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One of the important activities performed by UE during RRC Idle mode is listening to paging message.

The UE should listen to the paging message to know about incoming calls, system information change, and ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning Service) notification for ETWS capable UEs. In LTE, the UE needs to monitor PDCCH continuously (every 1ms) for P-RNTI to listen to paging message and this drains UE battery power heavily. Instead, if the UE is allowed to monitor P-RNTI in PDCCH, only at predetermined period say every 60ms or 100ms, it will reduce UEs power consumption. The process of monitoring PDCCH discontinuously for PRNTI to listen to paging message during RRC idle state is known as Discontinuous Reception (DRX) in RRC_Idle.

In UMTS, the MIB is broadcasted by the Node B via the Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) and includes vital system information such as the PLMN ID, PLMN List (optionally), supported PLMN types, and very importantly the scheduling information for the other System Information Blocks that must be read by the UMTS UE in order for it to perform the basic operations regarding System Acquisition, Random Access Procedure, Cell Reselection, etc. In this sense the MIB truly is the Master Information Block of all the System Information Blocks that exist in UMTS, in that the UE must be able to read the MIB, otherwise it cannot read any of the other SIBs. In LTE, the MIB is broadcasted by the eNodeB on the Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) which occupies the center 6 Resource Blocks of the downlink channel bandwidth, specifically the first four symbols of slot 1, subframe 0 of every radio frame. LTE UEs will need to read the MIB to acquire the channel bandwidth information (5/10/20 MHz wide channels, for example), the eNodeB transmit antenna scheme, the Physical Hybrid ARQ Indication Channel (PHICH) configuration, and the System Frame Number. At Award Solutions, we typically describe the periodicity of transmission of the MIB as new transmissions occurring every 40 milliseconds with retransmissions every 10 milliseconds. My curiousity led me to try to understand why we used the term new transmission versus retransmissions. Are the channel bandwidth, eNodeB transmit antenna scheme, or PHICH configuration changing dynamically from new transmission to retransmission? Hardly - what is changing is the System Frame Number (SFN). The System Frame Number is broadcast in the MIB and is used as a timing reference between the eNodeB and the UE for operations such as SIB scheduling and Paging. The SFN is a 10 bit Binary Coded Decimal number which runs from 0 to 1023 when expressed in Decimal terms. The MIB has a CRC however, which is scrambled with one of three sequences which maps to the number of antennas used in the cell. Perhaps then, when the UE calculates the CRC from the decoded MIB it can compare against each of the three descrambled CRCs looking for a match and hence discover the number of antennas - perhaps not. A Self-Organizing Network (SON) in LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a network that automates various tasks related to network planning, configuration, and optimization. The SON architecture may be centralized, distributed, or hybrid. In the centralized

architecture, the SON functionality is implemented in the OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) system, and, the OAM system communicates with other entities such as eNodeBs to collect measurements and provide parameter settings. In a distributed architecture, the SON functionality is implemented at many network elements (NEs) such as eNodeBs. The hybrid architecture, as the name suggests, is a compromise between the centralized and distributed architectures, where part of the SON functionality is in the OAM system, and, part of the functionality is in the NEs.

UE Identifiers in LTE - The Big Five

To summarize the above: 1. IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity:


The IMSI is a permanent identity assigned by the Service Provider It is valid as long as the Service is Active with the Service Provider It is stored on the USIM card and on the HSS (Home Subscriber Server) It globally and uniquely identifies a user on any 3GPP PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network)

2.

IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identity


The IMEI is a permanent identity assigned by the Device Manufacturer Valid as long as the Device is in Use Stored on the Device hardware and on the HSS (Home Subscriber Server)

3.

C-RNTI - Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity


Dynamic Identity assigned by the eNodeB Valid as long as the UE is Connected to the eNodeB that assigned the C-RNTI Stored in the UE and the eNodeB

4.

GUTI - Globally Unique Temporary Identity

Dynamic Identity assigned by the MME (Mobility Management Entity) Valid as long as the UE is Registered with the EPC (Evolved Packet Core) and Attached to the MME that assigned the GUTI Stored on the UE and the MME

5.

IP Address

Dynamic Identity assigned by the PGW Valid as long as the UE is Registered with the EPC (Evolved Packet Core) Stored in the UE and the PGW and any other node "north" of the PGW

In LTE network, a UE measures two parameters on reference signal: RSRP (Reference Signal Received Power) and RSRQ (Reference Signal Received Quality). What is GUTI and IMSI attach) procedure, the UE sends Att Req with IMSI to the Network to process the Request. If it's successful the MME will reply with Attach Accept message which contain the GUTI as one of the IE (Information Element). In short, When a program is loaded into memory, it is organized into three areas of memory, called segments: the text segment, stack segment, and heap segment. The text segment (sometimes also called the code segment) is where the compiled code of the program itself resides. . The stack is where memory is allocated for automatic variables within functions. A stack is a Last In First Out (LIFO) storage device where new storage is allocated and deallocated at only one ``end'', called the Top of the stack. The heap segment provides more stable storage of data for a program; memory allocated in the heap remains in existence for the duration of a program. Therefore, global variables (storage class external), and static variables are allocated on the heap. The memory allocated in the heap area, if initialized to zero at program start, remains zero until the program makes use of it. So as you can see, memory allocate for heap segment remains as long program is running and stack memory is allocated and freed-up nearly "automatically" (so you do not have to worry about it). Another concept to understand here is "static- compile time memory allocation" vs "dynamic or run time memory allocation". In case of complied languages - compiler at the time of compilation decides the memory required for the variables and other objects where as with respect to runtime allocation - no one knows the memory required until program gets into running mode. That is where heap is used.

