1ereigns of Euro e3 whose names were mentioned a%ways with awe3 and whose countenances are handed down $y art3 so that at this day they are 1isi$%e to the curious as if they wa%&ed these streets2 ?ar& now the contrast2 "here was no artist for our forefathers3 2nor are their countenances now &nown to men< $ut more than any owerfu% contem oraries at whose tread the earth trem$%ed is their memory sacred2 P+ %ause2Q Po e3 em eror3 &ing3 su%tan3 grand.du&e3 du&e3 doge3 margra1e3 %andgra1e3 count..what are they a%% $y the side of the hum$%e com any that %anded on P%ymouth #oc&I "heirs3 indeed3 were the ensigns of wor%d%y ower3 $ut our Pi%grims had in themse%1es that in$orn 1irtue which was more than a%% e%se $esides3 and their %anding was an e och2 Who in the im osing troo of wor%d%y grandeur is now remem$ered with indifference or contem tI If I e(ce t *usta1us +do% hus3 it is $ecause he re1ea%ed a su erior character2 0onfront the ?ayf%ower and the Pi%grims with the otentates who occu ied such s ace in the wor%d2 "he former are ascending into the firmament3 there to shine fore1er3 whi%e the %atter ha1e $een %ong dro ing into the dar&ness of o$%i1ion3 to $e $rought forth on%y to oint a mora% or i%%ustrate the fame of contem oraries whom they regarded not2 P+ %ause2Q /o I err in su osing this an i%%ustration of the su remacy which $e%ongs to the trium hs of the mora% nature I +t first im eded or ost oned3 they at %ast re1ai%2 "heirs is a $rightness which3 $rea&ing through a%% c%ouds3 wi%% shine forth with e1er. increasing s %endor2

I ha1e often thought that if I were a reacher3 if I had the honor to occu y the u% it so grand%y fi%%ed $y my friend near me Pgracefu%%y inc%ining toward ?r2 8eecherQ3 one of my sermons shou%d $e from the te(t3 C+ %itt%e %ea1en sha%% %ea1en the who%e %um 2C Bor do I &now a $etter i%%ustration of these words than the inf%uence e(erted $y our Pi%grims2 "hat sma%% $and3 with the %esson of se%f. sacrifice3 of 4ust and e@ua% %aws3 of the go1ernment of a ma4ority of unshrin&ing %oya%ty to rinci %e3 is now %ea1ening this who%e continent3 and in the fu%ness of time wi%% %ea1en the wor%d2 P*reat a %ause2Q 8y their e(am %e3 re u$%ican institutions ha1e $een commended3 and in ro ortion as we imitate them wi%% these institutions $e assured2 P+ %ause2Q 5i$erty3 which we so much co1et3 is not a so%itary %ant2 +%ways $y its side is 7ustice2 P+ %ause2Q 8ut 7ustice is nothing $ut right a %ied to human affairs2 /o not forget3 I entreat you3 that with the highest mora%ity is the highest %i$erty2 + great oet3 in one of his ins ired sonnets3 s ea&ing of this rice%ess ossession3 has said3 C8ut who %o1es that must first $e wise and good2,, "herefore do the Pi%grims in their $eautifu% e(am %e teach %i$erty3 teach re u$%ican institutions3 as at an ear%ier day Socrates and P%ato3 in their %essons of wisdom3 taught %i$erty and he% ed the idea of the re u$%ic2 If re u$%ican go1ernment has thus far fai%ed in any e( eriment3 as3 erha s3 some. where in S anish +merica3 it is $ecause these %essons ha1e $een wanting2 "here ha1e $een no Pi%grims to teach the mora% %aw2 ?r2 President3 with these thoughts3 which I im erfect%y e( ress3 I confess my o$%igations to the forefathers of Bew Eng%and3 and offer to them the homage of a gratefu% heart2 8ut not in than&sgi1ing on%y wou%d I ce%e$rate their memory2 I wou%d if I cou%d ma&e their e(am %e a uni1ersa% %esson3 and stam it u on the %and2 P + %ause2 Q "he conscience which directed them shou%d $e the guide for our u$%ic counci%s2 "he 4ust and e@ua% %aws which they re@uired shou%d $e ordained $y us2 and the hos ita%ity to truth which was their ru%e shou%d $e ours2 Bor wou%d I forget their courage and stedfastness2 Had they turned $ac& or wa1ered3 I &now not what wou%d ha1e $een the record of this continent3 $ut I see c%ear%y that a great e(am %e wou%d ha1e $een %ost2 P+ %ause2Q Had 0o%um$us yie%ded to his mutinous crew and returned to S ain without his great disco1ery< had Washington shrun& away disheartened $y 8ritish ower and the snows of Bew 7ersey3 these great instances wou%d ha1e $een wanting for the encouragement of men2 8ut our Pi%grims $e%ong to the same heroic com any3 and their e(am %e is not %ess recious2 P+ %ause2Q 9n%y a short time after the %anding on P%ymouth #oc&3 the great re u$%ican oet3 7ohn ?i%ton3 wrote his C0osmus3C so wonderfu% for $eauty and truth2 His nature was more refined than that of the Pi%grims3 and yet it re@uires %itt%e effort of imagination to catch from one of them3 or at %east from their $e%o1ed astor3 the e(@uisite3 a%most ange%ic words at the c%oseG C?orta%s3 who wou%d fo%%ow me3 5o1e Firtue< she a%one is free< She can teach ye how to c%im$ Higher than the s hery chime2 9r if Firtue fee$%e were2 Hea1en itse%f wou%d stoo to her2C 8EH95/ "HE +?E#I0+B 8; "H9?+S /E WI"" "+5?+*E ?r2 President3 and +%% ;ou *ood Bew Eng%anders :.. If we %ea1e to the e1o%utionists to guess where we came from and to the theo%ogians to ro hesy where we are going to3 we sti%% ha1e %eft for consideration the fact that we are here< and we are here at an interesting time2 9f a%%

the centuries this is the $est century3 and of a%% the decades of the century this is the $est decade3 and of a%% the years of the decade this is the $est year3 and of a%% the months of the year this is the $est month3 and of a%% the nights of the month this is the $est night2 P+ %ause and %aughter2 Q ?any of these ad1antages we trace straight $ac& to Forefathers, /ay3 a$out which 1 am to s ea&2 8ut I must not introduce a new ha$it into these Bew Eng%and dinners and confine myse%f to the one theme2 For eighty.one years your s ea&ers ha1e $een accustomed to ma&e the toast announced the oint from which they start3 $ut to which they ne1er return2 P5aughter2Q So I sha%% not stic& to my te(t3 $ut on%y $e articu%ar to ha1e a%% I say my own3 and not ma&e the mista&e of a minister whose sermon was a atchwor& from a 1ariety of authors3 to whom he ga1e no credit2 "here was an into(icated wag in the audience who had read a$out e1erything3 and he announced the authors as the minister went on2 "he c%ergyman ga1e an e(tract without any credit to the author3 and the man in the audience cried out: C"hat,s 7eremy "ay%or2C "he s ea&er went on and ga1e an e(tract from another author without credit for it3 and the man in the audience said: C "hat is 7ohn CWes%ey2C "he minister ga1e an e(tract from another author without credit for it3 and the man in the audience said: C"hat is *eorge White fie%d2C When the minister %ost his atience and cried out3 ,, Shut u 3 you o%d foo%H,, the man in the audience re %ied: C"hat is your own2C P5aughter2Q We%%3 what a$out this Forefathers, /ayI In 8roo&%yn they say the 5anding of the Pi%grims was /ecem$er the 21st< in Bew ;or& you say it was /ecem$er 22d2 ;ou are $oth right2 Bot through the s ecious and artfu% reasoning you ha1e sometimes indu%ged in3 $ut $y a %itt%e historica% incident that seems to ha1e esca ed your attention2 ;ou see3 the Forefathers %anded in the morning of /ecem$er the 21st3 $ut a$out noon that day a ac& of hungry wo%1es swe t down the $%ea& +merican $each %oo&ing for a Bew Eng%and dinner P%aughterQ3 and a $and of sa1ages out for a tomahaw& icnic ho1e in sight3 and the Pi%grim Fathers thought it $est for safety and warmth to go on $oard the ?ayf%ower and ass the night2 P#enewed %aughter2Q +nd during the night there came u a strong wind $%owing off shore that swe t the ?ayf%ower from its moorings c%ear out to sea3 and there was a ros ect that our Forefathers3 ha1ing esca ed o ression in foreign %ands3 wou%d yet go down under an oceanic tem est2 8ut the ne(t day they fortunate%y got contro% of their shi and steered her in3 and the second time the Forefathers ste t ashore2 8roo&%yn ce%e$rated the first %anding< Bew ;or& the second %anding2 So I say3 Hai%H Hai%H to $oth ce%e$rations3 for one day3 anyhow3 cou%d not do 4ustice to such a su$4ect< and I on%y wish I cou%d ha1e &issed the $%arney stone of +merica3 which is P%ymouth #oc&3 so that I might ha1e done 4ustice to this su$4ect2 P5aughter and a %ause2Q +h3 gent%emen3 that ?ayf%ower was the ar& that f%oated the de%uge of o ression3 and P%ymouth #oc& was the +rarat on which it %anded2 8ut %et me say that these Forefathers were of no more im ortance than the Foremothers2 P+ %ause2Q +s I understand it3 there were eight of them..that is3 four fathers and four mothers..from whom a%% these i%%ustrious Bew Eng%anders descended2 Bow3 I was not $orn in Bew Eng%and3 tho far $ac& my ancestors %i1ed in 0onnecticut2 and then crossed o1er to 5ong Is%and and there 4oined the /utch3 and that mi(ture of ;an&ee and /uteh ma&es roya% $%ood2 P+ %ause2Q Beither is erfect without the other3 the ;an&ee in a man,s nature saying2 C*o aheadHC the

/utch in his $%ood saying3 C8e rudent whi%e you do go aheadH,, Some eo %e do not understand why 5ong Is%and was stretched a%ong ara%%e% with a%% of the 0onnecticut coast2 I ha1e no dou$t that it was so %aced that the /utch might watch the ;an&ees2 P5aughter2Q 8ut tho not $orn in Bew Eng%and3 in my $oyhood I had a Bew Eng%and schoo%master3 whom I sha%% ne1er forget2 He taught us our +3 83 0 ,s2 C What is that IC C I don,t &now3 sir2C C"hat,s +C Pwith a s%a Q2 CWhat is thatIC CI don,t &now3 sir2C PWith a s%a Q2 C"hat is 82C P5aughter2Q I te%% you3 a $oy that %earned his %etters in that way ne1er forgot them< and if the $oy was articu%ar%y du%%3 then this Bew Eng%and schoo%master wou%d ta&e him o1er the &nee3 and then the $oy got his information from $oth directions2 P#enewed %aughter2Q 8ut a%% these things aside3 no one sitting at these ta$%es has higher admiration for the Pi%grim Fathers than I ha1e ..the men who $e%ie1ed in two great doctrines3 which are the foundation of e1ery re%igion that is worth anything: name%y3 the fatherhood of *od and the $rotherhood of man..these men of $ac&$one and endowed with that great and magnificent attri$ute of stic&. to.it.i1eness2 ?acau%ay said that no one e1er sneered at the Puritans who had met them in ha%%s of de$ate3 or crossed swords with them on the fie%d of $att%e2 P+ %ause2Q "hey are sometimes defamed for their rigorous Sa$$aths3 $ut our danger is in the o osite direction of no Sa$$aths at a%%2 It is said that they destroyed witches2 I wish that they had c%eared them a%% out3 for the wor%d is fu%% of witches yet3 and if at a%% these ta$%es there is a man who has not sometimes $een $ewitched3 %et him ho%d u his g%ass of ice.water2 P5aughter2Q It is said that these Forefathers carried re%igion into e1erything3 and $efore a man &issed his wife he as&ed a $%essing3 and afterward said: CHa1ing recei1ed another fa1or from the 5ord3 %et us return than&s2C P5aughter2Q 8ut our great need now is more re%igion in e1ery.day %ife2 I thin& their %ain diet had much to do with their ruggedness of nature2 "hey had not as many good things to eat as we ha1e3 and they had $etter digestion2 Bow3 a%% the e1ening some of our $est men sit with an awfu%%y $ad fee%ing at the its of their stomachs3 and the food ta&en fai%s to assimi%ate3 and in the agitated digesti1e organs the %am$ and the cow %ie down together and get u 4ust as they ha1e a mind to2 P5aughter2Q +fter dinner I sat down with my friend to ta%&2 He had for many years $een trou$%ed with indigestion2 I fe%t gui%ty when I insisted on his ta&ing that %ast iece of %emon ie2 I &new that astry a%ways made him crusty2 I said to him: CI ne1er fe%t $etter in a%% my %ife< how do you fee%IC +nd utting one hand o1er one iece of %emon ie and the other hand o1er the other iece of %emon ie3 he said: CI fee% misera$%e2C Sma%%er 1arieties of food had the o%d Fathers3 $ut it did them more good2 Sti%%3 ta&e it a%% in a%%3 I thin& the descendants of the Pi%grim Fathers are as good as their ancestors3 and in many ways $etter2 0hi%dren are a t to $e an echo of their ancestors2 We are a t to ut a ha%o around the Forefathers3 $ut I e( ect that at our age they were 1ery much %i&e ourse%1es2 Peo %e are not wise when they %ong for the good o%d days2 "hey say: C7ust thin& of the ride of eo %e at this dayH 7ust %oo& at the %adies, hatsHC P5aughter2Q Why3 there is nothing in the %adies, hats of to.day e@ua% to the coa%.scutt%e hats a hundred years ago2 "hey say: C7ust %oo& at the way eo %e dress their hairHC Why3 the e(tremest sty%e of today wi%% not e@ua% the to .&nots which our great.grandmothers wore3 ut u with high com$s that we shou%d thin& wou%d ha1e made our great.grandfathers die with %aughter2 "he hair was %ifted into a yramid a foot high2 9n the to of that tower %ay a white rose2 Shoes of $es ang%ed white &id3 and hee%s two or three inches high2 *randfather went out to meet her on the f%oor with a coat of s&y.$%ue si%&3 and 1est of white satin3 em$roidered with go%d %ace3 %ace ruff%es around his wrist3 and his hair f%ung in a @ueue2 "he great *eorge Washington had his horse,s hoofs

$%ac&ened when a$out to a ear on a arade3 and writes to Euro e3 ordering sent for the use of himse%f and fami%y3 one si%1er.%ace hat3 one air of si%1er shoe.$uc&%es3 a coat made of fashiona$%e si%&3 one air of go%d s%ee1e.$uttons3 si( airs of &id g%o1es3 one doDen most fashiona$%e cam$ric oc&et.hand&erchiefs3 $esides ruff%es and tuc&er2 "hat was *eorge2 P5aughter2Q "a%& a$out dissi ations3 ye who ha1e e1er seen the o%d.fashioned side$oardH /id I not ha1e an o%d re%ati1e who a%ways3 when 1isitors came3 used to go u stairs and ta&e a drin&3 through economica% ha$its3 not offering anything to his 1isitorsI P5aughter2Q 9n the o%d.fashioned training days the most so$er men were a t to ta&e a day to themse%1es2 ?any of the fami%iar drin&s of today were un&nown to them3 $ut their hard eider3 mint 4u%e 3 metheg%in3 hot todd4.3 and %emonade in which the %emon was not at a%% rominent3 sometimes made %i1e%y wor& for the $road. $rimmed hats and si%1er &nee.$uc&%es2 "a%& of dissi ating arties of to.day and &ee ing of %ate hoursH Why3 did they not ha1e their C$eesC and sausage.stuffings and tea. arties and dances3 that for heartiness and u roar utter%y ec%i sed a%% the wa%tDes3 %anciers3 redowas3 and $rea&downs of the nineteenth century3 and they ne1er went home ti%% morning2 +s to the o%d.time courtshi s3 oh3 myH Washington Ir1ing descri$es them2 P5aughter2Q 8ut tho your Forefathers may not ha1e $een much3 if any3 $etter than yourse%1es3 %et us e(to% them for the fact that they started this country in the right direction2 "hey %aid the foundation for +merican manhood2 "he foundation must $e more so%id and firm and unyie%ding than any other art of the structure2 9n that Puritanic foundation we can safe%y $ui%d a%% nationa%ities2 P+ %ause2Q 5et us remem$er that the coming +merican is to $e an admi(ture of a%% foreign $%oods2 In a$out twenty.fi1e or fifty years the mode% +merican wi%% ste forth2 He wi%% ha1e the strong $rain of the *erman3 the o%ished manners of the French3 the artistic taste of the Ita%ian3 the stanch heart of the Eng%ish3 the steadiest iety of the Scotch3 the %ightning wit of the Irish3 and when he ste s forth3 $one3 musc%e3 ner1e3 $rain entwined with the fi$ers of a%% nationa%ities3 the nations wi%% $rea& out in the cry: C8eho%d the +mericanHC P+ %ause2Q 0o%um$us disco1ered on%y the she%% of this country2 +gassiD came and disco1ered fossi%iferous +merica2 Si%%iman came and disco1ered geo%ogica% +merica2 +udu$on came and disco1ered $ird +merica2 5ongfe%%ow came and disco1ered oetic +merica< and there are a ha%f.doDen other +mericas yet to $e disco1ered2 I ne1er rea%iDed what this country was and is3 as on the day when I first saw some of these Cgent%emen of the army and na1y2 It was when3 at the c%ose of the war3 our armies came $ac& and marched in re1iew $efore the President,s stand at Washington2 I do not care whether a man was a #e u$%ican or a /emocrat3 a Borthern man or a Southern man3 if he had any emotion of nature3 he cou%d not %oo& u on it without wee ing2 *od &new that the day was stu endous3 and He dec%ared the hea1en of c%oud and mist and chi%%3 and s rung the $%ue s&y as the trium ha% arch for the returning warriors to ass under2 From +r%ington Heights the s ring fo%iage shoo& out its we%come3 as the hosts came o1er the hi%%s3 and the s ar&%ing waters of the Potomac tossed their go%d to the feet of the $atta%ions as they came to the 5ong 8ridge3 and in a%most intermina$%e %ine assed o1er2 "he 0a ito% ne1er seemed so mayestic as that morning: snowy white3 %oo&ing down u on the tides of men that came surging down3 $i%%ow after $i%%ow2 Passing in si%ence3 yet I heard in e1ery ste the thunder of conf%icts through which they had waded3 and seemed to see dri ing from their smo&e.$%ac&ened f%ags the $%ood of our country,s martyrs2 For the $est art of two days we stood and watched the fi%ing on of what seemed end%ess $atta%ions3 $rigade after $rigade3 di1ision after di1ision3 host after

host3 ran& $eyond ran&< e1er mo1ing3 e1er assing < marching3 marching< tram 3 tram 3 tram Gthousands after thousands3 $attery front3 arms shou%dered3 co%umns so%id3 shou%der to shou%der3 whee% to whee%3 charger to charger3 nostri% to nostri%2 0ommanders on horses with their manes entwined with roses3 and nec&s enchained with gar%ands3 fractious at the shouts that ran a%ong the %ine3 increasing from the c%a ing of chi%dren c%othed in white3 standing on the ste s of the 0a ito%3 to the tumu%tuous 1ociferation of hundreds of thousands of enra tured mu%titudes3 crying CHuDDaH HuDDaHC *%eaming mus&ets3 thundering ar&s of arti%%ery3 rum$%ing ontoon wagons3 am$u%ances from whose whee%s seemed to sound out the groans of the crusht and the dying that they had carried2 "hese men came from $a%my ?innesota3 those from I%%inois rairies2 "hese were often hummed to s%ee $y the ines of 9regon3 those were Bew Eng%and %um$ermen2 "hose came out of the coa%. shafts of Pennsy%1ania2 Side $y side in one great cause3 consecrated through fire and storm and dar&ness3 $rothers in eri%3 on their way home from 0hance%%ors1i%%e and Eenesaw ?ountain and Frederie&s$urg3 in %ines that seemed infinite they assed on2 We gaDed and we t and wondered3 %ifting u our heads to see if the end had come3 $ut noH 5oo&ing from one end of that %ong a1enue to the other3 we saw them yet in so%id co%umn3 $attery front3 host $eyond host3 whee% to whee%3 charger to charger3 nostri% to nostri%3 coming as it were from under the 0a ito%2 ForwardH ForwardH "heir $ayonets3 caught in the sun3 g%immered and f%ashed and $%aDed3 ti%% they seemed %i&e one %ong ri1er of si%1er3 e1er and anon changed into a ri1er of fire2 Bo end to the rocession3 no rest for the eye2 We turned our heads from the scene3 una$%e %onger to %oo&2 We fe%t dis osed to sto our ears3 $ut sti%% we heard it3 marching3 marching< tram 3 tram 3 tram 2 8ut hush..unco1er e1ery headH Here they ass3 the remnant of ten men of a fu%% regiment2 Si%enceH Widowhood and or hanage %oo& on and wring their hands2 8ut whee% into %ine3 a%% ye eo %eH Borth3 South3 East3 West..a%% decades3 a%% centuries3 a%% mi%%enniumsH Forward3 the who%e %ineH HuDDaH HuDDaH P*reat a %ause2Q

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W+SHIB*"9B,S IB+6*6#+"I9B 8; 0H+6B0E; ?2 /EPEW We ce%e$rate today the centenary of our nationa%ity2 9ne hundred years ago the 6nited States $egan their e(istence2 "he owers of the go1ernment were assumed $y the eo %e of the #e u$%ic3 and they $egan to $e the so%e source of authority2 "he so%emn ceremonia% of the first inauguration3 the re1erent oath of Washington3 the acc%aim of the mu%titude greeting their President3 mar&ed the most uni@ue e1ent of modern times in the de1e%o ment of free institutions2 Bo man e1er stood for so much to his country and to man&ind as *eorge Washington2 Hami%ton3 7efferson3 and +dams3 ?adison3 and 7ay3 each re resented some of the e%ements which formed the 6nion2 Washington em$odied them a%%2 "hey fe%% at times under o u%ar disa ro1a%3 were $urned in effigy3 were stoned< $ut he3 with unerring 4udgment3 was a%ways the %eader of the eo %e2 ?i%ton said of 0romwe%%3 that Cwar made him great3 eace greater2C "he su eriority of Washington,s character and genius was more cons icuous in the formation of our go1ernment and in utting it on indestructi$%e foundations3 than in %eading armies to 1ictory and con@uering the inde endence of his country2 He ins ired the mo1ement for the #e u$%ic3 was the President and dominant s irit of the con1ention which framed its 0onstitution3 and its President for eight years3 and guided its course unti% satisfied that mo1ing safe%y a%ong the $road highway of time3 it wou%d $e sure%y ascending toward the first %ace among the nations of the wor%d3 the asy%um of the o rest3 the home of the free2 We stand to.day u on the di1iding %ine $etween the first and second century of constitutiona% go1ernment2 "here are no c%ouds o1erhead3 and no con1u%sions under our feet2 We re1erent%y return than&s to the +%mighty *od for the ast3 and with confident and with ho efu% romise march u on sure ground toward the future2 "he sim %e facts of these hundred years ara%yDe the imagination3 and we con. tem %ate the 1ast accumu%ations of the century with awe and ride2 9ur o u%ation has grown from four to si(ty.fi1e mi%%ions2 Its center mo1ing westward fi1e hundred mi%es since 17!-3 is e%o@uent with the founding of cities and the $irth of States2 Bew sett%ements3 c%earing the forests and su$duing the rairies3 and adding four mi%%ions to the few thousands of farms which were the su ort of Washington,s #e u$%ic3 create one of the great granaries of the wor%d3 and o en e(haust%ess reser1oirs of nationa% wea%th2 "he infant industries3 which the first act of our administration sought to encourage3 now gi1e remunerati1e em %oyment to more eo %e than inha$ited the #e u$%ic at the $eginning of Washington,s residency2 "he grand tota% of their annua% out ut of se1en thousand mi%%ions of do%%ars in 1a%ue %aces the 6nited States first among the manufacturing countries of the earth2 9ne.ha%f of a%% the rai%roads3 and one.@uarter of a%% the te%egra h %ines of the wor%d within our $orders3 testify to the 1o%ume3 1ariety3 and 1a%ue of an interna% commerce which ma&es these States3 if need $e3 inde endent and se%f.su orting2 "hese hundred years of de1e%o ment under fa1ora$%e o%itica% conditions3 ha1e $rought the sum of our nationa% wea%th to a figure which is ast the resu%ts of a thousand years for the mother %and3 herse%f otherwise the richest of modern em ires2

/uring this generation a ci1i% war of une@ua%ed magnitude caused the e( enditure and %oss of eight thousand mi%%ions of do%%ars3 and &i%%ed si( hundred thousand and ermanent%y disa$%ed o1er a mi%%ion young men< and yet the im etuous rogress of the Borth3 and the mar1e%ous industria% de1e%o ment of the new and free South3 ha1e o$%iterated the e1idences of destruction and made the war a memory3 and ha1e stimu%ated roduction unti% our annua% sur %us near%y e@ua%s that of Eng%and3 France3 and *er. many3 com$ined2 "he teeming mi%%ions of +sia ti%% the atient soi% and wor& the shutt%e and %oom as their fathers ha1e done for ages< modern Euro e has fe%t the inf%uence and recei1ed the $enefit of the inca%cu%a$%e mu%ti %ication of force $y in1enti1e genius since the Ba o%eonic wars< and yet3 on%y two hundred and ,si(ty.nine years after the %itt%e $and of Pi%grims %anded on P%ymouth #oc&3 our eo %e3 num$ering %ess than one.fifteenth of the inha$itants of the g%o$e3 do one.third of its mining3 one.fourth of its manufacturing3 one.fifth of its agricu%ture3 and own one.si(th of its wea%th2 Bo crisis has $een too eri%ous for its owers3 no e1o%ution too ra id for its ada tation3 and no e( ansion $eyond its easy gras and administration2 It has assimi%ated di1erse nationa%ities with warring traditions3 customs3 conditions and %anguages im$ued them with its s irit and won their assionate %oya%ty and %o1e2 "he f%ower of the youth of the nations of 0ontinenta% Euro e are conscri ted from roducti1e industries and dri%%ing in cam s2 Fast armies stand in $att%e array a%ong the frontiers3 and a Eaiser,s whim or a minister,s mista&e may reci itate the most destructi1e war of modern times2 8ut for us no army e(hausts our resources nor consumes our youth2 9ur na1y must needs increase in order that the rotecting f%ag may fo%%ow the e( anding commerce which is to successfu%%y com ete in a%% the mar&ets of the wor%d2 "he sun of our destiny is sti%% rising3 and its rays i%%umine 1ast territories as yet unoccu ied and unde1e%o ed3 and which are to $e the ha y homes of mi%%ions of eo %e2 "he s irit of Washington fi%%s the e(ecuti1e office2 Presidents may not rise to the fu%% measure of his greatness3 $ut they must not fa%% $e%ow his standard of u$%ic duty and o$%igation2 His %ife and character3 conscientious%y studied and thorough%y understood $y coming generations3 wi%% $e for them a %i$era% education for ri1ate %ife and u$%ic station3 for citiDenshi and atriotism3 for %o1e and de1otion to 6nion and %i$erty2 With their ins iring ast and s %endid resent3 the eo %e of these 6nited States3 heirs of a hundred years3 mar1e%ous%y rich in a%% which adds to the g%ory and greatness of a nation3 with an a$iding trust in the sta$i%ity and e%asticity of their 0onstitution3 and an a$ounding faith in themse%1es3 hai% the coming century with ho e and 4oy2 "HE 6BFEI5IB* 9F "HE S"+"6E 9F #6F6S 0H9+"E 8; 79SEPH H2 0H9+"E I deem it a 1ery great honor to ha1e $een in1ited $y the Suffo%& 8ar +ssociation to ta&e art on this occasion in honor of him who sti%% stands as one of the most $ri%%iant ornaments of the +merican 8ar in its anna%s of two centuries2 8earing his name and %ineage3 and owing to him3 as I do3 more than to any other man or men..to his e(am %e and ins iration3 to his sym athy

and he% ing hand..what. e1er success has attended my own rofessiona% efforts3 I cou%d not refuse the in1itation to come here today to the dedication of this statue3 which sha%% stand for centuries to come3 and con1ey to the generations who &new him not some idea of the figure and the features of #ufus 0hoate2 Beither $ronDe nor mar$%e can do him 4ustice2 Bot #em$randt himse%f cou%d re roduce the man as we &new and %o1ed him..for unti% he %ay u on his death.$ed he was a%% action3 the Cno$%e3 di1ine3 god%i&e actionC of the orator.. and the sti%% %ife of art cou%d ne1er re resent him as he was2 It is forty years since he strode these ancient streets with his mayestic ste ..forty years since the mar1e%ous music of his 1oice was heard $y the %i1ing ear..and those of us who3 as students and youthfu% disci %es3 fo%%owed his footste s3 and %istened to his e%o@uence3 and a%most worshi ed his resence3 whose idea% and ido% he was3 are a%ready many years o%der than he %i1ed to $e< $ut there must $e a few sti%% %i1ing3 and resent here to.day3 who were in the admiring crowds that hung with ra ture on his %i s..in the courts of 4ustice3 in the dense%y ac&ed assem$%y3 in the Senate3 in the 0onstitutiona% 0on1ention3 or in Faneui% Ha%%3 consecrated to Freedom..and who can sti%% reca%%3 among %ife,s most cherished memories3 the tones of that match%ess 1oice3 that a%%id face i%%uminated with rare inte%%igence3 the f%ashing g%ance of his dar& eye3 and the %ight of his $ewitching smi%e2 8ut3 in a decade or two more3 these %ingering witnesses of his g%ory and his trium hs wi%% ha1e assed on3 and to the ne(t generation he wi%% $e $ut a name and a statue3 enshrined in fame,s tem %e with 0icero and 8ur&e3 with 9tis and Hami%ton and We$ster3 with Pin&ney and Wirt3 whose words and thoughts he %o1ed to study and to master2 ?any a noted orator3 many a great %awyer3 has $een %ost in o$%i1ion in forty years after the gra1e c%osed o1er him3 $ut I 1enture to $e%ie1e that the 8ar of Suffo%&3 ay3 the who%e 8ar of +merica3 and the eo %e of ?assachusetts3 ha1e &e t the memory of no other man a%i1e and green so %ong3 so 1i1id%y and so %o1ing%y3 as that of #ufus 0hoate2 ?any of his characteristic utterances ha1e $e. come ro1er$ia%3 and the f%ashes of his wit3 the %ay of his fancy3 and the gorgeous ictures of his imagination are the constant themes of reminiscence3 where1er +merican %awyers assem$%e for socia% con1erse2 How it was that such an e(otic nature3 so ardent and tro ica% in a%% its manifestations3 so tru%y southern and Ita%ian in its im u%ses3 and at the same time so ro$ust and sturdy in its strength3 cou%d ha1e $een roduced u on the $%ea& and $arren soi% of our northern ca e3 and nurtured under the chi%%ing $%asts of its east winds3 is a mystery inso%u$%e2 "ru%y3 Cthis is the 5ord,s doing3 and it is mar1e%ous in our eyes2C In one of his s eeches in the Senate3 he draws the distinction $etween Cthe coo% and s%ow Bew Eng%and men3 and the mercuria% chi%dren of the sun3 who sat down side $y side in the resence of Washington3 to form our more erfect union2C If e1er there was a mercifu% chi%d of the sun3 it was himse%f3 most ha i%y descri$ed2 I am one of those who $e%ie1e that the stuff that a man is made of has more to do with his career than any education or en1ironment2 "he greatness that is achie1ed3 or is thrust u on some men3 dwind%es $efore that of him who is $orn great2 His horosco e was ro itious2 "he stars in their courses fought for him2 "he $irthmar& of genius3 distinct and ineffacea$%e3 was on his $row2 He came of a %ong %ine of ious and de1out ancestors3 whose %i1ing was as %ain as their thin&ing was high2 It was from father and mother that he deri1ed the f%ame of inte%%ect3 the g%ow of s irit3 and the $eauty of tem erament that were so uni@ue2 His s %endid and $%aDing inte%%ect3 fed and enriched $y constant study of the $est thoughts of the great minds of the race3 his a%%. ersuasi1e e%o@uence3 his teeming and radiant imagination3 whir%ing his hearers a%ong with it3 and sometimes o1er owering himse%f3 his $ri%%iant and s orti1e fancy3 %ighting u the most arid su$4ects with the g%ow of sunrise3 his

rodigious and ne1er.fai%ing memory3 and his %ayfu% wit3 a%ways $ursting forth with irresisti$%e im u%se3 ha1e $een the su$4ect of scores of essays and criticisms3 a%% strugg%ing with the 1ain effort to descri$e and crysta%%iDe the fascinating and magica% charm of his s eech and his inf%uence2 8ut the occasion and the %ace remind me that here today we ha1e chief%y to do with him as a %awyer and an ad1ocate3 and a%% that I sha%% resume 1ery $rief%y to suggest is what this statue wi%% mean to the coming generations of %awyers and citiDens2 +nd first3 and far a$o1e his s %endid ta%ents and his trium hant e%o@uence3 I wou%d %ace the character of the man.. ure3 honest3 de%i1ered a$so%ute%y from a%% the tem tations of sordid and mercenary things3 as iring dai%y to what was higher and $etter3 %oathing a%% that was 1u%gar and of %ow re ute3 sim %e as a chi%d3 and tender and sym athetic as a woman2 Emerson most tru%y says that character is far a$o1e inte%%ect3 and this man,s character sur assed e1en his e(a%ted inte%%ect3 and3 contro%%ing a%% his great endowments3 made the consummate $eauty of his %ife2 I &now of no greater tri$ute e1er aid to a successfu% %awyer than that which he recei1ed from 0hief 7ustice Shaw..himse%f an august and serene ersona%ity3 a$so%ute%y fami%iar with his dai%y wa%& and con1ersation..in his account of the effort that was made to induce ?r2 0hoate to gi1e u his acti1e and e(hausting ractise3 and to ta&e the %ace of rofessor in the Har1ard 5aw Schoo%3 made 1acant $y the death of ?r2 7ustice Story..an effort of which the 0hief 7ustice3 as a mem$er of the cor oration of Har1ard3 was the rinci a% romoter2 +fter referring to him then3 in 1!473 as Cthe %eader of the 8ar in e1ery de artment of forensic e%o@uence3C and dwe%%ing u on the great ad1antages which wou%d accrue to the schoo% from the rofound %ega% %earning which he ossest3 he said: CIn the case of ?r2 0hoate3 it was considered @uite indis ensa$%e that he shou%d reside in 0am$ridge3 on account of the inf%uence which his genia% manners3 his ha$itua% resence3 and the force of his character3 wou%d $e %i&e%y to e(ert o1er the young men3 drawn from e1ery art of the 6nited States to %isten to his instructions2C What richer tri$ute cou%d there $e to ersona% and rofessiona% worth than such words from such %i sI He was the fit man to mo%d the characters of the youth3 not of the city or the State on%y3 $ut of the who%e nation2 So %et the statue stand as notice to a%% who see& to enter here3 that the first re@uisite of true renown in our no$%e rofession..renown not for a day or a %ife on%y3 $ut for generations..is 0haracter2 ?E?9#I+5 /+; 8; 79HB /2 59B*2 I gratefu%%y ac&now%edge your courtesy3 1eterans and mem$ers of the Suffo%& osts of the *rand +rmy3 in in1iting me3 a ci1i%ian3 to s ea& for you this day2 I shou%d shrin& from the tas&3 howe1er3 did I not &now that3 in this2 your ur ose is to honor again the commonwea%th3 of which I am the officia% re resentati1e2 8y recent enactment she has made the day you ce%e$rate one of her ho%y daysGa day sacred to the memory of her atriot dead and to the ins iration of atriotism in her %i1ing2 Henceforward3 she em$%aDons it u on the ca%endar of the year with the consecrated days that ha1e come down from the Pi%grim and the Puritan3 with 0hristmas day and with the $irthdays of Washington and +merican inde endence2 ?emoria% day wi%% hereafter gather around it not on%y the %o1e and tears and ride of the generations of the eo %e3 $ut more and more3 in its inner circ%e of tenderness3 the %in&ing memories of e1ery comrade3 so %ong as one sur1i1es2 +s the dawn ushers it in3 tinged a%ready with the e(@uisite

f%ush of hastening 7une3 and sweet with the $ursting fragrance of her roses3 the whee%s of time wi%% each year ro%% $ac& %o and %oH 7ohn +ndrew is at the State house3 ins iring ?assachusetts with the thro$$ing of his own great heart< +$raham 5inco%n3 wise and atient3 and honest and tender and true3 is at the nation,s he%m< the Borth is one $road $%aDe: the $oys in $%ue are marching to the front< the %ife and drum are on e1ery $reeDe< the 1ery air is atriotism: Phi% Sheridan3 forty mi%es away3 dashes $ac& to turn defeat to 1ictory< Fraught2 %ash to the mast.head3 is steaming into ?o$i%e Har$or< Hoo&er is a$o1e the c%ouds< Sherman marches through *eorgia to the sea< *rant has thrott%ed 5ee with the gri that ne1er %ets go< #ichmond fa%%s< the armies of the #e u$%ic ass in that %ast great re1iew at Washington: 9uster,s %ume is there3 $ut Eearney,s sadd%e is em ty< and3 now again3 our 1eterans come marching home to recei1e the we%come of a gratefu% eo %e3 and to stac& at /oric Ha%% the tattered f%ag which ?assachusetts fore1er hence sha%% wear a$o1e her heart2 In memory of the dead3 in honor of the %i1ing3 for ins iration to our chi%dren3 we gather today to dec& the gra1es of our atriots with f%owers3 to %edge commonwea%th and town and citiDens to fresh recognition of the sur1i1ing so%dier3 and to icture yet again the romance3 the rea%ity3 the g%ory3 the sacrifice of his ser1ice2 +s if it were $ut yesterday3 you reca%% him2 He had $ut turned twenty2 "he e(@uisite tint of youthfu% hea%th was in his chee&2 His ure heart shone from fran&3 outs ea&ing eyes2 His fair hair c%ustered from $eneath his ca 2 He had u%%ed a stout oar in the co%%ege race3 or wa%&ed the most gracefu% ath%ete on the 1i%%age green2 He had 4ust entered on the 1ocation of his %ife2 "he doorway of his home at this season of the year was $ri%%iant in the dewy morn with the c%am$ering 1ine and fragrant f%ower3 as in and out he went3 the $e%o1ed of mother and sisters3 and the idea% of a Bew Eng%and youth: CIn face and shou%ders %i&e a god he was< For o,er him had the goddess $reathed the charm 9f youthfu% %oc&s3 the ruddy g%ow of youth2 + generous g%adness in his eyes: such grace +s car1ers hand to i1ory gi1es3 or when Si%1er or Parian stone in ye%%ow go%d Is set2C +nd when the drum $eat3 when the first martyr,s $%ood s rin&%ed the stones of 8a%timore3 he too& his %ace in the ran&s and went forward2 ;ou remem$er his ingenious and g%owing %etters to his mother3 written as if his en were di t in his 1ery heart2 How no1e% seemed to him the routine of ser1ice3 the %ife of cam and marchH How eager the wish to meet the enemy and stri&e his first $%ow for the good causeH What ride at the romotion that came and ut its che1ron on his arm or its stra u on his shou%dersH "hey too& him risoner2 He wasted in 5i$$y and grew gaunt and haggard with the horror of his sufferings3 and with ity for the greater horror of the sufferings of his comrades who fainted and died at his side2 He tunne%ed the earth and esca ed2 Hungry and wea&3 in terror of reca ture3 he fo%%owed $y night the athway of the rai%. road2 He s%e t in thic&ets and san& in swam s2 He saw the g%itter of horsemen who ursued him2 He &new the $%oodhound was on his trac&2 He reached the %ine< and3 with his hand gras ing at freedom3 they caught and too& him $ac& to his ca ti1ity2 He was e(changed at %ast< and2 you remem$er3 when he came home on a short fur%ough3 how man%y and war.worn he had grown2 8ut he soon returned to the ran&s3 and to the we%come of his comrades2 "hey reca%% him now a%i&e with tears and ride2 In the rif%e. its around Peters$urg you heard his steady 1oice and firm command2 Some one

who saw him then fancied that he seemed that day %i&e one who forefeet the end2 8ut there was no f%inching as he charged2 He had 4ust turned to gi1e a cheer when the fata% $a%% struc& him2 "here was a con1u%sion of the u ward hand2 His eyes3 %eading and %oya%3 turned their %ast g%ance to the f%ag2 His %i s arted2 He fe%% dead3 and at nightfa%% %ay with his face to the stars2 Home they $rought him3 fairer than +donis o1er whom the goddess of $eauty we t2 "hey $uried him in the 1i%%age churchyard3 under the green turf2 ;ear $y year his comrades and his &in3 nearer than comrades3 scattered his gra1e with f%owers2 /o you as& who he wasI He was in e1ery regiment and e1ery com any2 He went out from e1ery ?assachusetts 1i%%age2 He s%ee s in e1ery ?assachusetts $urying.ground2 #eca%% romance3 recite the names of heroes of %egend and song3 $ut there is none that is his eer2 "HE 5+B/IB* +" P5;?96"H 8; /+BIE5 WE8S"E# Sir3 I must say a word in connection with that e1ent which we ha1e assem$%ed to commemorate2 It has seemed fit to dwe%%ers in Bew ;or&3 Bew Eng%anders $y $irth or descent3 to form this society2 "hey ha1e formed it for the re%ief of the oor and distrest3 and for the ur ose of commemorating annua%%y the great e1ent of the sett%ement of the country from which they s ring2 It wou%d $e great resum tion in me to go $ac& to the scene of that sett%ement3 or to attem t to e(hi$it it in any co%ors3 after the e(hi$ition made to.day< yet it is an e1ent that3 in a%% time since3 and in a%% time to come3 and more in time to come than in times ast3 must stand out in great and stri&ing characteristics to the admiration of the wor%d2 "he sun,s return to his winter so%stice3 in 1'203 is the e och from which he dates his first ac@uaintance with the sma%% eo %e3 now one of the ha iest3 and destined to $e one of the greatest3 that his rays fa%% u on< and his annua% 1isitation3 from that day to this3 to our froDen region3 has ena$%ed him to see that rogress3 rogress3 was the characteristic of that sma%% eo %e2 He has seen them from a handfu%3 that one of his $eams coming through a &ey.ho%e might i%%uminate3 s read o1er a hemis here which he can not en%ighten under the s%ightest ec%i se2 Bor3 tho this g%o$e shou%d re1o%1e round him for tens of hundreds of thou. sands of years3 wi%% he see such another inci ient co%oniDation u on any art of this attendant u on his mighty or$2 What e%se he may see in those other %anets which re1o%1e around him we can not te%%< at %east unti% we ha1e tried the fifty.foot te%esco e which 5ord #osse is re aring for that ur ose2 "here is not3 gent%emen3 and we may as we%% admit it3 in any history of the ast3 another e och from which so many e1ents ha1e ta&en a turn< e1ents which3 whi%e im ortant to us3 are e@ua%%y im ortant to the country from whence we came2 "he sett%ement of P%ymouth.. concurring3 I a%ways wish to $e understood3 with that of FirginiaGwas the sett%ement of Bew Eng%and $y co%onies of 9%d Eng%and2 Bow3 gent%emen3 ta&e these two ideas and run out the thoughts suggested $y $oth2 What has $een3 and what is to $e3 9%d Eng%andI What has $een3 what is3 and what may $e3 in the ro1idence of *od3 Bew Eng%and3 with her neigh$ors and associatesI I wou%d not dwe%%3 gent%emen3 with any articu%ar em hasis u on the sentiment3 which I ne1erthe%ess entertain3 with res ect to the great di1ersity in the races of men2 I do not &now how far in that res ect I might not encroach on those mysteries of Pro1idence which3 whi%e I adore3 I may not com rehend< $ut it does seem to me to $e 1ery remar&a$%e3 that we may go $ac& to the time when Bew Eng%and3 or those who founded it3 were su$tracted from 9%d Eng%and< and $oth 9%d Eng%and and Bew Eng%and went on2 ne1erthe%ess3 in their mightT, career of rogress and ower2

