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Personality Defined as a unique and organized set of characteristics possessed by an individual that determines the individuals typical or recurrent

behavior. In simple words it is totality of both inward and out ward characteristics of an individual. That determine by his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask. Significantly, in the theatre of the ancient Latinspeaking world, the mask was used as a device to the identity of a character Personality trait: is characteristic of an individual according to which individual is graded. Character: is the sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of responses of an individual Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. Personality types are sometimes distinguished from personality traits. It involves qualitative differences between people. Type theories: typology system used to describe personality differences. Types of personality are; 1. 2. 3. 4. Introverts Personality extraverts Personality Type A Personality Type B Personality

1. Type A Personality The theory describes a Type A individual as ambitious, aggressive, businesslike, controlling, highly competitive, impatient, preoccupied with his or her status, time-conscious, and tightly-wound. People with Type A personalities are often high-achieving "workaholics" who multi-task, push themselves with deadlines, and hate both delays and ambivalence. Type A Personality The following are the characteristics of the type A personality:

has a severe sense of time urgency. They are always running and can hardly relax. Can causes irritation and exasperation If

they sat without doing something useful they may end up feeling guilty Over achievers, they usually get themselves involved in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them all. Biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a huge list that they planned for themselves. competitive high challenging spirit. Show hostile facial expression Tendency to interrupt speaker Sit on the edge of the chair

2 .Type B Personality People with Type B personalities are generally patient, relaxed, easy-going, and at times lacking an overriding sense of urgency.

Type B personality is almost the opposite of Type A. This type of person is relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgency Type B have got no problems relaxing or sitting without doing anything Type Bs may delay the work they have to the last moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily. Type B could be an achiever too but his lack of sense of time urgency helps him much in not feeling stressed while doing his tasks. Analytical psychology distinguishes several psychological types or temperaments. 3. Extrovert 4. Introvert 3. Extrovert personality: this theory was proposed by Carl gastav Jung. Extrovert means an outward-turning and extrovert individual concerns himself more with others and their emotions directed by external environment. They are: Friendly Social

they dislike solitude objective reality oriented show off optimistic flexible adopt different situations easily likes to work with others fluent in speech easy going neglectful of ailments and personal belongings Extraverts are action oriented Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people, while

4. Introvert personality: Introversion means "inwardturning." Or the internal world of ideas and reflection (introverted attitude). Introverts are thought oriented. introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone they concern their own thoughts ,emotions ,feelings and imagination less social Like solitude and like to work alone. Reserved ,quite ,and shy Rigid and lack flexible Good in writing than speaking Care full of ailments and personal belonging. Saints, poet and philosophers are example of introvert

Physiognomy theory: this theory was given by Sheldon, who identified some relationships between physique and mind. It is the assessment of a person's character or personality from their outer appearance, especially the face. The term physiognomy can also refer to the general appearance of a person. The three types

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Ectomorphic: characterized by long and thin muscles/limbs and low fat storage; usually referred to as slim. Ectomorphs are not predisposed to store fat or build muscle. They are weak and hypoactive .they are intelligent, ambitious, dedicated in his work. Shy and avoid social contacts. prefers solitude sleep poorly if disturbed Mesomorphic: characterized by medium bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist; usually referred to as muscular. Mesomorphs are predisposed to build muscle but not store fat. They desire power and domination. They are strong, athletic, tough personality. Endomorphic: characterized by increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure usually referred to as fat. Endomorphs are predisposed to storing fat. Over weight, eats too much and fatty. Relax and calm temper, tolerant of others, loving, jovial and likes to around people. They prefer to led than lead

Humoral theory: proposed by Claudius Galen a Greek philosopher. He said that human body was filled with four basic substances, called four humors, which are in balance when a person is healthy. All diseases and disabilities resulted from an excess or deficit of one of these four humors. These deficits could be caused by vapors that were inhaled or absorbed by the body. The four humors:
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Blood Phlegm Black bile Yellow bile.

. When a patient was suffering from a imbalance of one fluid, then his or her personality and physical health would be affected.
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Sanguine personality = Blood: sanguine personality is due to excess of blood in the body. These individual are happy, cheerful, fearless, hopeful, optimistic and interested in physical pleasure. Phlegmatic personality: phlegm is thick white material produced during cough. These individual are sluggish, cold, aloof, calm and unemotional. Melancholic personality: Black bile : secreted by the liver, these individual are depressed, unhappy, insensitive, shows suicidal ideas. Choleric personality = Yellow bile: secreted by liver. These individuals are irritable, short tempor, anger and do hate.

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Personality tests There are two major types of personality tests. Projective tests assume personality is primarily unconscious and assess an individual by how he or she responds to an ambiguous stimulus, like an ink blot. The idea is unconscious needs will come out in the person's response, e.g. an aggressive person may see images of destruction. Objective tests assume personality is consciously accessible and measure it by self-report questionnaires. Research on psychological assessment has generally found objective tests are more valid and reliable than projective tests. There are many different types of personality tests. Common personality tests consist of a large number of items, in which respondents must rate the applicability of each item to themselves. Projective tests, such as the TAT and Ink Blots are another form of personality test which attempt to assess personality