Constructs like Arrays, structures, Class objects are generally allocated on "dynamic" basis. Since dynamic memory that is allocated remains blocked for the duration of program execution. >>>I am not sure if we can use "should" here. Also Im not sure whether the example that Ive taken is right or wrong. Even though some high level languages handle memory automatically doesn't mean that memory leaks are impossible. A leak in C or C++ is created when you allocate memory using malloc or new, and never deallocate it. In Python or Java, a memory leak is created when you accidentally leave a reference to some massive data structure hanging around, so the entire thing cannot be freed. The solution is to find this reference and get rid of it. Actions upon reception of the MasterInformationBlock message: Upon receiving the MasterInformationBlock message the UE shall: 1> apply the radio resource configuration included in the phich-Config; Actions upon reception of the SystemInformationBlockType1 message : Upon receiving the SystemInformationBlockType1 message the UE shall: 1> if the frequency band indicated in the freqBandIndicator is not part of the frequency bands supported by the UE: 2> consider the cell as barred in accordance with TS 36.304 [4] and; 3> forward the cellIdentity to upper layers; 4> forward the trackingAreaCode to upper layers; Actions upon reception of SystemInformationBlockType2 : Upon receiving SystemInformationBlockType2, the UE shall: 1> if upper layers indicate that a (UE specific) paging cycle is configured: 2> Apply the shortest of the (UE specific) paging cycle and the defaultPagingCycle included in the radioResourceConfigCommon; Actions upon reception of SystemInformationBlockType8 Upon receiving SystemInformationBlockType8, the UE shall: 1> if the systemTimeInfo is included:

Detection of radio link failure The UE shall: 1> upon T310 expiry; or 1> upon random access problem indication from MAC while neither T300, T301, T304 nor T311 is running; or 1> upon indication from RLC that the maximum number of retransmissions has been reached: 2> consider radio link failure to be detected; Detection of physical layer problems in RRC_CONNECTED The UE shall: 1> upon receiving N310 consecutive "out-of-sync" indications from lower layers while neither T300, T301, T304 nor T311 is running: 3> start timer T310; Radio resource configuration 5.3.10.0 General The UE shall: 1> if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes the srb-ToAddModList: 2> perform the SRB addition or reconfiguration as specified in 5.3.10.1; 1> if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes the drb-ToReleaseList: 2> perform DRB release as specified in 5.3.10.2;

1> if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes the drb-ToAddModList: 2> perform DRB addition or reconfiguration as specified in 5.3.10.3; 1> if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes the mac-MainConfig: 2> perform MAC main reconfiguration as specified in 5.3.10.4; 1> if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes sps-Config: 2> perform SPS reconfiguration according to 5.3.10.5; > if the received radioResourceConfigDedicated includes the physicalConfigDedicated: 2> reconfigure the physical channel configuration as specified in 5.3.10. 6. The UE shall: 1> if timer T301 expires; or 1> if the selected cell becomes no longer suitable according to the cell selection criteria as specified in TS 36.304 Upon T311 expiry, the UE shall: 1> perform the actions upon leaving RRC_CONNECTED as specified in 5.3.12, with release cause 'RRC connection failure'; Reconfiguration failure The UE may apply above failure handling also in case the RRCConnectionReconfiguration message causes a protocol error for which the generic error handling as defined in 5.7 specifies that the UE shall ignore the message.

NOTE 2: If the UE is unable to comply with part of the configuration, it does not apply any part of the configuration, i.e. there is no partial success/ failure. The UE may apply above failure handling also in case the RRCConnectionReconfiguration message causes a protocol error for which the generic error handling as defined in 5.7 specifies that the UE shall ignore the message. NOTE 2: If the UE is unable to comply with part of the configuration, it does not apply any part of the configuration, i.e. there is no partial success/ failure. 1> if timer T300 expires: 2> reset MAC, release the MAC configuration and re-establish RLC for all RBs that are established; 2> inform upper layers about the failure to establish the RRC connection, upon which the procedure ends; Reception of the RRCConnectionReject by the UE The UE shall: 1> stop timer T300; 1> reset MAC and release the MAC configuration; 1> start timer T302, with the timer value set to the waitTime; 1> inform upper layers about the failure to establish the RRC connection and that access barring for mobile originating calls, mobile originating signalling and mobile terminating access is applicable, upon which the procedure end.

PAGING: The purpose of this procedure is to transmit paging information to a UE in RRC_IDLE and/ or to inform UEs in RRC_IDLE and UEs in RRC_CONNECTED about a system information change and/ or about an ETWS primary notification and/ or ETWS secondary notification. The paging information is provided to upper layers, which in response may initiate RRC connection establishment, e.g. to receive an incoming call Generic error handling: The UE shall consider a value as not comprehended when it is set: - to an extended value that is not defined in the version of the transfer syntax supported by the UE. ASN.1 violation or encoding error The UE shall: 1> when receiving an RRC message on the BCCH, PCCH or CCCH for which the abstract syntax is invalid [13]: 3> ignore the message; Padding: If the encoded RRC message does not fill a transport block, the RRC layer shall add padding bits. This applies to PCCH and BCCH. Padding bits shall be set to 0 and the number of padding bits is a multiple of 8.