5et me $egin with Bew Eng%and for a moment2 What has resu%ted..em$racing3 as I say3 the near%y contem oraneous sett%ement of Firginia..what has resu%ted from the %anting u on this continent of two or three s%ender co%onies from the mother countryI *ent%emen3 the great e ita h commemorati1e of the character and the worth3 the disco1eries and g%ory3 of 0o%um$us3 was that he had gi1en a new i1orid to the crowns of 0asti%e and +ragon2 *ent%emen3 this is a great mista&e2 It does not come u at a%% to the great merits of 0o%um$us2 He ga1e the territory of the southern hemis here to the crowns of 0asti%e and +ragon3 $ut as a %ace for the %antafioii of co%onies3 as a %ace for the ha$itation of men3 as a %ace to which %aws and re%igion and manners and science were to $e transferred3 as a %ace in which the creatures of *od shou%d mu%ti %y and fi%% the earth3 under friend%y s&ies and with re%igious hearts3 he ga1e it to the who%e wor%d3 he ga1e if to uni1ersa% man2, From this semina% rinci %e3 and from a handfu%3 a hundred saints3 $%est of *od and e1er honored of men3 %anded on the shores of P%ymouth and e%sewhere a%ong the coast3 united3 as I ha1e said a%ready more than once3 in the rocess of time3 with the sett%ement at 7amestown3 has this great eo %e of which we are a ortion2 I do not rec&on myse%f among @uite the o%dest of the %and3 and yet it so ha ens that 1ery recent%y I recurred to an e(u%ting s eech or oration of my own3 in which I s o&e of my country as consisting of nine mi%%ions of eo %e2 I cou%d hard%y ersuade myse%f that within the short time which had e%a sed since that e och3 our o u%ation has dou$%ed< and that at the resent moment there does e(ist most un@uestiona$%y as great a ro$a$i%ity of its continued rogress3 in the same ratio3 as has e1er e(isted in any re1ious time2 I do not &now whose imagination is ferti%e enough3 I do not &now whose con4ectures3 I may a%most say3 are wi%d enough to te%% what may $e the rogress of wea%th and o u%ation in the 6nited States in ha%f a century to come2 +%% we &now is3 here is a eo %e of from se1enteen to twenty mi%%ions3 inte%%igent3 educated3 free. ho%ders3 freemen3 re u$%icans3 ossest of a%% the means of modern im ro1ement3 modern science3 arts3 %iterature3 with the wor%d $efore themH "here is nothing to chec& them ti%% they touch the shores of the Pacific3 and then3 they are so much accustomed to water3 that that,s a faci%ity3 and no o$structionH So much3 gent%emen3 for this $ranch of the Eng%ish race< $ut what has ha ened3 meanwhi%e3 to Eng%and herse%f since the eriod of the de arture of the Puritans from the coast of 5inco%nshire3 from the Eng%ish 8ostonI *ent%emen3 in s ea&ing of the rogress of Eng%ish ower3 of Eng%ish dominion and authority3 from that eriod to the resent3 I sha%% $e understood3 of course3 as neither entering into any defense or any accusation of the o%icy which has conducted her to her resent state2 +s to the 4ustice of her wars3 the necessity of her con@uests3 the ro riety of those acts $y which she has ta&en ossession of so great a ortion of the g%o$e3 it is not the $usiness of the resent occasion to in@uire2 Be@ue teneo3 ne@ue refe%%o2 8ut I s ea& of them3 or intend to s ea& of them3 as facts of the most e(traordinary character3 une@ua%ed in the history of any nation on the g%o$e3 and the conse@uences of which may and must reach through a thousand generations2 "he Puritans %eft Eng%and in the reign of 7ames the First2 Eng%and herse%f had then $ecome somewhat sett%ed and esta$%ished in the Protestant faith3 and in the @uiet en4oyment of ro erty3 $y the re1ious energetic3 %ong3 and ros erous reign of E%iDa$eth2 Her successor was 7ames the Si(th of Scot%and3 now $ecome 7ames the First of Eng%and< and here was a union of the crowns3 $ut not of the &ingdoms..a 1ery im ortant distinction2 Ire%and was he%d $y a mi%itary ower3 and one can not $ut see that at that day3 whate1er may $e true or untrue in more recent eriods of her history3 Ire%and was he%d $y Eng%and $y the two great otencies3 the

ower of the sword and the ower of confiscation2 In other res ects3 Eng%and was nothing %i&e the Eng%and we now $eho%d2 Her foreign ossessions were @uite inconsidera$%e2 She had some ho%d on the West India Is%ands< she had +cadia3 or Bo1a Scotia3, which Eing 7ames granted3 $y who%esa%e3 for the endowment of the &nights whom he created $y hundreds2 +nd what has $een her rogressI /id she then ossess *i$ra%tar3 the &ey to the ?editerraneanI Was ?a%ta hersI Were the Ionian Is%ands hersI Was the southern e(tremity of +frica3 was the 0a e of *ood Ho e hersI Were the who%e of her 1ast ossessions in India hersI Was the great +ustra%ian em ire hersI Whi%e that $ranch of her o u%ation which fo%%owed the western star3 and under its guidance committed itse%f to the duty of sett%ing3 ferti%iDing3 and eo %ing an un&nown wi%derness in the West3 were ursuing their destinies3 other causes3 ro1identia% dou$t%ess3 were %eading Eng%ish ower eastward and southward3 in conse@uence and $y means of her na1a% rowess3 and the e(tent of her commerce3 unti% in our day we ha1e seen that within the ?editerranean3 on the western coast3 and at the southern e(tremity of +frica3 in +ra$ia3 in hither India and farther India she has a o u%ation ten ago2 +nd recent%y3 as we ha1e witnessed..I wi%% not say with how much truth and 4ustice3 o%icy or im o%icy3 I do not s ea& at a%% of the mora%ity of the action3 I on%y s ea& of the fact..she has found admission into 0hina3 and has carried the 0hristian re%igion and the Protestant faith to the doors of three hundred mi%%ions of eo %e2 It has $een said that whosoe1er wou%d see the Eastern wor%d $efore it turns into a Western wor%d must ma&e his 1isit soon3 $ecause steam$oats and omni$uses3 commerce3 and a%% the arts of Euro e3 are e(tending themse%1es from Egy t to SueD3 from SueD to the Indian seas3 and from the Indian seas a%% o1er the e( %ored regions of the sti%% farther East2 Bow3 gent%emen3 I do not &now what ractica% 1iews or what ractica% resu%ts may ta&e %ace from this great e( ansion of the ower of the two $ranches of 9%d Eng%and2 It is not for me to say2 I on%y can see that on this continent a%% is to $e +ng%o.+merican from P%ymouth #oc& to the Pacific seas3 from the Borth Po%e to 0a%ifornia2 "hat is certain< and in the Eastern wor%d3 I on%y see that you can hard%y %ace a finger on a ma of the wor%d3 and $e an inch from an Eng%ish sett%ement2 *ent%emen3 if there $e anything in the su remacy of races3 the e( eriment now in rogress wi%% de1e%o it2 If there $e any truth in the idea that those who issued from the great 0aucasian fountain3 and s read o1er Euro e3 are to react on India and on +sia3 and to act on the who%e Western wor%d3 it may not $e for us3 nor our chi%dren3 nor our grandchi%dren3 to see it3 $ut it wi%% $e for our descendants of some generation to see the e(tent of that rogress and dominion of the fa1ored races2 For myse%f3 I $e%ie1e there is no %imit fit to $e assigned to it $y the human mind3 $ecause I find at wor& e1erywhere3 on $oth sides of the +t%antic3 under 1arious forms and degrees of restriction on the one hand3 and under 1arious degrees of moti1e and stimu%us on the other hand3 in these $ranches of a common race3 the great rinci %e of the freedom of human thought3 and the res ecta$i%ity of indi1idua% character2 I find e1erywhere an e%e1ation of the character of man as man3 an e%e1ation of the indi1idua% as a com onent art of society2 I find e1erywhere a re$u&e of the idea that the many are made for the few or that go1ernment is anything $ut an agency for man&ind +nd I care not $eneath what Done3 froDen3 tem erate or torrid< I care not of what com %e(ion3 white or $rown< care not under what circumstances of c%imate or cu%ti1ation..if I can find a race of men on an inha$ita$%e s ot of earth whose genera% sentiment it is3 and whose genera% fee%ing it is that go1ernment is made for man.man3 as a

re%igious3 mora% and socia% $eing.and not man for go1ernment3 there I &now that I sha%% find ros erity and ha iness

"isco#er An Effortless, Al$ost Magical %ay To &reate the Life 'f Your "rea$s((( %lick )ere To +ind &ut

W9#E +B/ H+8I"S 8; +58E#" 72 8EFE#I/*E E1ery man,s ro$%em is how to $e effecti1e2 0onscious%y or unconscious%y3 the @uestion you are as&ing yourse%f is3 CHow sha%% I ma&e my strength count for most in this wor%d of effortIC, +nd this is the @uestion which e1ery one of us ought to as& himse%f2 8ut not for the ur ose of mere se%fish gain: not to get money for the sa&e of money3 or fame for the sa&e of fame3 $ut for the sa&e of usefu%ness in the wor%d< for the sa&e of he% fu%ness to those we %o1e and of a%% humanity2 Se%fishness oisons a%% it touches3 and ma&e a%% achie1ement dead.sea fruit which turns to ashes on the %i s2 So the great @uestion3 CHow sha%% I ma&e the most of myse%f3C which e1ery wor&er in the wor%d is as&ing3 must $e no$%y as&ed3 and therefore unse%fish%y as&ed if you wou%d ha1e it wise%y answered2 "here are two words that so%1e this @uery of your destiny3 and those two words are wor& and ha$its2 I &now that I am addressing men who toi%< and I ha1e reached an age where I consider no one $ut wor&ers worth whi%e2 8ut $y those who toi%3 I do not mean on%y those who wor& with their hands2 I mean those who wor& with their $rain3 as we%%2 I mean the engineer who dri1es a %ocomoti1e3 $ut a%so the in1entor3 who created it< the mason and mechanic who erects a $ui%ding3 and a%so the thoughtfu% man who concei1ed it3 and the energetic man who made it ossi$%e< the rinter who uts u on the age the words of usefu% $oo&s3 $ut a%so the oet who dreams the dreams that rinter re roduces3 the no1e%ist who enchants our weary hours3 the economist who instructs us in the facts of %ife and the duties of citiDenshi 3 and a%% of that g%orious com any of $rain wor&ers who u %ift3 ma&e ure3 and g%orify humanity2 I mean the farmer who sows and rea s3 $ut a%so the mi%%er who3 with his earned ca ita% grinds the farmer,s roducts into food for the feeding of the eo %e2 I mean the $an&er as much as the drayman< the hysician as much as the street.car motorman< the statesman who honest%y and faithfu%%y %a$ors to ma&e this nation $etter3 as much as the section hand2 In short3 I mean e1ery man who with mind or musc%e toi%s at the tas&s which our mutua% needs $ring to each one of us2 "he first thing necessary to the doing of good wor& is that the man who does it sha%% %o1e his wor&2 5asting wor& means %o1ing wor&2 "he greatest cathedra% on earth is that at 0hartres3 in France2 Bo man &nows its architect or its $ui%ders2 It was erected according to %ans de1ised $y ho%y men who cared nothing for their own g%ory3 $ut cared e1erything for the g%ory of Him whose ser1ants they were2 It was $ui%t $y thousands of artiDans3 who came from a%% o1er France and ga1e their ser1ices without rice3 and e1en without record3 as a matter of worshi 2 "he materia%s were furnished $y tens of thousands of easants3 and each stone they contri$uted was consecrated $y rayer and swung to osition with the ower of a di1ine affection2 +nd so the cathedra% at 0hartres stands3 and wi%% fore1er stand3 as the highest ty e of sacred architecture the wor%d has e1er &nown2 Such de1otion to our dai%y tas&s is not ossi$%e to any of us in the hurried and harried ci1i%iDation of to.day2 We must ha1e $read< we must fi%% our home with the necessities and comforts of %ife< our first $usiness is to ma&e our

%o1ed ones ha y2 Wages3 rofits3 and a%% &inds of money reward for a%% we do is a$so%ute%y necessary2 ;et those wages and rofits wi%% $e higher if we are in %o1e with the wor& which $rings them to us2 "hey wi%% not on%y $e greater3 $ut e1ery cent of them wi%% add to our %i1es a sweetness and fragrance which the ay that is earned $y an unwi%%ing wor&er ne1er $rings2 "he man who is in %o1e with his wor&3 his reward goes further in its urchasing ower than the man who hates the tas& that $rings him his %i1e%ihood2 "he we%%.earned do%%ar is a wise do%%ar< the $ad%y.gotten do%%ar is a foo%ish do%%ar2 Pa%% in %o1e with your wor&..that is the first ru%e for doing your wor& we%%2 It is a%so the go%den ru%e of ha iness2 Fa%% in %o1e with your wor&3 and your %a$or wi%% $ring you 4oy as we%% as money2 +%% the ha iness this %ife affords is found in three things< first3 a true re%ation to *od< second3 the care of other eo %e< third3 the doing with a%% your might wor& which you %o1e to do2 "here is no true and %asting ha iness ossi$%e from any other source2 Beg%ect *od3 care nothing for other eo %e3 des ise your wor&< and wea%th wi%% $uy you nothing $ut misery.. ower wi%% $ring you nothing $ut heartache2 8ui%d your %ife u on these three foundations and you $ui%d your house u on a roc&2 8ui%d your %ife on dis$e%ief in *od3 on se%fishness to others3 on hatred of your own wor&..and you $ui%d your house u on the sand2 E1ery man can $e in %o1e with his wor& if he wi%% a%. ways thin& of how we%% he can do that wor&3 and not how easi%y he can do it2 5et e1ery one of us3 as we go a$out our dai%y tas&s3 &ee saying to himse%f e1ery moment: CI am going to do my wor& so we%% to.day that to.night I wi%% congratu%ate myse%f u on it2C "hat is the way to get others to congratu%ate you u on it2 CWin your own inte%%igent a ro1a% in the doing of your wor& and you wi%% a%so win the honest a ro1a% of your fe%%ow men2 +nd when a man inte%%igent%y a ro1es of himse%f3 and his fe%%ow men a ro1e of him3 he has made his dai%y toi% yie%d not on%y money3 hut a%so the sweetest fruit of %ife2 Be1er say to yourse%f that your wor& is too hard< say to yourse%f instead3 CI wi%% do it so we%% that the 1ery doing of it wi%% ma&e it easy3C and ne1er forget that the on%y rea% way to do your wor& easi%y is to do it we%%2 Be1er ity yourse%f2 Se%f. ity $egins a sic&ness of the sou% from which few reco1er2 Be1er under1a%ue yourse%f2 8e%ie1e in yourse%f2 8e%ie1e that you can do your wor& we%%3 and then ma&e good2 Be1er dou$t yourse%f2 Faith in one,s se%f un%oc&s those hidden owers that a%% of us ha1e3 $ut so few of us use2 E1ery man and woman has unde1e%o ed strength undreamed of unti% emergencies ca%% it forth2 E1ery one of us has $een sur riDed at how much we can do3 and how we%% we can do it3 when we ha1e to do it2 Be1er wait for these emergencies to ca%% out the might within you2 #ea%iDe your assets e1ery day2 *od has made an in1estment in e1ery one of us< sha%% we go to Him when our %ife is done3 gi1ing Him a return u on that in1estmentI When He in1ested in you He meant that you shou%d ay Him di1idends in the $etterment of the wor%d3 and he% fu%ness to your fe%%ow men2 ;ou can do this on%y $y your $est wor&2 +nd your $est wor& is ossi$%e on%y $y faith in yourse%f and $y %o1e of your wor&2 "he second ractica% ru%e for doing good wor& yourse%f is to a reciate and raise the good wor& of others2 Be1er en1y any$ody2 7ea%ousy in the man who s ends his strength en1ying the good wor& of another man wi%% ha1e %itt%e strength %eft to do good wor& himse%f2 *et the ha$it of ha iness o1er other eo %e,s success2 Practise raising the wor& of others2 It wi%%

ma&e your fe%%ow man ha y3 $ut it wi%% ma&e you ha him3 $ut it wi%% encourage you more2

ier than it ma&es him2 It wi%% encourage

In u$%ic %ife3 when a man3 whether friend or enemy3 ma&es a good fight for a good %aw or against a $ad one3 or ta&es a stand for righteousness3 or de%i1ers an effecti1e s eech for a no$%e cause3 I ma&e it a oint to raise that man3 not on%y to the wor%d and to himse%f3 $ut to raise him in the secret counci%s of my own sou%2 I do this as a matter3 first3 of 4ustice3 and3 second3 of my own s iritua% and mora% strengthening2 When in my own conscience as we%% as to other eo %e3 I raise that man,s achie1ement3 I ha1e made my mind and sou% stronger for doing my own wor&< I ha1e fortified my s irit for ma&ing my own fights2 8ut if in my heart I hate him for ha1ing done this thing we%%3 I ha1e wea&ened myse%f for the doing of my own tas&s2 I ha1e %essened my own courage for the $att%es I must wage2 "he man who secret%y en1ies the good wor& of a fe%%ow man3 secret%y des ises himse%f2 7ea%ousy of a fe%%ow wor&man means ara%ysis of your own owers2 I said that I raise good wor&3 whether done $y friend or enemy< $ut if any man is my enemy3 he must do a%% the hating..for I am too $usy to $e any$ody,s enemy2 I ha1e no time for hatred2 9n the other hand3 e1ery one of us shou%d fear%ess%y condemn $ad wor& and re$u&e the $ad wor&man2 "he man who s%ights his wor&< the contractor who uses $ad materia%s when he is aid for good< the u$%ic man who neg%ects to study and master the @uestions the eo %e ha1e commissioned him to so%1e< the $an&er who gam$%es with other eo %e,s money instead of faithfu%%y guarding it< the %awyer who ta&es a c%ient,s fee and does not ainsta&ing%y re are his case: the editor who decei1es the eo %e in the interest of the owner of his a er..in short3 e1ery man and woman who acce ts wages3 rofits3 sa%ary3 or any reward for doing wor&3 and then does that wor& as chea %y or as fa%se%y as ossi$%e instead of as thorough%y and as we%% as ossi$%e3 shou%d $e denounced $y a%% good wor&men2 Such eo %e are frauds< and frauds are the e1i% weeds of human effort2 "hey shou%d $e e(terminated as the farmer e(terminates the coc&%e.$urs growing among his corn3 and ta&ing from the earth that nourishment which shou%d go into the go%den ear2 7esus had no un&ind word for any human $eing e(ce t for such eo %e as this2 ;ou wi%% find in a%% His teachings nothing $ut %o1e for e1ery man and woman3 e(ce t on%y hy ocrites2 "hese he scourges with words of wrath2 #u%es for good wor& fai% without good ha$its2 Ha$it is the most owerfu% inf%uence in human %ife2 Sha&es eare ma&es Ham%et say that CHa$it is a second nature2C 5oo& to your ha$its as you wou%d %oo& to your %ife3 or your honor< for ha$its ho%d $oth %ife and honor2 ?ore men fai% in their ad1entures< more neg%ect of u$%ic duty resu%ts< more $ad wor& of e1ery &ind is roduced $y $ad ha$its than $y any other cause2 *ood ha$its are the hysica% $asis of good wor&3 4ust as the %o1e of the wor& is its sou%2 8us&in says that no immorta% wor& has $een done in the wor%d since to$acco was disco1ered2 9f course3 this is not true3 $ut the meaning $ehind it is true2 Bo man can $e at his $est whose $rain is inf%amed $y drin&3 or whose ner1es are sha&en $y narcotics2 +nd you must $e at your $est2 ?ore and more other men are determining to $e at their $est2 If e1ery man is not at his $est3 it is his own fau%t2 Be1er $%ame other eo %e for your misfortunes2 "here is such a thing as %uc&3 and sometimes men seem ursued $y e1i% fortune< $ut genera%%y s ea&ing3 we are

the architects of our own fai%ures2 In one of ?aeter%inc&,s wonderfu% stories he te%%s of a owerfu% man of the midd%e ages who concei1ed great %ans and e(ecuted them3 $ut a%ways with difficu%ty2 Fre@uent%y he a%most fai%ed3 and succeeded on%y $y su er. human effort2 Fina%%y he found that a secret enemy was a%ways wor&ing against his most carefu% %ans3 neutra%iDing his most strenuous e(ertions2 +s the years assed3 he determined to find and destroy this enemy2 5ife was not worth %i1ing with this hidden foe fore1er encirc%ing him with difficu%ties2 9ne e1ening he went for a wa%&2 He saw another man a roaching him2 8y that strange instinct which warns us of danger3 he &new that this man was his %ife%ong enemy2 He reso%1ed to &i%% him2 +s he a roached3 he o$ser1ed that this man wore a mas&2 8ut conscious that this was the antagonist of his %ife3 he said3 as they met: C;ou are the man who from my youth ti%% now has $een ursuing me3 thwarting me3 a%most defeating me2 I mean to &i%% you3 $ut I wi%% gi1e you a chance for your %ife2 /raw and defend yourse%f2C "he stranger said3 as he drew his sword3 CI am at your ser1ice3 $ut first see who it is that you wou%d fight2C He remo1ed his mas&3 and the man stood $efore himse%f2 "his fa$%e is true of e1ery one of us2 ?ore..as his own enemy a man mu%ti %ies himse%f2 Where you thin& an enemy has in4ured you3 %oo& c%ose%y3 and nine times out of ten you wi%% find yourse%f in some e1i% guise2 8ut oftenest you wi%% find yourse%f in the form of your ha$its2 If there is any e1i% in us3 $ad ha$its wi%% de1e%o it2 +nd there is e1i% in a%% of us2 Put your strength to the test3 $ut ne1er your wea&ness2 /are to try the a arent%y im ossi$%e tas&s if they are tas&s for good< ne1er fear fai%ure..a%% the wor%d %o1es a good %oser< and when you fa%% in the right3 your defeat is on%y the $eginning of fina% 1ictory2 8ut f%y from the easier thing that is wrong< no man &nows how far he can withstand it2 +nd remem$er that we ne1er get so o%d that the seeds of wic&edness wi%% not s rout and grow3 and $ear the fruit of ruin3 if watered and nourished $y $ad ha$its2 /ay $y day ci1i%iDation is demanding more of each one of us..more that is ure and strong2 "wentieth.century society to%erates no wea&ness3 no taint in indi1idua% wor&ers2 "oday e1ery man must $e a$o1e sus icion2 Each one of us must $e roof against ca%umny2 E1ery$ody is %ied a$out..sometimes $y en1y3 sometimes $y ignorance2 Be1er resent a fa%sehood a$out yourse%f..after a%%3 it is a test of re utation2 5et your %ife3 not your words $e your re$u&e of s%ander2 Bo man with $ad ha$its can do good wor&2 E1ery man,s wor& s ea&s for him or against him2 8e su erior to s%ander $y doing we%% your wor& day in and day out3 and remem$er that erfect ha$its are necessary to erfect wor&2 Bo man with $ad ha$its can do much wor& of any &ind3 or any wor& of a good &ind2 5oo& at a man,s wor& if you wou%d &now his ha$its2 + man,s ha$its are &nown $y the wor& he does2 "he surest way3 $ut one3 of &ee ing your ha$its c%ean is to carefu%%y watch the $eginnings of $ad ha$its2 For a $ad ha$it has a 1e%1et foot2 It stea%s u on one soft%y3 unawares2 First it charms3 ne(t masters3 then destroys you2 In the mora% hi%oso hy which I studied in co%%ege3 this i%%ustration was gi1en: CBeg%ect your con. science for on%y two wee&s3 and it $egins to disa ear< o$ey its faintest whis er for two wee&s3 and it $ecomes as de%icate as a woman,s $%ush2C "he su reme enemy of $ad ha$its is re%igion2 I do not mean this is necessary2 I ha1e &nown good men who were not re%igious3 and $ad men who retended to $e re%igious2

8ut the man who in his heart of hearts as we%% as in his dai%y wa%& $e%ie1es and ractises the 0hristian faith3 is he% ed $y a ower outside of himse%f and a$o1e himse%f2 His who%e mora% $eing is 1ita%iDed2 I do not retend to say this3 so much from e( erience..I wish I mightG$ut I do say it with a%% my might from o$ser1ation2 "he wisdom of +ure%ius3 E ictetus3 0onfucius3 is a tonic to the sou%< $ut the words of 7esus are %ife itse%f2 +s a mere matter of ractica% success in %ife< as a mere method of ma&ing the most out of himse%f3 I wou%d rather ha1e a son3 $rother3 or friend $ecome a thorough.going 0hristian than to ha1e any other sing%e good fortune come to him2 I do not mean that a man sha%% $e re%igious with his inte%%ect on%y2 It is not enough that he sha%% $e a 0hristian in his mind a%one22 *et your 0hristianity into your $%ood2 Such a 0hristian can not do oor wor& or dishonest wor&..to such a 0hristian such wor& wou%d not on%y $e a fraud u on his em %oyer3 $ut a $etraya% of his *od2 "he man who has his 0hristianity in his $%ood can not ha1e $ad ha$its..to such a 0hristian $ad ha$its wou%d $e not on%y an in4ustice to himse%f and a wrong to wife and chi%dren3 $ut they wou%d $e an insu%t to the ?aster2 CWhat3C said Fictor Hugo3 Cis the grandest thing in the wor%dC "he midst of the ocean on a c%oud%ess night2 +nd what is grander than thatI "he starry hea1ens2 What is grander than the starry hea1ensI "he sou% of man2,, +nd it is this sou% of man3 the no$%est thing in a%% the uni1erse3 to which the 0hristian re%igion s ea&s2 It is to %ift e1er u ward the sou% of man that a%% the wor%d,s saints3 statesmen3 and heroes ha1e rayed3 and thought3 and erished2 It is to ma&e free and gi1e wings to the sou% of man that this 0hristian ci1i%iDation e(ists2 "hat men and women sha%% $e $etter3 no$%er3 e1ery day3 that ha iness sha%% $e greater< that our country and the wor%d sha%% steadi%y $ecome a %o1e%ier %ace to %i1e in: that righteousness sha%% re1ai% is3 after a%%3 the ur ose of a%% rogress2 Bo agent for human u %iftment is more 1igorous than the ;oung ?en,s 0hristian +ssociation2 It %in&s arms with each one of us and gi1es us the human touch of c%ean. $anded3 high. minded3 ure.hearted men: and therefore the di1ine touch itse%f2 Its wor& is ersonified in that natura% %eader of men and de1oted ser1ant of our ?aster3 the secretary of the Indiana o%is +ssociation2 +rthur H2 *odard2 With men %i&e him to he% us3 %et us go ca%m%y3 steadi%y forward3 ma&ing the +merican eo %e a nation whose *od is the 5ord..a nation which sha%% $e the first ower for righteousness2 FI#S" IB+6*6#+5 +//#ESS /e%i1ered in Bew ;or&3 + ri% 303 17!8; *E9#*E W+SHIB*"9B Fe%%ow 0itiDens of the Senate and of the House of #e resentati1es: +mong the 1icissitudes incident to %ife3 no e1ent cou%d ha1e fi%%ed me with greater an(ieties than that of which the notification was transmitted $y your order3 and recei1ed on the fourth day of the resent month2 9n the one hand3 I was summoned $y my country3 whose 1oice I can ne1er hear $ut with 1eneration and %o1e3 from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest redi%ection3 and3 in my f%attering ho es3 with an immuta$%e decision as the asy%um of my dec%ining years< a retreat which was rendered e1ery day more necessary as we%% as more dear to me3 $y the addition of ha$it to inc%ination3 and of fre@uent interru tions in my hea%th to the gradua% waste committed on it $y time< on the other hand3 the magnitude and difficu%ty of

the trust to which the 1oice of my country ca%%ed me $eing sufficient to awa&en3 a distrustfu% scrutiny into his @ua%ifications3 cou%d not $ut o1erwhe%m with des ondence one who3 inheriting inferior endowments from nature3 and un ractised in the duties of ci1i% administration3 ought to $e ecu%iar%y conscious of his own deficiencies2 In this conf%ict of emotions3 a%% I dare a1er is that it has $een my faithfu% study to co%%ect my duty from a 4ust a reciation of e1ery circumstance $y which it might $e affected2 +%% I dare ho e is3 that if3 in e(ecuting this tas&3 I ha1e $een too much swayed $y a gratefu% remem$rance of former instances3 or $y an affectionate sensi$i%ity to this transcendent roof of the confidence of my fe%%ow citiDens3 and ha1e thence too %itt%e consu%ted my inca acity as we%% as disinc%ination for the weighty and untried cares $efore me3 my error wi%% $e a%%iated $y the moti1es which mis%ed me3 and its conse@uences $e 4udged $y my country3 with some share of the artia%ity in which they originated2 Such $eing the im ression under which I ha1e3 in o$edience to the u$%ic summons3 re aired to the resent station3 it wou%d $e ecu%iar%y im ro er to omit3 in this first officia% act3 my fer1ent su %ications to that +%mighty 8eing3 who ru%es o1er the uni1erse3 who resides in the counci%s of nations3 and whose ro1identia% aids can su %y e1ery human defect3 that his $enediction may consecrate to the %i$erties and ha iness of the eo %e of the 6nited States a go1ernment instituted $y themse%1es for these essentia% ur oses3 and may ena$%e e1ery instrument em %oyed in its administration to e(ecute3 with success3 the functions a%%otted to his charge2 In tendering this homage to the great +uthor of e1ery u$%ic and ri1ate good3 I assure myse%f that it e( resses your sentiments not %ess than my own< nor those of my fe%%ow citiDens at %arge %ess than either2 Bo eo %e can $e $ound to ac&now%edge and adore the In1isi$%e Hand which conducts the affairs of men3 more than the eo %e of the 6nited States2 E1ery ste $y which they ha1e ad1anced to the character of an inde endent nation seems to ha1e $een distinguished $y some to&en of ro1identia% agency2 +nd3 in the im ortant re1o%ution 4ust accom %ished3 in the system of their united go1ernment3 the tran@ui% de%i$erations and 1o%untary consent of so many distinct communities3 from which the e1ent has resu%ted3 can not $e com ared with the means $y which most go1ernments ha1e $een esta$%ished3 without some return of ious gratitude3 a%ong with an hum$%e antici ation of the future $%essings which the ast seems to resage2 "hese ref%ections3 arising out of the resent crisis3 ha1e forced themse%1es too strong%y on my mind to $e su rest2 ;ou wi%% 4oin with me3 I trust3 in thin&ing that there are none under the inf%uence of which the roceedings of a new and free go1ernment can more aus icious%y commence2 8y the artic%e esta$%ishing the E(ecuti1e /e artment3 it is made the duty of the President Cto recommend to your consideration such measures as he sha%% 4udge necessary and e( edient2C "he circumstances under which I now meet you wi%% ac@uit me from entering into that su$4ect further than to refer you to the great constitutiona% charter under which we are assem$%ed< and which3 in defining your owers3 designates the o$4ects to which your attention is to $e gi1en2 It wi%% $e more consistent with those circumstances3 and far more congenia% with the fee%ings which actuate me3 to su$stitute3 in %ace of a recommendation of articu%ar measures3 the tri$ute that is due to the ta%ents3 the rectitude3 and the atriotism which adorn the characters se%ected to de1ise and ado t them2 In these honora$%e @ua%ifications3 I $eho%d the surest %edges3 that as3 on one side3 no %oca% re4udices or attachments3 no se arate 1iews nor arty animosities3 wi%% misdirect the com rehensi1e and e@ua% eye which ought to watch o1er this great assem$%age of communities and interests..so3 on another3 that the foundations of our nationa% o%icy wi%% $e %aid in the ure and immuta$%e rinci %es of ri1ate mora%ity< and the reeminence of a free go1ernment $e e(em %ified $y a%% the attri$utes which

can win the affections of its citiDens and command the res ect of the wor%d2 I dwe%% on this ros ect with e1ery satisfaction which an ardent %o1e for my country can ins ire< since there is no truth more thorough%y esta$%ished than that there e(ists3 in the economy and course of nature3 an indisso%u$%e union $etween 1irtue and ha iness..$etween duty and ad1antage..$etween the genuine ma(ims of an honest and magnanimous o%icy and the so%id rewards of u$%ic ros erity and fe%icity..since we ought to $e no %ess ersuaded that the ro itious smi%es of hea1en can ne1er $e e( ected on a nation that disregards the eterna% ru%es of order and right which hea1en itse%f has ordainedGand since the reser1ation of the sacred fire of %i$erty3 and the destiny of the re u$%ican mode% of go1ernment3 are 4ust%y considered as dee %y3 erha s as fina%%y sta&ed3 on the e( eriment intrusted to the hands of the +merican eo %e2 8esides the ordinary o$4ects su$mitted to your care3 it wi%% remain with your 4udgment to decide how far an e(ercise of the occasiona% ower de%egated $y the fifth artic%e of the 0onstitution is rendered e( edient3 at the resent 4uncture3 $y the nature of o$4ections which ha1e $een urged against the system3 or $y the degree of in. @uietude which has gi1en $irth to them2 Instead of under. ta&ing articu%ar recommendations on this su$4ect3 in which I cou%d $e guided $y no %ights deri1ed from officia% o ortunities3 I sha%% again gi1e way to my entire confidence in your discernment and ursuit of the u$%ic good2 For I assure myse%f that3 whi%e you carefu%%y a1oided e1ery a%teration which might endanger the $enefits of a united and effecti1e go1ernment3 or which ought to await the future %essons of e( erience3 a re1erence for the characteristic rights of freemen and a regard for the u$%ic harmony wi%% sufficient%y inf%uence your de%i$erations on the @uestion how far the former can $e more im regna$%y fortified3 or the %atter $e safe%y and more ad1antageous%y romoted2 "o the receding o$ser1ations I ha1e one to add3 which wi%% $e most ro er%y addrest to the House of #e resentati1es2 It concerns myse%f3 and wi%%3 therefore3 $e as $rief as ossi$%e2 When I was first honored with a ca%% into the ser1ice of my country3 then on the e1e of an arduous strugg%e for its %i$erties3 the %ight in which I contem %ated my duty re@uired that I shou%d renounce e1ery ecuniary com ensation2 From this reso%ution I ha1e in no instance de arted2 +nd $eing sti%% under the im ressions which roduced it3 I must dec%ine3 as ina %ica$%e to myse%f3 any share in the ersona% emo%uments which may $e indis ensa$%y inc%uded in a ermanent ro1ision for the E(ecuti1e /e artment< and must according%y ray that the ecuniary estimates for the station in which I am %aced may3 during my continuation in it3 $e %imited to such actua% e( enditures as the u$%ic good may $e thought to re@uire2 Ha1ing thus im arted to you my sentiments3 as they ha1e $een awa&ened $y the occasion which $rings us together3 I sha%% ta&e my resent %ea1e3 $ut not without resorting once more to the $enign Parent of the human race3 in hum$%e su %ication3 that3 since He has $een %eased to fa1or the +merican eo %e with o ortunities for de%i$erating in erfect tran@ui%%ity3 and dis ositions for deciding with un ara%%e%ed unanimity3 on a form of go1ernment for the security of their union and the ad1ancement of their ha iness3 so His di1ine $%essing may $e e@ua%%y cons icuous in the en%arged 1iews3 the tem erate consu%tations3 and the wise measures on which the success of this go1ernment must de end2 + "+5E "9 *#+/6+"ES

9ne of the greatest figures of mytho%ogy3 you remem$er3 was Prometheus3 who $rought fire from hea1en that men of s&i%% and industry might $egin their %ong 4ourney toward truth and ower2 He was the fire.$ringer2 E1ery great or usefu% man and woman since his time has $een a %ight.$earer< and the ran& of a man de ends on the c%arity and ower of %ight which shines from him on his fe%%ows and his time2 +s we %oo& $ac& o1er the %ong course of history3 we are a$%e to see the way $y which we ha1e come3 $ecause so many men and women ha1e %ighted the dar&ness of ignorance2 +s you a roach a great city3 there is first a faint g%ow on the horiDon3 then a &ind%ing $rightness< then %ong %ines of fire rise into 1iew3 and resent%y the s %endor of the city is $efore you2 5oo&ing $ac& from the $rightness of today3 we can trace the wa(ing %ight to its far $eginnings3 as the %ong %ines recede and grow fainter against the dar&ness2 We can see the %am s %ighted in the 1a%%ey of the Eu hrates thousands of years ago< the &ind%ing of the %ights in the 1a%%ey of the Bi%e< the g%ory of the 5ight of the Wor%d as it re1ea%ed itse%f in 7udea< the s %endor that streamed from +thens across ha%f the g%o$e3 across our time3 shining to the 1ery end of the ages< the owerfu% ray that fe%% from #ome< the f%aming of the torches of F%orence and Fenice< the %ighting of the %am s at the ear%iest uni1ersities3 at Sa%amanca3 Sa%erno3 8o%ogna3 Paris3 9(ford3 0am$ridge2 "he first intimation of the Sew Wor%d to its disco1erer was a faint oint of %ight on its shore< now3 from 0am$ridge3 on the +t%antic3 to the 6ni1ersity of 0a%ifornia3 at the *o%den *ate3 the torch of &now%edge has assed unti% there is a %ine of fire across the continent2 "hese %ights ha1e $een &ind%ed with infinite toi% and se%f.denia% < they ha1e $een fed with sacrifice3 as iration3 heroic wor&3 with $eautifu% and unfai%ing courage2 ?any torches ha1e $een &ind%ed $y them3 and in turn ha1e augmented their s %endor2 "his it is which gi1es the famous schoo%s their ho%d on the imagination of the wor%d3 and ma&es %esser schoo%s dear to our hearts..they are a%% homes of %ight2 E1ery schoo% is a torch from which other torches are to $e fired2 *eneration after generation di s its torches in the fire and goes its way down to the future to ma&e the highway $righter for those who come after2 "oday there are %am s in a%% our hands< $ut some are faint and intermittent3 %i&e the g%owworms on a summer night3 and others shine %i&e the stars2 "he great and $eautifu% s irits ha1e 1ery radiant s irits2 /ante was Ca s iritua% s %endor<C and there are many o1er whose ashes might we%% $e written that greatest of e ita hs which mar&s the gra1e of Fichte3 in the cemetery at 8er%in: C"he wise sha%% shine as the $rightness of the firmament3 and they that turn many to righteousness3 as the stars3 for e1er and e1er2C "he ro hets3 saints3 martyrs3 oets3 and teachers3 heroes of science3 ma&ers of states3 men of genius and character in affairs3 he% ers of their &ind..these are the torch.$earers of the ast2 ;ou ha1e $een %ighting and feeding your %am s2 Sha%% they f%ic&er faint%y in the wind of destiny3 or sha%% they shine with a steady g%ow3 fanned into a c%earer f%ame $y the ad1erse winds of the wor%dI "hese %am s in your hands are not to $e fi%%ed with &now%edge a%one< they are to $e fed $y the most recious things of %ife< and each age ours in its own oi%3 $eaten out of its innermost %ife as the oi% is $eaten out of the o%i1e2 Soft and c%ear shines the %am of chi%dhood3 fed $y o$edience and 4oy3 the one disti%%ed from the other< for it is out of o$edience that 4oy comes3 not3 as so many eo %e thin& to their tragic %oss3 from doing as one chooses and ha1ing one,s way2 E1ery 4oy has its source in o$edience2 "he greatest torch.$earer in the wor%d of the %ast century was3 erha s3 0har%es /arwin< the %ight which he he%d a%oft shone farther and $rought more new fie%ds of &now%edge into 1iew than any other %ight he%d $y any other man2 0har%es /arwin was o$edient to his tas&< a ha%f.

in1a%id3 se%f.denying%y3 with the utmost concentration3 treading that %one%y ath of o$ser1ation3 meditation3 and study which ena$%ed him at %ast3 feeding his torch with the 1ery su$stance of his %ife3 to ho%d it a%oft unti% it $ecame one of the s %endid f%ames of the wor%d2 So Father /amien3 one of the great com any of riests who at the ends of the wor%d are %aying down their %i1es with g%adness and 4oy3 feeding the %ight with sacrifice3 ga1e himse%f to the ser1ice of %e ers3 to $ecome a %e er himse%f< to whom fame came3 as it a%ways comes most $eautifu%%y to those who do not see& it2 "here is not an artist3 a statesman3 a reacher3 or a ro het of our time who has not trod the athway of o$edience2 "he %am of o$edience $urns %ow to.day3 and es ecia%%y in this country,2 "he no$%e mo1ement toward freedom of the %ast century which has %i$erated ha%f the wor%d from o%itica% o ression3 and is fast %i$erating the other ha%f3 has de%i1ered us from s%a1ery to unrea% and su erstitious ideas of *od and nature3 and has %ifted from the race the shadow of that distorted image of the Infinite Father which rested %i&e a c%oud o1er so many generations3 %i&e e1ery great mo1ement3 has $een carried so far that some of us ha1e come to thin& that our wi%% is the on%y %aw3 and ha1e forgotten that no$%e te(t of "ennyson,s3 C9ur wi%%s are ours to ma&e them thine2C "he o%d ath of o$edience and su$mission for the sa&e of the higher and finer things is the on%y athway to 4oy2 "he %aw$rea&ers who ut their im u%ses in %ace of the wi%% of the Infinite a%ways ma&e ready for some tragedy2 8ead the modern no1e% or the drama of the %ast twenty years3 and you wi%% see how the ursuit of ha iness without regard to the higher %aw or to the rights of others a%ways $ears its fruits in tragedyH "he other day a distinguished and 1enera$%e ainter3 in answer to the @uestion whether he waited for the ha y mood3 said: CBe1er2 I a%ways &ee at wor&3 and when the im u%se comes3 it finds me ready and o$edient2C 8eady and o$edientH How many times it ha ens that a young man starting out in some rofession fee%s that for the resent he wi%% gi1e himse%f freedom from hard wor&3 $ut that when the critica% moment comes and his hand is on the door of o ortunity3 then he wi%% ma&e himse%f readyH + man,s hand is ne1er on the door of o ortunity un%ess it is a hand a%ready made strong to ush $ac& that door3 and enter and ta&e ossession2 9 ortunity is ne1er used sa1e $y the man who is ready and o$edient2 "his is the secret of 4oy: Eee your wi%%s in su$4ection to the higher wi%%< su$4ect yourse%1es to the %aw of se%f.sacrifice and se%f.contro% in order that out of that a renticeshi which we are a%% ser1ing in this wor%d there may $e $orn that mastery the ro hecy of which is on e1ery facu%ty of man,s nature2 So far as genius $rings out fu%%y its wonderfu% treasures3 it is a%ways $y o$edience to the %aws of hea%th and %ife2 So far as sweetness and strength f%ower in human character3 it is a%ways out of the soi% of o$edience2 "HE "#+IBIB* 9F IB"E55E0" 8; W99/#9W WI5S9B ?r2 "oastmaster3 ?r2 President3 and *ent%emen:..I must confess to you that I came here with 1ery serious thoughts this e1ening< $ecause I ha1e $een %a$oring under the con1iction for a %ong time that the o$4ect of a uni1ersity is to educate3 and $ecause I am distur$ed $y the fact that I ha1e not seen the uni1ersities of this country achie1ing any remar&a$%e or disconcerting success in that direction2 I ha1e found e1erywhere the note which3 I must say3 I ha1e heard sounded again once or twice to. night..a note of a o%ogy for the inte%%ectua% side of the uni1ersity2 ;ou hear it at a%% uni1ersities2 5earning is on the defensi1e3 is actua%%y on the defensi1e3 among co%%ege men< and they are $eing as&ed $y way of concession to $ring that a%so within the circ%e of their interests2

Is it not time we sto t as&ing indu%gence for %earning and roc%aimed its so1ereigntyI Is it not time we reminded the co%%ege men of this country that they ha1e no right to any distincti1e %ace in any community3 un%ess they can show that they ha1e earned a right to ta&e it $y inte%%ectua% achie1ement I that if a uni1ersity is a %ace for distinction at a%%3 it must $e distinguished $y the con@uests of the mindI I3 for my art3 te%% you %ain%y that that is my motto3 and I ha1e entered the fie%d to fight for that thesis3 and that for that thesis on%y do I care to fight2 "he toastmaster of the e1ening said3 and said tru%y3 that this is the season when3 for me3 it was most difficu%t to $rea& away from the regu%ar engagements in which I am necessari%y in1o%1ed at home2 8ut when I was in1ited to a Phi 8eta Ea a $an@uet3 it had an unusua% sound2 I fe%t that that was the articu%ar &ind of in1itation which it was my duty and ri1i%ege to acce t2 9ne of the ro$%ems of the +merican uni1ersity now is how3 among a great many other com eting interests3 to gi1e a osition of distinction to men who win distinction in the c%ass.room2 Why don,t we gi1e the first scho%ars of the co%%ege the 1arsity ; here and the P at PrincetonI 8ecause3 after a%%3 you ha1e done the articu%ar thing which shou%d distinguish ;a%e er Princeton2 Bot that other things are not worth doing3 $ut they may $e done anywhere2 "hey may $e done in ath%etic c%u$s3 where there is no study< $ut this thing can $e done on%y here2 "his is the distincti1e mar& of the %ace2 + good many years ago3 4ust two wee&s $efore the mid. year e(aminations3 the facu%ty of Princeton was foo%ish enough to ermit a 1ery unwise e1ange%ist to come to the %ace and to u set the town2 +nd whi%e an undergraduate enthusiast was going from room to room to get the men out to the meetings3 he found one door secure%y fastened3 and u on it this notice: CI am a 0hristian3 and studying for e(aminations2C Bow3 I want to say that that was e(act%y what a 0hristian undergraduate ought to ha1e $een doing at that time of the year2 He ought not to ha1e $een attending re%igious meetings3 no matter how $eneficia% that wou%d $e to him2 He ought to ha1e $een studying for e(aminations3 not mere%y for the ur ose of assing them3 $ut from a sense of $ounden duty2 We get a good many men at Princeton from certain secondary schoo%s3 which say a great dea% a$out their earnest desire to cu%ti1ate character among their students3 and I hear a great dea% a$out character $eing the o$4ect of education2 I ta&e %ea1e to $e%ie1e that a man who cu%ti1ates his character conscious%y wi%% cu%ti1ate nothing e(ce t what wi%% ma&e him into%era$%e to his fe%%ow men2 If your o$4ect in %ife is to ma&e a fine fe%%ow of yourse%f3 you wi%% not succeed3 and you wi%% not $e acce ta$%e to rea%%y fine fe%%ows2 0haracter3 gent%emen3 is a $y. roduct2 It comes3 whether you wi%% or not3 as a conse@uence of a %ife de1oted to the nearest duty3 and the %ace in which character is successfu%%y cu%ti1ated3 if it $e a %ace of study3 is a %ace where study is the o$4ect and character the resu%t2 Bot %ong ago a gent%eman a roached me in great e(citement3 4ust after the entrance e(aminations2 He said we had made a great mista&e in not ta&ing in so and so from a certain schoo% which he named2 C8ut3C I said3 Che did not ass the entrance e(aminations2C He went o1er the $oy,s mora% e(ce%%ences again2 CPardon me3C I said3 Cyou do not understand2 He did not ass the en. trance e(aminations2 I $eg you to understand that if the +nge% *a$rie% a %ied for admission to Princeton 6ni1ersity and cou%d not ass the entrance e(aminations3 he wou%d not $e admitted2 He wou%d $e wasting his time2,, It seemed a new idea to him2 "he $oy he s o&e of had come from a schoo% which

cu%ti1ated character3 and he was a fine3 %o1a$%e fe%%ow3 with a resenta$%e character2 "herefore he ought to $e admitted to any uni1ersityI I fai% to see it from that oint of 1iew3 for a uni1ersity is an institution of ur ose2 We ha1e in some re1ious years had ity for young gent%emen who were not sufficient%y ac@uainted with the e%ements of a re aratory course2 "hey ha1e $een dro t at the mid.year e(aminations3 and I ha1e a%ways fe%t that we had $een gui%ty of an offense against good sense..that we ha1e made their arents s end money to no a1ai% and the youngsters themse%1es s end their time to no a1ai%2 +nd so I thin& that a%% uni1ersity men ought to rouse themse%1es now and understand what is the o$4ect of a uni1ersity2 "he o$4ect of a uni1ersity is inte%%ectua% training < as a uni1ersity its on%y o$4ect is inte%%ectua% training2 +mong a $ody of young men there ought to $e other things a%so< there ought to $e di1ersions to re%ease them from the constant strain of effort3 there ought to $e things that g%adden the heart and many ha y moments of %eisure< $ut as a uni1ersity3 our on%y o$4ect is inte%%ect2 "he reason why I chose the su$4ect that I am ermitted to s ea& u on to.night..the function of scho%arshi Gwas that I wanted to oint out the function of scho%arshi not mere%y in the uni1ersity3 $ut in the nation2 In a country constituted as ours is3 the re%ation in which education stands to the genera% %ife of the eo %e is a 1ery im ortant one2 9ur who%e theory of go1ernment has $een $ased u on an en%ightened citiDenshi 3 and therefore the function of scho%arshi must $e for the nation as we%% as for the uni1ersity itse%f2 I mean the function of such scho%arshi as undergraduates get2 "hat is not a 1io%ent amount in any case2 ;ou can not ma&e a scho%ar of a man3 e(ce t $y some %argess of Pro1idence in his ma&e.u 3 $y the time he is twenty.one or twenty.two years of age2 "here ha1e $een gent%emen who ha1e made a re utation $y twenty.one or twenty.two3 $ut it is genera%%y in some %itt%e ro1ince of &now%edge3 so sma%% that a sma%% effort can con@uer it2 ;ou do not ma&e scho%ars $y that time< you do not often ma&e scho%ars $y se1enty that are worth $oasting of2 "he rocess of scho%arshi 3 so far as the rea% scho%ar is concerned3 is an unending rocess3 and &now%edge is ushed forward on%y a 1ery %itt%e $y his $est efforts2 It is e1ident3 of course3 that the most you can contri$ute to a man in his undergraduate years is not the com %ete e@ui ment in e(act &now%edge which is characteristic of the scho%ar3 $ut the ins iration of the s irit of scho%arshi 2 "he most that you can gi1e a youngster is the s irit of the scho%ar2 Bow3 the s irit of the scho%ar in a country %i&e ours must $e a s irit re%ated to the nationa% %ife2 It can not3 therefore3 $e a s irit of edantry2 I su ose that it is a sufficient wor&ing conce tion of edantry to say that it is &now%edge di1orced from %ife2 It is &now%edge so c%oseted3 so desiccated3 so stri t of the significances of %ife3 that it is a thing a art and not connected with the 1ita% rocesses in the wor%d a$out us2 "here is a great %ace in e1ery nation for the s irit of scho%arshi 3 and it seems to me that there ne1er was a time when the s irit of scho%arshi was more needed in affairs than it is in this country at this time2 8ut there is no %ace for edantry2 We are thin&ing 4ust now with our emotions and not with our minds< we are mo1ed $y im u%se3 and not $y 4udgment2 We are drawing away from things with $%ind anti athy2 "he s irit of &now%edge is this3 that you must $ase your conc%usions on ade@uate grounds2 ?a&e sure that you are going to the rea% sources of &now%edge3 disco1ering what the rea% facts are $efore you mo1e forward to the ne(t rocess3 which is the rocess of c%ear thin&ing2 8y c%ear thin&ing I do not mean %ogica% thin&ing2 I do not mean that %ife is $ased u on any %ogica% system whate1er2 5ife is essentia%%y i%%ogica%2 "he wor%d is go1erned $y a tumu%tuous house of commons made

u of the assions3 and we shou%d ray *od that the good assions shou%d out1ote the $ad assions2 8ut the mo1ement of im u%se3 of moti1e3 is the stuff of assion3 and therefore c%ear thin&ing a$out %ife is not %ogica%3 symmetrica% thin&ing< it is inter retati1e thin&ing3 thin&ing that sees the secret moti1e of things3 thin&ing that enetrates to the dee %aces where are the u%ses of %ife2 Scho%arshi ought to %ay these im u%ses $are3 4ust as the hysician can %ay $are the seat of %ife in our $odies2 "hat is not scho%arshi which goes to wor& u on the mere forma% edantry of %ogica% reasoning3 $ut that is scho%arshi which searches for the heart of a man2 "he s irit of scho%arshi gi1es us a%so catho%icity of thin&ing3 the readiness to understand that there wi%% constant%y swing into our &en new items not dreamed of in our hi%oso hy< the readiness not sim %y to draw our conc%usion from the data that we ha1e3 $ut a%so to understand that a%% this is under constant mutation3 and that therefore new hases of %ife wi%% come u on us and a new ad4ustment of our conc%usions wi%% $e necessary2 9ur thin&ing must $e detached and disinterested thin&ing2 "he articu%ar o$4ection that I ha1e to the undergraduate,s forming his course of study on his future rofession is this..that from start to finish3 from the time he enters the uni1ersity unti% he finishes his career3 his thought wi%% $e centered u on articu%ar interests2 He wi%% $e immersed in the things that touch his rofit and %oss3 and a man is not free to thin& inside that territory2 If his $read and $utter are going to $e affected3 if he is a%ways thin&ing in the terms of his own rofession3 he is not thin&ing for the nation2 He is thin&ing of himse%f: and3 whether he $e conscious of it or not3 he can ne1er throw these tramme%s off2 He wi%% on%y thin& as a doctor3 or as a %awyer3 or as a $an&er2 He wi%% not $e free in the wor%d of &now%edge and in the 1ast circ%e of interests which ma&e u the great citiDenshi of the country2 It is necessary that the s irit of scho%arshi shou%d $e a detached3 disinterested s irit3 not immersed in a articu%ar interest2 "hat is the function of scho%arshi in a country %i&e ours3 to su %y2 not heat $ut %ight3 to suffuse things with the ca%m radiance of reason3 to see to it that men do not act hasti%y3 $ut that they act considerate%y3 that they o$ey the truth2 "he fau%t of our age is the fau%t of hasty action3 of remature 4udgments3 of a reference for i%%. considered action o1er no action at a%%2 ?en who insist u on standing sti%% and doing a %itt%e thin&ing $efore they do any acting are ca%%ed reactionaries2 "hey want3 in fact3 mere%y to react to a state in which they can $e a%%owed to thin&2 "hey want for a %itt%e whi%e to withdraw from the turmoi% of arty contro1ersy and see where they stand $efore they commit themse%1es and their country to action from which it may not $e ossi$%e to withdraw2 "he who%e fau%t of the modern age is that it a %ies to e1erything a fa%se standard of efficiency2 Efficiency with us is accom %ishment3 whether the accom %ishment $e $y 4ust and we%%. considered means or not< and this standard of achie1ement it is that is de$asing the mora%s of our age3 the inte%%ectua% mora%s of our age2 We do not sto to do things thorough%y< we do not sto to &now why we do things2 We see an error and we hasti%y correct it $y a greater error< and then go on to cry that the age is corru t2 +nd so it is3 gent%emen3 that I try in my thought to 4oin the function of the uni1ersity with the great function of the nationa% %ife2 "he %ife of this country is going to $e re1o%utioniDed and urified on%y when the uni1ersities of this country wa&e u to the fact that their on%y reason for e(isting is inte%%ectua%3 that the o$4ects that I ha1e set forth3 so far as undergraduate %ife is concerned3 are the on%y %egitimate o$4ects2 +nd e1ery man shou%d cra1e for his uni1ersity rimacy in these things3 rimacy in other things a%so if they may $e $rought in without enmity

to it3 $ut the sacrifice of e1erything that stands in the way of these2 For my art3 I do not $e%ie1e that it is ath%eticism which stands in the way2 +th%etics ha1e $een associated with the achie1ements of the mind in many a successfu% ci1i%iDation2 "here is no difficu%ty in uniting 1igor of $ody with achie1ement of mind3 $ut there is a good dea% of difficu%ty in uniting the achie1ement of the mind with a thousand distracting socia% inf%uences3 which ta&e u a%% our am$itions3 which a$sor$ a%% our thoughts3 which %ead to a%% our arrangements of %ife3 and %ea1e the uni1ersity authorities the residuum of our attention3 after we are through with the things that we are rea%%y interested in2 CWe a$so%ute%y changed the who%e course of study at Princeton and re1o%utioniDed the methods of instruction without rousing a ri %e on the surface of the $ody of the a%umni2 "hey said that those things were inte%%ectua%3 were our $usiness2 8ut 4ust so soon as we thought to touch the socia% art of the uni1ersity3 there was not on%y a ri %e3 $ut the who%e $ody was torn to its de ths and had touched the rea% things2 "hese %ay in trium ha% com etition with the ro1ince of the mind3 and men,s attention was so a$so%ute%y a$sor$ed in them that it was im ossi$%e for us to get their interest en%isted on the rea% underta&ings of the uni1ersity itse%f2 "hat is true of e1ery uni1ersity I &now anything a$out in this country< and if the facu%ties in this country want to reca ture the ground they ha1e %ost3 they must $egin retty soon3 and they must go into the $att%e with their $ridges $urned $ehind them3 so that it wi%% $e of no a1ai% to retreat2 If I had a 1oice to which a%% the uni1ersity men of this country wou%d %isten3 that is the endea1or to which my am$ition wou%d %ead me to ca%%2

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+8#+H+? 5IB095B 8; 899EE# "2 W+SHIB*"9B ;ou as& that which he found a iece of ro erty and turned into a free +merican citiDen to s ea& to you tonight on +$raham 5inco%n2 I am not fitted $y ancestry or training to $e your teacher to.night3 for3 as I ha1e stated3 I was $orn a s%a1e2 ?y first &now%edge of +$raham 5inco%n came in this way: I was awa&ened ear%y one morning $efore the dawn of day3 as I %ay wra t in a $und%e of rags on the dirt f%oor of our s%a1e ca$in3 $y the rayers of my mother3 4ust $efore %ea1ing for her day,s wor&3 as she was &nee%ing o1er my $ody3 earnest%y raying that +$raham 5inco%n might succeed3 and that one day she and her $oy might $e free2 ;ou gi1e me the o ortunity here this e1ening to ce%e$rate with you and the nation the answer to that rayer2 Says the *reat 8oo& somewhere3 C"ho a man die3 yet sha%% he %i1e2C If this is true of the ordinary man3 how much more true is it of the hero of the hour and the hero of the century.. +$raham 5inco%nH 9ne hundred years of the %ife and inf%uence of 5inco%n is the story of the strugg%es3 the tria%s3 am$itions3 and trium hs of the eo %e of our com %e( +merican ci1i%iDation2 Interwo1en into the war and woof of this human com %e(ity is the mo1ing story of men and women of near%y e1ery race and co%or in their rogress from s%a1ery to freedom3 from o1erty to wea%th3 from wea&ness to ower3 from ignorance to inte%%igence2 Enit into the %ife of +$raham 5inco%n is the story and success of the nation in the $%ending of a%% tongues3 re%igions3 co%ors3 races3 into one com osite nation3 %ea1ing each grou and race free to %i1e its own se arate socia% %ife3 and yet a%% a art of the great who%e2 If a man die3 sha%% he %i1eI +nswering this @uestion as a %ied to our martyred President3 erha s you e( ect me to confine my words of a reciation to the great $oon which3 through him3 was conferred u on my race2 ?y undying gratitude and that of ten mi%%ions of my race for this and yet moreH "o ha1e $een the instrument used $y Pro1idence through which four mi%%ions of s%a1es3 now grown into ten mi%%ions of free citiDens3 were made free3 wou%d $ring eterna% fame within itse%f3 $ut this is not the on%y c%aim that 5inco%n has u on our sense of gratitude and a reciation2 8y the side of +rmstrong and *arrison3 5inco%n %i1es today2 In the 1ery highest sense he %i1es in the resent more otent%y than fifty years ago3 for that which is seen is tem ora%3 that which is unseen is eterna%2 He %i1es in the 323000 young men and women of the negro race %earning trades and successfu% occu ations< in the 2002000 farms ac@uired $y those he freed< in the more than 4003000 homes $ui%t< in the forty.si( $an&s esta$%ished and 103000 stores owned< in the U))030003000 worth of ta(a$%e ro erty in hand< in the 2!3000 u$%ic schoo%s e(isting with 303000 teachers< in the 170 industria% schoo%s and co%%eges< in the 233000 ministers and 2'3000 churches2 8ut3 a$o1e a%% this3 he %i1es in the steady and una%tera$%e determination of ten mi%%ions of $%ac& citiDens to continue to c%im$ year $y year the %adder of the highest usefu%ness and to erfect themse%1es in strong3 ro$ust character2 For ma&ing a%% this ossi$%e 5inco%n %i1es2

8ut3 again3 for a higher reason he %i1es to.night in e1ery corner of the #e u$%ic2 "o set the hysica% man free is much2 "o set the s iritua% man free is more2 So often the &ee er is on the inside of the rison $ars and the risoner on the outside2 +s an indi1idua%3 gratefu% as I am to 5inco%n for freedom of $ody3 my gratitude is sti%% greater for freedom of sou%..the %i$erty which ermits one to %i1e u in that atmos here where he refuses to ermit sectiona% or racia% hatred to drag down3 to war and narrow his sou%2 "he signing of the Emanci ation Proc%amation was a great e1ent3 and yet it was $ut the sym$o% of another3 sti%% greater3 and more momentous2 We who ce%e$rate this anni1ersary shou%d not forget that that same en which ga1e freedom to four mi%%ions of +frican s%a1es3 at the same time struc& the shac&%es from the sou%s of twenty. se1en mi%%ions of +mericans of another co%or2 In any country3 regard%ess of what its %aws say3 where1er eo %e act u on the idea that the disad1antage of one man is the good of another3 there s%a1ery e(ists2 Where1er in any country the who%e eo %e fee% that the ha iness of i%% is de endent u on the ha iness of the wea&est3 there freedom e(ists2 In a$o%ishing s%a1ery3 5inco%n roc%aimed the rinci %e that3 e1en in the case of the hum$%est and wea&est of man. &ind3 the we%fare of each is sti%% the good of a%%2 In re. esta$%ishing in this country the rinci %e that3 at $ot. tom3 the interests of humanity and of the indi1idua% are one3 he freed men,s sou%s from s iritua% $ondage< he freed them to mutua% he% fu%ness2 Henceforth no man of any race3 either in the Borth or in the South3 need fee% constrained to fear or hate his $rother2 8y the same to&en that 5inco%n made +merica free3 he ushed $ac& the $oundaries of freedom3 and fair %ay wi%% ne1er cease to s read and grow in ower ti%% throughout the wor%d a%% men sha%% &now the truth3 and the truth sha%% ma&e them free2 5inco%n in his day was wise enough to recogniDe that which is true in the resent3 and for a%% time: that in a state of s%a1ery and ignorance man renders the %owest and most cost%y form of ser1ice to his fe%%ows2 In a state of freedom and en%ightenment he renders the highest and most he% fu% form of ser1ice2 "he wor%d is fast %earning that of a%% forms of s%a1ery there is none that is so hurtfu% and degrading as that form of s%a1ery which tem ts one human $eing to hate another $y reason of his race or co%or2 9ne man can not ho%d another man down in the ditch without remaining down in the ditch with him2 9ne who goes through %ife with his eyes c%osed against a%% that is good in another race is wea&ened and circumscri$ed3 as one who fights in a $att%e with one hand tied $ehind him2 5inco%n was in the truest sense great $ecause he unfettered himse%f2 He c%im$ed u out of the 1a%%ey3 where his 1ision was narrowed and wea&ened $y the fog and miasma3 onto the mountain to 3 where in a ure and unc%ouded atmos here he cou%d see the truth which ena$%ed him to rate a%% men at their true worth2 *rowing out of this anni1ersary season and atmos here3 may there crysta%%iDe a reso%1e throughout the nation that on such a mountain the +merican eo %e wi%% stri1e to %i1e2 We owe3 then3 to 5inco%n hysica% freedom3 mora% freedom3 and yet this is not a%%2 "here is a

de$t of gratitude which we3 as indi1idua%s3 no matter of what race or nation3 must recogniDe as due +$raham 5inco%n..not for what he did as 0hief E(ecuti1e of the nation3 $ut for what he did as a man2 In this rise from the most a$4ect o1erty and ignorance to a osition of high usefu%ness and ower3 he taught the wor%d one of the greatest of a%% %essons2 In fighting his own $att%e u from o$scurity and s@ua%or3 he fought the $att%e of e1ery other indi1idua% and race that is down3 and so he% ed to u%% u e1ery human $eing who was down2 Peo %e so often forget that $y e1ery inch that the %owest man craw%s u 3 he ma&es it easier for e1ery other man to get u 2 "o.day3 throughout the wor%d3 $e. cause 5inco%n %i1ed3 strugg%ed3 and trium hed3 e1ery $oy who is ignorant3 is in o1erty3 is des ised or discouraged3 ho%ds his head a %itt%e higher2 His heart $eats a %itt%e faster3 his am$ition to do something and $e something is a %itt%e stronger3 $ecause 5inco%n $%aDed the way2 "o my race3 the %ife of +$raham 5inco%n has its s ecia% %esson at this oint in our career2 In so far as his %ife em hasiDes dogged determination and courage< courage to a1oid the su erficia%3 courage to ersistent%y see& the su$stance instead of the shadow3 it oints the road for eo %e to tra1e%2 +s a race we are %earning3 I $e%ie1e3 in an increasing degree3 that the $est way for us to honor the memory of our emanci ation is $y see&ing to imitate him2 5i&e 5inco%n3 the negro race shou%d see& to $e sim %e without $igotry3 and without ostentation2 "here is great ower in sim %icity2 We3 as a race3 shou%d3 %i&e 5inco%n3 ha1e mora% courage to $e what we are3 and not retend to $e what we are not2 We shou%d &ee in mind that no one can degrade us e(ce t ourse%1es< that if we are worthy3 no inf%uence can defeat us2 5i&e other races3 the negro wi%% often meet o$stac%es3 often $e sore%y tried and tem ted< $ut we must &ee in mind that freedom3 in the $roadest and highest sense3 has ne1er $een a $e@uest< it has $een a con@uest2 In the fina% test3 the success of our race wi%% $e in ro. ortion to the ser1ice that it renders to the wor%d2 In the %ong run3 the $adge of ser1ice is the $adge of so1ereignty2 With a%% his other e%ements of strength3 +$raham 5inco%n ossest in the highest degree atience and3 as I ha1e said3 courage2 "he highest form of courage is not a%ways that e(hi$ited on the $att%e.fie%d in the midst of the $%are of trum ets and the wa1ing of $anners2 "he highest courage is of the 5inco%n &ind2 It is the same &ind of courage3 made ossi$%e $y the new %ife and the new ossi$i%ities furnished $y 5inco%n,s Proc%amation3 dis %ayed $y thousands of men and women of my race e1ery year who are going out from "us&egee and other negro institutions in the South to %ift u their fe%%ows2 When they go3 often into %one%y and sec%uded districts3 with %itt%e thought of sa%ary3 with %itt%e thought of ersona% we%fare3 no drums $eat3 no $anners f%y3 no friends stand $y to cheer them on< $ut these $ra1e young sou%s who are ro%onging schoo% terms3 teaching the eo %e to $uy homes3 $ui%d houses3 and %i1e decent %i1es3 are fighting the $att%es of this country 4ust as tru%y and $ra1e%y as any ersons who go forth to fight $att%es against a foreign foe2 In aying my tri$ute of res ect to the *reat Emanci ator of my race3 I desire to say a word here and now in $eha%f of an e%ement of $ra1e and true white men of the South3 who3 tho they saw in 5inco%n,s o%icy the ruin of a%% they $e%ie1e in and ho e for2 ha1e %oya%%y acce ted the resu%ts of the 0i1i% War3 and are to.day wor&ing with a courage few eo %e in the Borth can understand3 to free the negro in the South and com %ete the emanci ation the 5inco%n $egan2

+nd3 fina%%y3 gathering ins iration and encouragement from this hour and 5inco%n,s %ife3 I %edge to you and to the nation that my race3 in so far as I can s ea& for it3 which in the ast3 whether in ignorance or inte%%igence3 whether in s%a1ery or in freedom3 has a%ways $een true to the Stars and Stri es and to the highest and $est interests of this country3 wi%% stri1e to so de ort itse%f that it sha%% ref%ect nothing tut the highest credit u on the who%e eo %e in the Borth and in the South2 E659*; 9F WEB/E55 PHI55IPS 8; *E9#*E WI55I+? 06#"IS /e%i1ered $efore the ?unici a% +uthorities of 8oston3 + ri% 1!3 1!!4 ?assachusetts is a%ways rich in fitting 1oices to commemorate the 1irtues and ser1ices of her i%%ustrious citiDens3 and in e1ery strain of affectionate admiration and thoughtfu% discrimination3 the %egis%ature3 the u%. it3 and the ress..his o%d associates3 who saw the g%ory of his rime.. the younger generation which cherishes the tradition of his de1oted %ife..ha1e s o&en the raise of CWende%% Phi%%i s2 8ut his nati1e city has 4ust%y thought that the great wor& of his %ife was not %oca% or %imited< that it was as %arge as %i$erty and as $road as humanity3 and that his name3 therefore3 is not the treasure of a State on%y3 $ut a nationa% ossession2 +n orator whose consecrated e%o@uence3 %i&e the music of +m hion rising a$o1e the wa%% of "he$es3 was a chief force in gi1ing to the +merican 6nion the im regna$%e defense of freedom3 is a common $enefactor < the West may we%% answer to the East3 the South to the Borth3 and 0aro%ina and 0a%ifornia3 ?innesota and Bew ;or&3 ming%e their sorrow with that of Bew Eng%and3 and own in his death a common $erea1ement2 +t other times3 with e1ery mournfu% ceremony of res ect3 the commonwea%th and its chief city ha1e %amented their dead sons3 cons icuous arty %eaders3 who3 in high officia% %ace3 and with the forma% commission of the State3 ha1e worthi%y maintained the ancient renown and the %ofty faith of ?assachusetts2 8ut it is a ri1ate citiDen whom we commemorate to.day3 yet a u$%ic %eader< a man a%ways foremost in o%itica% contro1ersy3 $ut who he%d no office3 and $e%onged to no o%itica% arty< who swayed 1otes3 $ut who se%dom 1oted3 and ne1er for a mere arty ur ose< and who3 for the %arger art of his %ife3 s urned the 0onstitution as a $ond of ini@uity3 and the 6nion as a yo&e of o ression2 ;et3 the officia% authority which decrees this commemoration ..this great assem$%y which honors his memory.. the ress3 which from sea to sea has ce%e$rated his name..and I3 who at your summons stand here to s ea& his eu%ogy3 are a%% %oya% to arty3 a%% re1ere the 0onstitution and maintain the 6nion3 a%% ho%d the $a%%ot to $e the most sacred trust3 and 1oting to $e the highest duty of the citiDen2 +s we reca%% the story of that %ife3 the s ectac%e of today is one of the most significant in our history2 "his memoria% rite is not a tri$ute to officia% ser1ice3 to %iterary genius3 to scientific distinction< it is homage to ersona% character2 It is the so%emn u$%ic dec%aration that a %ife of transcendent urity of ur ose3 $%ended with commanding owers3 de1oted with a$so%ute unse%fishness3 and with amaDing resu%ts3 to the we%fare of the country and of humanity3 is3 in the +merican re u$%ic3 an e(am %e so ins iring3 a atriotism so %ofty3 and a u$%ic ser1ice so $eneficent3 that3 in contem %ating them3 discordant o inions3 differing 4udgments3 and the shar sting of contro1ersia% s eech3 1anish %i&e frost in a f%ood of sunshine2

It is not the Samue% +dams who was im atient of Washington3 and who dou$ted the 0onstitution3 $ut the Samue% +dams of Faneui% Ha%%3 of the 0ommittee of 0orres ondence3 of 0oncord and 5e(ington..Samue% +dams3 the father of the #e1o%ution3 whom ?assachusetts and +merica remem$er and re1ere2 "he #e1o%utionary tradition was the nati1e air of Wende%% Phi%%i s2 When he was $orn in this eighty3 se1enty. three years ago %ast Bo1em$er3 some of the chief #e1o%utionary figures sti%% %ingered2 7ohn +dams was %i1ing at Auincy3 and "homas 7efferson at ?ontice%%o< E%$ridge *erry was *o1ernor of the State3 7ames ?adison was President3 and the second war with Eng%and was at hand2 Phi%%i s was nine years o%d when3 in 1!203 the most im ortant de$ate after the ado tion of the 0onstitution3 the de$ate of whose tumu%tuous cu%mination and trium hant c%ose he was to $e the great orator3 $egan3 and the second heroic e och of our history3 in which he was a master figure3 o ened in the %ong and threatening contest o1er the admission of ?issouri2 6nheeding the transactions which were sha&ing the %and and sett%ing the scene of his career3 the young $oy3 of the $est Bew Eng%and %ineage and ros ects3 %ayed u on 8eacon Hi%%3 and at the age of si(teen entered Har1ard 0o%%ege2 His c%assmates reca%% his man%y ride and reser1e3 with the charming manner3 the de%ightfu% con1ersation3 and the aff%uence of &ind%y humor3 which were ne1er %ost2 He sauntered and gent%y studied< not a de1oted student3 not in the $ent of his mind3 nor in the s ecia% direction of sym athy3 forecasting the re. former3 $ut a%ready the orator and the easy master of the co%%ege %atform< and sti%%3 in the memory of his o%d com anions3 he wa%&s those co%%ege aths in unfading youth3 a figure of atrician ort3 of so1ereign grace..a rince coming to his &ingdom2 "he tran@ui% years at the uni1ersity ended3 and he graduated in 1!313 the year of Bat2 "urner,s insurrection in Firginia< the year3 a%so3 in which ?r2 *arrison issued "he 5i$erator3 and3 for une@ui1oca%%y roc%aiming the rinci %e of the /ec%aration of Inde endence3 was denounced as a u$%ic enemy2 5i&e other gent%y nurtured 8oston $oys3 Phi%%i s $egan the study of %aw3 and3 as it roceeded3 dou$t%ess the sirens sang to him3 as to the no$%e youth of e1ery country and time2 If3 musing o1er 0o&e and 8%ae&stone3 in the fu%% consciousness of am %e owers and of fortunate o ortunities3 he sometimes forecast the future3 he dou$t%ess saw himse%f succeeding Fisher +mes3 and Harrison *ray 9tis3 and /anie% We$ster3 rising from the $ar to the %egis%ature3 from the %egis%ature to the Senate3 from the Senate..who &new whitherI..the ido% of society3 the a %auded orator3 the $ri%%iant cham ion of the e%egant re ose and the cu%ti1ated conser1atism of ?assachusetts2 "he de%ight of socia% ease3 the refined en4oyment of taste in %etters and art3 o u%ent %eisure3 rofessiona% distinction3 gratified am$ition..a%% these came and whis ered to the young student2 +nd it is the force that can tran@ui%%y ut aside such $%andishments with a smi%e3 and acce t a%ienation3 out%awry3 ignominy3 and a arent defeat3 if need $e3 no %ess than the courage which gra %es with o1erty and outward hardshi 3 and c%im$s o1er them to word%y ros erity3 which is the test of the finest manhood2 9n%y he who fu%%y &nows the worth of what he renounces gains the true $%essing of renunciation2 "he time durinar which Phi%%i s was studying %aw was the hour of the rofoundest mora% a athy in the history of this country2 "he fe1er of re1o%utionary fee%ing was %ong since s ent3 and that of the fina% anti.s%a1ery contest was $ut 4ust &ind%ed2 "he @uestion of s%a1ery3 indeed3 had ne1er $een @uite forgotten2 "here was a%ways an anti. s%a1ery sentiment in the country3

$ut there was a%so a s%a1ery interest3 and the in1ention of the cotton.gin in 17!- ga1e s%a1ery the most owerfu% and insidious im u%se that it had e1er recei1ed2 +t once commercia% greed was a%%ied with o%itica% ad1antage and socia% ower3 and the acti1e anti.s%a1ery sentiment ra id%y dec%ined2 "en years after the in1ention of the cotton.gin3 the *enera% 0on1ention of the +$o%ition Societies de %ored the decay of u$%ic interest in emanci ation2 Forty years %ater3 in 1!333 whi%e Phi%%i s was sti%% studying %aw3 the 1eteran Pennsy%1ania Society %amented that since 17-4 it had seen one after another of those societies dis$and3 unti% it was %eft a%most a%one to mourn the uni1ersa% a athy2 When Wende%% Phi%%i s was admitted to the $ar in 1!342 the s%a1e interest in the 6nited States3 entrenched in the constitution3 in trade3 in the church3 in society3 in historic tradition3 and in the re4udice of race3 had a%ready $ecome3 a%tho unconscious%y to the country3 one of the most owerfu% forces in the wor%d2 "he Eng%ish throne in 1'2)3 the o%d French monarchy in 17!03 the Eng%ish aristocracy at the $eginning of the century3 were not so strong as s%a1ery in this country fifty years ago2 "he gras of Eng%and u on the +merican co%onies $efore the #e1o%ution was not so sure3 and was ne1er so menacing to %i$erty u on this continent3 as the gras of s%a1ery u on the 6nion in the %easant days when the young %awyer sat in his office care%ess of the anti.s%a1ery agitation3 and 4esting with his o%d co%%ege comrades o1er the c%ients who did not come2 8ut on an 9cto$er afternoon in 1!3)3 whi%e he was sti%% sitting e( ectant in his office3 the %ong. awaited c%ient came3 $ut in what an amaDing formH "he young %awyer was es ecia%%y a 8oston $oy2 He %o1ed his nati1e city with that %ofty ride and intensity of %oca% affection which are ecu%iar to her citiDens2 CI was $orn in 8oston3C he said %ong afterward3 Cand the good name of the o%d town is hound u with e1ery fi$er of my heart2C In the mi%d afternoon his windows were o en and the sound of unusua% distur$ance drew him from his office2 He hastened a%ong the street3 and sudden%y3 a stone,s throw from the scene of the 8oston i%assacre3 in the 1ery shadow of the o%d State House3 he $ehe%d in 8oston a s ectac%e which 8oston can not now concei1e2 He saw +merican women insu%ted for $efriending their innocent sisters3 whose chi%dren were so%d from their arms2 He saw an +merican citiDen assai%ed $y a furious mo$ in the city of 7ames 9tis for saying with 7ames 9tis that a man,s right to %i$erty is inherent and ina%iena$%e2 Himse%f a citiDen.so%dier3 he %oo&ed to see the mayesty of the eo %e maintaining the authority of %aw< $ut3 to his own start%ed sur riDe3 he saw that the rightfu% defenders of %aw against the mo$ were themse%1es the mo$2 "he city whose daunt%ess free s eech had taught a country how to $e inde endent he saw raising a arricida% hand against its arent..5i$erty2 It was enough2 +s the 4ai% doors c%osed u on *arrison to sa1e his %ife3 *arrison and his cause had won their most owerfu% and renowned a%%y2 With the setting of that 9cto$er sun3 1anished fore1er the career of ros erous ease3 he gratification of ordinary am$ition3 which the genius and he accom %ishment of Wende%% Phi%%i s had seemed to fore. oi%2 ;es3 the %ong. awaited c%ient had come at %ast3 scarred3 scorned3 and forsa&en3 that cowering and friend%ess c%ient was wronged and degraded humanity2 "he great sou% saw and understood2 CSo nigh is grandeur to our dust3 So near is *od to man3 When duty whis ers %ow3 "hou must3