e-RAB transports the packets of an EPS bearer between the UE and the EPC Data radio bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a UE and an eNB S1 bearer transports the packets of an E-RAB between an eNodeB and a Serving GW S5/S8 bearer transports the packets of an EPS bearer between a Serving GW and a PDN GW

What is EPS Bearer? For E-UTRAN access to the EPC the PDN connectivity service is provided by an EPS bearer for GTP-based S5/S8, and by an EPS bearer concatenated with IP connectivity between Serving GW and PDN GW for PMIP-based S5/S8. An EPS bearer uniquely identifies traffic flows that receive a common QoS treatment between a UE and a PDN GW for GTP-based S5/S8, and between UE and Serving GW for PMIP-based S5/S8. EPS Bearer is a virutal connection between UE and PGW which identifies a data send and received between these two end points with specific QoS attributes. The procedure used to establish an EPS Bearer is called EPS Bearer Activation procedure. Either endpoint can trigger this procedure. For example, the PDN-GW may trigger this procedure when it determines that a new session is requested and a new EPS Bearer should be established to support this session.

What is Default Bearer and Dedicated Bearer? Default Bearer: One EPS bearer is established when the UE connects to a PDN, and that remains established throughout the lifetime of the PDN connection to provide the UE with always-on IP connectivity to that PDN. Dedicated Bearer: Any additional EPS bearer that is established for the same PDN connection is referred to as a dedicated bearer. Are default bearers created on a per UE or a per PDN basis? Default bearers are created on a per PDN basis. So if a UE is connecting to two PDNs it will need to establish two default

bearers. The first default bearer will be established during the Attach process when the UE first powers up and the second will be done using Activate default EPS bearer context request procedure. When the second default bearer is established it will be dependent on the service and the UE.

All about SIB's in LTE

SIBs and their JOBS: (click on each of the SIB to know more about them)
SIB-1 SIB-2 SIB-3 SIB-4 SIB-5 SIB-6 SIB-7 SIB-8 SIB-9 Cell access related parameters and scheduling of other SIBs Common and shared channel configuration, RACH related configuration are present Parameters required for intra-frequency, inter-frequency and I-RAT cell re-selections Information regarding INTRA-frequency neighboring cells (E-UTRA) Information regarding INTER-frequency neighboring cells (E-UTRA) Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (UTRAN cells) Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (GERAN cells) Information for re-selection to INTER-RAT (CDMA2000) Information related to Home eNodeB (FEMTOCELL)

SIB-10 ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information (Primary notification) SIB-11 ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information (Secondary notification) SIB-12 Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) information.

SIB-13

Contains the information required to acquire the MBMS control information associated with one or more MBSFN areas.

Query_1: Why SIBs are needed? SIBs carry relevant information for the UE, which helps UE to access a cell, perform cell re-selection, information related to INTRAfrequency, INTER-frequency and INTER-RAT cell selections.

Query_2: How many types of SIBs are there? In LTE there are 13 types of SIBs. Each SIB has its own job to do, which means, they are meant to carry information which are related to perform their assigned job.

Query_3: On which channels SIBs are transmitted? All SIBs are transmitted on BCCH->DL-SCH->PDSCH.

Query_4: Minimum of how many SIBs are required for the UE to initiate Attach procedure? In LTE, for a UE to access the eNB, at the most minimum 2 SIBs are required (SIB1 and SIB2).

Information regarding SIB2-SIB13 are carried in SI messages and are included in schedulingInfoList which is part of SIB1. Scheduling of SIBs:
SIB1 uses a fixed schedule with a periodicity of 80 ms and repetitions made within 80 ms. The first transmission of SIB1 is scheduled in subframe #5 of radio frames for which the SFN mod 8 = 0, and

Repetitions are scheduled in subframe #5 of all other radio frames for which SFN mod 2 = 0. Scheduling of other SIB's i.e. SIB-2 to SIB-9 is defined by si-Periodicity and si-WindowLength. Both these IEs are explained below. For the rest of the SIBs, Paging is received by UE in RRC_IDLE or RRC_CONNECTED mode for notification of an in-coming SI message.

Scenarios where UE acquire SIBs:


UE will initiate the SIB acquisition procedure in any of the following criteria's:

UE is powered on (selecting a cell) Cell re-selection After HO completion After entering E-UTRAN from another RAT coming out of OUT OF COVERAGE situation receiving a notification that SYSTEM INFORMATION has changed receiving an indication about the presence of ETWS (Primary/Secondary), CMAS notification receiving a request from CDMA 2000 upper layers exceeding the maximum validity duration of SIBs

HOW and WHEN UE start acquiring SIBs (other than SIB1): There are two IE's which help the UE to calculate when to read SI messages. They are: a. schedulingInfoList b. si-WindowLengthd

schedulingInfoList informs the UE regarding the presence of SIB type; other than SIB1. It carriers two more parameters: i. si_Periodicity ii. sib_MappingInfo si_Periodicity tells about the period in terms of radio frames which helps the UE to read the required SIB. The value of this parameter is used for calculating the Radio frame where SI will be received. sib_MappingInfo carries the type of SIBs mapped si-WindowLength specifies that a SIB should be transmitted somewhere within the specified window length. Value is in ms. This window starts at the starting sub-frame of the mentioned si_periodicity. SIBs can be received in any of the sub-frame as mentioned in the WindowLength.