"he youth re %ies3 I can2C +%ready the 8oston $oy fe%t what he had afterward said: ,, I %o1e ine( ressi$%y these streets of 8oston o1er which my mother %ed my $a$y feet3 and if *od grants me time enough2 I wi%% ma&e them too ure for the footste s of a s%a1e2C +nd we3 fe%%ow citiDens3 who reca%% the %ife and the man3 the untiring sacrifice3 the com %ete surrender3 do we not hear in the soft air of that %ong.1anished 9cto$er day3 far a$o1e the riot of the stormy street3 the $enediction that he cou%d not hear3 $ut whose inf%uence $reathed a%ways from the ineffa$%e sweetness of his smi%e and the gracious courtesy of his manner: ,, Inasmuch as thou hast done it to the %east of these my $rethren3 thou hast done it unto me2,, "he scene of that day is an i%%ustration of the time2 +s we %oo& $ac& u on it it is incredi$%e2 8ut it was not unti% 5o1e4oy fe%%3 whi%e defending his ress at +%ton3 in Bo1em$er3 1!373 that an +merican citiDen was &i%%ed $y a racing mo$ for dec%aring in a free State the right of innocent men and women to their ersona% %i$erty2 "his tragedy3 %i&e the dead%y $%ow at 0har%es Summer in the Senate cham$er3 twenty years afterward3 awed the who%e country2 with a sense of 1ast and momentous eri%2 "he country has 4ust $een start%ed $y the terri$%e riot at 0incinnati3 which s rang from the u$%ic consciousness that $y crafty %ega% @ui$$%ing crime had $ecome secure2 8ut the out$rea& was at once and uni1ersa%%y condemned $ecause3 in this country3 whate1er the wrong may $e3 reform $y riot is a%ways worse than the wrong2 "he +%ton riot3 howe1er3 had no redeeming im u%se2 It was the 1ery frenDy of %aw%essness3 a sudden and ghast%y g%im se of the un@uencha$%e fires of assion that were $urning under the seeming eace and ros erity of the 6nion2 How fierce and far.reaching those assions were3 was seen not on%y in the riot itse%f3 $ut in the refusa% of Faneui% Ha%% for a u$%ic meeting to denounee the a a%%ing wrong to +merican %i$erty which had $een done in I%%inois3 %est the atriotic rotest of the meeting shou%d $e inter reted $y the country as the 1oice of 8oston2 8ut the refusa% was considered3 and ne1er since the eo %e of 8oston thronged Faneui% Ha%% on the day after the massacre in State Street had that ancient ha%% seen a more so%emn and dignified assem$%y2 It was the more so%emn3 the more significant3 $ecause the e(cited mu%titude was no %onger3 as in the #e1o%utionary day3 ins ired $y one unanimous and o1erwhe%ming ur ose to assert and maintain %i$erty of s eech as the $u%war& of a%% other %i$erty2 It was an unwonted and fore$oding scene2 +n e1i% s irit was in the air2 When the seem%y rotest against the monstrous crime had $een s o&en3 and the ro er duty of the day was done3 a 1oice was heard3 the 1oice of the high officer so%emn%y sworn to rosecute in the name of ?assachusetts e1ery 1io%ation of %aw3 dec%aring3 in Faneui% Ha%%3 si(ty years after the $att%e of 8un&er Hi%%3 and amid a how%ing storm of a %ause3 that an +merican citiDen who was ut to death $y a mad crowd of his fe%%ow citiDens for defending his right of free s eech died as the foo% dieth2 8oston has seen dar& days3 $ut ne1er a moment so dar& as that2 Se1en years $efore We$ster had said3 in the famous words that ?assachusetts $inds as front%ets $etween her eyes3 C"here are 8oston and 0oncord3 and 5e(ington and 8un&er Hi%%3 and there they wi%% remain fore1er2C Had they a%ready 1anished I CWas the s irit of the #e1o%u. tion @uite e(tinctI In the 1ery crad%e of %i$erty did no son sur1i1e to awa&e its s%um$ering echoes 1 8y the grace

of *od such a son there was2 He had come with the mu%titude3 and he had heard with sym athy and a ro1a% the s eeches that condemned the wrong< $ut when the crue% 1oice 4ustified the murderers of 5o1e4oy3 the heart of the young man $urned within him2 "his s eech3 he said to him. se%f3 must $e answered2 +s the ma%ign strain roceeded3 the 8oston $oy3 a%% on fire3 with 0oncord and 5e(ington tugging at his heart3 unconscious%y murmured3 ,CSuch a s eech in Faneui% Ha%% must $e answered in Faneui% Ha%%2C CWhy not answer it yourse%fIC whis ered a neigh$or who o1erheard him2 CHe% me to the %atform and I wi%%C< and ushing and strugg%ing through the dense and threatening crowd the young man reached the %atform3 was %ifted u on it3 and3 ad1ancing to s ea&3 was greeted with a roar of hosti%e cries2 8ut riding the whir%wind2 undismayed3 as for many a year afterward he directed the same wi%d storm3 he stood u on the %atform in a%% the $eauty and grace of im eria% youth..the *ree&s wou%d ha1e said a god descended..and in words that touched the mind and heart and conscience of that 1ast mu%titude3 as with fire from hea1en3 reca%%ing 8oston to herse%f3 he sa1ed his nati1e city and her crad%e of %i$erty from the damning disgrace of stoning the first martyr in the great strugg%e for ersona% freedom2 C?r2 0hairman3C he said3 Cwhen I heard the gent%eman %ay down rinci %es which %aced the rioters3 incendiaries3 and murderers of +%ton side $y side with 9tis and Hancoc&3 and Auincy and +dams3 I thought those ictured %i s wou%d ha1e $ro&en into a 1oice to re$u&e the recreant +merican..the s%anderer of the dead2,, +nd e1en as he s o&e the 1ision was fu%fi%%ed2 9nce more its nati1e music rang through Faneui% Ha%%2 In the orator,s own $urning words those ictured %i s did $rea& into immorta% re$u&e2 In Wende%% Phi%%i s3 g%owing with ho%y indignation at the insu%t to +merica and to man3 7ohn +dams and 7ames 9tis3 7osiah Auincy and Samue% +dams3 tho dead3 yet s a&e2 In the anna%s of +merican s eech there had $een no such scene since Patric& Henry,s e%ectrica% warning to *eorge III2 It was that greatest of oratorica% trium hs when a su reme emotion3 a sentiment which is to mo%d a eo %e anew3 %ifted the orator to ade@uate e( ression2 "hree such scenes are i%%ustrious in our history2 "hat of the s eech of Patric& Henry at Wi%%iams$urg3 of Wende%% Phi%%i s in Faneui% Ha%%3 of +$raham 5inco%n in *ettys$urg..three3 and there is no fourth2 "hey transmit3 une(tinguished3 the torch of an e%o@uence which has aroused nations and changed the course of history3 and which We$ster ca%%ed Cno$%e3 su$%ime3 *od.%i&e action2C "he tremendous contro1ersy3 indeed3 ins ired uni1ersa% e%o@uence2 +s the cause assed from the mora% a ea% of the +$o%itionists to the o%itica% action of the 5i$erty arty3 of the 0onscience Whigs and Free.soi% /emocrats3 and fina%%y of the #e u$%ican arty3 the sound of s eech3 which in its 1ariety and e(ce%%ence had ne1er $een heard u on the continent3 fi%%ed the air2 8ut su reme o1er it a%% was the e%o@uence of Phi%%i s3 as o1er the harmonious tumu%t of a good orchestra: one c%ear 1oice3 %i&e a %ar& high. oised in hea1en3 steadi%y carried the me%ody2 +s /emosthenes was the orator of *reece against Phi%i 3 and 0icero of #ome against 0ati%ine3 and 7ohn Pym of Eng%and against the Stuart des otism2 Wende%% Phi%%i s was distincti1e%y the orator3 as others were the statesmen3 of the anti.s%a1ery cause2 When he first s o&e at Faneui% Ha%%3 some of the most renowned +merican orators were sti%% in

their rime2 We$ster and 0%ay were in the Senate3 0hoate at the $ar3 Edward E1erett u on the academic %atform2 From a%% these orators Phi%%i s differed more than they differed from each other2 8ehind We$ster and E1erett and 0%ay there was a%. ways a great organiDed arty or an entrenched conser1atism of fee%ing and o inion2 "hey s o&e acce ted 1iews2 "hey mo1ed with masses of men3 and were sure of the a %ause of arty s irit3 of o%itico tradition3 and of esta$%ished institutions2 Phi%%i s stood a%one2 He was not a CWhig3 nor a /emocrat3 nor the gracefu% anegyrist of an undis uted situation2 8oth arties denounced him2 He must recruit a new arty2 Pu$%ic o inion condemned him2 He must win u$%ic o inion to achie1e his ur ose2 "he tone3 the method3 of the new orator announced a new s irit2 It was not a heroic story of the %ast century3 nor the contention of contem orary o%itics< it was the unsus ected heroism of a mightier contro1ersy that $reathed and $urned in his words2 With no arty $ehind him3 and denouncing esta$%ished order and ac&now%edged tradition3 his s eech was necessari%y a o u%ar a ea% for a strange and unwe%come cause3 and the condition of its success was that it shou%d $oth charm and rouse the hearer3 whi%e3 under co1er of the fascination3 the orator unfo%ded his argument and urged his %ea2 "his condition the genius of the orator instincti1e%y ercei1ed3 and it determined the character of his discourse2 He faced his audience with a tran@ui% mien and a $eaming as ect that was ne1er dimmed2 He s o&e3 and in the measured cadence of his @uiet 1oice there was intense fee%ing3 $ut no dec%amation3 no assionate a ea%3 no su erficia% and feigned emotion2 It was sim %e co%%o@uy..a gent%eman con1ersing2 6nconscious%y and sure%y the ear and heart were charmed2 How was it doneI ..+hH how did ?oDart do it3 how #affae%s "he secret of the rose,s sweetness3 of the $ird,s ecstacy3 of the sunset,s g%ory..that is the secret of genius and of e%o@uence2 CWhat was heard3 what was seen3 was the form of no$%e manhood3 the courteous and se%f. ossest tone3 the f%ow of modu%ated s eech3 s ar&%ing with match%ess richness of i%%ustration3 with a t a%%usion and ha y anecdote and historic ara%%e%3 with wit and iti%ess in1ecti1e3 with me%odious athos3 with stinging satire3 with crac&%ing e igram and %im id humor3 the $right ri %es that %ay around the. sure and steady row of the resist%ess shi 2 5i&e an i%%uminated 1ase of odors3 he g%owed with concentrated and erfumed fire2 "he di1ine energy of his con1iction utter%y ossest him3 and his2 CPure and e%o@uent $%ood S o&e in his chee&3 and so distinct%y wrought3 "hat one might a%most say his $ody thought2,, Was it Peric%es swaying the +thenian mu%titudeI Was it + o%%o $reathing the music of the morning from his %i s I..Bo3 noH It was an +merican atriot3 a modern son of %i$erty3 with a sou% as firm and as true as was e1er consecrated to unse%fish duty3 %eading with the +merican con. science for the chained and s eech%ess 1ictims of +merican infiumanity2 How terri$%y earnest was the anti.s%a1ery contest this generation %itt%e &nows2 8ut to understand Phi%%i s3 we must reca%% the situation of the country2 When he 4oined the +$o%itionists3 and for more than twenty years after. ward3 s%a1ery sat su reme in the White House and made %aws in the ca ita%2 0ourts of 4ustice were its ministers and %egis%atures its %ac&eys2

It si%enced the reacher in the u% it3 it muDD%ed the editor at his des&3 and the rofessor in his %ecture.room2 It set a rice u on the head of the eacefu% citiDens3 ro$$ed the mai%s3 and denounced the 1ita% rinci %e of the /ec%aration of Inde endence as treason2 In States whose %aws did not to%erate s%a1ery3 s%a1ery ru%ed the c%u$ and the drawing.room3 the factory and the office3 swaggered at the dinner ta$%e3 and scourged with scorn a coward%y society2 It tore the go%den ru%e from the schoo%.$oo&s3 and from the rayer.$oo& the ictured $enignity of 0hrist2 It rohi$ited in the free States schoo%s for the hated race3 and hunted women who taught chi%dren to read2 It for$ade a free eo %e to communicate with their re resentati1es3 seiDed territory to e(tend its area and confirm its so1ereignty3 and %otted to stea% more to ma&e its em ire im regna$%e and the free #e u$%ic of the 6nited States im ossi$%e2 Scho%ars3 di1ines3 men and women in e1ery church3 in e1ery arty3 raised indi1idua% 1oices in earnest rotest2 "hey sighed against a hurricane2 "here had $een such rotest in the country for two centuries..co%onia% ro1isions and restrictions..the fiery 1oice of Whitfie%d in the South..the ca%m ersuasion of Woo%man in the midd%e co%onies.the heroism of Ho &ins in #hode Is%and Gthe e%o@uence of #ush in Pennsy%1ania2 "here had $een emanci ation societies at the Borth and at the South3 arguments and a ea%s and threats in the. congress of the confederation3 in the constitutiona% con1ention3 in the 0ongress of the 6nion< there had $een the words and the wi%% of CWashington3 the warning of 7efferson3 the consenting testimony of the re1ered fathers of the go1ernment< a%ways the nationa% conscience somewhere si%ent%y %eading3 a%ways the finger of the wor%d steadi%y ointing in scorn2 8ut here3 after a%% the rotest and the re$u&e and the endea1or3 was the ma%ign ower3 which3 when the 0onstitution was formed3 had $een $ut the shrin&ing +frite $ound in the cas&et3 now towering and resist%ess2 He had &ic&ed his cas&et into the sea3 and3 haughti%y defying the con. science of the country and the mora% sentiment of man&ind3 demanded a$so%ute contro% of the #e u$%ic as the rice of union..the #e u$%ic3 an(ious on%y to su$mit and to ca%% su$mission statesmanshi 2 If2 then3 the wor& of the #e1o%ution was to $e sa1ed3 and inde endent +merica was to $ecome free +merica3 the first and aramount necessity was to arouse the country2 +gitation was the duty of the hour2 *arrison was certain%y not the first +$o%itionist< no3 nor was 5uther the first Protestant2 8ut 5uther $rought a%% the wandering and se arate rays of rotest to a focus3 and &ind%ed the contest for re%igious freedom2 So3 when *arrison f%ung fu%% in the face of s%a1ery the defiance3 of immediate and com %ete a$o%ition3 s%a1ery3 instincti1e%y foreseeing its doom3 s rang to its feet and 4oined with the heroism of des air in the death.gra %e with %i$erty3 from which3 after a generation3 %i$erty arose un$ruised and 1ictorious2 It is hard for the sur1i1ors of a generation to which +$o%itionist was a word suggesting the most odious fanaticism..a curious dec%amation at once nonsensica% and dangerous3 a grotes@ue and sanctimonious %aying with fire in a owder magaDine..to $e%ie1e that the names of the re resentati1e +$o%itionists wi%% $e written with a sun$eam3 as Phi%%i s says of "oussaint3 high o1er many an honored name2 8ut history3 %oo&ing $efore and after3 read4usts contem orary 4udgments of men and e1ents2 In a%% the essentia% @ua%ities of heroic action 5uther3 nai%ing his cha%%enge to the church u on the church,s own door3 when the church was su reme in Euro e3 Wi%%iam "e%%3 in the romantic %egend3 serene%y scorning to $ow to the ca of *ess%er3 when *ess%er,s troo s he%d a%% the mar&et. %ace3 are not no$%er figures than *arrison and Phi%%i s3 in the hour of the com %ete ossession of the country $y the ower of s%a1ery3 demanding immediate and unconditiona% emanci ation2

+ tone of a o%ogy3 of de recation or regret3 no more $ecomes an +merican in s ea&ing of the +$o%itionists than in s ea&ing of the Sons of 5i$erty in the #e1o%ution3 and e1ery tri$ute of honor and res ect which we g%ad%y ay to the i%%ustrious fathers of +merican inde endence is aid as worthi%y to their sons3 the ioneers of +merican freedom2 "hat freedom was secured3 indeed3 $y the union of many forces2 "he a$o%ition mo1ement was mora% agitation It was a 1oice crying in the wi%derness2 +s an +merican mo1ement it was re roached for ho%ding a%oof from the +merican o%itica% method2 8ut in the order of time the mora% awa&ening recedes o%itica% action Po%ities are founded in com romise and e( ediency3 and had the a$o%ition %eaders aused to ar%ey with re4udice and interest and ersona% am$ition3 in order to smooth and conci%iate and ersuade3 their duty wor%d ha1e $een undone2 When the a%arm.$e%% at night has $rought the aroused citiDens to the street they wi%% organiDe their action2 8ut the ringer of the $e%% $etrays his trust when he ceases to start%e2 "o 1ote was to ac&now%edge the 0onstitution2 "o ac&now%edge the 0onstitution was to offer a remium u on s%a1ery $y granting more o%itica% ower for e1ery s%a1e2 It was to own an o$%igation to return innocent men to uns ea&a$%e degradation and to shoot them down if3 with a thousandfo%d greater reason than our fathers3 they resisted o ression2 0ou%d +mericans do thisI 0ou%d honest men do thisI 0ou%d a great country do this and not %earn3 sooner or %ater3 $y ghast%y e( erience3 the truth which *eorge ?ason roc%aimedGthat Pro1idence unishes nationa% sins $y nationa% ca%amitiesI "he 6nion3 said CWende%% Phi%%i s3 with a ca%mness that enchanted whi%e it a a%%ed.. $ut has not ido%atry of the 6nion $een the chief $u%war& of s%a1ery3 and in the words and deeds and s irit of the most 1ehement C6nion sa1iorsC who denounce agitation3 can any ho e of emanci ation $e descri$edI If3 then3 under the sacred charter of the 6nion3 s%a1ery has grown to this stu endous height3 throwing the shadow of death o1er the %and3 is not the 6nion as it e(ists3 the foe of %i$erty3 and can we honest%y affirm that it is the so%e sur1i1ing ho e of freedom in the wor%dI 5ong ago the great %eaders of our arties hushed their 1oices and whis ered that e1en to s ea& of s%a1ery was to endanger the 6nion2 Is not this enoughI Sons of 9tis and +dams3 of Fran&%in and of 7ay3 are we ready for union u on the ruins of freedomI /e%enda 0arthagoH /e%enda 0arthagoH E1en whi%e he s o&e there s rang u around him the marsha%ed host of an organiDed o%itica% arty which3 raising the 0onstitution as a $anner of freedom3 marched to the o%%s to ma&e the 6nion the citade% of %i$erty2 %ie3 indeed3 had re4ected the 0onstitution and the 6nion as the $u%war& of s%a1ery2 8ut he and the o%itica% host3 wide%y differing3 had yet a common ur ose3 and were confounded in a common condemnation2 +nd who sha%% count the 1oters in that o%itica% army3 and who the generous heroes of the actua% war3 in whose young hearts his re%ent%ess denunciation of the 6nion had $red the high reso%1e that under the rotection of the 0onstitution and $y its own %awfu% ower3 the s%a1e 6nion which he denounced shou%d $e disso%1ed in the fer1id g%ory of a new 6nion of freedomI His %ea3 indeed3 did not ersuade his friends3 and was furious%y s urned $y his foes2 ,, Hang Phi%%i s and ;ancey together3 hang the +$o%itionist and the fire.eater and we sha%% ha1e eace3C cried ming%ed wrath and terror as the a$sor$ing de$ate dee ened toward ci1i% war2 8ut sti%%3 through the start%ing f%ash and o1er the thunder. ea% with which the tem est $urst3 that cry rang out undismayed3 /e%enda 0arthagoH "he awfu% storm has ro%%ed away2 "he warning 1oice is sti%%ed fore1er2 8ut the s%a1e 6nion whose destruction he sought to disso%1e3

and the g%orious 6nion of freedom and e@ua% rights which his sou% desired3 is the $%est 6nion of to.day When the war ended3 and the s ecific ur ose of his re%ent%ess agitation was accom %ished3 Phi%%i s was sti%% in the rime of his %ife2 Had his mind recurred to the dreams of ear%ier years3 had he desired3 in the fu%%ness of his fame and the maturity of his owers3 to turn to the o%itica% career which the ho es of the friends of his south had forecast3 I do not dou$t that the ?assachusetts of Sumner and of +ndrew3 roud of his genius and owning his immense ser1ice to the trium hant cause3 a%tho a ser1ice $eyond the arty %ine3 and often a arent%y directed against the arty itse%f3 wou%d ha1e g%ad%y summoned him to duty2 It wou%d3 indeed3 ha1e $een a &ind of eerage for this great 0ommoner2 8ut not to re ose and eacefu% honor did this earnest sou% inc%ine2 ,, Bow that the fie%d is won3,, he said gai%y to a friend3 Cdo you sit $y the cam .fire3 $ut I wi%% ut out into the under$rush2C "he s%a1e3 indeed3 was free3 $ut emanci ation did not free the agitator from his tas&2 "he c%ient that sudden%y a eared $efore him on that memora$%e 9cto$er day was not an o rest race a%one: it was wronged humanity< it was the 1ictim of un4ust systems and une@ua% %aws< it was the oor man3 the wea& man3 the unfortunate man3 whoe1er and whate1er he might $e2 "his was the cause that he wou%d sti%% %ead in the forum of u$%ic o inion2 C5et it not $e said3C he wrote to a meeting of his o%d +$o%ition friends3 two months $efore his death3 Cthat the o%d +$o%itionist sto t with the negro3 and was ne1er a$%e to see that the same rinci %es c%aimed his utmost effort to rotect a%% %a$or3 white and $%ac&3 and to further the discussion of e1ery c%aim of humanity C CWas this the ha$it of mere agitation3 the rest%ess discontent that fo%%owed great achie1ementI "here were those who thought so2 8ut they were critics of a tem erament which did not note that with Phi%%i s agitation was a rinci %e and a de%i$erate%y chosen method to definite ends2 "here were sti%% 1ast @uestions s ringing from the same root of se%fishness and in4ustice as the @uestion of s%a1ery2 "hey must force a hearing in the same way2 He wou%d not ado t in midd%e %ife the career of o%itics3 which he had renounced in youth3 howe1er seducti1e that career might $e3 whate1er its o ortunities and rewards3 $ecause the ur ose had grown with his growth and strengthened with his strength3 to form u$%ic o inion rather than to re resent it3 in ma&ing or in e(ecuting the %aws2 "o form u$%ic o inion u on 1ita% u$%ic @uestions $y u$%ic discussion3 $ut $y u$%ic discussion a$so%ute%y fear%ess and sincere3 and conducted with honest faith in the eo %e to whom the argument was addrest..this was the ser1ice which he had %ong erformed3 and this he wou%d sti%% erform3 and in the fami%iar way2 His com rehensi1e hi%anthro y had made him3 e1en during the anti.s%a1ery contest3 the untiring ad1ocate of other great reforms2 His owerfu% resentation of the 4ustice and reason of the o%itica% e@ua%ity of women3 at Worcester3 in 1!)73 more than any other sing%e im u%se3 %aunched that @uestion u on the sea of o u%ar contro1ersy2 In the genera% statement of rinci %e3 nothing has $een added to that discourse2 In 1i1id and effecti1e e%o@uence of ad1ocacy it has ne1er $een sur assed2 +%% the arguments for inde endence echoed 7ohn +dams in the 0ontinenta% 0ongress: a%% the %eas for a %ying the +merican rinci %e of re resentation to the wi1es and mothers of +merican citiDens echo the e%o@uence of Wende%% Phi%%i s at CWorcester2 His3 a%so3 was the 1oice that summoned the tem erance 1oters of the commonwea%th to stand u and $e counted< the 1oice which reso%ute%y and definite%y e( osed the crime to which the $usy +merican mind and conscience are at %ast turning..the +merican crime against the Indians2 "hrough him the sorrow of 0rete3 the tragedy of Ire%and3 %eaded with +merica2 In the terri$%e e( erience of the ear%y anti.s%a1ery de$ate3 when the church and refined society seemed to $e the ram art of s%a1ery3 he had %earned rofound distrust of that

conser1atism of ros erity which chi%%s human sym athy and narrows the conscience2 So the 1ast com$inations of ca ita%3 in these %ater days3 with their immense mono o%ies and im eria% ower3 seemed to him sure to corru t the *o1ernment and to o$struct and threaten the rea% we%fare of the eo %e2 He fe%t3 therefore3 that what is ca%%ed the res ecta$%e c%ass is often rea%%y3 $ut unconscious%y and with a generous ur ose3 not 4ust%y estimating its own tendency3 the dangerous c%ass2 He was not a arty o%itician< he cared %itt%e for arty or arty %eaders2 8ut any o%itica% arty which in his 4udgment re resented the dangerous tendency was a arty to $e defeated in the interest of the eace and rogress of a%% the eo %e2 8ut his 4udgment3 a%ways rofound%y sincere3 was it not sometimes rofound%y mista&enI Bo no$%er friend of freedom and of man than Wende%% Phi%%i s e1er $reathed u on this continent3 and no man,s ser1ice to freedom sur asses his2 8ut $efore the war he demanded eacefu% disunion..yet it was the 6nion in arms that sa1ed %i$erty2 /uring the war he wou%d ha1e su erseded 5inco%n..$ut it was 5inco%n who freed the s%a1es2 He %eaded for Ire%and3 tortured $y centuries of misru%e3 and whi%e e1ery generous heart fo%%owed with sym athy the athos and the ower of his a ea%3 the 4ust mind recoi%ed from the shar arraignment of the truest friends in Eng%and that Ire%and e1er had2 I &now it a%%3 $ut I &now a%so3 and history Cwi%% re. mem$er3 that the s%a1e 6nion which he denounced is disso%1ed < that it was the heart and conscience of the nation3 e(a%ted $y his mora% a ea% of agitation3 as we%% as $y the enthusiasm of atriotic war3 which he%d u the hands of 5inco%n3 and u on which 5inco%n %eaned in emanci ating the s%a1es3 and that on%y $y indignant and aggressi1e a ea%s %i&e his3 has the heart of Eng%and e1er o ened to Irish wrong2 Bo man3 I say3 can ta&e a reeminent and effecti1e art in contentions that sha&e nations3 or in the discussion of nationa% o%itics3 of foreign re%ations3 of domestic economy and finance3 without &een re roach and fierce misconce tion2 C8ut death2C says 8acon3 C$ringeth good fame2C "hen3 if forma% integrity remain unsoi%ed3 the ur ose ure3 $%ame%ess the %ife3 and atriotism as shining as the sun3 conf%icting 1iews and differing counse%s disa ear3 and3 firm%y fi(t u on character and actua% achie1ement3 good fame rests secure2 Eighty years ago3 in this city3 how uns aring was the denunciation of 7ohn +dams for $etraying and ruining his arty3 for his dogmatism3 his 1anity3 and am$ition3 for his e(as erating im ractica$i%ity ..he3 the 0o%ossus of the #e1o%utionH +nd "homas 7efferson I I may tru%y say what the historian says of the Saracen mothers and #ichard 0oeur de 5ion3 that the mothers of 8oston hushed their chi%dren with fear of the o%itica% de1i% incarnate of Firginia2 8ut3 when the dra ery of mourning shrouded the co%umns and o1erhung the arches of Faneui% Ha%%3 /anie% CWe$ster did not remem$er that sometimes 7ohn +dams was im rudent3 and "homas 7efferson sometimes unwise2 He remem$ered on%y that 7ohn +dams and "homas 7efferson were two of the greatest +merican atriots..and their fe%%ow citiDens of e1ery arty $owed their heads and said3 +men2 I am not here to dec%are that the 4udgment of Wende%% Phi%%i s was a%ways sound3 nor his estimate of men a%ways 4ust3 nor his o%icy a%ways a ro1ed $y the e1ent2 He wou%d ha1e scorned such raise2 I am not here to eu%ogiDe the morta%3 $ut the immorta%2 He2 too3 was a great +merican atriot< and no +merican %ife..no3 not one..offers to future generations of his countrymen a more rice%ess e(am %e of inf%e(i$%e fide%ity to conscience and to u$%ic duty< and no +merican more tru%y than he urged the nation name of its shame3 and made the +merican f%ag the f%ag of ho e for man&ind2 +mong her no$%est chi%dren his nati1e city wi%% cherish him2 and gratefu%%y reca%% the un$ending Puritan sou% that dwe%t in a form so gracious and ur$ane2 "he %ain house in which he %i1ed..se1ere%y %ain3 $ecause the we%fare of the suffering and the s%a1e were referred to $oo&s and ictures3 and e1ery fair de1ice of art< the

house to which the Borth Star %ed the trem$%ing fugiti1e3 and which3 the unfortunate and the friend%ess &new< the radiant figure assing swift%y through these streets3 %ain as the house from which it came3 rega% with a roya%ty of &ings: the cease%ess charity unto%d< the strong sustaining heart of ri1ate friendshi < the sacred domestic affections that must not here $e named< the e%o@uence which3 %i&e the song of 9r heus3 wi%% fade from %i1ing memory into a dou$tfu% ta%e3 that great scene of his youth in Faneui% Ha%%< the surrender of am$ition< the mighty agitation and the mighty trium h with which his name is fore1er $%ended< the consecration of %ife hidden with *od in sym athy with man..these3 a%% these3 wi%% %i1e among your immorta% traditions3 heroic e1en in your heroic story2 8ut not yours a%oneH +s years go $y3 and on%y the %arge out%ines of %ofty +merican characters and careers remain3 the wide #e u$%ic wi%% confess the $enediction of a %ife %i&e this3 and g%ad%y own that if with erfect faith and ho e assured3 +merica Cwou%d sti%% stand and C$id the distant generations hai%3C the ins iration of her nationa% %ife must $e the su$%ime mora% courage3 the a%%.em$racing humanity3 the s ot%ess integrity3 the a$so%ute%y unse%fish de1otion of great owers to great u$%ic ends3 which were the g%ory of Wende%% Phi%%i s2 9B "HE /E+"H 9F /+BIE5 WE8S"E# 8; #6F6S 0H9+"E ?ay It P%ease ;our Honors:..I ha1e $een re@uested $y the mem$ers of the 8ar of this 0ourt to add a few words to the reso%utions 4ust read3 in which they ha1e em. $odied3 as they were a$%e3 their sorrow for the death of their $e%o1ed and i%%ustrious mem$er and countryman3 ?r2 We$ster< their estimation of his character3 %ife3 and genius< their sense of the $erea1ement..to the country as to his friends..inca a$%e of re air< the ride3 the fondnessGthe fi%ia% and the atriotic ride and fondness..with which they cherish3 and wou%d consign to history to cherish3 the memory of a great and good man2 +nd yet I cou%d earnest%y ha1e desired to $e e(cused from this duty2 He must ha1e &nown ?r2 CWe$ster %ess3 and %o1ed him %ess3 than your honors3 or than I ha1e &nown and %o1ed him3 who can @uite yet..@uite yet..$efore we can com rehend that we ha1e %ost him fore1er.. $efore the first a%eness with which the news of his death o1ers read our chee&s has assed away..$efore we ha1e $een down to %ay him in the Pi%grim soi% he %o1ed so we%%3 ti%% the hea1ens $e no more..he must ha1e &nown and %o1ed him %ess than we ha1e done3 who can come here @uite yet3 to recount the series of his ser1ices3 to dis %ay with sycho%ogica% e(actness the traits of his nature and mind3 to onder and s ecu%ate on the secrets..on the mar1e%ous secrets.and source of that 1ast ower3 which we sha%% see no more in action3 nor aught in any degree resem$%ing it3 among men2 "hese first moments shou%d $e gi1en to grief2 It may em %oy3 it may romote a ca%mer mood3 to construct a more e%a$orate and %ess unworthy memoria%H For the ur oses of this moment and %ace3 indeed3 no more is needed2 What is there for this 0ourt or for this 8ar to %earn from me3 here and now3 of himI "he year and the day of his $irth< that $irth %ace on the frontier3 yet $%ea& and waste< the we%%3 of which his chi%dhood dran&3 dug $y that father of whom he has said3 ,, "hat through the fire and $%ood of se1en years of #e1o%utionary War he shran& from no danger3 no toi%3 no sacrifice3 to ser1e his country< and to raise his chi%dren to a condition $etter than his own<C the e%m.tree that father %anted3 fa%%en now3 as father and son ha1e fa%%en< that training of the giant infancy on catechism and 8i$%e3 and Watts, 1ersion of the Psa%ms3 and the traditions of P%ymouth3 and

Fort Wi%%iam Henry3 and the #e1o%ution3 and the age of Washington and Fran&%in3 on the $an&s of the ?errimac3 f%owing sometimes in f%ood and anger3 from its secret s rings in the crysta% hi%%s< the two district schoo%masters2 0hase and "a an< the 1i%%age %i$rary< the dawning of the %o1e and am$ition of %etters< the few months at E(eter and 8oscawen< the %ife of co%%ege3 the ro$ationary season of schoo%.teaching< the c%er&shi in the Frye$urg #egistry of /eeds< his admission to the 8ar resided o1er $y 4udges %i&e Smith3 i%%ustrated $y ractisers such as ?ason3 where3 $y the studies in the contentions of nine years3 he %aid the foundation of the rofessiona% mind< his irresisti$%e attraction to u$%ic %ife< the oration on commerce< the #oe&ingham reso%utions< his first term of four years, ser1ice in 0ongress3 when3 $y one $ound3 he s rang to his %ace $y the side of the fore. most of the rising +merican statesmen< his remo1a% to this State< and then the dou$%e and ara%%e% current in which his %ife3 studies3 thoughts3 cares3 ha1e since f%owed3 $earing him to the %eadershi of the 8ar $y uni1ersa% acc%aim3 $earing him to the %eadershi of u$%ic %ife..%ast of that sur assing trium1irate3 sha%% we say the greatest3 the most wide%y &nown and admiredI..a%% these things3 to their minutest detai%s3 are &nown and rehearsed fami%iar%y2 Ha ier than the younger P%iny3 ha ier than 0icero3 he has found his historian3 unso%icited3 in his %ifetime3 and his countrymen ha1e him a%% $y heartH "here is3 then3 nothing to te%% you3 nothing to $ring to mind2 +nd then3 if I may $orrow the %anguage of one of his historians and friends..one of those through whose $eautifu% athos the common sorrow uttered itse%f yesterday3 in Faneui% Ha%%..,,I dare not come here and dismiss in a few summary aragra hs the character of one who has fi%%ed such a s ace in the history3 one who ho%ds such a %ace in the heart3 of his country2 It wou%d $e a disres ectfu% fami%iarity to a man of his %ofty s irit3 his great sou%3 his rich endowments3 his %ong and honora$%e %ife3 to endea1or thus to weigh and estimate themC..a ha%f.hour of words3 a handfu% of earth3 for fifty years of great deeds on high %acesH 8ut3 a%tho the time does not re@uire anything e%a$orated and ade@uate..for$ids it3 rather.. some $ro&en sentences of 1eneration and %o1e may $e indu%ged to the sorrow which o resses us2 "here resents itse%f3 on the first and to any o$ser1ation of ?r2 We$ster,s %ife and character3 a twofo%d eminence..eminence of the 1ery highest ran&..in a twofo%d fie%d of inte%%ectua% and u$%ic dis %ay..the rofession of the %aw and the rofession of statesmanshi ..of which it wou%d not $e easy to reca%% any ara%%e% in the $iogra hy of i%%ustrious men2 Without see&ing for ara%%e%s3 and without asserting that they do not e(ist3 consider that he was3 $y uni1ersa% designation3 the %eader of the genera% +merican 8ar< and that he was2 a%so3 $y an e@ua%%y uni1ersa% designation3 foremost of her statesmen %i1ing at his death< inferior to not one who has %i1ed and acted since the o ening of his own u$%ic %ife2 5oo& at these as ects of his greatness se arate%y3 and from o osite sides of the sur assing e%e1ation2 0onsider that his sing%e career at the 8ar may seem to ha1e $een enough to em %oy the %argest facu%ties3 without re ose3 for a %ifetime< and that3 if then and thus the Cinfinitus forensium rorum %a$orC shou%d ha1e conducted him to a mere rofessiona% reward..a $ench of chancery or %aw3 the crown of the first of ad1ocates3 4uris eritorum c%o@uentissimus.. to the ure and mere honors of a great magistrateGthat that wou%d $e as much as is a%%otted to the a$%est in the distri$ution of fame2 E1en that ha%f3 if I may say so3 of his i%%ustrious re utation.. how %ong the %a$or to win it2 how worthy of a%% that %a$orH He was $red first in the se1erest schoo% of the common %aw3 in which its doctrines were e(. ounded $y Smith3 and its

administration sha ed and directed $y ?ason3 and its foundation rinci %es3 its historica% sources and i%%ustrations3 its connection with the ara%%e% series of statutory enactments3 its modes of reasoning3 and the e1idence of its truths3 he gras ed easi%y and com %ete%y< and I ha1e myse%f heard him say3 that for many years whi%e sti%% at the $ar3 he tried more causes3 and argued more @uestions of fact to the 4ury than erha s any other mem$er of the rofession anywhere2 I ha1e heard from others how3 e1en then3 he e(em %ified the same direct3 c%ear3 and forci$%e e(hi$ition of roofs3 and the reasonings a ro riate to roofs3 as we%% as the same mar1e%ous ower of discerning instant%y what we ca%% the decisi1e oints of the cause in %aw and fact3 $y which he was %ater more wide%y ce%e$rated2 "his was the first e och in his rofessiona% training2 With the commencement of his u$%ic %ife3 or with his %ater remo1a% to this State3 $egan the second e och of his rofessiona% training3 conducting him through the gradation of the nationa% tri$una%s to the study and ractise of the more f%e(i$%e3 e%egant3 and scientific 4uris rudence of commerce and of chancery3 and to the grander and %ess fettered in1estigations of internationa%3 riDe3 and constitutiona% %aw3 and gi1ing him to $reathe the air of a more famous forum3 in a more u$%ic resence3 with more 1ariety of com etition3 a%tho he ne1er met a$%er men2 as I ha1e heard him say3 than some of those who initiated him in the rugged disci %ine of the courts of Bew Ham shire< and thus3 at %ength3 $y these studies3 these %a$ors3 this contention3 continued without re ose3 he came3 now many years ago3 to stand omnium assensu at the summit of the +merican 8ar2 It is common and it is easy in the case of a%% in such osition3 to oint out other %awyers3 here and there3 as ossessing some s ecia% @ua%ification or attainment more remar&a$%e3 erha s3 $ecause more e(c%usi1e%y..to say of one that he has more eases in his reco%%ection at any gi1en moment3 or that he was ear%ier grounded in e@uity3 or has gathered more $%ac& %etter or ci1i% %aw3 or &now%edge of S anish or of Western tit%es..and these com arisons were sometimes made with him2 8ut when you sought a counse% of the first rate for the great cause3 who wou%d most sure%y discern and most owerfu%%y e( ound the e(act %aw3 re@uired $y the contro1ersy3 in season for use< who wou%d most s&i%fu%%y encounter the o osing %aw< under whose owers of ana%ysis3 ersuasion3 and dis %ay the asserted right wou%d assume the most ro$a$%e as ect $efore the inte%%igence of the 4udge< who3 if the in@uiry $ecame $%ended with or reso%1ed into facts3 cou%d most com %ete%y de1e%o and most irresisti$%y e( ose them< one Cthe %aw,s who%e thunder $orn to wie%d C..when you sought such a counse%3 and cou%d ha1e the choice3 I thin& the uni1ersa% rofession wou%d ha1e turned to him2 +nd this wou%d $e so in near%y e1ery descri tion of cause3 in any de artment2 Some a$%e men wie%d ci1i% in@uiries with a ecu%iar a$i%ity< some crimina%2 How %ucid%y and how dee %y he e%ucidated a @uestion of ro erty3 you a%% &now2 8ut3 then3 with what address3 fee%ing3 athos3 and rudence he defended3 with what dignity and crushing ower3 accusatorio s iritua%3 he rosecuted the accused of crime3 whom he $e%ie1ed to ha1e $een gui%ty3 few ha1e seen< $ut none who ha1e seen can e1er forget it2 Some scenes there are2 some +% ine eminences rising a$o1e the high ta$%e.%and of such a rofessiona% %ife3 to which3 in the $riefest tri$ute3 we shou%d %o1e to fo%%ow him2 We reca%% that day3 for instance3 when he first announced3 with decisi1e dis %ay3 what manner of man he was3 to the Su reme 0ourt of the nation2 It was in 1!1!3 and it was the argument of the case of /artmouth 0o%%ege2 Wi%%iam Pin&ney was recruiting his great facu%ties3 and re %enishing that reser1oir of rofessiona% and e%egant ac@uisition3 in Euro e2 Samue% /e(ter3 ,, the honora$%e man3 and the counse%or3 and the e%o@uent orator3C was in his gra1e2 "he $ound%ess o%d.schoo%

%earning of 5uther ?artin< the si%1er 1oice and infinite ana%ytica% ingenuity and resources of 7ones< the fer1id genius of Emmett ouring itse%f a%ong immense oro< the ri e and $eautifu% cu%ture of Wirt and Ho &inson..the stee% oint3 unseen3 not unfe%t3 $eneath the fo%iage< Har er himse%f3 statesman as we%% as %awyer. these3 and such as these3 were %eft of that no$%e 8ar2 "hat day ?r2 We$ster o ened the cause of /artmouth 0o%%ege to a tri$una% unsur assed on earth in a%% that gi1es i%%ustration to a $ench of %aw3 not one of whom any %onger sur1i1es2 9ne wou%d %o1e to %inger on the scene3 when3 after a master%y argument of the %aw3 carrying3 as we may now &now3 con1iction to the genera% mind of the court3 and 1indicating and sett%ing for his %ifetime his %ace in that forum3 he aused to enter3 with an a%tered fee%ing3 tone3 and manner3 with these words on his eroration: CI ha1e $rought my +%ma ?ater to this resence3 that3 if she must fa%%3 she may fa%% in her ro$es3 and with dignityC< and then $ro&e forth in that strain of su$%ime and athetic e%o@uence3 of which we &now not much more than that3 in its rogress3 ?arsha%%..the inte%%ectua%3 the se%f.contro%%ed3 the unemotiona%..announced3 1isi$%y3 the resence of the unaccustomed enchantment2 9ther forensic trium hs crowd on us3 in other com etition3 with other issues2 8ut I must commit them to the historian of constitutiona% 4uris rudence2 +nd now3 if this transcendent rofessiona% re utation were a%% of ?r2 CWe$ster3 it might $e ractica$%e3 tho not easy3 to find its ara%%e% e%sewhere3 in our own3 or in Euro ean or c%assica% $iogra hy2 8ut3 when you consider that3 side $y side with this3 there was growing u that other re utation..that of the first +merican statesman< that3 for thirty.three years3 and those em$racing his most Hercu%ean wor&s at the 8ar3 he was engaged as a mem$er of either House3 or in the highest of the e(ecuti1e de artments3 in the conduct of the %argest nationa% affairs3 in the treatment of the %argest nationa% @uestions3 in de$ate with the highest a$i%ities of +merican u$%ic %ife3 conducting di %omatic intercourse in de%icate re%ations with a%% manner of foreign owers3 in1estigating who%e c%asses of truths3 tota%%y un%i&e the truths of the %aw3 and resting on rinci %es tota%%y distinct..and that here3 too3 he was wise3 safe3 contro%%ing3 trusted3 the fore. most man< that Euro e had come to see in his %ife a guaranty for 4ustice3 for eace3 for the $est ho es of ci1i%isation3 and +merica to fee% surer of her g%ory and her safety as his great arm enfo%ded her..you see how rare3 how so%itary3 a%most3 was the actua% greatnessH Who3 anywhere3 has won3 as he had3 the dou$%e fame3 and worn the dou$%e wreath of ?urray and 0hatham3 of /unning and Fo(3 of Ers&ine and Pitt3 of CWi%%iam Pin&ney and #ufus Eing3 in one $%ended and transcendent su eriorityI I can not attem t to gras and sum u the aggregate of the ser1ice of his u$%ic %ife at such a moment as this< and it is need%ess2 "hat %ife com riDed a term of more than thirty.three years It roduced a $ody of erformance3 of which3 I may say3 genera%%y3 it was a%% which the first a$i%ities of the country and time3 em %oyed with une(am %ed toi%3 stimu%ated $y the no$%est atriotism3 in the highest %aces of the State3 in the fear of *od3 in the resence of nations3 cou%d ossi$%y com ass2 He came into 0ongress atter the War of 1!12 had $egun3 and tho ro$a$%y deeming it unnecessary3 according to the highest standards of u$%ic necessity3 in his ri1ate character3 and o$4ecting3 in his u$%ic character3 to some of the detai%s of the o%icy $y which it was rosecuted3 and standing $y arty ties in genera% o osition to the administration3 he ne1er

$reathed a sentiment ca%cu%ated to de ress the tone of the u$%ic mind3 to aid or comfort the enemy3 to chec& or chi%% the stirrings of that new3 assionate3 un@uencha$%e s irit of nationa%ity3 which then was %e1e%ed3 or &ind%ed to $urn ti%% we go down to the tom$s of States2 With the eace of 1!1) his more cherished u$%ic %a$ors $egan< and thenceforward he de1oted himse%f..the ardor of his ci1i% youth3 the energies of his maturest manhood3 the autumna% wisdom of the ri ened year..to the offices of %egis%ation and di %omacy< of reser1ing the eace3 &ee ing the honor3 esta$%ishing the $oundaries3 and 1indicating the neutra% rights of his country< restoring a sound currency3 and %aying its foundation sure and dee < in u ho%ding u$%ic credit< in romoting foreign commerce and domestic industry< in de1e%o ing our uncounted materia% re. sources..gi1ing the %a&e and the ri1er to trade..and 1indicating and inter reting the constitution and the %aw2 9n a%% these su$4ects..on a%% measures ractica%%y in any degree affecting them..he has inscri$ed o inions and %eft the traces of his hand2 E1erywhere the hi%oso hica% and atriot statesman and thin&er wi%% find that he has $een $efore him3 %ighting the way3 sounding the a$yss2 His weighty %anguage3 his sagacious warnings3 his great ma(ims of em ire3 wi%% $e raised to 1iew3 and %i1e to $e deci hered when the fina% catastro he sha%% %ift the granite foundation in fragments from its $ed2 In this connection I can not $ut remar& to how e(traordinary an e(tent had ?r2 CWe$ster $y his acts2 words thoughts3 or the e1ents of his %ife3 associated himse%f fore1er in the memory of a%% of us with e1ery historica% incident3 or3 at %east3 with e1ery historica% e och3 with e1ery o%icy3 with e1ery g%ory3 with e1ery great name and fundamenta% institution3 and grand or $eautifu% image3 which are ecu%iar%y and ro er%y +merican2 5oo& $ac&ward to the %anting of P%ymouth and 7amestown< to the 1arious scenes of co%onia% %ife in eace and war< to the o ening and march and c%ose of the #e1o%utionary drama< to the age of the 0onstitution< to Washington and Fran&%in and +dams and 7efferson< to the who%e train of causes3 from the #eformation downward3 which re ared us to $e re u$%icans< to that other train of causes which %ed us to $e unionists..%oo& around on fie%d3 wor&sho 3 and dec&3 and hear the music of %a$or rewarded3 fed3 and rotected< %oo& on the $right sisterhood of the States3 each singing as a sera h in her motion3 yet $%ending in a common harmony ..and there is nothing which does not $ring him $y some tie to the memory of +merica2 We seem to see his form and hear his dee 3 gra1e s eech e1erywhere2 8y some fe%icity of his ersona% %ife< $y some wise3 dee 3 or $eautifu% word3 s o&en or written< $y some ser1ice of his own3 or some commemoration of the ser1ices of others< it has come to ass that Cour granite hi%%s3 our in%and seas3 and rairies3 and fresh3 un$ounded3 magnificent wi%derness3C our encirc%ing ocean3 the #oc& of the Pi%grims3 our new.$orn sister of the Pacific3 our o u%ar assem$%ies3 our free schoo%s3 a%% our cherished doctrines of education3 and of the inf%uence of re%igion3 and materia% o%icy3 and the %aw3 and the 0onstitution3 gi1e us $ac& his name2 What +merican %andsca e wi%% you %oo& on3 what su$4ect of +merican interest wi%% you study3 what source of ho e or of an(iety3 as an +merican3 wi%% you ac&now%edge3 that does not reca%% himH I sha%% not 1enture3 in this ra id and genera% reco%%ection of ?r2 We$ster3 to attem t to ana%yDe that inte%%ectua% ower which a%% admit to ha1e $een so e(traordinary3 or to com are or contrast it with the menta% greatness of others3 in 1ariety or degree3 of the %i1ing or the dead< or e1en to attem t to a reciate e(act%y and in reference to canors of art3 his sing%e attri$ute of e%o@uence2 0onsider3 howe1er3 the remar&a$%e henomenon of e(ce%%ence in three un&indred3 one might ha1e thought3 incom ati$%e forms of u$%ic s eech..that of the forum3 with its dou$%e audience of $ench and 4ury3 of the ha%%s of %egis%ation3 and of the most thronged

and tumu%tuous assem$%ies of the eo %e2 0onsider further3 that this mu%tiform e%o@uence3 e(act%y as his words fe%%3 $ecame at once so much accession to ermanent %iterature3 in the strictest sense3 so%id3 attracti1e and rich3 and as& how often in the history of u$%ic %ife such a thing has $een e(em %ified2 #eca%% what er1aded a%% these forms of dis %ay3 and e1ery effort in e1ery form.. that union of na&ed inte%%ect3 in its %argest measure3 which enetrates to the e(act truth of the matter in hand3 $y intuition or $y inference3 and discerns e1erything which may ma&e it inte%%igi$%e3 ro$a$%e3 or credi$%e to another3 with an emotiona% and mora% nature rofound3 assionate3 and ready to &ind%e3 and with an imagination enough to su %y a hundredfo%d more of to acce t< that union of greatness of sou% with de th of heart which made his s ea&ing a%most more an e(hi$ition of character than of mere genius< the sty%e3 not mere%y ure3 c%ear Sa(on3 $ut so constructed3 so numerous as far as $ecomes rose3 so forci$%e3 so a$ounding in un%a$ored fe%icities< the words so choice< the e ithet so ictured< the matter a$so%ute truth3 or the most e(act and s ecious resem$%ance the human wit can de1ise< the treatment of the su$4ect3 if you ha1e regard to the &ind of truth he had to hand%e.. o%itica%3 ethica%3 %ega%..as dee 3 as com %ete as Pa%ey,s3 or 5oc&e,s3 or 8ut%er,s3 or +%e(ander Hami%ton,s3 of their su$4ects< yet that de th and that com %eteness of sense made trans arent as through crysta% waters3 a%% em$odied in harmonious or we%%. com osed eriods3 raised on winged %anguage3 1i1ified3 fused3 and oured a%ong in a tide of emotion3 fer1id3 and inca a$%e to $e withstood< reca%% the form3 the eye3 the $row3 the tone of 1oice3 the resence of the inte%%ectua% &ing of men3 ..reca%% him thus3 and3 in the %anguage of ?r2 7ustice Story3 commemorating Samue% /e(ter3 we may we%% Cre4oice that we ha1e %i1ed in the same age3 that we ha1e %istened to his e%o@uence3 and $een instructed $y his wisdom2,, I can not %ea1e the su$4ect of his e%o@uence without returning to a thought I ha1e ad1anced a%ready2 +%% that he has %eft3 or the %arger ortion of a%%3 is the record of s o&en words2 His wor&s3 as a%ready co%%ected3 e(tend to many 1o%umes..a %i$rary of reason and e%o@uence3 as *i$$on has said of 0icero,s..$ut they are 1o%umes of s eeches on%y3 or main%y: and yet who does not ran& him as a great +merican authorI an author as tru%y e( ounding3 and as characteristica%%y e(em %ifying3 in a ure3 genuine3 and harmonious Eng%ish sty%e3 the mind3 thought3 oint of 1iew of o$4ects3 and essentia% nationa%ity of his country as any other of our authors3 rofessed%y so denominated I +gainst the ma(im of ?r2 Fo(3 his s eeches read we%%3 and yet were good s eeches..great s eeches..in the de%i1erT,2 For so gra1e were they3 so thoughtfu% and true3 so much the e%o@uence of reason at %ast3 so stri&ing%y a%ways they contri1ed to %in& the immediate to ic with other and $roader rinci %es3 ascending easi%y to widest genera%iDations3 so ha y was the reconci%iation of the @ua%ities which engage the attention of hearers3 yet reward the erusa% of students3 so critica%%y did they &ee the right side of the %ine which arts e%o@uence from rhetoric3 and so far do they rise a$o1e the enury of mere de$ate3 that the genera% reason of the country has enshrined them at once and fore1er among our c%assics2 It is a common $e%ief that ?r2 We$ster was a 1arious reader< and I thin& it is true3 e1en to a greater degree than has $een $e%ie1ed2 In his rofession of o%itics3 nothing3 I thin&3 worthy of attention had esca ed him< nothing of the ancient or modern rudence: nothing which *ree& or #oman or Euro ean s ecu%ation in that wa%& had e( %ored3 or *ree& or #oman or Euro ean or uni1ersa% history or u$%ic $iogra hy e(em %ified2 I sha%% not soon forget with what admiration he s o&e3 at an inter1iew to which he admitted me3 whi%e in the 5aw Schoo% at 0am$ridge3 of the o%ities and ethics of +ristot%e3 and of the mighty mind which3 as he said3

seemed to ha1e Cthought throughC so many of the great ro$%ems which form the disci %ine of socia% man2 +merican history and +merican o%itica% %iterature he had $y heart..the %ong series of inf%uences which trained us for re resentati1e and free go1ernment< that other series of inf%uences which mo%ded us into a united go1ernment< the 0o%onia% era< the age of contro1ersy $efore the #e1o%ution< e1ery scene and e1ery erson in that great tragic action< e1ery @uestion which has successi1e%y engaged our o%itics3 and e1ery name which has figured in them..the who%e stream of our time was o en3 c%ear3 and resent e1er to his eye2 8eyond his rofession of o%itics3 so to ca%% it3 he had $een a di%igent and choice reader3 as his e(traordinary sty%e in art re1ea%s< and I thin& the %o1e of reading wou%d ha1e gone with him to a %ater and ri er age if to such an age it had $een the wi%% of *od to reser1e him2 "his is no %ace or time to a reciate this $ranch of his ac@uisitions< $ut there is an interest ine( ressi$%e in &nowing who were any of the chosen from among the great dead in the %i$rary of such a man2 9thers may correct me3 $ut I shou%d say of that interior and narrower circ%e were 0icero2 Fergi%3 Sha&es eare..whom he &new as fami%iar%y as the 0onstitution.. 8acon3 ?i%ton3 8ur&e3 7ohnson..to whom I ho e it is not edantic nor fancifu% to say3 I often thought his nature resented some resem$%ance< the same a$undance of the genera% ro ositions re@uired for e( %aining a difficu%ty and refuting a so hism co ious%y and rom t%y occurring to him< the same &indness of heart and wea%th of sensi$i%ity3 under a manner3 of course3 more courteous and gracious3 yet more so1ereign< the same sufficient3 yet not redominant3 imagination3 stoo ing e1er to truth3 and gi1ing aff%uence3 1i1acity3 and attraction to a owerfu%3 correct3 and weighty sty%e of rose2 I can not %ea1e this %ife and character without se%ecting and dwe%%ing a moment on one or two of his traits3 or 1irtues3 or fe%icities3 a %itt%e %onger2 "here is a co%%ecti1e im ression made $y the who%e of an eminent erson,s %ife3 $eyond3 and other than3 and a art from3 that which the mere genera% $iogra her wou%d afford the means of e( %aining2 "here is an inf%uence of a great man deri1ed from things indescri$a$%e3 a%most3 or inca a$%e of enumeration3 or sing%y insufficient to account for it3 $ut through which his s irit trans ires3 and his indi1idua%ity goes forth on the contem orary generation2 +nd thus3 I shou%d say3 one grand tendency of his %ife and character was to e%e1ate the who%e tone of the u$%ic mind2 He did this3 indeed3 not mere%y $y e(am %e2 He did it $y dea%ing3 as he thought3 tru%y and in man%y fashion with that u$%ic mind2 He e1inced his %o1e of the eo %e3 not so much $y honeyed hrases as $y good counse%s and usefu% senice3 1era ro gratis2 He showed how he a reciated them $y su$mitting sound arguments to their understandings3 and right moti1es to their free wi%%2 He came $efore them3 %ess with f%attery than with instruction< %ess with a 1oca$u%ary %arded with the words humanity and hi%anthro y3 and rogress and $rotherhood3 than with a scheme of o%itics3 an educationa%3 socia% and go1ernmenta% system3 which wou%d ha1e made them ros erous3 ha y and great2 What was the greatest of the *ree& historians said of Peric%es3 we a%% fee% might $e said of him: ,,He did not so much fo%%ow as %ead the eo %e3 $ecause he framed not his words to %ease them3 %i&e one who is gaining ower $y unworthy means3 $ut was a$%e and dared3 on the strength of his character3 e1en to $ra1e their anger $y contradicting their wi%%2C I shou%d indicate it as another inf%uence of his %ife3 acts3 and o inions3 that it was3 in an e(traordinary degree3 uniform%y and %i$era%%y conser1ati1e2 He saw with 1ision as of a ro het3 that if our system of united go1ernment can $e maintained ti%% a nationa%ity sha%% $e generated3

of due intensity and due com rehension3 a g%ory indeed mi%%ennia%3 a rogress without end3 a trium h of humanity hitherto unseen3 were ours< and3 therefore3 he addrest himse%f to maintain that united go1ernment2 Standing on the #oc& of P%ymouth3 he $ade distant generations hai%3 and saw them rising3 Cdemanding %ife3 im atient for the s&ies3C from what then were Cfresh3 un$ounded3 magnificent wi%dernesses,,< from the shore of the great3 tran@ui% sea3 not yet $ecome ours2 8ut o$ser1e to what he we%comes them< $y what he wou%d $%ess them2 ,, It is to good go1ernment2C It is to ,, treasures of science and de%ights of %earning2C It is to the Csweets of domestic %ife3 the immeasura$%e good of rationa% e(istence3 the immorta% ho es of 0hristianity3 the %ight of e1er%asting truth2,, It wi%% $e ha y if the wisdom and tem er of his administration of our foreign affairs sha%% reside in the time which is at hand2 So$ered3 instructed $y the e(am %es and warnings of a%% the ast3 he yet gathered from the study and com arison of a%% the eras that there is a si%ent rogress of the race..without ause3 without haste3 without return..to which the counse%ings of history are to $e accommodated $y a wise hi%oso hy2 ?ore than3 or as much as3 that of any of our u$%ic characters3 his statesman. shi was one which recogniDed a Euro e3 an o%d wor%d3 $ut yet gras ed the ca ita% idea of the +merican osition3 and deduced from it the who%e fashion and co%or of its o%icy< which discerned that we are to %ay a high art in human affairs3 $ut discerned3 a%so3 what art it is.. ecu%iar3 distant3 distinct3 and grand as our hemis here< au inf%uence3 not a contact..the stage3 the drama3 the catastro he3 a%% $ut the audience3 a%% our own..and if e1er he fe%t himse%f at a %oss3 he consu%ted3 re1erent%y3 the genius of Washington2 In $ringing these memories to a conc%usion..for I omit many things $ecause I dare not trust myse%f to s ea& them..I sha%% not $e misunderstood3 or gi1e offense3 if I ho e that one other trait in his u$%ic character3 one doctrine3 rather3 of his o%itica% creed3 may $e remem$ered and $e a reciated2 It is one of the two fundamenta% rece ts in which P%ato3 as e( ounded $y the great master of 5atin e%o@uence and reason and mora%s3 com rehends the duty of those who share in the conduct of the State..that they com riDe in their care the who%e $ody of the #e u$%ic3 nor &ee one art and desert another2,, He gi1es the reason.. one reason..of the rece t: C"he atriotism which em. $races %ess than the who%e induces sedition and discord3 the %ast e1i% of the State2C How rofound%y he had com rehended this truth< with what ersistency3 with what assion3 from the first hour he $ecame a u$%ic man to the %ast $eat of the great heart3 he cherished it< how %itt%e he accounted the good3 the raise3 the $%ame of this %oca%ity or that3 in com arison of the %arger good and the genera% and thoughtfu% a ro1a% of his own3 and our3 who%e +merica.. she this day fee%s and announces2 Wheresoe1er a dro of her $%ood f%ows in the 1eins of men3 this trait is fe%t and a reciated2 "he hunter $eyond Su erior< the fisherman on the dec& of the nigh night.foundered s&iff< the sai%or on the uttermost sea.. wi%% fee%3 as he hears these tidings3 that the rotection of a s%ee %ess3 a%%.em$racing3 arenta% care is withdrawn from him for a s ace3 and that his athway henceforward is more so%itary and %ess safe than $efore2 8ut I can not ursue these thoughts2 +mong the eu%ogists who ha1e 4ust uttered the e%o@uent sorrow of Eng%and at the death of the great /u&e3 one has em %oyed an image and an idea which I 1enture to modify and a ro riate2 C"he Borthmen,s image of death is finer than that of other c%imes< no s&e%eton3 $ut a gigantic figure that en1e%o s men within the massi1e fo%ds

of his dar& garment2 ,, We$ster seems so unshrouded from us3 as the %ast of the mighty three3 themse%1es fo%%owing a mighty series.. the greatest c%osing rocession2 "he ro$e draws round him3 and the era is ast2 ;et how much there is which that a%%.am %e fo%d sha%% not hide3 the recorded wisdom3 the great e(am %e3 the assured immorta%ity2 "hey s ea& of monumentsH CBothing can co1er his high fame $ut hea1en< Bo yramids set off his memories 8ut the eterna% su$stance of his greatness< "o which I %ea1e him2C 5+F+;E""E 8; S+#*E+B" S2 P#EB"ISS /eath3 who &noc&s with e@ua% hand at the door of the cottage and the a%ace gate3 has $een $usy at his a ointed wor&2 ?ourning re1ai%s throughout the %and3 and the countenances of a%% are shrouded in the mant%e of regret2 Far across the wi%d +t%antic3 amid the %easant 1ineyards in the sunny %and of France3 there3 too3 is mourning< and the weeds of sorrow are a%i&e worn $y rince and easant2 +gainst whom has the monarch of Cthe tom$ turned his remorse%ess dart that such wides read sorrow re1ai%sI Har&3 and the agoniDed 1oice of Freedom3 wee ing for her fa1orite son3 wi%% te%% you in strains sadder than those with which she Cshrie&ed when Eoscius&o fe%%C that 5afayette..the ga%%ant and the good..has ceased to %i1e2 "he friend and com anion of Washington is no more2 He who taught the eag%e of our country3 whi%e yet unf%edged3 to %ume his young wing and mate his ta%ons with the %ion,s strength3 has ta&en his f%ight far $eyond the stars3 $eneath whose inf%uence he fought so we%%2 5afayette is deadH "he ga%%ant shi 3 whose ennon has so often $ra1e%y streamed a$o1e the roar of $att%e and the tem est,s rage3 has at %ength gone s%ow%y down in the sti%% and @uiet waters2 We%% mightest thou3 93 /eath3 now rec%ine $eneath the %aure%s thou hast won< for ne1er since3 as the grim messenger of +%mighty Fengeance3 thou earnest into the wor%d3 did a more generous heart cease to hea1e $eneath thy chi%%ing touch3 and ne1er wi%% thy insatiate dart $e hur%ed against a no$%er $reastH Who does not fee% at the mournfu% inte%%igence3 as if he had %ost something cheering from his own ath through %ife< as if some $right star3 at which he had $een accustomed fre@uent%y and fond%y to gaDe3 had $een sudden%y e(tinguished in the firmamentI History,s age a$ounds with those who ha1e strugg%ed forth from the name%ess crowd3 and2 standing forward in the front ran&s3 cha%%enged the notice of their fe%%ow men< $ut when3 in o$edience to their $o%d demands3 we e(amine their c%aims to our admiration3 how se%dom do we find aught that e(cites our res ect or commands our 1eneration2 With what %easure do we turn from the contem %ation of the 0aesars and Ba o%eons of the human race to meditate u on the character of 5afayetteH We fee% roud that we $e%ong to the same s ecies< we fee% roud that we %i1e in the same age< and we fee% sti%% more roud that our country drew forth and nurtured those generous 1irtues which went to form a character that for %o1e of %i$erty3 romantic chi1a%ry3 un$ounded generosity and unwa1ering de1otion3 has ne1er had a ara%%e%2 "he history of this wonderfu% man is engra1ed u on the memory of e1ery +merican3 and I sha%% on%y ad1ert to such ortions of it as wi%% $est tend to i%%ustrate his character2 In 1777 our

fathers were engaged in rescuing from the fangs of the 8ritish %ion the rights which their sons are now en4oying2 It was the g%oomiest eriod of the #e1o%utionary strugg%e2 9ur army was fee$%e< an inso%ent and 1ictorious enemy was ressing hard u on it< des ondency had s read through its ran&s2 It seemed as if the %ast ho e of Freedom was gone2 /ee g%oom had sett%ed o1er the who%e country< and men %oo&ed with a des airing as ect u on the future of a contest which their $est wishes cou%d not f%atter them was dou$tfu%2 It was at this critica% eriod that their ho es were reno1ated and their s irits roused $y the cheering inte%%igence that at 0har%eston3 in the State of South 0aro%ina3 there had 4ust arri1ed a ga%%ant French no$%eman of high ran& and immense wea%th3 eager to em. $ar& his erson and his fortunes in the sacred cause of 5i$ertyH Bew im u%se was gi1en to the energies of our dis irited troo s2 +s the first ray of morning $rea&s u on the $enighted and tem est.tossed mariner3 so did this time%y assistance cheer the hearts of the war.worn and a%most des airing so%diers of Freedom2 "he enthusiastic French. man3 tho $ut a $eard%ess youth3 was immediate%y ta&en into the affections and the confidence of Washington2 Soon3 too2 did he f%ash his maiden sword u on his hereditary foes and ro1ed3 u on the fie%d of 8randywine3 that his $%ood f%owed as free%y as his treasure in the cause he had es oused2 "hat $%ood was the $%ood of the young 5afayette2 8ut nineteen summers had assed o1er his $row3 when he was thus found fighting side $y side with the 1eteran warriors of 8un&er Hi%%2 How came he hereI 8orn to a high name and a rich inheritance< educated at a dissi ated and 1o%u tuous court< married to a young and $eautifu% woman..how came he to $rea& through the $%andishments of %o1e and the tem tations of %easure and thus $e found fighting the $att%e of strangers3 far away in the wi%ds of +mericaI It was $ecause3 from his infancy3 there had grown u in his $osom a assion more otent than a%% others: the %o1e of %i$erty2 6 on his heart a s ar& from the 1ery a%tar of Freedom had fa%%en and he watched and cherished it with more than 1esta% 1igi%ance2 "his assionate %o1e of %i$erty< this fire which was thenceforth to g%ow un@uenched and undimmed3 im e%%ed him to $rea& asunder the ties $oth of %easure and of affection2 He had heard that a ga%%ant eo %e had raised the standard of re1o%t against o ression3 and he hastened to 4oin them2 It was to him the 0rusade of 5i$erty< and3 %i&e a Enight of the Ho%y 0ross3 he had en. %isted in the ran&s of those who had sworn to rescue her a%tars from the rofane touch of the tyrant2 ?ore congenia% to him $y far were the hardshi s3 the dangers3 and the freedom of the +merican wi%ds than the ease3 the %u(ury3 and the s%a1ery of his nati1e court2 He had e(changed the 1oice of %o1e for the sa1age ye%% and the hosti%e shout< the gent%e strains of the har and %ute for the trum et and drum and the sti%% more terri$%e music of c%ashing arms2 Bor did he come a%one or em ty.handed2 "he eo %e in whose cause he was a$out to eri% his %ife and his fortune were too oor to afford him e1en the means of con1eyance3 and his own court threw e1ery o$stac%e in the way of the accom %ishment of his wishes2 /id this dam en his ardorI /id this chi%% his generous as irationI Bo< it added new 1igor to each2 CI wi%% fit out a 1esse% myse%f3C e(c%aimed the enthusiastic youth< and in s ite of the sneers of the young and the cautions of the o%d3 the ga%%ant $oy redeemed his %edge2 Soon a roud shi was seen f%ying fast and fa%con. %i&e across the wide +t%antic2 She %anded on our shores %i&e a $ird of romise< and $y her resent aid and ho es of future succor infused new 1igor into our a%most a%sied arms2 Such was the commencement of a career destined to $e more $ri%%iant than any of which we read in ta%e or history3 rea%iDing the wi%dest wishes of youthfu% enthusiasm3 and showing how

the romance of rea% %ife often e(ceeds the strangest fictions of the imagination2 From the moment of 4oining our ran&s the young hero $ecame the ride and the $oast of the army2 He won the affections of the stern.$rowed and iron.sou%ed warriors of Bew Eng%and3 and was recei1ed with o en arms $y the warm.hearted and chi1a%rous sons of the South2 "ho the down of manhood had scarce%y $egun to s ring u on his chee&3 yet were his counse%s eager%y %istened to $y the hoary %eaders and the scarred 1eterans of the war2 9n the fie%d of 5itt%e he was im etuous and $ra1e< in the counci% the wisdom of Bestor f%owed from his %i s2 8ut it is not my intention to go into a detai%ed account of the ser1ices rendered $y 5afayette to the country of his ado tion2 Suffice it to say that3 throughout the #e1o%utionary strugg%e3 with unchanged fide%ity and unde1iating de1otion3 he continued to our forth his $%ood and his treasure in the sacred cause he had es oused< and when at %ength3 fu%% of honors3 without one sing%e stain u on his $right escutcheon3 he returned to his nati1e %and3 the 1oices of mi%%ions of freemen were united in in1o&ing the $%essing of hea1en u on his head2 "hence. forth a ha%o of g%ory surrounded him2 and he was hai%ed $y a%% the wor%d as the + ost%e of 5i$ertyH Fu%% we%% did he deser1e the tit%eH For not more tru%y does the need%e oint to the o%e than did a%% his fee%ings oint to the great rinci %es of ci1i% freedom2 /uring the sanguinary scenes of the French #e1o%ution3 when the eo %e had @uaffed so dee %y at the fountain of %i$erty that they $ecame drun& and frenDied with the unusua% drafts3 5afayette a%one %ost not his e@uanimity2 He a%one dared to o ose the wi%d e(cesses of the 7aco$ins< and tho he was una$%e entire%y to stem the maddened torrent3 which seemed %et %oose from he%% itse%f3 yet many are the than&s due to his unwearied e(ertions to restrain it within the $an&s of %aw and order2 "hroughout those trou$%esome times he was found at his ost3 $y the side of the 0onstitution and the %aws< and when at %ength the who%e foundations of society were $ro&en u and the wi%d current of %icentiousness and crime swe t him an e(i%e into a foreign %and3 sti%% did he ho%d fast his integrity of sou%2 In the g%oomy dungeons of 9%mutD3 the f%ame of atriotism g%owed as $right%y and as warm%y in his $reast as e1er it did when fanned $y the free $reeDes of the mountains2 "he dungeons of 9%mutDH What associations are connected with the nameH "hey form a art of the romance of history2 For fi1e %ong years was the Friend of 5i$erty immured in the rison of the tyrant2 In 1ain did the ci1i%iDed wor%d demand his re%ease2 8ut what nations cou%d not effect3 came near $eing accom %ished $y the de1oted e(ertions of two chi1a%ric young men< and one of them was a South 0aro%inian whose father had e(tended the hos ita%ity of his house to 5afayette3 when on his first 1isit to +merica he %anded in the city of 0har%eston2 Strange3 that3 after the %a se of so many years3 the %itt%e chi%d who had then c%im$ed u on his &nee shou%d now $e eri%ing his %ife for his rescueH "here is nothing in history to com are with this romantic e isode of rea% %ife3 un%ess3 erha s3 the story of the minstre% friend of the %ion.hearted #ichard3 wandering through those 1ery dominions tuning his har $eneath e1ery fortress3 ti%% at %ength his strains were answered and the rison of the roya% 0rusader disco1ered2 8ut the doors of the +ustrian were at %ength thrown o en and 5afayette returned to France2 *reat changes3 howe1er3 had ta&en %ace in his a$sence2 "he f%ood of the #e1o%ution had su$sided2 "he tem est of o u%ar commotion had $%own o1er3 %ea1ing many and fearfu% e1idences of its fury< and the star of the 0hi%d of /estiny had now $ecome %ord of the ascendant2 Sma%% was the sym athy $etween the se%fish and am$itious Ba o%eon and 5afayette3 tho atriot and hi%anthro ist2 "hey cou%d no more ming%e than the ure %ights of hea1en and the unho%y fires of he%%2 5afa1ette refused with scorn the dignities roffered $y the First 0onsu%2 Fi%%ed with 1irtuous indignation at his country,s fate3 he retired from the ca ita%< and3 de1oting himse%f awhi%e to the ursuits of ri1ate %ife3 awaited the return of $etter times2

Here we can not $ut ause to contem %ate these two wonderfu% men3 $e%onging to the same age and to the same nation: Ba o%eon and 5afayette2 "heir names e(eite no &indred emotions< their fates no &indred sym athies2 Ba o%eon..the 0hi%d of /estiny..the thunder$o%t of war.. the 1ictor in a hundred $att%es..the dis enser of thrones and dominions< he who sea%ed the +% s and rec%ined $eneath the yramids3 whose word was fate and whose wish was %aw2 5afayette..the 1o%unteer of Freedom..the ad1ocate of human rights..the defender of ci1i% %i$ertyGthe atriot and the hi%anthro ist..the $e%o1ed of the good and the free2 Ba o%eon..the 1an@uished warrior3 igno$%y f%ying from the fie%d of Water%oo3 the wi%d $east3 ra1aging a%% Euro e in his wrath3 hunted down $y the $anded and affrighted nations and caged far away u on an ocean. girded roc&2 5afayette3 a watchword $y which men e(cite each other to deeds of worth and no$%e daring< whose home had $ecome the ?ecca of freedom3 toward which the i%grims of 5i$erty turn their eyes from e1ery @uarter of the g%o$e2 Ba o%eon was the red and fiery comet3 shooting wi%d%y through the rea%ms of s ace and scattering esti%ence and terror among the nations2 5afayette was the ure and $ri%%iant %anet3 $eneath whose gratefu% $eams the mariner directs his $ar& and the she herd tends his f%oc&s ..Ba o%eon died and a few o%d warriors..the scattered re%ies of ?arengo and of +uster%itD..$ewai%ed their chief2 5afayette is dead and the tears of a ci1i%iDed wor%d attest how dee is the mourning for his %oss2 Such is3 and a%. ways wi%% $e3 the difference of fee%ing toward a $enefactor and a con@ueror of the Iranian race2 In 1!242 on Sunday3 a sing%e shi fur%ed her snowy sai%s in the har$or of Bew ;or&2 Scarce%y had her row touched the shore3 when a murmur was heard among the mu%titudes which gradua%%y dee ened into a mighty shout of 4oy2 +gain and again were the hea1ens rent with the ins iring sound2 Bor did it cease< for the %oud strain was carried from city to city and from State to State3 ti%% not a tongue was si%ent throughout this wi%d #e u$%ic from the %is ing infant to the tremu%ous o%d man2 +%% were united in one wi%d shout of gratu%ation2 "he 1oices of more than ten mi%%ion freemen gushed u toward the s&y and $ro&e the sti%%ness of its de ths2 8ut one note and one tone went to form this acc%amation2 6 in those ure regions c%ear%y and sweet%y did it sound: ,, Honor to 5afayetteHC C We%come to the Bation,s *uestHC It was 5afayette3 the war. worn 1eteran3 whose arri1a% on our shores had caused this wides read3 this uni1ersa% 4oy2 He came among us to $e. ho%d the inde endence and the freedom which his young arm had so we%% assisted in achie1ing< and ne1er $efore did eye $eho%d or heart of man concei1e3 such homage aid to 1irtue2 E1ery day,s march was an o1ation2 "he 6nited States $ecame for months one great festi1e ha%%2 Peo %e forgot the usua% occu ations of %ife and crowded to $eho%d the $enefactor of man&ind2 "he iron.hearted3 gray.haired 1eterans of the #e1o%ution thronged around him to touch his hand3 to $eho%d his face3 and to ca%% down hea1en,s $enisons u on their o%d com anion.in.arms2 5is ing infancy and garru%ous o%d age3 $eauty3 ta%ents3 wea%th3 and ower3 a%%3 for a whi%e forsoo& their usua% ursuits and united to ay a tri$ute of gratitude and we%come to the nation,s guest2 "he name of 5afayette was u on e1ery %i 3 and where1er his name was3 there3 too3 was an in1ocation for $%essings u on his head2 What were the trium hs of the c%assic ages3 com ared with this un$ought %o1e and homage of a mighty eo %e I "a&e them in #ome,s $est days3 when the in1inci$%e genera%s of the Eterna% 0ity returned from their foreign con@uests3 with ca ti1e &ings $ound to their chariot whee%s and the s oi%s of nations in their train< fo%%owed $y their stern and $earded warriors and surrounded $y the end%ess mu%titudes of the se1en.hi%%ed city3 shouting a fierce we%come home< what was such a trium h com ared with 5afayette,sH Bot a sing%e city3 $ut a who%e nation riding as one man and greeting him with an affectionate em$raceH 9ne sing%e day of such s ontaneous homage were worth who%e years of court%y adu%ation< one hour

might we%% reward a man for a who%e %ife of danger and of toi%2 "hen3 too3 the 4oy with which he must ha1e 1iewed the ros erity of the eo %e for whom he had so heroica%%y strugg%edH "o $eho%d the nation3 which he %eft a %itt%e chi%d3 now grown u in the fu%% ro ortions of %usty manhoodH "o see the tender sa %ing3 which he had %eft with hard%y shade enough to co1er its own roots3 now wa(ing into the sturdy and unwedga$%e oa&2 $eneath whose gratefu% um$rage the o rest of a%% nations find she%ter and rotectionH "hat oa& sti%% grows on its ma4estic strength3 and wider and wider sti%% e(tend its mighty $ranches2 8ut the hand that watered it and nourished it whi%e yet a tender %ant is now co%d< the heart that watched with strong affection its ear%y growth has ceased to $eat2 Firtue forms no shie%d to ward off the arrows of death2 0ou%d it ha1e a1ai%ed e1en when 4oined with the rayers of a who%e ci1i%iDed wor%d3 then3 indeed3 this mournfu% occasion wou%d ne1er ha1e occurred3 and the %ife of 5afayette wou%d ha1e $een as immorta% as his fame2 ;et3 tho he has assed from among us< tho that countenance wi%% no more $e seen that used to %ighten u on the 1an of Freedom,s $att%es as he %ed her eag%ets to their feast< sti%% has he %eft $ehind his $etter art: the %egacy of his $right e(am %e3 the memory of his deeds2 "he %is ing infant wi%% %earn to s ea& his 1enerated name2 "he youth of e1ery country wi%% $e taught to %oo& u on his career and to fo%%ow in its footste s2 When3 hereafter3 a ga%%ant eo %e are fighting for freedom against the o ressor3 and their cause $egins to wane $efore the mercenary $ands of tyranny3 then wi%% the name of 5afayette $ecome a watchword that wi%% stri&e with terror on the tyrant,s ear and ner1e with redou$%ed 1igor the freeman,s arm2 +t that name many a heart $efore unmo1ed wi%% wa&e in the g%orious cause< and many a sword3 rust%ing ing%orious%y in its sca$$ard3 wi%% %ea forth to $att%e2 8ut e1en amid the mourning with which our sou%s are shrouded3 is there not some room for gratu%ationI 9ur de arted friend and $enefactor has gone down to the gra1e eacefu%%y and @uiet%y at a good3 o%d age2 He had erformed his a ointed wor&2 His 1irtues were ri e2 He had done nothing to su%%y his fair fame2 Bo $%ot or soi% of en1y or ca%umny can now affect him2 His character wi%% stand u on the ages of history3 ure and unsu%%ied as the %i%ied em$%em on his country,s $anner2 He has de arted from among us< $ut he has $ecome again the com anion of Washington2 He has $ut %eft the friends of his o%d age to associate with the friends of his youth2 Peace $e to his ashesH 0a%m and @uiet may they rest u on some 1ine.c%ad hi%% of his own $e%o1ed %andH +nd it sha%% $e ca%%ed the ?ount Fernon of France2 +nd %et no cunning scu% ture3 no monumenta% mar$%e3 deface with its moc& dignity the atriot,s gra1e< $ut rather %et the un runed 1ine3 the wi%d f%ower and the free song of the uncaged $ird3 a%% that s ea&s of freedom and of eace $e gathered round it2 5afayette needs no mauso%eum2 His fame is ming%ed with the nation,s history2 His e ita h is engra1ed u on the hearts of men2 +/+?S +B/ 7EFFE#S9B 8; E/W+#/ EFE#E"" Friends and Fe%%ow 0itiDens :..We are assem$%ed $eneath the cano y of the wee ing hea1ens3 under the inf%uence of fee%ings in which the who%e fami%y of +mericans unites with us2 We meet to ay a tri$ute of res ect to the re1ered memory of those to whom the who%e country %oo&s u as to its $enefactors< to whom it ascri$es the merit of unnum$ered u$%ic ser1ices3 and es ecia%%y of the inestima$%e ser1ice of ha1ing %ed in the counci%s of the #e1o%ution2 It is natura% that these fee%ings3 which er1ade the who%e +merican eo %e3 shou%d rise into