Example:
SIB1 is received by UE with the following information:
schedulingInfoList[0] si_Periodicity sib_MappingInfo[0] schedulingInfoList[1] si_Periodicity sib_MappingInfo[0] schedulingInfoList[2] si_Periodicity sib_MappingInfo[0] si_WindowLength SchedulingInfo SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf16 SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType3 SchedulingInfo SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf32 SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType4 SchedulingInfo SchedulingInfosi_Periodicity_rf64 SIB_TypeSIB_Type_sibType5 ms20

(To look for the complete IE contents and explanation of SIB1 click here)

The above table states the following:

The first element of schedulingInfoList contains sib3

Periodicity= 16 radio frames Window length= 20ms or 160ms

The seond element of schedulingInfoList Periodicity= 32 radio frames Window length= 20ms contains sib4 or 320ms The third element of schedulingInfoList Periodicity= 64 radio frames Window length= 20ms contains sib5 640ms

Now, UE needs two information to read SI. a. One is on which which Radio frame UE will receive the SIB. To determine which Radio frame, the formula is:
SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10)

b. on which sub-frame will the SI window start. To determine the start of the SI window at sub-frame, the formula is:
a = x mod 10

Query: How to determine the value of x?


x = (n 1)*w

where,
x Integer value a number which corrosponds to the order of entry in schedulingInfoList.For sib3 n is 1, for sib4 n is 2 and for sib5 n is 3 si-WindowLength si-Periodicity of the concerned SI message

w T

Let's start calulating the Radio frame and SI starting sub frame for SIB3, SIB4 and SIB5

Subframe from which the SI Window starts


x = (n For 1)*w a = x mod 10 SIB-x=(1- a= 0 mod 10 3 1)*20 a=0 x=0 x = (n For 1)*w a = x mod 10 SIB-x=(2 - a= 20 mod 10 4 1)*20 a=0 x=20 x = (n For 1)*w a = x mod 10 SIB-x=(3 - a= 40 mod 10 5 1)*20 a=0 x=40

The SI Window will start at sub frame 0 of the Radio frame where SI will be acquired

The SI Window will start at sub frame 0 of the Radio frame where SI will be acquired

The SI Window will start at sub frame 0 of the Radio frame where SI will be acquired

Radio frame on which the UE will acquire designated SIB


Whenever SFN mod 16 will be 0. UE For SIB-3 SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10) SFN mod 16 = FLOOR (0/10) SFN mod 16 = 0 is expecting SIB3 and it will start looking from sub frame 0 till the end of the mentioned si-WindowLength Whenever SFN mod 32 will be 2. UE For SIB-4 SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10) SFN mod 32 = FLOOR (20/10) SFN mod 32 = 2 is expecting SIB4 and it will start looking at sub frame 0 till the end of the mentioned si-WindowLength Whenever SFN mod 64 will be 4. UE For SIB-5 SFN mod T = FLOOR(x/10) SFN mod 64 = FLOOR (40/10) SFN mod 64 = 4 is expecting SIB5 and it will start looking at sub frame 0 till the end of the mentioned si-WindowLength

Why we need SIB2 to access the eNB. Isn't SIB1 Info sufficient? How many SIBs we need to have access the eNB in LTEAdv?

SIB2 has the needed RACH parameters along with other PHY params.Not sure about LTEAdv. But both of them (SIB1, SIB2) should be mandatory.

SIB1 in LTE
The first SIB: SIB1 SIB1 contents assist the UE when it is evaluating cell access and also defines the scheduling of other system information.
Signalling radio bearer: N/A RLC-Mode: TM Logical channel: BCCH Direction: E-UTRAN to UE

SIB1 is broadcasted at every 80 ms and is repeated are mabe within 80ms The first transmission is made at SubFrame 5 for which SFN mod 8 = 0 Repetitions are scheduled in SubFRame 5 for which SFN mod 2 = 0

Important cellAccessRelatedInfo PLMN_Identity mcc[0] mcc[1] mcc[2] mnc[0] mnc[1] cellReservedForOperatorUse trackingAreaCode cellIdentity cellBarred intraFreqReselection cellSelectionInfo q_RxLevMin q_RxLevMinOffset p_Max freqBandIndicator schedulingInfoList[0] si_Periodicity sib_MappingInfo[0] si_WindowLength systemInfoValueTag

contents

of

SystemInformationBlockType1

Field Descriptions:

PLMN-Identity

Consists of MCC and MNC. The first listed one is the Primary PLMN

Value applicable for the cell. If absent the UE applies the maximum power according to the UE capability. If eNB configures the value more than the value supported by the UE p-Max then UE will set the max value aupported by the UE capability. Example UE Catagory 3 supports max 23 db cellReservedForOperatorUse As defined by operator (Reserved/Not_reserved) TAC which is common to the PLMN Identities trackingAreaCode Identifies a cell within the PLMN cellIdentity If Barred then UE is not allowed to camp on the cell cellBarred If enabled, UE will be able to perform Cell-reselection to intraFreqReselection INTRA-frequency cells Minimum required RX level in the cell q_RxLevMin Actual value Qrxlevminoffset = IE value * 2 [dB]. only applied when a cell is evaluated for cell selection as a result of a periodic search for a higher priority PLMN while camped normally in a VPLMN [5]. During this periodic search for q_RxLevMinOffset higher priority PLMN the UE may check the S criteria of a cell using parameter values stored from a different cell of this higher priority PLMN. Affects the minimum required Rx level in the cell. indicates the E-UTRA operating band freqBandIndicator information regarding the presence of SIB type; other than SIB1 schedulingInfoList Periodicity of the SI-message in radio frames (SI will be si_Periodicity transmitted within the specified radio frame) carries the List of the SIBs mapped. SIB2 is always present in sib_MappingInfo the first element of schedulingInfoList specifies that a SIB should be transmitted somewhere within the specified window length. Value is in ms. This window starts at si_WindowLength the starting sub-frame of the mentioned si_periodicity. SIBs can

be received in any of the sub-frame as mentioned in the WindowLength. indicates if a change has occurred in the SI messages. UEs may use systemInfoValueTag, e.g. upon return from out of coverage, to verify if the previously stored SI messages are still valid. Additionally, the UE considers stored system information to be invalid after 3 hours from the moment it was successfully confirmed as valid, unless specified otherwise. Common for all SIBs other than MIB, SIB1, SIB10, SIB11 and SIB12.