ecu%iar strength and earnestness in your hearts2 In meditating u on these great men your minds are una1oida$%y carried $ac& to those scenesC of their arduous and honored career3 this town and its citiDens were so dee %y %unged2 ;ou can not $ut re. mem$er that your fathers offered their $osoms to the sword3 and their dwe%%ings to the f%ames3 from the same s irit which animated the 1enera$%e atriarchs whom we now de %ore2 "he cause they es oused was the same which strewed your streets with ashes3 and drenched your hi%%to s with $%ood2 +nd whi%e Pro1idence3 in the astonishing circumstances of their de arture3 seems to ha1e a ointed that the #e1o%utionary age of +merica shou%d $e c%osed u $y a scene as i%%ustrious%y affecting as its commencement was disastrous and terrific3 you ha1e 4ust%y fe%t it your duty..it has $een the rom t dictate of your fee%ings..to ay3 within these ha%%owed recincts3 a we%%.deser1ed tri$ute to the great and good men to whose counse%s3 under *od3 it is in no sma%% degree owing that your dwe%%ings ha1e risen from their ashes3 and that the sacred dusts of those who fe%% rests in the $osom of a free and ha y %and2 It was the custom of the rimiti1e #omans to reser1e in the ha%%s of their houses the images of a%% the i%%ustrious men whom their fami%ies had roduced2 "hese images are su osed to ha1e consisted of a mas& e(act%y re resenting the countenance of each deceased indi1idua%3 accom anied with ha$i%iments of %i&e fashion with those worn in his time3 and with the armor3 $adges3 and insignia of his offices and e( %oits < a%% so dis osed around the sides of the ha%% as to re. sent3 in the attitude of %i1ing men3 the %ong succession of the de arted< and thus to set $efore the #oman citiDen3 whene1er he entered or %eft his house3 the 1enera$%e array of his ancestors re1ised in this im osing simi%itude2 Whene1er3 $y a death in the fami%y3 another distinguished mem$er of it was gathered to his fathers3 a strange and awfu% rocession was formed2 "he ancestra% mas&s3 inc%uding that of the new%y deceased3 were fitted u on the ser1ants of the fami%y3 se%ected of the siDe and a earance of those whom they were intended to re resent3 and drawn u in so%emn array to fo%%ow the funera% train of the %i1ing mourners3 first to the mar&et. %ace3 where the u$%ic eu%ogium was ronounced3 and then to the tom$2 +s he thus mo1ed a%ong3 with a%% the great fathers of his name @uic&ening3 as it were3 from their urns3 to en&ind%e his emu%ation3 the 1irtuous #oman renewed his 1ows of res ect to their memory3 and his reso%ution to imitate their fortitude3 fruga%ity3 and atriotism2 Fe%%ow citiDens3 the great heads of the +merican fami%y are fast assing away< of the %ast3 of the most honored3 two are now no more2 We are assem$%ed3 not to gaDe with awe on the artificia% and theatric images of their features3 $ut to contem %ate their 1enerated characters3 to ca%% to mind their in1a%ua$%e ser1ices3 and to %ay u the image of their 1irtues in our hearts2 "he two men who stood in a re%ation in which no others now stand to the who%e 6nion3 ha1e fa%%en2 "he men whom Pro1idence mar&ed out among the first of the fa1ored instruments to %ead this chosen eo %e into the ho%y %and of %i$erty3 ha1e discharged their high office3 and are no more2 "he men whose ardent minds rom ted them to ta&e u their country,s cause3 when there was nothing e%se to rom t and e1erything to deter them,3 the men who afterward3 when the ran&s were fi%%ed with the $ra1e and reso%ute3 were yet in the front of those $ra1e and reso%ute ran&s< the men who were ca%%ed to the he%m when the wisest and most sagacious were needed to steer the new%y.%aunched 1esse% through the $ro&en wa1es of the un&nown sea< the men3 who in their country,s ha ier days3 were found most worthy to reside o1er the 6nion they had so owerfu%%y contri$uted to rear into greatness..these men are now no more2 "hey ha1e not %eft us sing%y and in the sad $ut accustomed succession a ointed $y the order of nature< $ut ha1ing %i1ed3 acted3 and counse%ed3 and ris&ed a%%3 and trium hed and en4oyed together3 they ha1e gone together to their great reward2 In the morning of %ife..without

re1ious concert3 $ut with a &indred s irit..they %unged together into a conf%ict which ut to haDard a%% which ma&es %ife recious2 CWhen the storm of war and re1o%ution raged3 they stood side $y side3 on such eri%ous ground that3 had the +merican cause fai%ed3 tho a%% e%se had $een for. gi1en3 they were of the few whom an incensed em ire,s 1engeance wou%d ha1e ursued to the ends of the earth2 CWhen they had ser1ed through their %ong career of duty3 forgetting the %itt%e that had di1ided them3 and cherishing the great communion of ser1ice3 and eri%3 and success3 which had united them3 they wa%&ed in honora$%e friendshi a%ong the dec%ining athway of age< and now they ha1e sun& down together in eace2 "ime3 and their country,s ser1ice3 a %i&e fortune and a %i&e reward3 united them3 and the %ast great scene confirmed the union2 "hey were usefu%3 honored3 ros erous3 and %o1e%y in their %i1es3 and in their deaths they were not di1ided2 Ha iest at the %ast3 they were ermitted a%most to choose the hour of their de arture< to die on that day on which those who %o1ed them $est cou%d ha1e wished they might die2 It is re%ated as a singu%ar ha iness of P%ato that he died in a good o%d age at a $an@uet amid f%owers and erfumes and festa% songs3 u on his $irthday2 9ur +dams and 7efferson died on the $irthday of the nation< the day which their own deed had immorta%iDed3 which their own ro hetic s irit had mar&ed out as the great festi1a% of the %and< amid the trium ha% anthems of a who%e gratefu% eo %e3 throughout a country that hai%ed them as among the first and $o%dest of her cham ions in the times that tried men,s sou%s2 9ur 4u$i%ee3 %i&e that of o%d3 is turned into sorrow2 +mong the ruins of #ome there is a shattered arch3 erected $y the Em eror Fes asian3 when his son "itus returned from the destruction of 7erusa%em2 9n its $ro&en ane%s and fa%%ing frieDe are sti%% to $e seen3 re resented as $orne a%oft in the trium ha% rocession of "itus3 the we%%.&nown s oi%s of the second tem %e..the sacred 1esse%s of the ho%y %ace3 the cand%estic& with se1en $ranches3 and in front of a%%3 the si%1er trum ets of the 4u$i%ee3 in the hands of ca ti1e riests3 roc%aiming not now the %i$erty3 $ut the humi%iation and the sorrows of 7udah2 From this mournfu% s ectac%e3 it is said3 the ious and heart.stric&en He$rew3 e1en to the resent day3 turns aside in sorrow2 He wi%% not enter #ome through the gate of the arch of "itus3 $ut winds his way through the $y. aths of the Pa%atine3 o1er the $ro&en co%umns of the a%ace of the 0aesars3 that he may not $eho%d these sad memoria%s2 "he 4u$i%ee of +merica is turned into mourning2 Its 4oy is ming%ed with sadness< its si%1er trum et $reathes a ming%ed strain2 Henceforward3 whi%e +merica e(ists among the nations of the earth3 the first emotion on the Fourth of 7u%y wi%% $e of 4oy and trium h in the great e1ent which immorta%iDes the day< the second wi%% $e one of chastened and tender reco%%ection of the 1enera$%e men who de arted on the morning of the 4u$i%ee2 "his ming%ed emotion of trium h and sadness has sea%ed the $eauty and su$%imity of our great anni1ersary2 In the sim %e commemoration of a 1ictorious o%itica% achie1ement there seems not enough to occu y our urest and $est fee%ings2 "he Fourth of 7u%y was $efore a day of trium h3 e(u%tation3 and nationa% ride< $ut the ange% of death has ming%ed in the g%orious ageant to teach us we are men2 Had our 1enerated fathers %eft us on any other day3 it wou%d ha1e $een henceforward a day of mournfu% reco%%ection2 8ut now the who%e nation fee%s as with one heart3 that since it must sooner or %ater ha1e $een $erea1ed of its re1ered fathers3 it cou%d not ha1e wished that any other had $een the day of their decease2 9ur anni1ersary festi1a% was $efore trium hant< it is now trium hant and sacred2 It $efore ca%%ed out the young and ardent to 4oin in the re u$%ic re4oicing< it now a%so s ea&s in a touching 1oice3 to the retired3 to the gray.headed3 to the mi%d and eacefu% s irits3 to the who%e fami%y of so$er freemen2 It is

henceforward3 what the dying +dams ronounced it3 Ca great and a good day2C It is fu%% of greatness and fu%% of goodness2 It is a$so%ute and com %ete2 "he death of the men who dec%ared our inde endence.. their death on the day of the 4u$i%ee..was a%% that was wanting to the Fourth of 7u%y2 "o die on that day3 and to die together3 was a%% that was wanting to 7efferson and +dams2 "hin& not3 fe%%ow citiDens3 that3 in the mere forma% discharge of my duty this day3 I wou%d o1errate the me%ancho%y interest of the great occasion< I do anything $ut intentiona%%y o1errate it2 I %a$or on%y for words to do 4ustice to your fee%ings and mine2 I can say nothing which does not sound as co%d and inade@uate to myse%f as to you2 "he theme is too great and too sur riDing3 the men are too great and good3 to $e s o&en of in this cursory manner2 "here is too much in the contem %ation of their united characters3 their ser1ices3 the day and coincidence of their death3 to $e ro er%y descri$ed3 or to $e fu%%y fe%t at once2 I dare not come here and dismiss3 in a few summary aragra hs3 the characters of men who ha1e fi%%ed such a s ace in the history of their age2 It wou%d $e a disres ectfu% fami%iarity with men of their %ofty s irits3 their rich endowments3 their %ong and honora$%e %i1es3 to endea1or thus to weigh and estimate them2 I %ea1e that arduous tas& to the genius of &indred e%e1ation $y whom to.morrow it wi%% $e discharged2 P/anie% We$ster3 whose eu%ogy on +dams and 7efferson was de%i1ered on the fo%%owing day in Faneui% Ha%%3 8oston2Q I fee% the mournfu% contrast in the fortunes e1en of the first and $est of men3 that3 after a %ife in the highest wa%&s of usefu%ness< after conferring $enefits3 not mere%y on a neigh$orhood3 a city3 or e1en a State3 $ut on a who%e continent3 and a osterity of &indred men< after ha1ing stood in the first estimation for ta%ents3 ser1ices3 and inf%uence3 among mi%%ions of fe%%ow citiDens..a day must come3 which c%oses a%% u < ronounces a $rief $%essing on their memory< gi1es an hour to the actions of a crowded %ife< descri$es in a sentence what it too& years to $ring to ass3 and what is destined for years and ages to o erate on osterity< asses forgetfu%%y o1er many traits of character3 many counse%s and measures3 which it cost3 erha s3 years of disci %ine and effort to mature< utters a funera% rayer< chants a mournfu% anthem< and then dismisses a%% into the dar& cham$ers of death and forgetfu%ness2 8ut no2 fe%%ow citiDens3 we dismiss them not to the cham$ers of forgetfu%ness and death2 What we admired3 and riDed3 and 1enerated in them3 can ne1er $e forgotten2 I had a%most said that they are now $eginning to %i1e< to %i1e that %ife of unim aired inf%uence3 of unc%ouded fame3 of unming%ed ha iness3 for which their ta%ents and ser1ices were destined2 "hey were of the se%ect few3 the %east ortion of whose %ife dwe%%s in their hysica% e(istence< whose hearts ha1e watched3 whi%e their senses ha1e s%e t< whose sou%s ha1e grown u into a higher $eing< whose %easure is to $e usefu%< whose wea%th is an un$%emished re utation < who res ire the $reath of honora$%e fame< who ha1e de%i$erate%y and conscious%y ut what is ca%%ed %ife to haDard3 that they may %i1e in the hearts of those who come after2 Such men do not3 can not die2 "o $e co%d and $reath%ess< to fee% and s ea& not< this is not the end of e(istence to the men who ha1e $reathed their s irits into the institutions of their country3 who ha1e stam ed their characters on the i%%ars of the age3 who ha1e oured their hearts, $%ood into the channe%s of the u$%ic ros erity2 "e%% me3 ye who tread the sods of yon sacred height3 is Warren deadI 0an you not sti%% see him3 not a%e and rostrate3 the $%ood of his ga%%ant heart ouring out of his ghast%y wound3 $ut mo1ing res %endent o1er the fie%d of honor3 with the rose of hea1en u on his chee&3 and the fire of %i$erty in his eyeI "e%% me3 ye who ma&e your ious i%grimage to the shades of ;ernon3 is Washington indeed shut u in that co%d and narrow houseI "hat which made these men3 and men %i&e these3 can not die2 "he hand that traced the charter of inde endence3 is3 indeed3 motion%ess< the e%o@uent %i s that sustained it are hushed< $ut the %ofty s irits that concei1ed3 reso%1ed and maintained it3 and which a%one3 to such men3 Cma&e it %ife to %i1e3C these can not e( ire:

C"hese sha%% resist the em ire of decay3 CWhen time is o,er3 and wor%ds ha1e assed away< 0o%d in the dust the erished heart may %ie2 8ut that which warmed in once can ne1er die2C "his is their %ife3 and this their eu%ogy2 In these our fee$%e ser1ices of commemoration3 we set forth not their worth3 $ut our own gratitude2 "he eu%ogy of those who dec%ared our inde endence is written in the who%e history of inde endent +merica2 I do not mean that they a%one achie1ed our %i$erties< nor shou%d we $ring a gratefu% offering to their tom$s3 in sacrificing at them the merits of their contem oraries2 8ut in one3 sure%y3 who considers the history of the times3 the state of o inions3 and the o$stac%es that actua%%y stood in the way of success3 can dou$t that if 7ohn +dams and "homas 7efferson had thrown their ta%ents and inf%uence into the sca%e of su$mission3 the effect wou%d ha1e $een fe%t to the cost of +merica3 for ages2 Bo3 it is not too much to say that ages on ages may ass3 and the o u%ation of the 6nited States may o1erf%ow the uttermost regions of this continent3 $ut ne1er can there $e an +merican citiDen who wi%% not $ear in his condition and in his we%fare some trace of what was counse%ed3 and said3 and done $y these great men2 "his is their undying raise< a raise which &nows no %imits $ut those of +merica3 and which is uttered not mere%y in these our eu%ogies3 $ut in the thousand inarticu%ate 1oices of art and nature2 It sounds from the woodsmanVs a(3 in the distant forests of the west< for what was it that un$arred to him the gates of the mountainsI "he $usy water.whee% echoes $ac& the strain< for what was it that re%eased the industry of the country from the fetters of co%onia% restrictionI "heir raise is $orne on the swe%%ing can1as of +merica to distant oceans3 where the rumor of acts of trade ne1er came3 for what was it that sent our can1as thereI +nd it g%istens at home3 in the eyes of a ros erous and gratefu% eo %e2 ;es2 the eo %e3 the eo %e rise u and ca%% them $%est2 "hey in1o&e eterna% $%essings on the men who cou%d $e good as we%% as great< whose am$ition was their country,s we%fare< who did not as& to $e rewarded $y $eing a%. %owed to o ress the country which they redeemed from o ression2 I sha%% not3 fe%%ow citiDens3 on this occasion3 attem t a detai%ed narrati1e of the %i1es of these distinguished men2 "o re%ate their history at %ength wou%d $e to re%ate that of the country3 from their first entrance on u$%ic %ife to their fina% retirement2 E1en to dwe%% minute%y on the more cons icuous incidents of their career wou%d cause me to tres ass too far on the ro er %imits of the occasion2 5et us on%y enumerate those few %eading oints in their %i1es and characters which wi%% $est guide us to the ref%ections we ought to ma&e3 whi%e we stand at the tom$s of these e(ce%%ent and honored men2 ?r2 +dams was $orn on the 30th of 9cto$er3 173)3 and ?r2 7efferson on the 13th of + ri%3 17432 9ne of them rose from the undistinguished mass of the community3 whi%e the other3 $orn in higher circumstances3 1o%untari%y descended to its %e1e%2 +%tho3 ha i%y3 in this country it can not $e said of any one3 that he owes much to $irth or fami%y3 yet it sometimes ha ens3 e1en under the e@ua%ity which re1ai%s among us3 that a certain degree of deference fo%%ows in the train of fami%y connections3 a art from a%% ersona% merit2 ?r2 +dams was the son of a Bew Eng%and farmer3 and in this a%one the fruga%ity and moderation of his $ringing u are sufficient%y re%ated2 ?r2 7efferson owed more to $irth2 He inherited a good estate from his res ecta$%e father< $ut instead of associating himse%f with the o u%ent interest in Firginia..at that time3 in conse@uence of the mode in which their estates were he%d and transmitted3 an e(c%usi1e and owerfu% c%ass3 and of which he might ha1e $ecome a owerfu% %eader..he

threw himse%f into the ran&s of the eo %e2 It was a ro itious coincidence3 that of these two eminent statesmen3 one was from the Borth3 and the other from the South< as if3 in the ha y effects of their 4oint action3 to gi1e us the first %esson of union2 "he enemies of our in. de endence3 at home and a$road3 re%ied on the difficu%ty of uniting the co%onies in one harmonious system2 "hey &new the difference in our %oca% origin< they e(aggerated the oints of dissimi%arity in our sectiona% characterH It was therefore most aus icious that3 in the outset of the #e1o%ution3 whi%e the Borth and the South had each its great ra%%ying oint in Firginia and ?assachusetts3 the wise and good men3 whose inf%uence was most fe%t in each3 mo1ed forward in $rotherhood and concert2 ?r2 Auincy3 in a 1isit to the Southern co%onies3 had entered into an e(tensi1e corres ondence with the friends of %i$erty in that art of the country2 #ichard Henry 5ee and his $rother +rthur maintained a constant intercourse with Samue% +dams2 /r2 Fran&%in3 tho a citiDen of Pennsy%1ania3 was a nati1e of 8oston< and from the first moment of their meeting at Phi%ade% hia3 7efferson and +dams $egan to coo erate cordia%%y in the great wor& of inde endence2 CWhi%e theoretica% o%iticians3 at home and a$road3 were s ecu%ating on our %oca% ecu%iarities3 and the 8ritish ministry were $ui%ding their ho es u on the ma(im3 /i1ide and con@uer3 they might we%% ha1e $een astonished to see the /ec%aration of In. de endence re orted into 0ongress3 $y the 4oint %a$or of the son of a Firginia %anter and of a Bew Eng%and yeoman2 +dams and 7efferson recei1ed their academica% education at the co%%eges of their nati1e states3 the former at 0am. $ridge3 the %atter at Wi%%iam and ?ary2 +t these institutions3 they se1era%%y %aid the foundation of 1ery distinguished attainments as scho%ars3 and formed a taste for %etters which was fresh and cra1ing to the %ast2 "hey were $oth fami%iar with the ancient %anguages and their %iterature2 "heir range in the 1arious $ranches of genera% reading was erha s e@ua%%y wide3 and was uncommon%y e(tensi1e< and it is3 I $e%ie1e3 doing no in4ustice to any other honored name3 to say that3 in this res ect3 they stood at the head of the great men of the #e1o%ution2 "heir first writings were de1oted to the cause of their country2 ?r2 +dams3 in 17')3 u$%ished his essay on the 0anon and Feuda% 5aw3 which two years afterward was re u$%ished in 5ondon3 and was then ronounced one of the a$%est erformances which had crossed the +t%antic2 It e( resses the $o%dest and most e%e1ated sentiments in the most 1igorous %anguage< and might ha1e taught in its tone what it taught in its doctrine3 that +merica must $e uno rest3 or must $ecome inde endent2 +mong ?r2 7efferson,s first roductions was3 in %i&e manner3 a o%itica% essay3 entit%ed3 C+ Summary CFiew of the #ights of 8ritish +merica2C It contains a near a roach to the ideas and %anguage of the /ec%aration of Inde endence< and its $o%d s irit3 and o%ished3 $ut at the same time3 owerfu% e(ecution3 are &nown to ha1e had their effect in causing its author to $e designated for the high trusts confided to him in the 0ontinenta% 0ongress2 +t a %ater eriod of %ife3 ?r2 7efferson $ecame the author of ,,Botes on Firginia2C a wor& e@ua%%y admired in Euro e and +merica< and ?r2 +dams3 of the C/efense of the +merican 0onstitution3C a erformance that wou%d do honor to the o%itica% %iterature of any country2 8ut in enumerating their %iterary roductions3 it must $e remem$ered that they were $oth em %oyed3 the greater art of their %i1es3 in the acti1e duties of u$%ic ser1ice3 and that the fruits of their inte%%ect is not to $e sought in the systematic 1o%umes of %earned %eisure3 $ut in the archi1es of state3 and in a most e(tensi1e u$%ic and ri1ate corres ondence2

"he rofessiona% education of these distinguished states. men had $een in the %aw3 and was therefore such as ecu%iar%y fitted them for the contest in which they were to act as %eaders2 "he %aw of Eng%and3 then the %aw of +merica3 is c%ose%y connected with the history of the %i$erty of Eng%and2 ?any of the @uestions at issue $etween the Par%iament of *reat 8ritain and the co%onies were @uestions of constitutiona%3 if not of common %aw2 For the discussion of these @uestions3 the %ega% rofession3 of course3 furnished the $est re aration2 In genera%3 the contest was3 ha i%y for the co%onies3 at first forensic< a contest of discussion and de$ate< affording time and o ortunity to diffuse throughout the eo %e3 and stam dee %y on their minds3 the great rinci %es which3 ha1ing first $een trium hant%y sustained in the argument3 were then to $e con. firmed in the fie%d2 "his re@uired the training of the atriot %awyer3 and this was the office which3 in that ca acity3 was eminent%y discharged $y 7efferson and +dams3 to the dou$tfu% %i$erties of their country2 "he cause in which they were engaged a$undant%y re aid the ser1ice and the haDard2 It ga1e them recise%y that $readth of 1iew and e%e1ation of fee%ing which the technica% routine of the rofession is too a t to destroy2 "heir ractise of the %aw soon assed from the narrow %itigation of the courts to the great forum of contending em ires2 It was not nice %ega% notions they were there em %oyed to $a%ance3 $ut so$er rea%ities of indescri$a$%e weight2 "he %ife and death of their country was the a%%.im ortant issue2 Bor did the ser1ice of their country afterward afford them %eisure for the ordinary ractise of their rofession2 ?r2 7efferson3 indeed3 in 177' and 17773 was em %oyed with Wythe and Pend%eton3 in an entire re1ision of the code of Firginia< and ?r2 +dams was offered3 a$out the same time3 the first seat on the $ench of the Su erior 0ourt of his nati1e State2 8ut each was short%y afterward ca%%ed to a foreign mission3 and s ent the rest of the acti1e years of his %ife3 with scarce%y an inter1a%3 in the o%itica% ser1ice of his country2 Such was the education and @ua%ity of these men3 when the #e1o%utionary contest came on2 In 17743 and on 7une 7th..a day destined to $e in e1ery way i%%ustrious..?r2 +dams was e%ected a mem$er of the 0ontinenta% 0ongress3 of which $ody he was from the first a distinguished %eader2 In the month of 7une in the fo%%owing year3 when a commander.in.chief was to $e chosen for the +merican armies3 and when that a ointment seemed in course to $e%ong to the commanding genera% of the army from ?assachusetts and the neigh$oring States which had rushed to the fie%d3 ?r2 +dams recommended *eorge Washington to that a%%. im ortant ost3 and was thus far the means of securing his guidance to the +merican armies2 In +ugust3 177)3 ?r2 7efferson too& his seat in the 0ontinenta% 0ongress3 re. ceded $y the fame of $eing one of the most accom %ished and owerfu% cham ions of the cause3 tho among the youngest mem$ers of that $ody2 It was the wish of ?r2 +dams3 and ro$a$%y of ?r2 7efferson3 that inde endence shou%d $e dec%ared in the fa%% of 177)< $ut the country seemed not then ri e for the measure2 +t %ength the acce ted time arri1ed2 In ?ay3 177'3 the co%onies3 on the ro osition of ?r2 +dams3 were in1ited $y the *enera% 0ongress to esta$%ish their se1era% State go1ernments2 9n 7une 7th the reso%ution of inde endence was mo1ed $y #ichard Henry 5ee2 9n the 11th3 a committee of fi1e was chosen to announce this reso%ution to the wor%d3 and "homas 7efferson and 7ohn +dams stood at the head of this committee2 From their designation $y $a%%ot to this most honora$%e duty3 their rominent standing in the 0ongress might a%one $e inferred2 In their amica$%e contention and deference each to the other of the great trust of com osing the a%%.im ortant document3 we witness their atriotic disinterestedness and their mutua% res ect2 "his trust de1o%1ed on 7efferson3 and with it rests on him the im erisha$%e renown of ha1ing enned the /ec%aration of Inde endence2 "o ha1e $een the instrument of e( ressing3 in one

$rief3 decisi1e act3 the concentrated wi%% and reso%ution of a who%e fami%y of States< of unfo%ding3 in one a%%. im ortant manifesto3 the causes3 the moti1es3 and the 4ustification of this great mo1ement in human affairs< to ha1e $een ermitted to gi1e the im ress and ecu%iarity of his own mind to a character of u$%ic right3 destined3 or rather3 %et me say a%ready e%e1ated3 to an im ortance3 in the estimation of men2 e@ua% to anything human e1er $orne on archment or e( rest in the 1isi$%e signs of thoughtGthis is the g%ory of "homas 7efferson2 "o ha1e $een among the first of those who foresaw and $ro&e the way for this great consummation< to ha1e $een the mo1er of numerous decisi1e acts3 its undou$ted recursors< to ha1e $een among many a$%e and generous s irits united in this eri%ous ad1enture3 $y ac&now%edgment unsur assed in Dea%3 and une@ua%ed in a$i%ity< to ha1e $een e(c%usi1e%y associated with the author of the /ec%aration< and then3 with a fer1id and o1erwhe%ming e%o@uence3 to ha1e ta&en the %ead in ins iring the 0ongress to ado t and roc%aim it..this is the g%ory of 7ohn +dams2 Bor was it among common and inferior minds that these men were reeminent2 In the $ody that e%ected ?r2 7efferson to draft the /ec%aration of Inde endence3 there were other men of great a$i%ity2 Fran&%in was a mem$er of it3 a statesman of the highest re utation in Euro e and +merica3 and es ecia%%y master of a most ure3 effecti1e Eng%ish sty%e of writing2 +nd ?r2 +dams was ronounced $y ?r2 7efferson himse%f the a$%est ad1ocate on inde endence in a 0ongress which cou%d $oast among its mem$ers such men as Patric& Henry3 #ichard Henry 5ee3 and our own Samue% +dams2 "hey were great and among great men< mightiest among the mighty< and en4oyed their %ofty standing in a $ody of which ha%f the mem$ers might with honor ha1e resided o1er the de%i$erati1e counci%s of a nation2 *%orious as their standing in this counci% of sages has ro1ed3 they $ehe%d the g%ory on%y in distant 1ision3 whi%e the ros ect $efore them was shrouded in dar&ness and terror2 CI am not trans orted with enthusiasm3C is the %anguage of ?r2 +dams3 the day after the reso%ution was ado ted2 CI am we%% aware of the toi%3 the treasure3 and the $%ood it wi%% cost3 to maintain this dec%aration3 to su ort and defend these States2 ;et3 through a%% the g%oom3 I can see a ray of %ight and g%ory2 I can see that the end is worth more than a%% the means2C Bor was it the rash ad1enture of uneasy s irits3 who had e1erything to gain3 and nothing to ris&3 $y their enter rise2 "hey %eft a%% for their country,s sa&e2 Who does not see that +dams and 7efferson might ha1e risen to any station in the 8ritish em ire o en to nati1es of a co%onyI "hey might ha1e stood within the shadow of the throne which they shoo& to its $ase2 It was in the fu%% understanding of their a%% $ut des erate choice that they chose for their country2 ?any were the inducements which ca%%ed them to another choice2 "he 1oice of authority< the array of an em ire,s ower3 the %eadings of friendshi < the yearning of their hearts toward the %and of their father,s se u%chersGthe %and which the great cham ions of constitutiona% %i$erty sti%% made 1enera$%e< the ghast%y 1ision of the gi$$et3 if they fai%ed..a%% the fee%ings which grew from these sources were to $e stif%ed and &e t down3 for a dearer treasure was at sta&e2 "hey were anything $ut ad1enturers3 anything $ut ma%contents2 "hey %o1ed eace3 order3 and %aw< they %o1ed a man%y o$edience to constitutiona% authority< $ut they %o1ed freedom and their country more2 How sha%% I attem t to fo%%ow them through the succession of great e1ents which a rare and &ind Pro1idence crowded into their %i1es I How sha%% I attem t to enumerate the osts they fi%%ed and the trusts they discharged3 $oth in the counci%s of their nati1e States and of the confederation3 $oth $efore and after the ado tion of the federa% 0onstitution< the codes of %aw and systems of go1ernment they aided in organiDing< the foreign em$assies they sustained <

the a%%iances with owerfu% states they contracted3 when +merica was wea&< the %oans and su$sidies they rocured from foreign owers3 when +merica was oor< the treaties of eace and commerce which they negotiated< their artici ation in the Federa% *o1ernment on its organiDation3 ?r2 +dams as the first Fice.President3 ?r2 7efferson as the first Secretary of State< their mutua% ossession of the confidence of the on%y man to whom his country accorded a higher %ace< and their successi1e administration of the go1ernment3 after his retirementI "hese are a%% %aid u in the anna%s of the country< her archi1es are fi%%ed with the roductions of their ferti%e and cu%ti1ated minds< the ages of her history are $right with their achie1ements< and the we%fare and ha iness of +merica ronounce3 in one genera% eu%ogy3 the 4ust encomium of their ser1ices2 Bor need we fear to s ea& of their o%itica% dissensions2 If they who o osed each other and arrayed the nation3 in their arduous contention3 were a$%e in the $osom of ri1ate %ife to forget their former strugg%es< we sure%y may contem %ate them3 e1en in this re%ation3 with ca%mness2 9f the counse%s ado ted3 and the measures ursued3 in the storm of o%itica% we%fare2 I resume not to s ea&2 I &new these great men3 not as o onents3 $ut as friends to each other3 not in the &een rosecution of a o%itica% contro1ersy3 $ut in the cu%ti1ation of a friend%y corres ondence2 +s they res ected and honored each other3 I res ect and honor $oth2 "ime3 too3 has remo1ed the foundation of their dissensions2 "he rinci %es on which they contended are sett%ed3 some in fa1or of one3 and some in fa1or of the other2 "he great foreign interests which %ent ardor to the strugg%e ha1e ha i%y %ost their ho%d on the +merican eo %e< and the o%itics of the country now turn on @uestions not agitated in their days2 ?eantime3 I &now not whether3 if we had in our ower to choose $etween the reco%%ection of these re1erend men as they were3 and what they wou%d ha1e $een without their great strugg%e3 we cou%d wish them to ha1e $een different3 e1en in this res ect2 "wenty years of friendshi succeeding ten of ri1a%ry a ear to me a more amia$%e3 and certain%y a more instructi1e3 s ectac%e3 e1en than a %ife of un$ro&en concert2 +s a friend to $oth their res ected memories3 I wou%d not wi%%ing%y s are the attestation which they too& %easure in rendering to each other,s characters2 We are taught3 in the 1a%edictory %essons of Washington3 that Cthe s irit of arty is the worst enemy of a o u%ar go1ernment2C Sha%% we not re4oice that we are taught in the %i1es of +dams and 7efferson that the most em$ittered contentions which as yet ha1e di1ided us furnished no ground for %asting disunion I "he dec%ining eriod of their %i1es resents their characters in the most de%ightfu% as ect3 and furnishes the ha iest i%%ustration of the erfection of our o%itica% system2 We $eho%d a new s ectac%e of a mora% su$%imity< the eacefu% o%d age of the retired chiefs of the #e u$%ic< an e1ening of %earned3 usefu%3 and honored %eisure3 fo%%owing u on a youth and manhood of haDard and ser1ice3 and a who%e %ife of a%ternate tria% and success2 We $eho%d them3 indeed3 acti1e and untiring3 e1en to the %ast2 +t the ad1anced age of eighty.fi1e years3 our 1enera$%e fe%%ow citiDen and neigh$or was sti%% com etent to ta&e a art in the con1ention for re1ising the State constitution3 to whose origina% formation3 forty years $efore3 he so essentia%%y contri$uted< and ?r2 7efferson3 at the same rotracted age3 was a$%e to ro4ect3 and carry on to their com %etion3 the e(tensi1e esta$%ishments of the 6ni1ersity of Firginia2 8ut it is the great and c%osing scene which a ears to crown their %ong and e(a%ted career with a consummation a%most miracu%ous2 Ha1ing done so much and so ha i%y for themse%1es3 so much and so $eneficia%%y for their country3 at that %ast moment3 when man can no more do anything for his country or for himse%f3 it %eased a &ind Pro1idence to do that for $oth of them which3 to the end of time3 wi%% cause them to $e deemed not more ha y in the

renown of their %i1es than in the o

ortunity of their death2

I cou%d gi1e neither force nor interest to the account of these su$%ime and touching scenes $y anything $eyond the sim %e recita% of the facts a%ready fami%iar to the u$%ic2 "heir deaths were near%y simu%taneous2 For se1era% wee&s the strength of ?r2 7efferson had $een gradua%%y fai%ing3 tho the 1igor of his mind remained unim aired2 +s he drew nearer to the %ast3 and no e( ectation remained that his term cou%d $e much ro%onged3 he e( rest no other wish than that he might %i1e to $reathe the air of the fiftieth anni1ersary of inde endence2 "his he was gracious%y ermitted to do2 8ut it was e1ident3 on the morning of the fourth3 that Pro1idence intended that this day3 consecrated $y his deed3 shou%d $e so%emniDed $y his death2 9n some momentary re1i1a% of his wasting strength3 the friends around wou%d ha1e soothed him with the ho e of continuing< $ut he answered their encouragements on%y $y saying he did not fear to die2 9nce3 as he drew nearer to his c%ose3 he %ifted u his head3 and murmured with a smi%e3 CIt is the fourth of 7u%yC< whi%e his re eated e(c%amation on the %ast great day was3 CBunc dimittis3 /omineC..C5ord3 now %ettest thou thy ser1ant de art in eace2C He de arted in eace3 a %itt%e $efore one o,c%oc& of this memora$%e day< unconscious that his com atriot3 who fifty years $efore had shared its efforts and eri%s3 was now the artner of its g%ory2 ?r2 +dams,s mind had a%so wandered $ac&3 o1er the %ong %ine of great things with which his %ife was fi%%ed3 and found rest on the thought of inde endence2 When the discharges of the arti%%ery roc%aimed the trium hant anni1ersary3 he ronounced it Ca great and a good day2C "he thri%%ing word of inde endence3 which3 fifty years $efore3 in the ardor of his man%y strength3 he had sounded out to the nations from the ha%% of the #e1o%utionary 0ongress3 was now among the %ast that dwe%t on his %i sH and when3 toward the hour of noon3 he fe%t his no$%e heart growing co%d within him3 the %ast emotion which warmed it was3 that,, 7efferson sti%% sur1i1esH,, 8ut he sur1i1es not< he is gone2 "hey are gone togetherH Friends3 fe%%ow citiDens3 free3 ros erous3 ha y +mericansH "he men who did so much to ma&e you so are no more2 "he men who ga1e nothing to %easure in youth3 nothing to re ose in age3 $ut a%% to that country whose $e%o1ed name fi%%ed their hearts3 as it does ours3 with 4oy3 can now do no more for us< nor we for them2 8ut their memory remains3 we wi%% cherish it< their $right e(am %e remains3 we wi%% stri1e to imitate it< the fruit of their wise counse%s and no$%e acts remains3 we wi%% gratefu%%y en4oy it2 "hey ha1e gone to the com anions of their cares3 of their dangers3 and their toi%s2 It is we%% with them2 "he treasures of +merica are now in hea1en2 How %ong the %ist of our good3 and wise3 and $ra1e3 assem$%ed thereH How few re. main with usH "here is our Washington< and those who fo%%owed him in their country,s confidence are now met together with him3 and a%% that i%%ustrious com any2 "he faithfu% mar$%e may reser1e their image: the en. gra1en $rass may roc%aim their worth< $ut the hum$%est sod of inde endent +merica3 with nothing $ut the dew.dro s of the morning to gi%d it3 is a rouder mauso%eum than &ings or con@uerors can $oast2 "he country is their monument2 Its inde endence is their e ita h2 8ut not to their country is their raise %imited2 "he who%e earth is the monument of i%%ustrious men2 Whene1er an agoniDing eo %e sha%% erish3 in a generous con1u%sion3 for want of a 1a%iant arm and a fear%ess heart3 they wi%% cry3 in the %ast accents of des air3 03 for a Washington3 an +dams3 a 7effersonH Where1er a regenerated nation3 starting u in its might3 sha%% $urst the %in&s of stee% that enchain it3 the

raise of our 1enerated fathers sha%% $e remem$ered in their trium ha% songH "he contem orary and successi1e generations of men wi%% des air3 and in the %ong %a se of ages3 the races of +merica3 %i&e those of *reece and #ome3 may ass away2 "he fa$ric of +merican freedom3 %i&e a%% things human3 howe1er firm and fair3 may crum$%e into dust2 8ut the cause in which these3 our fathers3 shone3 is immorta%2 "hey did that to which no age3 no eo %e of ci1i%iDed men3 can $e indifferent2 "heir eu%ogy wi%% $e uttered in other %anguages when these we s ea&3 %i&e us who s ea& them3 sha%% $e a%% forgotten2 +nd when the great account of humanity sha%% $e c%osed3 in the $right %ist of those who ha1e $est adorned and ser1ed it3 sha%% $e found the names of our +dams and our 7efferson2

The uantum !ookbook re"eals a simple #-step technique for manifesting absolutely $%&T'I%( ) quickly and easily, including * of the +,-T !.ITI!$/ steps that is stopping 0The -ecret1 from working. Click -his Secret 'rder .ink -o +et -he /uantum Cookbook t Huge Discount

IB+6*6#+5 +//#ESS 8; +2 5+W#EB0E 59WE55 +mong his other wise sayings3 +ristot%e remar&ed that man is $y nature a socia% anima%< and it is in order to de1e%o his owers as a socia% $eing that +merican co%%eges e(ist2 "he o$4ect of the undergraduate de artment is not to roduce hermits3 each im risoned in the ce%% of his own inte%%ectua% ursuits3 $ut men fitted to ta&e their %aces in the community and %i1e in contact with their fe%%ow men2 "he co%%ege of the o%d ty e ossest a so%idarity which ena$%ed it to fu%fi% that ur ose we%% enough in its time3 a%tho on a narrow sca%e and a %ower %ane than we as ire to at the resent day2 It was so sma%% that the students were a%% we%% ac@uainted with one another3 or at %east with their c%assmates2 "hey were constant%y thrown together3 in cha e%3 in the c%assroom3 in the dining ha%%3 in the co%%ege dormitories3 in their sim %e forms of recreation< and they were constant%y measuring themse%1es $y one standard in their common occu ations2 "he curricu%um3 consisting main%y of the c%assics3 with a %itt%e mathematics3 hi%oso hy3 and history3 was the same for them a%%< designed3 as it was3 not on%y as a re aration for the rofessions of the ministry and the %aw3 $ut a%so as the uni1ersa% foundation of %i$era% education2 In the course of time these sim %e methods were out. grown2 President E%iot ointed out3 with unanswera$%e force3 that the fie%d of human &now%edge had %ong $een too 1ast for any man to com ass< and that now su$4ects must $e admitted to the scheme of instruction3 which $e. came there$y so %arge that no student cou%d fo%%ow it a%%2 8efore the end of the nineteenth century this was genera%%y recogniDed3 and e%ection in some form was introduced into a%% our co%%eges2 8ut the new methods $rought a di1ergence in the courses of study ursued $y indi1idua% students3 an inte%%ectua% iso%ation3 which $ro&e down the o%d so%idarity2 In the %arger institutions the rocess has $een hastened $y the great increase in num$ers3 and in many cases $y an a$andonment of the o%icy of housing the $u%& of the students in co%%ege dormitories< with the resu%t that co%%ege %ife has shown a mar&ed tendency to disintegrate3 $oth inte%%ectua%%y and socia%%y2 "o that disintegration the o1ershadowing interest in ath%etic games a ears to $e art%y due2 I $e%ie1e strong%y in the hysica% and mora% 1a%ue of ath%etic s orts3 and of interco%%egiate contests conducted in a s irit of generous ri1a%ry< and I do not $e%ie1e that their e(aggerated rominence at the resent day is to $e attri$uted to a con1iction on the art of the undergraduates3 or of the u$%ic3 that hysica% is more 1a%ua$%e than menta% force2 It is due rather to the fact that such contests offer to students the one common interest3 the on%y stri&ing occasion for a dis %ay of co%%ege so%idarity2 If the changes wrought in the co%%ege ha1e wea&ened the o%d so%idarity and unity of aim3 they ha1e %et in %ight and air2 "hey ha1e gi1en us a freedom of mo1ement needed for further rogress2 ?ay we not say of the e(treme e%ecti1e system what Edmond Sherer said of /emocracy: that it is $ut one stage in an irresisti$%e march toward an un. &nown goa%2 Progress means change3 and e1ery &ind of growth is a transitiona% era< $ut in a ecu%iar degree the resent state of the +merican co%%ege $ears the mar&s of a eriod of transition2 "his is seen in the com arati1e%y sma%% estimation in which high roficiency in co%%ege studies

is he%d3 $oth $y undergraduates and $y the u$%ic at %arge< for if co%%ege education were now c%ose%y ada ted to the needs of the community3 e(ce%%ence of achie1ement therein ought to $e genera%%y recogniDed as of great 1a%ue2 "he transitiona% nature of e(isting conditions is seen again in the a$sence3 among instructors as we%% as students3 of fi(t rinci %es $y which the choice of courses of study ought to $e guided2 It is seen3 more mar&ed%y sti%%3 in %ac& of any acce ted 1iew of the u%timate o$4ect of a co%%ege education2 9n this %ast su$4ect the ears of the co%%ege wor%d ha1e of %ate $een assai%ed $y many discordant 1oices3 a%% of them earnest3 most of them we%%.informed3 and s ea&ing in e1ery case with a tone of confidence in the ossession of the true so%ution2 9ne theory3 often $roached under different forms3 and more or %ess %ogica%%y he%d3 is that the main o$4ect of the co%%ege shou%d $e to re are for the study of a definite rofession3 or the ractise of a distinct occu ation< and that the su$4ects ursued shou%d3 for the most art3 $e such as wi%% furnish the &now%edge immediate%y for that end2 8ut if so3 wou%d it not $e $etter to transfer a%% instruction of this &ind to the rofessiona% schoo%s3 reducing the age of entrance thereto3 and %ea1ing the genera% studies for a co%%ege course of diminished %ength3 or erha s surrendering them a%together to the secondary schoo%s I If we acce t the rofessiona% o$4ect of co%%ege education3 there is much to $e said for a read4ustment of that nature3 $ecause we a%% &now the com arati1e disad1antage under which technica% instruction is gi1en in co%%ege3 and we are not %ess aware of the great difficu%ty of teaching cu%tura% and 1ocationa% su$4ects at the same time2 "he %ogica% resu%t wou%d $e the o%icy of *ermany3 where the uni1ersity is in effect a co%%ection of rofessiona% schoo%s3 and the under%ying genera% education is gi1en in the gymnasium2 Such a course has3 indeed3 $een suggested< for it has $een ro osed to transfer3 so far as ossi$%e3 to the secondary schoo%s the first two years of co%%ege instruction3 and to ma&e the essentia% wor& of the uni1ersity rofessiona% in character2 8ut that re@uires a far higher and $etter ty e of secondary schoo% than we ossess3 or are %i&e%y to ossess for many years2 ?oreo1er3 e(ce%%ent as the *erman system is for *ermany3 it is not who%%y suited to our #e. u$%ic3 which can not3 in my o inion3 afford to %ose the su$stantia%3 if intangi$%e3 $enefits the nation has deri1ed from its co%%eges2 Sure%y3 the co%%eges can gi1e a freedom of thought3 a $readth of out%oo&3 a training for citiDenshi 3 which neither the secondary nor the rofessiona% schoo% in this country can e@ua%2 E1en ersons who do not share this 1iew of a rofessiona% aim ha1e often urged that3 in order to sa1e co%%ege education in the conditions that confront us3 we must reduce its %ength2 ?ay we not fee% that the most 1ita% measure for sa1ing the co%%ege is not to shorten its duration3 $ut to ensure that it sha%% $e worth sa1ingI Institutions are rare%y murdered< they meet their end $y suicide2 "hey are not strang%ed $y their natura% en1ironment whi%e 1igorous< they die $ecause they ha1e out%i1ed their usefu%ness3 or fai% to do the wor& that the wor%d wants done< and we are 4ustified in $e%ie1ing that the co%%ege of the future has a great wor& to do for the +merican eo %e2 If3 then3 the co%%ege is assing through a transitiona% eriod3 and is not to $e a$sor$ed $etween the secondary schoo% on the one side3 and the rofessiona% schoo% on the other3 we must construct a new so%idarity to re %ace that which is gone2 "he tas& $efore us is to frame a system which3 without sacrificing indi1idua% 1ariation too much3 or neg%ecting the ursuit of different scho%ar%y interests3 sha%% roduce an inte%%ectua% and socia% cohesion3 at %east among %arge grou s of students3 and oints of contact among them a%%2 "his tas& is not confined to

any one co%%ege3 a%tho more urgent in the case of those that ha1e grown the %argest3 and ha1e $een mo1ing most ra id%y2 + num$er of co%%eges are fee%ing their way toward a more definite structure< and since the ro$%em $efore them is in many cases essentia%%y the same3 it is fortunate that they are assisting one another $y a roaching it from somewhat different directions2 What I ha1e to say u on the su$4ect here is3 therefore3 intended main%y for the conditions we are ca%%ed u on to face at Har1ard2 It is worth our whi%e to consider the nature of an idea% co%%ege as an integra% art of our uni1ersity< idea%3 in the sense not of something to $e e(act%y re roduced3 $ut of a ty e to which we shou%d conform as c%ose%y as circumstances wi%% ermit2 It wou%d contem %ate the highest de1e%o ment of the indi1idua% student..which in1o%1es the $est e@ui ment of the graduate2 It wou%d contem %ate a%so the ro er connection of the co%%ege with the rofessiona% schoo%s< and it wou%d ad4ust the re%ation of the students to one an other2 5et me ta&e u these matters $rief%y in their order2 "he indi1idua% student ought c%ear%y to $e de1e%o ed3 so far as ossi$%e3 $oth in his strong and in his wea& oints3 for the co%%ege ought to roduce3 not defecti1e s ecia%ists3 $ut men inte%%ectua%%y we%%.rounded3 of wide sym athies and unfettered 4udgment2 +t the same time they ought to $e trained to hard and accurate thought3 and this wi%% not come mere%y $y sur1eying the e%ementary rinci %es of many su$4ects2 It re@uires a mastery of something3 ac@uired $y continuous a %ication2 E1ery student ought to &now in some su$4ect what the u%timate sources of o inion are3 and how they are hand%ed $y those who rofess it2 9n%y in this way is he %i&e%y to gain the so%idity of thought that $egets sound thin&ing2 In short3 he ought so far as in him %ies3 to $e $oth $road and rofound2 In s ea&ing of the training of the student3 or the e@ui ment of the graduate3 we are rone to thin& of the &now%edge ac@uired< $ut are we not inc%ined to %ay too much stress u on &now%edge a%one2 "a&en $y itse%f3 it is a art3 and not the most 1ita% art3 of education3 sure%y the essence of a %i$era% education consists in an attitude of mind3 a fami%iarity with methods of thought3 an a$i%ity to use information< rather than in a memory stoc&ed with facts3 howe1er 1a%ua$%e such a storehouse may $e2 In his fare. we%% address to the a%umni of /artmouth3 President "uc&er remar&ed that Cthe co%%ege is in the educationa% system to re resent the s irit of amateur scho%arshi 2 0o%%ege students are amateurs3 not rofessiona%s2C 9r3 as President Had%ey is fond of utting it3 ,, "he idea% co%%ege education seems to me to $e one where a student %earns things that he is not going to use in after %ife3 $y methods that he is going to use2 "he former e%ement gi1es the $readth3 the %atter e%ement gi1es the training2,, 8ut if this $e true3 no method of ascertaining truth3 and therefore no de artment of human thought3 ought to $e who%%y a sea%ed $oo& to an educated man2 It has $een tru%y said that few men are ca a$%e of %earning a new su$4ect after the eriod of youth has assed3 and hence the graduate ought to $e so e@ui ed that he can gras effecti1e%y any ro$%em with which his duties or his interest may im e% him to dea%2 +n undergraduate3 addicted main%y to the c%assics3 recent%y s o&e to his ad1iser in an a o%ogetic 3 tone of ha1ing e%ected a course in natura% science3 which he feared was narrowing2 Such a state of mind is certain%y de %ora$%e3 for in the resent age some &now%edge of the %aws of nature is an essentia% art of the menta% outfit which no cu%ti1ated man shou%d %ac&2 He need not &now much3 $ut he ought to &now enough to %earn more2 "o him the forces of nature ought not to $e an occu%t mystery3 $ut a chain of causes and effects with which3 if not who%%y fami%iar3 he can at %east c%aim ac@uaintance< and the same rinci %e a %ies to e1ery other %eading $ranch of &now%edge2 I s ea& of the e@ui ment3 rather than the education3 of a co%%ege graduate3 $ecause3 as we

are often reminded3 his education ought to cease on%y with his %ife3 and hence his e@ui ment ought to %ay a strong foundation for that education2 It ought to teach him what it means to master a su$4ect3 and it ought to ena$%e him to seiDe and retain in. formation of e1ery &ind from that unending stream that f%ows ast e1ery man who has the eyes to see it2 ?oreo1er3 it ought to $e such that he wi%% $e ca a$%e of turning his mind effecti1e%y to direct re aration for his %ife.wor&3 whate1er the rofession or occu ation he may se%ect2 "his $rings us to the re%ation of the co%%ege to the rofessiona% schoo%2 If e1ery co%%ege graduate ought to $e e@ui ed to enter any rofessiona% schoo%3 as the a$iturient of a *erman gymnasium is @ua%ified to study under any of the facu%ties of the uni1ersity3 then it wou%d seem that the rofessiona% schoo%s ought to $e so ordered that they are ada ted to recei1e him2 8ut %et us not $e dogmatic in this matter3 for it is one on which great di1ergence of o inion e(ists2 "he instructors in the 1arious rofessiona% schoo%s are $y no means of one mind in regard to it3 and their 1iews are3 of course3 $ased %arge%y u on e( erience2 9ur %aw schoo% %ays great stress u on nati1e a$i%ity and scho%ar%y a titude3 and com arati1e%y %itt%e u on the articu%ar $ranches of %earning a student has ursued in co%%ege2 +ny young man who has $rains3 and has %earned to use them3 can master the %aw3 whate1er his inte%%ectua% interests may ha1e $een< and the same thing is true of the curricu%um in the di1inity schoo%2 ?any rofessors of medicine3 on the other hand3 fee% strong%y that a student shou%d enter their schoo% with at %east a rudimentary &now%edge of those sciences3 %i&e chemistry3 $io%ogy3 and hysio%ogy3 which are interwo1en with Cmedica% studies< and they a ear to attach greater weight to this than to his natura% ca acity or genera% attainments2 Bow that we ha1e esta$%ished graduate schoo%s of engineering and $usiness administration3 we must e(amine this @uestion carefu%%y in the immediate future2 If the co%%ege courses are strict%y untechnica%3 the re@uirement of a sma%% num$er of e%ecti1es in certain su$4ects3 as a condition for entering a graduate rofessiona% schoo%3 is not inconsistent with a %i$era% education2 8ut I wi%% ac&now%edge a re4udice that3 for a man who is destined to reach the to of his rofession3 a $road education3 and a firm gras of some su$4ect %ying outside of his 1ocation3 is a 1ast ad1antage< and we must not forget that in su$stantia%%y confining the rofessiona% schoo%s at Har1ard to co%%ege graduates3 we are aiming at a higher strata in the rofessions2 "he %ast of the as ects under which I ro osed to consider the co%%ege is that of the re%ation of undergraduates to one another< and first on the inte%%ectua% side2 We ha1e heard much of the $enefit o$tained mere%y $y $reathing the co%%ege atmos here3 or ru$$ing against the co%%ege wa%%s2 I fear the wa%%s a$out us ha1e %itt%e of the 1irtue of +%addin,s %am when ru$$ed2 CWhat we mean is that dai%y association with other young men whose minds are a%ert is in itse%f a %arge art of a %i$era% education2 8ut to what e(tent do undergraduates ta%& o1er things inte%%ectua%3 and es ecia%%y matters $rought $efore them $y their courses of studyI It is the am$ition of e1ery earnest teacher so to stimu%ate his u i%s that they wi%% discuss outside the c%assroom the ro$%ems he has resented to them2 "he students in the %aw schoo% ta%& %aw intermina$%y2 "hey ta&e a fierce %easure in de$ating %ega% oints in season and out2 "his is not who%%y with a ros ect of $read and $utter in the years to come3 nor $ecause %aw is intrinsica%%y more interesting than other things ?uch must3 no dou$t3 $e ascri$ed to the s&i%% of the facu%ty of the %aw schoo% in awa&ening a &een com etiti1e de%ight in so%1ing %ega% ro$%ems< $ut there is a%so the 1ita% fact that a%% these young men are ti%%ing the same fie%d2 "hey ha1e their stoc& of &now%edge in common2 Seeds cast $y one of them fa%% into a congenia% soi%3 and %i&e dragon,s teeth3 engender in immediate com$at2 Bow3 no sensi$%e man wou%d ro ose today to set u a fi(t curricu%um in order that a%%

undergraduates might $e 4oint tenants of the same scho%astic ro erty< $ut the inte%%ectua% estrangement need not $e so wide as it is2 "here is no greater %easure in mature %ife than hearing a s ecia%ist ta%&3 if one has &now%edge enough of the su$4ect to understand him3 and that is one of the things an educated man ought so far as ossi$%e to ossess2 ?ight there not $e more oints of inte%%ectua% contact among the undergraduates3 and might not considera$%e num$ers of them ha1e much in common, + discussion of the idea% co%%ege training from these three different as ects..the highest de1e%o ment of the indi1idua% student3 the ro er re%ation of the co%%ege to the rofessiona% schoo%3 and the re%ation of the students to one another..wou%d a ear to %ead3 in each case3 to the same conc%usion< that the $est ty e of %i$era% education in our com %e( modern wor%d aims at roducing men who &now a %itt%e of e1erything and something we%% Bor3 if this $e ta&en in a rationa%3 rather than e(treme3 sense3 is it im ossi$%e to achie1e within the %imits of co%%ege %ifeI "hat a student of a$i%ity can %earn one su$4ect we%% is shown $y the e( erience of 9(ford and 0am$ridge2 "he educationa% ro$%ems arising from the e(tension of human &now%edge are not confined to this country< and our institutions of higher %earning were not the first to see& a so%ution for them in some form of e%ection on the art of the student2 It is a%most e(act%y a hundred years ago that the Eng%ish uni1ersities $egan to award honors u on e(amination in s ecia% su$4ects< for a%tho the mathematica% tri os at 0am$ridge was instituted si(ty years ear%ier3 the modern system of honor schoo%s3 which has stimu%ated a 1ast amount of com etiti1e acti1ity among undergraduates3 may $e said to date from the esta$%ishment of the e(aminations in 5iteris Humaniori$us3 and in mathematics and hysics at 9(ford in 1!072 "he most o u%ar of the su$4ects in which honors are awarded are not technica%3 that is3 they are not intended rimari%y as art of a rofessiona% training< nor are they narrow in their sco e< $ut they are in genera% confined to one fie%d2 In short3 they are designed to insure that the candidate &nows something we%%: that he has wor&ed hard and inte%%igent%y on one su$4ect unti% he has a su$stantia% grounding in it2 For us this a%one wou%d not $e enough3 $ecause our re aratory schoo%s do not gi1e the same training as the Eng%ish3 and $ecause the who%e structure of Eng%ish society is 1ery different from ours2 +merican co%%ege students ought a%so to study a %itt%e of e1erything< for if not3 there is no certainty that they wi%% $e $road%y cu%ti1ated3 es ecia%%y in 1iew of the omni resent im u%se in the community dri1ing them to de1ote their chief attention to the su$4ects $earing u on their future career2 "he wise o%icy for them wou%d a ear to $e that of de1oting a considera$%e ortion of their time to some one su$4ect3 and ta&ing hi addition a num$er of genera% courses in who%%y unre%ated fie%ds2 8ut instruction that im arts a %itt%e &now%edge of e1erything is more difficu%t to ro1ide we%% than any other2 "o furnish it there ought to $e in e1ery considera$%e fie%d a genera% course designed to gi1e to men who do not intend to ursue the su$4ect further a com rehension of its under. %ying rinci %es or methods of thought3 and this is $y no means the same thing as an introductory course3 a%tho the two can often $e effecti1e%y com$ined2 + serious o$stac%e %ies in the fact that many rofessors who ha1e rea ed fame3 refer to teach ad1anced courses3 and recoi% from e%ementary..an a1ersion inherited from the time when scho%ars of internationa% re utation were ca%%ed u on to waste their owers on the drudgery of dri%%ing $eginners2 8ut whi%e nothing can e1er ta&e the %ace of the great teacher3 it is ne1erthe%ess true that a%most any man ossest of the re@uisite &now%edge can at %east im art it to students who ha1e a%ready made nota$%e rogress in the su$4ect< whereas effecti1e instruction in fundamenta% rinci %es re@uires the forest o1er the to s of the trees2 It demands unusua%

c%earness of thought3 force of statement3 and enthusiasm of e( ression2 "hese @ua%ities ha1e no necessary connection with creati1e imagination3 $ut they are more common among men who ha1e achie1ed some measure of success: and3 what is not %ess to the oint3 the students ascri$e them more readi%y to a man whose osition is recogniDed than to a young instructor who has not yet won his s urs2 Where1er ossi$%e3 therefore3 the genera% course ought to $e under the charge of one of the %eading men in the de artment3 and his teaching ought to $e su %emented $y instruction3 discussion3 and constant e(amination in sma%%er grou s3 conducted $y younger men we%% e@ui ed for their wor&2 Such a o%icy $rings the student3 at the gateway of a su$4ect3 into contact with strong and ri e minds3 whi%e it sa1es the rofessor from need%ess drudgery2 It has $een ursued at Har1ard for a num$er of years3 $ut it can $e carried out e1en more com %ete%y2 We ha1e considered the inte%%ectua% re%ation of the students to one another3 and its $earing on the curricu%um3 $ut that is not the on%y side of co%%ege %ife2 "he socia% re%ations of the undergraduates among themse%1es are @uite as im ortant< and here again we may o$ser1e forces at wor& which tend to $rea& u the o%d co%%ege so%idarity2 "he $oy comes here3 sometimes from a %arge schoo%3 with many friends3 sometimes from a great distance3 and a%most a%one2 He is %unged at once into a %ife who%%y strange to him3 amid a crowd so %arge that he can not c%aim ac@uaintance with its mem$ers2 6n%ess endowed with an uncommon tem erament3 he is %ia$%e to fa%% into a c%i@ue of associates with antecedents and characteristics simi%ar to his own< or erha s3 if shy and un&nown3 he fai%s to ma&e friends at a%%< and in either case he misses the $ordering inf%uence of contact with a great 1ariety of other young men2 6nder such conditions the co%%ege itse%f comes short of its nationa% mission of throwing together youths of romise of e1ery &ind3 from e1ery art of the country2 It wi%%3 no dou$t3 $e argued that a uni1ersity must ref%ect the state of the wor%d a$out it< and that the tendency of the times is toward s ecia%iDation of functions3 and socia% segregation on the $asis of wea%th2 8ut this is not who%%y true3 $ecause there is3 ha i%y3 in the country a tendency a%so toward socia% so%idarity and socia% ser1ice2 + sti%% more conc%usi1e answer is3 that one o$4ect of a uni1ersity is to counteract3 rather than co y3 the defects in ci1i%iDation of the day2 Wou%d a re1a%ence of s oi%s3 fa1oritism3 or corru tion3 in the o%itics of the country3 $e a reason for their ado tion $y uni1ersitiesI + %arge co%%ege ought to gi1e its students a wide horiDon3 and it fai%s therein un%ess it mi(es them together so thorough%y that the friendshi s they form are $ased on natura% affinities3 rather on simi%arity of origin2 Bow3 these ties are formed most ra id%y at the thresho%d of co%%ege %ife3 and the set in which a man sha%% mo1e is main%y determined in his freshman year2 It is o$1ious%y desira$%e3 therefore3 that the freshmen shou%d $e thrown together more than they are now2 ?oreo1er3 the change from the %ife of schoo% to that of co%%ege is too a$ru t at the resent day2 "a&en gradua%%y3 %i$erty is a owerfu% stimu%ant3 $ut ta&en sudden%y3 in %arge doses3 it is %ia$%e to act as an into(icant or an o iate2 Bo dou$t3 e1ery $oy ought to %earn to add%e his own canoe< $ut we do not $egin the rocess $y tossing him into a canoe3 and setting him adrift in dee water3 with a caution that he wou%d do we%% to %oo& for the add%e2 ?any a we%%.intentioned youth comes to co%%ege3 en4oys innocent%y enough the %easures of freedom for a season< $ut3 re%eased from the disci %ine to which he has $een accustomed3 and %oo&ing on the e(aminations as remote3 fa%%s into indo%ent ha$its2 Present%y he finds himse%f on ro$ation for neg%ect of his studies2 He has

$ecome su$merged3 and has a hard3 erha s unsuccessfu%3 strugg%e to get his head a$o1e water2 9f %ate years we ha1e im ro1ed the di%igence of freshmen $y fre@uent tests< $ut this a%one is not enough2 In his %uminous Phi 8eta Ea a oration3 de%i1ered here three months ago3 President Wi%son dwe%t u on the chasm that has o ened $etween co%%ege studies and co%%ege %ife2 "he instructors $e%ie1e that the o$4ect of the co%%ege is study3 many students fancy that it is main%y en4oyment3 and the confusion of aims $reed irretrie1a$%e waste of o ortunity2 "he undergraduate shou%d $e %ed to fee%3 from the moment of his arri1a%3 that co%%ege %ife is a serious and many.sided thing3 whereof menta% disci %ine is a 1ita% art2 It wou%d seem that a%% these difficu%ties cou%d $e much %essened if the freshmen were $rought together in a grou of dormitories and dining.ha%%s3 under the comradeshi of o%der men3 who a reciated the ossi$i%ities of a co%%ege %ife3 and too& a &een interest in their wor& and their %easures2 Such a %an wou%d ena$%e us a%so to recruit our students younger3 for the resent age of entrance here a ears to $e due %ess to the difficu%ty of re aring for the e(amination ear%ier3 than to the nature of the %ife the freshman %eads2 0om %aints of the age of graduation cause a ressure to reduce the %ength of the co%%ege course3 and with it the standard of the co%%ege degree2 "here wou%d seem to $e no intrinsic reason that our schoo%$oys shou%d $e more $ac&ward than those of other ci1i%iDed countries3 any more than that our undergraduates shou%d esteem e(ce%%ence in scho%arshi %ess high%y than do the men in Eng%ish uni1ersities2 "he %ast oint is one that re@uires a word of comment3 $ecause it touches the most ainfu% defect in the +merican co%%ege at the resent time President Prichett has dec%ared that Cit is a serious indictment of the standards of any organiDation when the conditions within it are such that success in the things for which the organiDation stands no %onger a ea% effecti1e%y to the imaginations of those in it2C We may add that e1en in these days3 indictment is sometimes fo%%owed $y sentence of e(ecution2 Bo one wi%% deny that in our co%%eges high scho%arshi is %itt%e admired now3 either $y the undergraduates or $y the u$%ic2 We do not ma&e our students en4oy the sense of ower that f%ows from mastery of a difficu%t su$4ect and on a higher %ane we do not ma&e them fee% the romance of scho%ar%y disco1ery2 E1ery one fo%%ows the tra1e%s of a 0o%um$us or a 5i1ingston with a &een de%ight which researches in chemistry or $io%ogy rare%y stir2 "he mass of man&ind can3 no dou$t3 com rehend more readi%y geogra hica% than scientific disco1ery< $ut for the e( %orer himse%f it wou%d $e itifu% if the 4oy of the search de ended on the num$er of s ectators3 rather than on Dea% in his @uest2 +merica has not yet contri$uted her share to scho%ar%y creation< and the fau%t %ies in art at the doors of our uni1ersities2 "hey do not stri1e enough in the im ressiona$%e years of ear%y manhood to stimu%ate inte%%ectua% a etite and am$ition< nor do they foster roducti1e scho%arshi enough among those mem$ers of their staffs who are ca a$%e thereof2 "oo often a rofessor of origina% ower e( %ains to doci%e u i%s the rocess of mining inte%%ectua% go%d3 without see&ing nuggets himse%f3 or3 when found3 showing them to man&ind2 Producti1e scho%arshi is the shyest of a%% f%owers2 It cometh not with o$ser1ation3 and may not $%oom e1en under the most carefu% nurture2 +meri. can uni1ersities must do their utmost to cu%ti1ate it3 $y %anting the $est seed3 %etting the sun shine u on it3 and ta&ing care that3 in our %and of ran& growth3 it is not cho&ed $y the thorns of administrati1e routine2 If I ha1e dwe%t u on on%y a sma%% art of the ro$%ems of the uni1ersity3 if I ha1e said nothing of the rofessiona% and graduate schoo%s3 of the %i$rary3 the o$ser1atory3 the %a$oratories3 the museums3 the gardens3 and the 1arious forms of e(tension wor&3 it is not $ecause they are of %ess im ortance3 $ut $ecause the time is too short to ta&e u more than two or three ressing

@uestions of genera% interest2 "he uni1ersity touches the community at many oints3 and as time goes on it ought to ser1e the u$%ic through e1er. increasing channe%s2 8ut a%% its acti1ities are more or %ess connected with3 and most of them are $ased u on3 the co%%ege2 It is there that character ought to $e sha ed3 that as irations ought to $e formed3 that citiDens ought to $e trained3 and scho%ar%y tastes im %anted2 If the mass of undergraduates cou%d $e $rought to res ect3 nay3 to admire3 inte%%ectua% achie1ement on the art of their comrades3 in at a%% the measure that they do ath%etic 1ictory< if those among them of natura% a$i%ity cou%d $e %ed to ut forth their strength on the o$4ects which the co%%ege is su osed to re resent3 the rofessiona% schoo%s wou%d find their tas&s %ightened3 and their success enhanced2 + greater so%idarity in co%%ege3 more earnestness of ur ose and inte%%ectua% enthusiasm3 wou%d mean much for our nation2 It is said that if the tem erature of the ocean were raised3 the water wou%d e( and unti% the f%oods co1ered the dry %and< and if we can increase the inte%%ectua% am$ition of co%%ege students3 the who%e face of our country wi%% $e changed2 When the young men sha%% see 1isions3 the dreams of o%d men wi%% come true2 IB+6*6#+5 /IS096#SE 8; 59#/ 8#96*H+? It now $ecomes me to return my 1ery sincere and res ecta$%e than&s for the &indness which has %aced me in a chair fi%%ed at former times $y so many great men3 whose names might we%% ma&e any com arison formida$%e to a far more worthy successor2 Whi%e I wish you to acce t this une(aggerated e( ression of gratitude3 I am an(ious to address you rather in the form which I now ado t3 than in the more usua% one of an un remeditated discourse2 I sha%% thus at %east ro1e that the remar&s which I deem it my duty to ma&e are the fruit of mature ref%ections3 and that I am unwi%%ing to discharge an im ortant office in a erfunctory manner2 I fee% 1ery sensi$%y that if I sha%% now urge you $y genera% e(hortations to $e instant in the ursuit of the %earning which3 in a%% its $ranches3 f%ourishes under the &ind%y she%ter of these roofs2 I may weary you with the un rofita$%e re etition of a thrice.to%d ta%e< and if I resume to offer my ad1ice touching the conduct of your studies3 I may seem to tres ass u on the ro1ince of those 1enera$%e ersons under whose care you ha1e the singu%ar ha iness to $e %aced2 8ut I wou%d3 ne1erthe%ess3 e( ose myse%f to either charge3 for the sa&e of 4oining my 1oice with theirs in an(ious%y entreating you to $e%ie1e how incom ara$%y the resent season is3 1eri%y and indeed3 the most recious of your who%e %i1es2 It is not the %ess true3 $ecause it has $een oftentimes said3 that the eriod of youth is $y far the $est fitted for the im ro1ement of the mind3 and the retirement of a co%%ege a%most e(c%usi1e%y ada ted to much study2 +t your en1ia$%e age e1erything has the %i1e%y interest of no1e%ty and freshness< attention is er etua%%y shar ened $y curiosity< and the memory is tenacious of the dee im ressions it thus recei1es3 to a degree un&nown in after %ife< whi%e the distracting cares of the wor%d3 or its $egui%ing %easures3 cross not the thresho%d of these ca%m retreats< its distant noise and $ust%e are faint%y heard3 ma&ing the she%ter you en4oy more gratefu%< and the strugg%es of an(ious morta%s em$ar&ed u on that trou$%ous sea are 1iewed from an eminence3 the security of which is rendered more sweet $y the ros ect of the scene $e%ow2 ;et a %itt%e whi%e3 and you3 too3 wi%% $e %unged into those waters of $itterness< and wi%% cast an eye of regret3 as now I do3 u on the eacefu% regions you ha1e @uitted fore1er2 3uch is your %ot as mem$ers of society < $ut it wi%% $e your own fau%t if you %oo& $ac& on this %ace with re entance or with shame< and $e we%% assured that3 whate1er time..ay3 e1ery hour..you s@uander here on un rofita$%e id%ing3 wi%% then rise u against you3 and $e aid for $y years of

$itter3 $ut una1ai%ing3 regrets2 Study3 then3 I $eseech you3 so to store your minds with the e(@uisite %earning of former ages3 that you may a%ways ossess within yourse%f sources of rationa% and refined en4oyment3 which wi%% ena$%e you to set at naught the grosser %easures of sense whereof other men are s%a1es< and so im$ue yourse%1es with the sound hi%oso hy of %ater days3 forming yourse%1es to the 1irtuous ha$its which are its %egitimate offs ring3 that you may wa%& unhurt through the tria%s which await you3 and may %oo& down u on the ignorance and error that surround you3 not with %ofty and su erci%ious contem t3 as the sages of o%d times3 $ut with the 1ehement desire of en%ightening those who wander in dar&ness3 and who are $y so much the more endeared to us $y how much they want our assistance2 +ssuming the im ro1ement of his own mind3 and of the %ot of his fe%%ow creatures to $e the great end of e1ery man,s e(istence3 who is remo1ed a$o1e the care of ro1iding for his sustenance3 and to $e the indis ensa$%e duty of e1ery man3 as far as his own immediate wants %ea1e him any ortion of time unem %oyed3 our attention is natura%%y directed to the means $y which so great and urgent a wor& may $est $e erformed< and as in the %imited time a%%otted to this discourse3 I can not ho e to occu y more than a sma%% ortion of so wide a fie%d3 I sha%% confine myse%f to two su$4ects3 or rather to a few o$ser1ations u on two su$4ects3 $oth of them a ro riate to this %ace3 $ut either of them affording am %e materia%s for an entire course of %ecturesH..the study of the rhetorica% art3 $y which usefu% truths are romu%gated with effect3 and the ur oses to which a roficiency in this art shou%d $e made su$ser1ient2 It is an e(treme%y common error among young ersons3 im atient of academica% disci %ine3 to turn from the ainfu% study of ancient and articu%ar%y of +ttic com osition3 and so%ace themse%1es with wor& rendered easy $y the fami%iarity of their own tongue2 "hey %ausi$%y contend3 that as owerfu% or ca ti1ating dictation in a ure Eng%ish sty%e is3 after a%%3 the attainment they are in search of3 the study of the $est Eng%ish mode%s afford the shortest oint to this oint: and e1en admitting the ancient e(am %es to ha1e $een the great fountains from which a%% e%o@uence is drawn3 they wou%d rather rofit3 as it were3 $y the c%assica% %a$ors of their Eng%ish redecessors3 than toi% o1er the same ath themse%1es2 In a word3 they wou%d treat the erisha$%e resu%ts of those %a$ors as the standard3 and gi1e themse%1es no care a$out the immorta% origina%s2 "his argument3 the thin co1ering which indo%ence wea1es for herse%f3 wou%d s eedi%y sin& a%% the fine arts into $arrenness and insignificance2 CWhy3 according to such reasoners3 shou%d a scu% tor or ainter encounter the toi% of a 4ourney to +thens or to #omeI Far $etter wor& at home3 and rofit $y the %a$or of those who ha1e resorted to the Fatican and the Parthenon3 and founded an Eng%ish schoo% ada ted to the taste of our own country2 8e you assured that the wor&s of the Eng%ish chise% fa%% not more short of the wonders of the +cro o%is3 than the $est roductions of modern ens fa%% short of the chaste3 finished3 ner1ous3 and o1erwhe%ming com ositions of them that Cresist%ess fu%mined o1er *reece2,, 8e e@ua%%y sure that3 with hard%y any e(ce tion3 the great things of oetry and of e%o@uence ha1e $een done $y men who cu%ti1ated the mighty e(em %ars of +thenian genius with dai%y and with night%y de1otion2 +mong oets there is hard%y an e(ce tion to this ru%e3 un%ess Sha&es eare3 an e(ce tion to a%% ru%es3 may $e so deemed< and /ante3 fami%iar as a contem orary with the wor&s of #oman art3 com osed in his mother tongue3 ha1ing ta&en not so much for his guide as for his ,, master3,, Fergi%3 himse%f a%most a trans%ator from the *ree&s3 8ut among orators I &now of none among the #omans3 and scarce%y any of our own times2 0icero honored the *ree& masters with such singu%ar o$ser1ance3 that he not on%y re aired to +thens for the sa&e of finishing his rhetorica% education3 $ut afterward continued to ractise the art of dec%aiming in *ree&< and a%tho he

afterward fe%% into a %ess ure manner through the corru t $%andishments of the +sian taste3 yet do we find him e1er rone to e(to% the no$%e erfections of his first masters3 as something %aced $eyond the reach of a%% imitation2 Bay3 at a mature eriod of his %ife3 he occu ied himse%f in trans%ating the greater orations of the *ree&s which com osed a%most e(c%usi1e%y his treatise C/e o timo genere 9ratorisC< as if to write a discourse on oratorica% erfection were mere%y to resent the reader with the two immorta% s eeches u on the crown2 Sometimes we find him imitating3 e1en to a %itera% 1ersion3 the $eauties of those di1ine origina%s..as the $eautifu% assage of +Eschines3 in the "imarchus3 u on the torments of the gui%ty3 which the #oman orator has twice made use of3 a%most word for word< once in the oration for Se(tus #oscius3 the ear%iest he de%i1ered3 and again in a more mature effort of his genius3 the oration against 52 Piso2 I ha1e dwe%t the rather u on the authority of ?2 "u%%ius2 $ecause it ena$%es us at once to answer the @uestion3 whether a study of the #oman orators $e not sufficient for refining the taste 1 If the *ree&s were the mode%s of an e(ce%%ence which the first of #oman orators ne1er attained3 a%tho e1er as iring after it..nay3 if so far from $eing satisfied with his own success3 he e1en in his masters found something which his ears desiderated..he either fe%% short whi%e co ying them3 or he fai%ed $y di1erting his worshi to the fa%se gods of the +sian schoo%2 In the one case3 were we to rest satisfied with studying the #oman3 we shou%d on%y $e imitating the im erfect co y3 instead of the ure origina%..%i&e him who shou%d endea1or to catch a g%im se of some $eauty $y her ref%ection in a g%ass3 that wea&ened her tints3 if it did not distort her features2 In the other case3 we shou%d not $e imitating the same3 $ut some %ess erfect origina%3 and %oo&ing at the wrong $eauty< not her whose chaste and sim %e attractions commanded the adoration of a%% *reece3 $ut some garish damse% from #hodes or 0hios3 4ust $ri%%iant and %anguishing enough to ca ti1ate the %ess ure taste of ha%f.ci1i%iDed #ome2 8ut there are other reasons too weighty to $e assed o1er3 which 4ustify the same decided reference2 Bot to mention the incom ara$%e $eauty and ower of the *ree& %anguage3 the study of which a%one affords the means of enriching our own3 the com ositions of 0icero3 e(@uisite as they are for $eauty of diction3 often remar&a$%e for ingenious argument and $ri%%iant wit3 not se%dom e(ce%%ing in dee athos3 are ne1erthe%ess so e(treme%y rhetorica%3 fashioned $y an art so %itt%e concea%ed3 and sacrificing the su$4ect to a dis %ay of the s ea&er,s owers3 admira$%e as those are3 that nothing can $e %ess ada ted to the genius of modern e%ocution3 which re@uires a constant and a%most e(c%usi1e attention to the $usiness in hand2 In a%% his orations which were s o&en =for3 singu%ar as it may seem3 the remar& a %ies %ess to those which were on%y written3 as a%% the Ferrine3 e(ce t the first3 a%% the Phi%i ics3 e(ce t the first and ninth3 and the Pro ?i%one>3 hard%y two ages can $e found which a modern assem$%y wou%d $ear2 Some admira$%e arguments on e1idence3 and the credit of witnesses3 might $e urged to a 4ury< se1era% assages3 gi1en $y him on the merits of the case3 and in defense against the charge3 might $e s o&en in mitigation of unishment after a con1iction or confession of gui%t< $ut3 whether we regard the o%itica% or forensic orations3 the sty%e3 $oth in res ect of the reasoning and the ornaments3 is who%%y unfit for the more se1ere and %ess trif%ing nature of modern affairs in the Senate or at the $ar2 Bow it is a%together otherwise with the *ree& masters2 0hanging a few hrases3 which the differences of re%igion and of manners might render o$4ectiona$%e..moderating3 in some degree3 the 1iru%ence of in1ecti1e3 es ecia%%y against ri1ate character3 to suit the chi1a%rous courtesy of modern hosti%ity..there is hard%y one of the o%itica% or forensic orations of the *ree&s that might not $e de%i1ered in simi%ar circumstances $efore our Senate or tri$una%s< whi%e their funera% and other anegyrica% discourses are much %ess inf%ated and unsu$stantia% than those of the most a ro1ed masters of the e ideictic sty%e3 the French reachers and academicians2 Whence the difference