systemInfoValueTag

SIB2 in LTE

SIB-2: an IMPORTANT SIB


The IE SystemInformationBlockType2 contains radio resource configuration information that is common for all UEs. It carries Common and shared channel configuration, RACH related configuration, Timers, UL Power controls. Without this SIB UE cannot initiate ATTACH procedure. SIB2 is not specifically included in the scheduling information in SIB1 but it is always mapped to the SI message that corresponds to the first entry in the list of SI messages in schedulingInfoList in SIB1

Signalling radio bearer: N/A RLC-Mode: TM Logical channel: BCCH Direction: E-UTRAN to UE

Important contents of SystemInformationBlockType2 rach_ConfigCommon radioResourceConfigCommon numberOfRA_Preambles preamblesGroupAConfig_exist

powerRampingParameters powerRampingStep preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower ra_SupervisionInfo preambleTransMax ra_ResponseWindowSize mac_ContentionResolutionTimer maxHARQ_Msg3Tx 4 bcch_Config pcch_Config prach_Config pdsch_ConfigCommon pusch_ConfigCommon pucch_ConfigCommon soundingRS_UL_ConfigCommon uplinkPowerControlCommon ue_TimersAndConstants freqInfo timeAlignmentTimerCommon

Field Descriptions:

ac-BarringInfo radioResourceConfig numberOfRA_Preambles preamblesGroupAConfig_exist

Access Class Barring configuration used to specify common radio resource configurations in the system information and in the mobility control information Number of non-dedicated random access preambles Provides the configuration for preamble grouping. If the field is not signalled, the size of the random access preambles group A is equal to numberOfRAPreambles

powerRampingParameters powerRampingStep Power ramping factor preambleInitialReceivedTargetPower Initial preamble power ra_SupervisionInfo preambleTransMax Maximum number of preamble transmission Duration of the RA response window. Value in ra_ResponseWindowSize subframes. Value sf2 corresponds to 2 subframes Timer for contention resolution. Value in subframes. mac_ContentionResolutionTimer Value sf8 corresponds to 8 subframes Maximum number of Msg3 HARQ transmissions, maxHARQ_Msg3Tx 4 used for contention based random access bcch_Config Actual modification period, expressed in number of modificationPeriodCoeff radio frames= modificationPeriodCoeff * defaultPagingCycle. n2 corresponds to value 2 pcch_Config Default paging cycle, used to derive T. Value rf32 defaultPagingCycle corresponds to 32 radio frames is used as one of parameters to derive the Paging nB Frame and Paging Occasion

prach_Config rootSequenceIndex

used to specify the PRACH configuration in the system information and in the mobility control information mentions the: Preamble format: 0-4 (For frame structure 1 preamble format is 0-3 and for frame structure 2 it is 0-4) SFN: whether it will be EVEN no. frmae OR any frame subframe number: carrier the subframe no. within the SFN (Look for the table in TS36.211 - Table 5.7.1-2) TRUE corresponds to Restricted set and FALSE to Unrestricted set used for Preamble generation used to specify the common and the UE specific PDSCH configuration used to specify the common PUSCH configuration and the reference signal configuration for PUSCH and PUCCH used to specify the common and the UE specific PUCCH configuration used to specify the uplink Sounding RS configuration used to specify parameters for uplink power control in the system information and in the dedicated signalling Timer values UL carrier frequency and bandwidth used to control how long the UE is considered uplink time aligned. Value in subframes

prach_ConfigIndex

highSpeedFlag zeroCorrelationZoneConfig pdsch_Config pusch_Config pucch_Config soundingRS_UL_Config uplinkPowerControl ue_TimersAndConstants freqInfo timeAlignmentTimerCommon

LTE UE Timers:
Timer Start At expiry Reset MAC and Reception of RRCConnectionSetup or Mac configuration. RRCConnectionReject message, cell reT300 Transmission of RRCConnectionRequest Inform upper selection and upon abortion of connection layers about the establishment by upper layers failure Reception of RRCConnectionReestablishment or Transmission of T301 RRCConnectionReestablishmentReject Go to RRC_IDLE RRCConnectionReestabilshmentRequest message as well as when the selected cell becomes unsuitable Reception of RRCConnectionReject T302 while performing RRC connection establishment Access barred while performing RRC T303 connection establishment for mobile originating calls Reception of RRCConnectionReconfiguration message including the MobilityControl Info or Upon entering RRC_CONNECTED and upon cell re-selection Inform upper layers Stop

Upon entering RRC_CONNECTED and upon cell re-selection

Inform upper layers

In case of cell change order from E-UTRA or intra E-UTRA handover, initiate the RRC Criterion for successful completion of connection rehandover to EUTRA or cell change order is establishment T304 met (the criterion is specified in the target procedure; In case RAT in case of inter-RAT) of handover to Ereception of UTRA, perform MobilityFromEUTRACommand message the actions including CellChangeOrder defined in the specifications applicable for the source RAT.

Access barred while performing RRC T305 connection establishment for mobile originating signalling

Upon entering RRC_CONNECTED and upon cell re-selection

Inform upper layers If security is not activated: go to RRC_IDLE else: initiate the connection reestablishment procedure Enter RRC_IDLE

Upon receiving N311 consecutive in-sync Upon detecting physical layer problems indications from lower layers, upon T310 i.e. upon receiving N310 consecutive out- triggering the handover procedure and of-sync indications from lower layers upon initiating the connection reestablishment procedure Upon initiating the RRC connection reestablishment procedure Selection of a suitable E-UTRA cell or a cell using another RAT.

T311

Upon receiving t320 or upon cell (re)selection to E-UTRA from another T320 RAT with validity time configured for dedicated priorities (in which case the remaining validity time is applied).

Discard the cell Upon entering RRC_CONNECTED, when reselection priority PLMN selection is performed on request by information NAS, or upon cell (re)selection to another provided by RAT (in which case the timer is carried on dedicated to the other RAT). signalling. Initiate the measurement reporting Upon acquiring the information needed to procedure, stop set all fields of cellGlobalId for the performing the requested cell, upon receiving measConfig related that includes removal of the reportConfig measurements with the purpose set to reportCGI and remove the corresponding measId

Upon receiving measConfig including a T321 reportConfig with the purpose set to reportCGI

LTE UE Constants:

Constant N310 N311

Usage Maximum number of consecutive "out-of-sync" indications received from lower layers. Value in whole number Maximum number of consecutive "in-sync" indications received from lower layers. Value in whole number

Radio Link Failure in LTE

Triggering points of RLF


upon indication from RLC that the maximum number of re transmissions has been reached upon expiry of Timer T310 (this timer is started when physical layer problems are detected i.e. upon receiving N310 consecutive out-of-sync indications from lower layers) upon random access problem indication from MAC while neither T300, T301, T304 nor T311 is running

Actions when RLF is detected


UE shall initiate RRC Connection Re-establishment procedure. (click here to know about the RRC CONNECTION REESTABLISHMENT procedure in detail)

if AS security has not been activated then inform upper layers about the release of RRC connection with release cause 'other'

In-sync Indications (N311) received: 1. UE will stop T310 2. UE maintains the RRC connection (no configurations are changed)

N311 is triggered when in-sync indications are received. Once when the condition of N311 is fulfilled, UE won't go for RLF. Upon expiry of this constant, UE will UE maintains the entire radio resource configuration

Timers and constants used in RLF: T301 T310 Transmission of RRCConnectionReestabilshmentRequest Upon detecting physical layer problems i.e. upon receiving N310 consecutive out-of-sync indications from lower layers Upon initiating the RRC connection re-establishment procedure Maximum number of consecutive "out-of-sync" indications received from lower layers Maximum number of consecutive "in-sync" indications received from lower layers

T311

N310 (constant)

N311 (constant)

RRC Connection Re-establishment in LTE

Query_1: Why RRCConnectionReestablishment is needed?


This procedure is needed in order to re-establish RRC Connection. Also, it helps to re-establish the SRB1 operation and reactivate the Security algorithms (the security algorithms doesn't change) This procedure is successful only when eNBl has a valid UE context. If eNB doesn't have the UE context then UE moves to RRC_IDLE state

Query_2: When RRCConnectionReestablishment is triggered? 1. This procedure is triggered when any of the following conditions are met:
upon detecting radio link failure (To know more about RLF, click here) upon handover failure upon mobility from E-UTRA failure (To know more about Mobility from EUTRA failure, click here) upon integrity check failure indication from lower layers upon an RRC connection reconfiguration failure (To know more about Reconf failure, click here)

2. Also, an important point is that this procedure is triggered only when AS security has been activated, otherwise, UE doesn't initiate this procedure and moves to RRC_IDLE state

Query_3: What happens when RRCConnectionReestablishment procedure is triggered? Once, UE enters any of the state as mentioned in "Query_2", it will initiate the RRCConnectionReestablishment procedure. This procedure will perform the following steps:
stop timer T310, if running (This timer is started when the UE detects consecutive out-of-sync indications from lower layers -related to N310 constant-). This will be a case of RADIO LINK FAILURE start timer T311 (This timer is started when UE initiates the RRC connection re-establishment procedure) suspend all RBs except SRB0 (SRB0 is needed in order to transmit the RRC connection re-establishment message; and this procedure is needed to re-establish SRB1 operatation) reset MAC (removed the already applied MAC configurations) apply the default physical channel configuration apply the default semi-persistent scheduling configuration apply the default MAC main configuration release reportProximityConfig and clear any associated proximity status reporting timer perform cell selection in accordance with the cell selection process

Query_4. What does UE includes in RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest message?

include the ue-Identity "c-RNTI" as used in the Scell include the PHY Cell ID of the source cell include the ue-Identity "c-RNTI" as used in the Scell include the shortMAC-I for Security algorithms include the reason of the reestablishmentCause as 'reconfigurationFailure' OR 'handoverFailure' OR 'otherFailure'

Important TIP: Now, UE RRC constructs this message and passes it to lower layers for transmission. Here, Random Access procedure will be triggered to send the RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest message. Note that the contention resolution of the RA procedure will be PDCCH order based on C-RNTI.