$etween the master ieces of *ree&C and #o. man e%o@uence I Whence $ut from the rigid steadiness with which the *ree& orator &ee s the o$4ect of a%% the e%o@uence er etua%%y in 1iew3 ne1er s ea&ing for mere s ea&ing,s sa&e< whi%e the 5atin rhetorician3 Ctoo fond of his own ingenuity3C and2 as tho he deemed his occu ation a tria% of s&i%% or dis %ay of accom %ishments3 seems e1er and anon to %ose sight of the su$4ect matter in the attem t to i%%ustrate and adorn it< and ours forth assages sweet indeed3 $ut un rofita$%e..fitted to tic&%e the ear3 without reaching the heart2 CWhere3 in a%% the orations of 0icero3 or of him who a%most e@ua%s him3 5i1y3 Cadmira$%e for his command of %anguage2C sha%% we find anything %i&e those thic& successions of short @uestions in which /emosthenes often.times forges3 as it were3 with a few ra id%y fo%%owing stro&es3 the who%e massi1e chain of his argument< as in the 0hersonese3 C5et this force $e once destroyed or scattered3 and what are we to do if Phi%i marches on the 0hersoneseI Put /io eithes on his trai%I 8ut how wi%% that $etter our conditionI +nd how sha%% we send them succor if re1ented $y the windsI 8ut3 $y 7u iter3 he wi%% not marchH +nd who is our surety for that3C or3 com riDing a%% of a %ong narrati1e that suits his argument in a sing%e sentence3 resenting a %engthened series of e1ents at a sing%e g%ance< as3 C "here were on%y fi1e days in which this man +Eschines3 who had $een sent as an am$assador>3 $rought $ac& those %ies..you $e%ie1ed..the Phocians %istened..ga1e themse%1es u .. erished2C 8ut tho the more $usiness.%i&e manner of modern de$ate a roaches much nearer the sty%e of the *ree& than the 5atin com ositions3 it must $e admitted that it fa%%s short of the great origina%s in the c%oseness3 and3 as it were3 density3 of the argument< in the ha$itua% sacrifice of a%% ornament to use3 or rather in the constant union of the two< so that3 whi%e a modern orator too fre@uent%y has his s eech arce%ed out into com artments3 one de1oted to argument3 another to dec%amation3 a third to mere ornament3 as if he shou%d say3 CBow your reason sha%% $e con1inced < now I am going to rouse your assions< and now you sha%% see how I can amuse your fancy3C the more 1igorous ancient argued in dec%aiming3 and made his 1ery $o%dest figures su$ser1ient to3 or rather an integra% art of3 his reasoning2 "he most figurati1e and high%y wrought assage in a%% anti@uity is the famous oath of /emosthenes< yet3 in the most athetic art of it3 and when he seems to ha1e %eft the furthest $ehind him the immediate su$4ect of his s eech3 %ed away $y the rodigious interest of the reco%%ections he has e(cited< when he is naming the 1ery tom$s where the heroes of ?arathon %ie $uried3 he instant%y3 not a$ru t%y3 $ut $y a most fe%icitous and easy transition3 returns into the midst of the main argument of his who%e defense..that the merits of u$%ic ser1ants3 not the success of their counci%s3 shou%d $e the measure of the u$%ic gratitude toward them..a osition that runs through the who%e s eech3 and to which he ma&es the funera% honors $estowed a%i&e on a%% the heroes3 ser1e as a stri&ing and a ro riate su ort2 With the same ease does Fergi% manage his ce%e$rated transition in the *eorgics< where3 in the midst of the "hracian war3 and where at an immeasura$%e distance from agricu%tura% to ics3 the magician stri&es the ground on the fie%d of $att%e3 where he%mets are $uried3 and sudden%y raises $efore us the %one%y hus$andman3 in a remote age3 eacefu%%y ti%%ing its soi%3 and dri1ing his %ow among the rusty armor and mo%dering remains of the warrior2 8ut if a further reason is re@uired for gi1ing the reference to the *ree& orators3 we may find it in the greater di1ersity and im ortance of the su$4ects u on which their s eeches were de%i1ered2 8esides the num$er of admira$%e orations and of written arguments u on causes mere%y forensic3 we ha1e e1ery su$4ect of u$%ic o%icy3 a%% the great affairs of state3 successfu%%y forming the to ics of the discussion2 0om are them with 0icero in this articu%ar3 and the contrast is stri&ing2 His finest oration for matter and diction together is in defense of

an indi1idua%3 charged with murder3 and there is nothing in the case to gi1e it u$%ic interest3 e(ce t that the arties were of o o. site factions in the state3 and the deceased a ersona% as we%% as o%itica% ad1ersary of the s ea&er2 His most e(@uisite erformance in oint of diction3 erha s the most erfect rose com osition in the %anguage3 was adrest to one man3 in a%%iation of another,s ha1ing $orne arms against him in a war with a ersona% ri1a%2 E1en the 0ati%inarians3 his most s %endid dec%amations3 are rinci a%%y denunciations of a sing%e cons irator< the Phi%i ics3 his most $ri%%iant in1ecti1es3 a$use of a rof%igate %eader< and the Ferrine orations3 charges against an indi1idua% go1ernor2 ?any3 indeed a%most a%% the su$4ects of his s eeches3 rise to the ran& of what the French term 0auses ce%e$res< $ut they se%dom rise higher2 9f /emosthenes3 on the other hand3 we ha1e not on%y many arguments u on cases strict%y ri1ate3 and re%ating to ecuniary matters3 and many u on interesting su$4ects3 more near%y a roaching u$%ic @uestions< as the s eech against ?idias3 which re%ates to an assau%t on the s ea&er3 $ut e(ce%s in s irit and 1ehemence3 erha s3 a%% his other efforts< and some which3 tho ersona%3 in1o%1e high considerations of u$%ic o%icy3 as that most $eautifu% and energetic s eech against +ristocrates< $ut we ha1e a%% his immorta% orations u on the state affairs of *reece..em$racing the history of a twenty years, administration during the most critica% eriod of *recian story< and the Phi%i ics3 discussing e1ery @uestion of foreign o%icy3 and of the stand to $e made $y the ci1i%iDed wor%d against the encroachments of the $ar$arians2 "hose s eeches were de%i1ered u on su$4ects the most im ortant and affecting that cou%d $e concei1ed to the who%e community< the to ics hand%ed in them were of uni1ersa% a %ication3 and of er etua% interest2 "o introduce a genera% o$ser1ation3 the 5atin orator must @uit the immediate course of his argument< he must for a moment %ose sight of the o$4ect in 1iew2 8ut the +thenian can hard%y ho%d too %ofty a tone3 or carry his 1iew too e(tensi1e%y o1er the ma of human affairs3 for the 1ast range of his su$4ect.. the fates of the who%e commonwea%th of *reece3 and the stand to $e made $y free and o%ished nations against $ar$aric tyrants2 +fter forming and chastening the taste $y a di%igent study of those erfect mode%s3 it is necessary to ac@uire correct ha$its of com osition in our own %anguage3 first $y studying the $est writers3 and ne(t $y trans%ating co ious%y into it from the *ree&2 "his is $y far the $est e(ercise that I am ac@uainted with for at once attaining a ure Eng%ish diction3 and a1oiding the tameness and regu%arity of modern com osition2 8ut the Eng%ish writers who rea%%y un%oc& the rich sources of the %anguage are those who f%ourished from the end of E%iDa$eth,s to the end of Aueen +nne,s reign< who used a good Sa(on dia%ect with ease3 $ut correctness and ers icuityG%earned in the ancient c%assics3 $ut on%y enriching their mother tongue when the +ttic cou%d su %y its defects..not o1er%aying it with a rofuse edantic coinage of foreign words..we%% ractised in the o%d ru%es of com osition3 or rather co%%ocation which unite natura% ease and 1ariety with a$so%ute harmony3 and gi1e the author,s ideas to de1e%o themse%1es with the more truth and sim %icity when c%othed in the am %e fo%ds of in1ersion3 or run from the e(u$erant to the e%%i tica% without e1er $eing either redunant or o$scure2 "hose great wits had no fore&now%edge of such times as succeeded their $ri%%iant age3 when sty%es shou%d arise3 and for a season re1ai% o1er $oth urity3 and nature3 and anti@ue reco%%ections..now meretricious%y ornamented3 more than ha%f French in the hrase3 and to mere figures fantastica%%y sacrificing the sense..now hea1i%y and regu%ar%y fashioned as if $y the %um$ and ru%e3 and $y the eye rather than the ear3 with a need%ess rofusion of ancient words and f%e(ions3 to dis %ace those of our own Sa(on3 instead of tem erate%y su %ying its defects2 5east of a%% cou%d those %ights of Eng%ish e%o@uence ha1e imagined that men shou%d a ear among us rofessing to each com osition3 and ignorant of the who%e of its ru%es3 and inca a$%e of re%ishing the $eauties3 or indeed a rehending the 1ery genius of the %anguage3

shou%d treat its ecu%iar terms of e( ression and f%e(ion as so many inaccuracies3 and ractise their u i%s in correcting the fau%ty Eng%ish of +ddison3 and training down to the mechanica% rhythm of 7ohnson the %i1e%y and inimita$%e measures of 8o%ing$ro&e2 8ut in e(horting you dee %y to meditate on the $eauties of our o%d Eng%ish authors3 the oets3 the mora%ists3 and erha s more than a%% these3 the reachers of the +ugustan age of Eng%ish %etters3 do not imagine that I wou%d ass o1er their great defects when com ared with the renowned standards of se1ere taste in ancient times2 +ddison may ha1e $een ure and e%egant< /ry den3 airy and ner1ous< "ay%or3 witty and fancifu%: Hoo&er3 weighty and 1arious< $ut none of them united force with $eauty..the erfection of matter with the most refined and chastened sty%e< and to one charge3 a%%3 e1en the most fau%t%ess3 are e( osed.. the offense un&nown in ancient times3 $ut the $esetting sin of %ater days..they a%ways o1erdid..ne1er &nowing or fee%ing when they had done enough2 In nothing3 not e1en in $eauty of co%%ocation and harmony of rhythm3 is the 1ast su eriority of the chaste3 1igorous3 man%y sty%e of the *ree& orators and writers more cons icuous than in the a$stinent use of their rodigious facu%ties of e( ression2 + sing%e hrase..sometimes a word..and the wor& is done..the desired im ression is made3 as it were3 with one stro&e3 there $eing nothing su erf%uous inter osed to wea&en the $%ow or $rea& its fa%%2 "he commanding idea is sing%ed out< it is made to stand forward< a%% au(i%iaries are re4ected< as the Em eror Ba o%eon se%ected one oint in the heart of his ad1ersary,s strength3 and $rought a%% his ower to $ear u on that3 care%ess of the other oints3 which he was sure to carry if he won the center3 as sure to ha1e carried in 1ain if he %eft the center unsu$dued2 Far otherwise do modern writers ma&e their onset< they resem$%e3 rather3 those cam aigners3 who fit out twenty %itt%e e( editions at a time to $e a %aughing.stoc& if they fai%3 and use%ess if they succeed< or if they do attac& in the right %ace3 so di1ide their forces3 from the dread of %ea1ing any one oint un. assai%ed3 that they can ma&e no sensi$%e im ression where a%one it a1ai%s them to $e fe%t2 It seems the rinci %e of such authors ne1er to %ea1e anything unsaid that can $e said on any one to ic< to run down e1ery idea they start< to %et nothing ass< and %ea1e nothing to the reader3 $ut harass him with antici ating e1erything that cou%d ossi$%y stri&e his mind2 0om are with this effeminate %a(ity of s eech the man%y se1erity of ancient e%o@uence3 or of him who a roached it3 $y the ha y union of natura% genius with %earned meditation< or of him who so mar1e%ous%y a roached sti%% nearer with on%y the fami%iar &now%edge of its %east erfect ensam %es2 ?ar&3 I do $eseech you3 the se1ere sim %icity3 the su$dued tone of the diction3 in the most touching arts of the Co%d man E%o@uent,s %oftiest assages2 In the oath3 when he comes to the $uria% %ace where they re ose $y whom he is swearing3 if e1er a grand e ithet were a%%owa$%e3 it is here2 When he wou%d com are the effects of "he $an treaty in dis e%%ing the dangers that com assed the state round a$out to the swift assing away of a stormy c%oud3 he satisfies himse%f with two words3 the theme of 4ust admiration to succeeding ages< and when he wou%d aint the sudden a roach of o1er. whe%ming eri% to $eset the state3 he does it $y a stro&e3 the ictures@ue effect of which has not3 erha s3 $een enough noted..%i&ening it to a whir%wind or a winter torrent3 it is worthy of remar&3 that in $y far the finest of a%% ?r2 8ur&e,s orations3 the assage which is3 I $e%ie1e3 uni1ersa%%y a%%owed to $e the most stri&ing3 owes its effect to a figure twice introduced in c%ose resem$%ance to these two great e( ressions3 a%tho certain%y not in imitation of either< for the origina% is to $e found in 5i1y,s descri tion of Fa$ius,s a earance to Hanni$a%2 Hyder,s 1engeance is %i&ened to ,,a $%ac& c%oud3 that hung for a whi%e on the dec%i1ities of the mountains3C and the eo %e who suffered under its de1astations are descri$ed as Cen1e%o ed in a whir%wind of ca1a%ry2C Whoe1er reads the who%e assage wi%%3 I thin&3 admit that the effect is a%most entire%y roduced $y those two stro&es< that the am %ifications which accom any them3 as the C$%ac&ening of the horiDonC..the Cmenacing

meteorC..the Cstorm of unusua% fire3C rather disarm than augment the terrors of the origina% $%ac& c%oud< and that the Cgoading s ears of the dri1ers3C and Cthe tram %ing of ursuing horses3C some. what a$ate the fury of the whir%wind of ca1a%ry2 "hey are s%a1es..%ashed and rac&ed3 says the *recian master3 to descri$e the wretched %ot of those who had yie%ded to the wi%es of the con@ueror3 in the 1ain ho e of securing their %i$erties in safety2 0om are this with the choicest of ?r2 8ur&e,s in1ecti1es of derision and ity u on the same su$4ect..the sufferings of those who made eace with regicide France..and ac&now%edge the mighty effect of re%ying u on a sing%e stro&e to roduce a great effect..if you had the master.hand to gi1e it2 C"he Eing of Prussia has hy othecated in trust to the regicides his rich and ferti%e territories on the #hine3 as a %edge of his Dea% and affection to the cause of %i$erty and e@ua%ity2 He has $een ro$$ed with un$ounded %i$erty3 and with the most %e1e%ing @ua%ity2 "he woods are wasted< the country is ra1aged< ro erty is confiscated< and the eo %e are ut to $ear a dou$%e yo&e3 in the e(actions of a tyrannica% go1ernment3 and in the contri$utions of a hosti%e conscri tion2C C"he *rand /u&e of "uscany3 for his ear%y sincerity3 for his %o1e of eace3 and for his entire confidence in the amity of the assassins of his fami%y3 has $een com %imented with the name of the ,wisest so1ereign in Euro e2, "his acific So%omon3 or his hi%oso hic cudge%ed ministry3 cudge%ed $y Eng%ish and $y French3 whose wisdom and hi%oso hy $etween them ha1e %aced 5eghorn in the hands of the enemy of the +ustrian fami%y3 and dri1en the on%y rofita$%e commerce of "uscany from its on%y ort2C "urn now for refreshment to the +thenian artist..C?uch3 forsooth3 did the 9reitoe gain when they yie%ded to the friends of Phi%i 3 and thrust out Eu hraeus< and much the eo %e of Eretria3 when they dro1e off your am$assadors3 and ga1e themse%1es u to E%eitarchusH "hey are now s%a1es..%ashed and rac&ed2C..Phi%2 6 on some 1ery rare occasions3 indeed3 the orator3 not content with a sing%e $%ow3 ours himse%f forth in a sing%e torrent of in1ecti1e3 and then we recogniDe the man who was said of o%d to eat shie%ds and stee%2 8ut3 sti%%3 the effect is roduced without re etition or diffuseness2 I am not aware of any such e( anded assage as the in1ecti1e against those who had $etrayed the 1arious states of *reece to Phi%i 2 It is3 indeed3 a no$%e assage< one of the most $ri%%iant3 erha s the most high%y co%ored3 of any in /emosthenes< $ut it is as condensed and ra id as it is rich and 1aried: C8ase and fawning creatures3 wretches who ha1e muti%ated the g%ory each of his own nati1e %and ..toasting away their %i$erties to the hea%th first of Phi%i 3 then of +%e(ander< measuring their ha iness $y their g%uttony and de$auchery3 $ut utter%y o1erthrowing those rights of freemen3 and that inde endence of any master3 which the *ree&s of former days regarded as the test and the summit of a%% fe%icity2C "his re@uires no contrast to ma&e its merit shine forth< $ut com are it with any of 0icero,s in1ecti1es..that3 for instance3 in the third 0ati%inarian3 against the cons irators3 where he attac&s them regu%ar%y under si( different heads and in a$o1e twenty times as many words< and ends with the &nown and 1ery moderate 4est of their commander &ee ing CScortorum cohortem Praetoriam2C "he great oet of modern Ita%y3 /ante3 a roached nearest to the ancients in the @ua%ity of which I ha1e $een s ea&ing2 In his finest assages you rare%y find an e ithet < hard%y e1er more than one< and ne1er two efforts to em$ody one idea2 C+ guisa di 5eon @uando si osa2C =5i&e the %ion when he %ays himse%f down>3 is the sing%e trait $y which he com ares the dignified air of a stern ersonage to the e( ression of the %ion s%ow%y %aying himse%f down2 It is remar&a$%e that "asso co ies the 1erse entire3 $ut he destroys its who%e effect $y fi%%ing u the ma4estic idea3 adding this %ine3 C*irando g%i occhi e non mo1endo i% assoC =0asting around his eyes3 $ut not hastening his ace>2 + $etter i%%ustration cou%d not easi%y $e found of the difference $etween the ancient and the modern sty%e2 +nother is furnished $y a %ater imitator

of the same great master2 I &now no assage of the /i1ina 0ommedia more e(cursi1e than the descri tion of e1ening in the Purgatorio< yet the oet is content with somewhat en%arging on a sing%e thought..the tender reco%%ections which that hour of meditation gi1es the tra1e%er3 at the fa%% of the first night he is to ass away from home3 when he hears the distant &ne%% of the e( iring day2 *ray ado ts the idea of the &ne%% in near%y the words of the origina%3 and adds eight other circumstances to it3 resenting a &ind of ground %an3 or at %east a cata%og3 an accurate enumeration =%i&e a natura% historian,s>3 of e1ery one articu%ar $e%onging to nightfa%%3 so as who%%y to e(haust the su$4ect3 and %ea1e nothing to the imagination of the reader2 /ante,s si( 1erses3 too3 ha1e $ut one e ithet3 do%ci3 a %ied to amici2 *ray has thirteen or fourteen< some of them mere re etitions of the same idea which the 1er$ or the su$stanti1e con1eysH..as drowsy tin&%ing %u%%s..the mo ing ow% com. %ains..the %owman %ods his weary way2 Sure%y3 when we contrast the sim %e and commanding ma4esty of the ancient writers with the su era$undance and diffusion of the e(hausti1e method3 we may $e tem ted to fee% that there %ur&s some a%%oy of $itterness in the e(cess of sweets2 "his was so fu%%y recogniDed $y the wise ancients3 that it $ecame a ro1er$ among them3 as we %earn from an e igram sti%% reser1ed2 +%% e(cess is ina ro riate< hence the ro1er$3 "oo much e1en of honey turns to ga%%2

In forming the taste $y much contem %ation of those anti@ue mode%s3 and ac@uiring the ha$its of easy and chaste com osition3 it must not $e imagined that a%% the %a$or of the orator is ended3 or that he may then3 daunt%ess and f%uent3 enter u on his office in the u$%ic assem$%y2 ?uch re aration is sti%% re@uired $efore each e(ertion3 if rhetorica% e(ce%%ence is aimed at2 I shou%d %ay down as a ru%e3 admitting of no e(ce tion3 that a man wi%% s ea& we%% in ro ortion as he has written much< and that with e@ua% ta%ents3 he wi%% $e the finest e(tem ore s ea&er3 when no time for re aring is a%%owed3 who has re ared himse%f the most sedu%ous%y when he had an o ortunity of de%i1ering a remeditated s eech2 +%% the e(ce tions which I ha1e e1er heard cited to this rinci %e are a arent ones on%y< ro1ing nothing more than that some few men of rare genius ha1e $ecome great s ea&ers without re aration< in no wise showing that with re aration they wou%d not ha1e reached a much higher itch of e(ce%%ence2 "he admitted su eriority of the ancients in a%% oratorica% accom %ishments is the $est roof of my osition< for their carefu% re aration is undenia$%e< nay3 in /emosthenes =of whom Auinti%ian says that his sty%e indicates more remeditation.. %us curae..than 0icero,s>3 we can trace $y the recurrence of the same assage3 with rogressi1e im ro1ements in different s eeches3 how nice%y he o%ished the more e(@uisite arts of his com ositions2 I cou%d oint out fa1orite assages3 occurring as often as three se1era% times with 1ariations3 and manifest amendment2 I am now re@uiring not mere%y great re aration whi%e the s ea&er is %earning his art3 $ut after he has accom %ished his education2 "he most s %endid effort of the most mature orator wi%% $e a%ways finer for $eing re1ious%y e%a$orated with much care2 "here is3 no dou$t3 a charm in e(tem oraneous e%ocution3 deri1ed from the a earance of art%ess3 un remeditated effusion3 ca%%ed forth $y the occasion3 and so ada ting itse%f to its e(igencies3 which may com ensate the manifo%d defects incident to this &ind of com osition: that which is ins ired $y the unforeseen circumstances of the moment3 wi%% $e of necessity suited to those circumstances in the choice of the to ics3 and itched in the tone of the e(ecution3 to the fee%ings u on which it is to o erate2 "hese are great 1irtues: it is another to a1oid the $esetting 1ice of modern oratory..the o1erdoing e1erything..the e(hausti1e method..which an off.hand s ea&er has no time to fa%% into3 and he according%y wi%% ta&e on%y the grand and effecti1e 1iew< ne1erthe%ess3

in oratorica% merit3 such effusions must needs $e 1ery inferior< much of the %easure they roduce de ends u on the hearer,s sur riDe that in such circumstances anything can $e de%i1ered3 at a%%3 rather than u on his de%i$erate 4udgment3 that he has heard anything 1ery e(ce%%ent in itse%f2 We may rest assured that the highest reaches of the art3 and without any necessary sacrifice of natura% effect3 can on%y $e attained $y him who we%% considers3 and mature%y re ares3 and oftentimes sedu%ous%y corrects and refines his oration2 Such re aration is @uite consistent with the introduction of assages rom ted $y the occasion3 nor wi%% the transition from the one to the other $e erce ti$%e in the e(ecution of a ractised master2 I ha1e &nown attenti1e and s&i%fu% hearers com %ete%y decei1ed in this matter3 and ta&ing for e(tem oraneous3 assages which re1ious%y e(isted in manuscri t3 and were ronounced with. out the 1ariation of a artic%e or ause2 "hus3 too3 we are to%d $y 0icero3 in one of his e ist%es3 that ha1ing to ma&e3 in Pom ey,s resence3 a s eech3 after 0rassus had 1ery une( ected%y ta&en a articu%ar %ine of argument3 he e(erted himse%f3 and it a ears successfu%%y3 in a mar1e%ous manner3 mighti%y assisted in what he said e(tem ore $y his ha$it of rhetorica% re aration3 and introducing s&i%fu%%y3 as the ins iration of the moment3 a%% his fa1orite common. %aces3 with some of which3 as we gather from a good.humored 4o&e at his own e( ense3 0rassus had interfered2 If3 from contem %ating the means of ac@uiring e%o@uence3 we turn to the no$%e ur oses to which it may $e made su$ser1ient3 we at once ercei1e its rodigious im ortance to the $est interests of man&ind2 "he greatest masters of the art ha1e concurred3 and u on the greatest occasion of its dis %ay3 in ronouncing that its estimation de ends on the 1irtuous and rationa% use made of it2 5et their sentiments $e engra1ed on your memory in their own ure and a ro riate diction2 +Eschines says: CIt is we%% that the inte%%ect shou%d choose the $est o$4ects3 and that the education and e%o@uence of the orator shou%d o$tain the assent of his hearers< $ut if not3 that sound 4udgment shou%d $e referred to mere s eech2,, Says his i%%ustrious antagonist: CIt is not the %anguage of the orator3 or the modu%ation of his 1oice that deser1es your raise3 $ut his see&ing the same interests and o$4ects with the $ody of the eo %e2C It is $ut reciting the ordinary raises of the art of ersuasion3 to remind you how sacred truths may $e most ardent%y romu%gated at the a%tar..the cause of o rest innocence $e most owerfu%%y defended..the march of wic&ed ru%ers $e most trium hant%y resisted..defiance3 the most terri$%e $e hur%ed at the o ressor,s head2 In great con1u%sions of u$%ic affairs3 or in $ringing a$out sa%utary changes3 e1ery one confesses how im ortant an a%%y e%o@uence must $e2 8ut in eacefu% times3 when the rogress of e1ents is s%ow and e1en3 as the si%ent and unheeded ace of time3 and the 4ars of a mighty tumu%t in the foreign and domestic concerns can no %onger $e heard3 then3 too3 she f%ourishes.. rotectress of %i$erty.. atroness of im ro1ement..guardian of a%% the $%essings that can $e showered u on the mass of human &ind< nor is her form e1er seen $ut on ground consecrated to free institutions2 ,, E%o@uence is the com anion of eace and the associate of %eisure: it is trained u under the aus ices of a we%%. esta$%ished re u$%ic2C "o me3 ca%m%y re1o%1ing these things3 such ursuits seem far more no$%e o$4ects of am$ition than any u on which the 1u%gar herd of $usy men %a1ish rodiga% their rest%ess e(ertions2 "o diffuse usefu% information..to further inte%%ectua% refinement3 sure fore. runner of mora% im ro1ement..to hasten the coming of the $right day when the dawn of genera% &now%edge sha%% chase away the %aDy3 %ingering mists3 e1en from the $ase of the great socia% yramid..this indeed is a high ca%%ing3 in which the most s %endid ta%ents and consummate 1irtue may we%% ress onward3 eager to $ear a art2 I &now that I s ea& in a %ace consecrated $y the ious wisdom of ancient times to the instruction of $ut a se%ect

ortion of the community2 ;et from this c%assic ground ha1e gone forth those whose genius3 not their ancestry3 enno$%ed them3 whose incredi$%e merits ha1e o ened to a%% ran&s the tem %e of science< whose i%%ustrious e(am %e has made the hum$%est emu%ous to c%im$ ste s no %onger inaccessi$%e3 and enter the unfo%ded gates3 $urning in the sun2 I s ea& in that city where 8%ac& ha1ing once taught3 and Watt %earned3 the grand e( eriment was afterward made in our day3 and with entire success< to demonstrate that the highest inte%%ectua% cu%ti1ation is erfect%y com ati$%e with the dai%y cares and toi%s of wor&ingmen < to show $y thousands of %i1ing e(am %es that a &een re%ish for the most su$%ime truths of science $e%ongs a%i&e to e1ery c%ass of man&ind2 "o romote this3 of a%% o$4ects the most im ortant3 men of ta%ents and of inf%uence I re4oice to $eho%d ressing forward in e1ery art of the em ire< $ut I wait with im atient an(iety to see the same course ursued $y men of high station in society3 and $y men of ran& in the wor%d of %etters2 It shou%d seem as if these fe%t some %itt%e %ur&ing 4ea%ousy3 and those were somewhat scared $y fee%ings of a%arm..the one and the other sure%y a%i&e ground%ess2 Bo man of science needs fear to see the day when scientific e(ce%%ence sha%% $e too 1u%gar a commodity to $ear a high rice2 "he more wide%y &now%edge is s read3 the more wi%% they $e riDed whose ha y %ot it is to e(tend its $ounds $y disco1ering new truths3 or mu%ti %y its uses $y in1enting new modes of a %ying it in ractise2 "heir num$ers wi%% need $e increased3 and among them more Watts and more Fran&%ins wi%% $e enro%%ed among the %ights of the wor%d3 in ro ortion as more thousands of the wor&ing c%asses3 to which Fran&%in and Watt $e%onged3 ha1e their thoughts turned toward hi%oso hy< $ut the order of disco1erers and in1entors wi%% sti%% $e a se%ect few3 and the on%y materia% 1ariation in their ro ortion to the $u%& of man&ind wi%% $e3 that the mass of the ignorant mu%titude $eing rogressi1e%y diminished3 the $ody of those wi%% $e inca%cu%a$%y increased who are worthy to admire genius3 and a$%e to $estow u on its ossessors an immorta% fame2 "o those3 too3 who fee% a%armed as statesmen3 and friends of e(isting esta$%ishments3 I wou%d address a few words of comfort2 #ea% &now%edge ne1er romoted either tur$u%ence or un$e%ief< $ut its rogress is the forerunner of %i$era%ity and en%ightened to%eration2 Whoso dreads these3 %et him trem$%e< for he may $e we%% assured that their day is at %ength come3 and must ut to sudden f%ight the e1i% s irits of tyranny and rosecution which haunted the %ong night now gone down the s&y2 +s men wi%% no %onger suffer themse%1es to $e %ed $%indfo%ded in ignorance3 so wi%% they no more yie%d to the 1i%e rinci %e of 4udging and treating their fe%%ow creatures3 not according to the intrinsic merit of their actions3 $ut according to the accidenta% and in1o%untary. coincidence of their o inions2 "he great truth has fina%%y gone forth to a%% the ends of the earth3 that man sha%% no more render account to man for his $e%ief3 o1er which he has himse%f no contro%2 Henceforward3 nothing sha%% re1ai% u on us to raise or to $%ame any one for that which he can no more change than he can the hue of his s&in or the height of his stature2 Henceforward3 treating with entire res ect those who conscientious%y differ from ourse%1es3 the on%y ractica% effect of the difference wi%% $e3 to ma&e us en%ighten the ignorance on one side or the other from which it s rings3 $y instructing them3 if it $e theirs< ourse%1es if it $e our own3 to the end that the on%y &ind of unanimity may $e roduced which is desira$%e among rationa% $eings..the agreement roceeding from fu%% con1iction after the freest discussion Par then3 1ery far3 from the uni1ersa% s read of &now%edge $eing the o$4ect of 4ust a rehension to those who watch o1er the eace of the country3 or ha1e a dee interest in the ermanence of her institutions3 its sure effect wi%% $e the remo1a% of the on%y dangers that threaten the u$%ic tran@ui%%ity3 and the addition of a%% that is wanting to confirm her interna% strength2 5et me3 therefore3 indu%ge in the ho e that among the i%%ustrious youths whom this ancient

&ingdom3 famed a%i&e for its no$i%ity and its %earning3 has roduced3 to continue its fame through after ages3 ossi$%y among those I now address3 there may $e found some one..I as& no more..wi%%ing to gi1e a $right e(am %e to other nations in a ath yet untrodden3 $y ta&ing the %ead of his fe%%ow citiDens3 not in fri1o%ous amusements3 nor in the degrading ursuits of the am$itious 1u%gar3 $ut in the tru%y no$%e tas& of en%ightening the mass of his countrymen3 and %ea1ing his own name no %onger encirc%ed3 as heretofore3 with $ar$aric s %endor3 or attached to court%y gewgaws3 $ut i%%ustrated $y the honors most worthy of our nationa% nature Gcou %ed with the diffusion of &now%edge..and gratefu%%y ronounced through a%% ages $y mi%%ions whom his wise $eneficence has rescued from ignorance and 1ice2 "o him I wi%% say3 CIn nothing do men a roach more near%y to the di1inity than in ministering to the safety of their fe%%ow men< so that fortune can not gi1e you anything greater than the a$i%ity3 or nature anything $etter "han the desire3 to e(tend re%ief to the greatest ossi$%e num$er2C "his is the true mar& for the aim of a%% who either riDe the en4oyment of ure ha iness3 or set a right 1a%ue u on a high and unsu%%ied renown2 +nd if the $enefactors of man&ind3 when they rest from their ious %a$ors3 sha%% $e ermitted to en4oy hereafter3 as an a ro riate reward of their 1irtue3 the ri1i%ege of %oo&ing down u on the $%essings with which their toi%s and sufferings ha1e c%othed the scene of their former e(istence3 do not 1ain%y imagine that3 in a state of e(ha%ted urity and wisdom3 the founders of mighty dynasties3 the con@uerors of new em ires3 or the more 1u%gar crowd of e1i%.doers3 who ha1e sacrificed to their own aggrandiDement the good of their fe%%ow creatures3 wi%% $e gratified $y contem %ating the monuments of their ing%orious fame..theirs wi%% $e the de%ight..theirs the trium h who can trace the remote effects of their en%ightened $ene1o%ence in the im ro1ed condition of their s ecies3 and e(u%t in the ref%ection that the rodigious change they now sur1ey3 with eyes that age and sorrow can ma&e dim no more..of &now%edge $ecome ower..1irtue sharing in the dominion..su erstition tram %ed under footGtyranny dri1en from the wor%d..are the fruits3 recious3 tho cost%y3 and tho %ate rea ed3 yet %ong.enduring3 of a%% the hardshi s and a%% the haDards they encountered here $e%owH IB+6*6#+5 +//#ESS 8; "H9?+S 7EFFE#S9B /e%i1ered ?arch 43 1!013 on assuming the Presidency of the 6nited States Friends and Fe%%ow 0itiDens:..0a%%ed u on to underta&e the duties of the first e(ecuti1e office of our country3 I a1ai% myse%f of the resence of that ortion of my fe%%ow citiDens which is here assem$%ed3 to e( ress my gratefu% than&s for the fa1or with which they ha1e $een %eased to %oo& toward me3 to dec%are a sincere consciousness3 that the tas& is a$o1e my ta%ents3 and that I a roach it with those an(ious and awfu% resentiments which the greatness of the charge3 and the wea&ness of my owers3 so 4ust%y ins ire2 + rising nation3 s read o1er a wide and fruitfu% %and3 tra1ersing a%% the seas with the rich roductions of their industry3 engaged in commerce with nations who fee% ower and for. get right3 ad1ancing ra id%y to destinies $eyond the reach of morta% eye< when I contem %ate these transcendent o$4ects3 and see the honor3 the ha iness3 and the ho es of this $e%o1ed country committed to the issue and the aus ices of this day3 I shrin& from the contem %ation3 and hum$%e myse%f $efore the magnitude of the underta&ing2 6tter%y3 indeed3 shou%d I des air3 did not the resence of many whom I see here3 remind me3 in the other high authorities ro1ided $y our constitution3 I sha%% find resources of wisdom3 of 1irtue3 and of Dea%3 on which to re%y under a%% difficu%ties2 "o you3 then3 gent%emen3 who are charged with the so1ereign functions of %egis%ation3 and to those

associated with you3 I %oo& with encouragement for that guidance and su ort which may ena$%e us to steer with safety the 1esse% in which we are a%% em$ar&ed3 amid the conf%icting e%ements of a trou$%ed wor%d2 /uring the contest of o inion through which we ha1e assed3 the animation of discussions and of e(ertions has sometimes worn an as ect which might im ose on strangers unused to thin& free%y3 and to s ea& and to write what they thin&< $ut this $eing now decided $y the 1oice of the nation3 announced according to the ru%es of the constitution3 a%% wi%%3 of course3 arrange themse%1es under the wi%% of the %aw3 and unite in common efforts for the common good2 +nd3 too3 wi%% $ear in mind this sacred rinci %e3 that tho the wi%% of the ma4ority is in a%% cases to re1ai%3 that wi%%3 to $e rightfu%3 must $e reasona$%e< that the minority ossess their e@ua% rights3 which e@ua% %aws must rotect3 and to 1io%ate which wou%d $e o ression2 5et us3 then3 fe%%ow citiDens3 unite with one heart and one mind3 %et us restore to socia% intercourse that harmony and affection without which %i$erty and e1en %ife itse%f are $ut dreary things2 +nd %et us ref%ect3 that ha1ing $anished from our %and that re%igious into%erance under which man&ind so %ong $%ed and suffered3 we ha1e yet gained %itt%e3 if we countenance a o%itica% into%erance3 as des otic3 as wic&ed3 and as ca a$%e of as $itter and $%oody ersecutions2 /uring the throes and con1u%sions of the ancient wor%d3 during the agoniDing s asms of infuriated man3 see&ing through $%ood and s%aughter his %ong.%ost %i$erty3 it was not wonderfu% that the agitation of the $i%%ows shou%d reach e1en this distant and eacefu% shore< that this shou%d $e more fe%t and feared $y some3 and %ess $y others3 and shou%d di1ide o inions as to measures of safety< $ut e1ery difference of o inion is not a difference of rinci %e2 We ha1e ca%%ed $y different names $rethren of the same rinci %e2 We are a%% #e u$%icans< we are a%% Federa%ists2 If there $e any among us who wish to disso%1e this 6nion3 or to change its re u$%ican form3 %et them stand undistur$ed as monuments of the safety with which error of o inion may $e to%erated3 where reason is %eft free to com$at it2 I &now3 indeed3 that some honest men fear that a re u$%ican go1ernment can not $e strong< that this go1ernment is not strong enough2 8ut wou%d the honest atriot3 in the fu%% tide of successfu% e( eriment3 a$andon a go1ernment which has so far &e t us free and firm3 on the theoretic and 1isionary fear that this go1ernment3 the wor%d,s $est ho e3 may3 $y ossi$i%ity3 want energy to reser1e itse%fI I trust not2 I $e%ie1e this3 on the contrary3 the strongest go1ernment on earth2 I $e%ie1e it the on%y one where e1ery man3 at the ca%% of the %aw3 wou%d f%y to the standard of the %aw3 and wou%d meet in1asions of the u$%ic order as his own ersona% concern2 Sometimes it is said that man can not $e trusted with the go1ernment of himse%f2 0an he then $e trusted with the go1ernment of othersI 9r3 ha1e we found ange%s in the form of &ings3 to go1ern himI 5et history answer this @uestion2 5et us3 then3 with courage and confidence3 ursue our own federa% and re u$%ican rinci %es< our attachment to union and re resentati1e go1ernment2 Eind%y se arated $y nature and a wide ocean from the e(terminating ha1oc of one.@uarter of the g%o$e< too high.minded to endure the degradation of the others3 ossessing a chosen country3 with room enough for our descendants to the thousandth and thousandth generation3 entertaining a due sense of our e@ua% right to the use of our own facu%ties3 to the ac@uisition of our own industry3 to honor and confidence from our fe%%ow citiDens3 resu%ting not from $irth3 $ut from our actions and their sense of them3 en%ightened $y a $enign re%igion3 rofest indeed and ractised in 1arious forms3 yet a%% of them incu%cating honesty3 truth3 tem erance3 gratitude3 and the %o1e of man3 ac&now%edging and adoring an o1erru%ing Pro1idence3 which3 $y a%% its dis ensations3 ro1es that it de%ights in the ha iness of man here3 and his greater ha iness hereafter< with a%%

these $%essings3 what more is necessary to ma&e us a ha y and ros erous eo %eI Sti%% one thing more3 fe%%ow citiDens3 a wise and fruga% go1ernment3 which sha%% restrain men from in4uring one another3 sha%% %ea1e them otherwise free to regu%ate their own ursuits of industry and im ro1ement3 and sha%% not ta&e from the mouth of %a$or the $read it has earned2 "his is the sum of good go1ernment< and this is necessary to c%ose the circ%e of our fe%icities2 +$out to enter3 fe%%ow citiDens3 u on the e(ercise of duties which com rehend e1erything dear and 1a%ua$%e to you3 it is ro er you shou%d understand what I deem the essentia% rinci %es of our go1ernment3 and conse@uent%y3 those which ought to sha e its administration2 I wi%% com ress them within the narrowest com ass they wi%% $ear3 stating the genera% rinci %e3 $ut not a%% its %imitations2 E@ua% and e(act 4ustice to a%% men3 of whate1er state or ersuasion3 re%igious or o%itica%< eace3 commerce3 and honest friendshi with a%% nations3 entang%ing a%%iances with none< the su ort of the State go1ernments in a%% their rights3 as the most com etent administrations for our domestic concerns3 and the surest $u%war&s against anti. re u$%ican tendencies< the reser1ation of the genera% go1ernment in its who%e constitutiona% 1igor3 as the sheet.anchor of our eace at home and safety a$road< a 4ea%ous care of the right of e%ection $y the eo %e3 a mi%d and safe correcti1e of a$uses which are %o ed $y the sword of re1o%ution where eacea$%e remedies are un ro1ided< a$so%ute ac@uiescence in the decisions of the ma4ority3 the 1ita% rinci %e of re u$%ics3 from which there is no a ea% $ut to force3 the 1ita% rinci %e and immediate arent of des otism< a we%%.disci %ined mi%itia3 our $est re%iance in eace3 and for the first moments of war3 ti%% regu%ars may re%ie1e them< the su remacy of the ci1i% o1er the mi%itary authority< economy in the u$%ic e( ense3 that %a$or may $e %ight%y $urdened< the honest ayment of our de$ts3 and sacred reser1ation of the u$%ic faith< encouragement of agricu%ture3 and of commerce as its handmaid< the diffusion of information3 and arraignment of a%% a$uses at the $ar of the u$%ic reason< freedom of re%igion3 freedom of the ress3 and freedom of erson3 under the rotection of the ha$eas cor us3 and tria% $y 4uries im artia%%y se%ected2 "hese rinci %es form the $right conste%%ation which has gone $efore us and guided our ste s through an age of re1o%ution and reformation2 "he wisdom of our sages3 and $%ood of our heroes3 ha1e $een de1oted to their attainment< they shou%d $e the creed of our o%itica% faith3 the te(t of ci1ic instruction3 the touchstone $y which to try the ser1ices of those we trust< and shou%d we wander from them in moments of error or of a%arm3 %et us hasten to retrace our ste s3 and to regain the road which a%one %eads to eace3 %i$erty3 and safety2 I re air3 then3 fe%%ow citiDens3 to the ost you ha1e as. signed me2 With e( erience enough in su$ordinate offices to ha1e seen the difficu%ties of this3 the greatest of a%%3 I ha1e %earned to e( ect that it wi%% rare%y fa%% to the %ot of im erfect man3 to retire from this station with the re utation and the fa1or which $ring him into it2 Without re. tensions to that high confidence you re osed in our first and greatest re1o%utionary character3 whose reeminent ser1ices had entit%ed him to the first %ace in his country,s %o1e3 and destined for him the fairest age in the 1o%ume of faithfu% history3 I as& so much confidence on%y as may gi1e firmness and effect to the %ega% administration of your affairs2 I sha%% often go wrong through defect of 4udgment2 When right3 I sha%% often $e thought wrong $y those whose ositions wi%% not command a 1iew of the who%e ground2 I as& your indu%gence for my own errors3 which wi%% ne1er $e intentiona%< and your su ort against the errors of others3 who may condemn what they wou%d not3 if seen in a%% its arts2 "he a ro$ation im %ied $y your suffrage3 is a great conso%ation to me for the ast< and my future so%icitude wi%% $e to retain the good o inion of those who ha1e $estowed it in ad1ance3 to conci%iate that of others3 $y doing them a%% the good in my ower3 and to $e

instrumenta% to the ha

iness and freedom of a%%2

#e%ying3 then3 on the atronage of your good.wi%%3 I ad1ance with o$edience to the wor&3 ready to retire from it whene1er you $ecome sensi$%e how much $etter choices it is in your ower to ma&e2 +nd may that infinite ower which ru%es the destinies of the uni1erse3 %ead our counci%s to what is $est3 and gi1e them a fa1ora$%e issue for your eace and ros erity2

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