Query_5. What happens when RRCConnectionReestablishment is received by the UE?


stop timer T301 (This timer is started when UE sends the RRCConnectionReestabilshmentRequest) re-establish PDCP for SRB1 re-establish RLC for SRB1 perform the radio resource configuration procedure in accordance with the received radioResourceConfigDedicated resume SRB1 generate security keys as specified by nextHopChainingCount IE submit the RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete message to lower layers for transmission

Important Points: eNB should not transmit any message on SRB1 prior to receiving the RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete message UE shall configure lower layers to activate ciphering and integrity protection, and UE should apply ciphering and integrity protection to all subsequent messages received and sent by the UE UE shall use Security algorithms while transmitting the RRCConnectionReestablishmentComplete msg.

Query_6. Which Channels are used for RRCConnectionReestablishment procedure?

1. The following messages a. RRCConnectionReestablishment b. RRCConnectionReestablishmentRequest and, c. RRCConnectionReestablishmentReject will use the following:
Signalling radio bearer: SRB0 RLC-SAP: TM Logical channel: CCCH

2. RRC ConnectionReestablishmentComplete will use the following:

Signalling radio bearer: SRB1


RLC-SAP: AM Logical channel: DCCH

LTE Measurement Report Trigger (EVENT for Measurement Report) One of the most important step for Handover is Measurement Report from UE before the handover. Network make a decision on whether it will let UE handover or not, based on the measurement value from UE. There are many different measurement items and many different ways to measure the signal quality of the current cell (serving cell) and target cell. Ideally a network let UE to report the signal quality (usually RSRP) of the current cell (serving cell) and target cell and set the arbitrary rule for handover. But this can be too complicated and too much load on network since the network may need a multiple times of consecutive measurement result in stead of using only a single or a couple of measured signal quality value (Can you think of why only one or a couple of signal quality measurement (RSRP) would not be a good enough for this kind of decision making ?).

As a kind of solution, 3GPP defines several set of predefined set of measurement report mechanism to be performed by UE. These predefined measurement report type is called "Event". What kind of "event" a UE has to report is specified by RRC Connection Reconfiguration message as follows (shown in red). +-rrcConnectionReconfiguration ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionReconfiguration-r8] +-rrcConnectionReconfiguration-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [100000] +-measConfig ::= SEQUENCE [01010111111] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-measObjectToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-measObjectToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | | +-MeasObjectToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-measObjectId ::= INTEGER (1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | | +-measObject ::= CHOICE [measObjectEUTRA] | | +-measObjectEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE [100000] | | +-carrierFreq ::= INTEGER (0..maxEARFCN[65535]) [6300] | | +-allowedMeasBandwidth ::= ENUMERATED [mbw25] | | +-presenceAntennaPort1 ::= BOOLEAN [FALSE] | | +-neighCellConfig ::= BIT STRING SIZE(2) [01] | | +-offsetFreq ::= ENUMERATED [dB0] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-cellsToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-cellsToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-blackCellsToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-blackCellsToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-cellForWhichToReportCGI ::= INTEGER OPTIONAL:Omit | +-reportConfigToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-reportConfigToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | | +-ReportConfigToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-reportConfigId ::= INTEGER (1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | | +-reportConfig ::= CHOICE [reportConfigEUTRA] | | +-reportConfigEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE | | +-triggerType ::= CHOICE [event] | | | +-event ::= SEQUENCE | | | +-eventId ::= CHOICE [eventA3] | | | | +-eventA3 ::= SEQUENCE | | | | +-a3-Offset ::= INTEGER (-30..30) [0] | | | | +-reportOnLeave ::= BOOLEAN [FALSE] | | | +-hysteresis ::= INTEGER (0..30) [0] | | | +-timeToTrigger ::= ENUMERATED [ms640] | | +-triggerQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [rsrp] | | +-reportQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [both] | | +-maxReportCells ::= INTEGER (1..maxCellReport[8]) [1] | | +-reportInterval ::= ENUMERATED [ms1024] | | +-reportAmount ::= ENUMERATED [r1]

Brief description you can find from 3GPP 36.331 5.5.4 Measurement report triggering is as follows. You will see pretty complicated description of the exact procedure of each of these events, but if you convert those descriptions into a graphical format it would be much easier/intuitive to understand the nature of these events. (http://www.slideshare.net/Leliwa/ltemeasurement-events-4095274 did an excellent job for you). Event Type Event A1 Event A2 Event A3 Event A4 Event A5 Event B1 Event B2 Serving becomes better than threshold Serving becomes worse than threshold Neighbour becomes offset better than serving Neighbour becomes better than threshold Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and neighbour becomes better than threshold2 Inter RAT neighbour becomes better than threshold Serving becomes worse than threshold1 and inter RAT neighbour becomes better than threshold2 Description

Measurement GAP Before the handover, UE normally measure the cell power (signal quality) of the target cell and report it to the network, so that network can make a decision whether to allow UE to handover to the target cell or not. It is not a big issue to measure the signal quality of the target cell if the target cell is at the same frequency as the current cell (Intrafrequency measurement). But there would be an issue when the target cell is at a different frequency from the current cell (Interfrequency measurement). Just in terms of logical sense of view, the simplest solution for Interfrequency measurement, the simplest solution for this would be to implement two RF tranciever on UE. However, there are some practical problems with this kind of two tranciever solution. One of the problems is cost issue. It would require additional cost to implement the additional tranciever. The other problem would be the possible interference between the current frequency and target frequency especially when the current frequency and target frequency are close to each other. So they come out with a special techique called "Measurement GAP". This is the same concept as "Compressed Mode" in UMTS. The idea of the Measurement GAP is to create a small gap during which no transmission and reception happens. since there is no signal transmission and reception during the gap, UE can switch to the target cell and perform the signal quality measurement and come back to the current cell. To make this work seamlessly, there should be a well established agreement between UE and Network about the gap definition (e.g, Starting Position of the Gap, Gap length, number of Gaps etc) and this agreement is established by MeasGapConfig IE of RRC Connection Reconfiguration message. If you see this part, RRC

contents is small but you need to go through several steps as follows to fully understand the implementation of the measurement GAP. (The spreadsheet shown at the bottom is here. Let me know if you find any problem with this spreadsheet).

One of the complications about the measurement GAP would be how to schedule data transmission around the gap. Situation would be more complicated than you may think because we have to think about not only the data transmission itself, but also the scheduling grant and ACK/NACK transmission. One of possible scheduling example around measurement gap is as follows.

Layer 3 Filtering for Measurement Report To be honest, I've never paid attention to this parameter before, but lately I heard an apisode of a serious field problem (too frequent handover failure) which was caused by a wrong implementation of this filter. It is the motivation for me to look into this parameter. It is about the parameter for Layer 3 filtering for the measurement report value which is specified in rrcConnectionReconfiguration as specified below (in blue) +-rrcConnectionReconfiguration-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [100000] +-measConfig ::= SEQUENCE [01010111111] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-measObjectToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-measObjectToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | | +-MeasObjectToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-measObjectId ::= INTEGER (1..maxObjectId[32]) [1]

| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| +-measObject ::= CHOICE [measObjectEUTRA] +-reportConfigToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit +-reportConfigToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | +-ReportConfigToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | +-reportConfigId ::= INTEGER (1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | +-reportConfig ::= CHOICE [reportConfigEUTRA] | +-reportConfigEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE | +-triggerType ::= CHOICE [event] | | +-event ::= SEQUENCE | | +-eventId ::= CHOICE [eventA3] | | | +-eventA3 ::= SEQUENCE | | | +-a3-Offset ::= INTEGER (-30..30) [0] | | | +-reportOnLeave ::= BOOLEAN [FALSE] | | +-hysteresis ::= INTEGER (0..30) [0] | | +-timeToTrigger ::= ENUMERATED [ms640] | +-triggerQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [rsrp] | +-reportQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [both] | +-maxReportCells ::= INTEGER (1..maxCellReport[8]) [1] | +-reportInterval ::= ENUMERATED [ms1024] | +-reportAmount ::= ENUMERATED [r1] +-measIdToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit +-measIdToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxMeasId[32]) [1] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-MeasIdToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | +-measId ::= INTEGER (1..maxMeasId[32]) [1] | +-measObjectId ::= INTEGER (1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | +-reportConfigId ::= INTEGER (1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] +-quantityConfig ::= SEQUENCE [1111] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-quantityConfigEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE [11] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-filterCoefficientRSRP ::= ENUMERATED [fc0] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-filterCoefficientRSRQ ::= ENUMERATED [fc0] OPTIONAL:Exist

fc0 in filterCoefficientRSRP IE means "Do not apply Layer 3 filter and report the raw measured data". If filterCoefficientRSRP use a value other than fc0, it means "Apply Layer 3 filter with the specified the coefficient". The filter function and the meaning of each parameter is defined in 3GPP 36.331 5.5.3.2 Layer 3 filtering as follows.

Measurement with CGI report There is a special type of Measurement Report. Normally Measurement Control/Report is for detecting the signal strength of the target cell, but CGI report is not for measuring the signal strength. It is to detect the Cell ID. It is not a simple cell ID, it is to measure CGI (Cell Global Identity) which uniquely identifies a cell in the whole world. For a ordinary measurement report, UE only have to switch its tuner to target cell and measure the signal strength and it does not have to decode any MIB, SIB of the target cell. It would take very short time to measure the signal strength. But it is different story in case of CGI. CGI is made up of PLMN + LAC + Cell ID. It means UE has to decode MIB/SIBs of the target cell. Decoding MIB/SIB is not a big issue if it is in idle mode, but the problem is that measurement control/report should happen in Connected Mode. Measurement GAP in LTE would not give enough time for UE to decode MIB/SIBs of the target cell. Then how can we give UE enough time to measure MIB/SIBs of target cell in connected mode. You can use DRX for this. Using DRX, you can give UE time long enough to measure MIB/SIBs of target cell. One think you have to be careful about DRX is that you have to make it sure that network should not send any data or UL Grant during the drx cycle. In case of measurement gap, measurement gap has high priority than data transmission/reception, but in DRX data transmission or handling UL grant has higher priority than DRX. It means if UE has any DL data or UL Grant during onTime of DRX cycle it does not goes into OFF period for a certain duration. If network keep sending data or UL grant during the DRX cycle (see DRX page for details), UE can never gets into OFF period meaning it cannot have time to switch to target cell for CGI detection. In this case, UE would still send Measurement Report but cgi-info field would be missing in the report.

Following is one example of RRC Connection Reconfiguration for CGI Report measurement control. See if my description above is properly reflecting the real message. For the details of this message, refer to following tables from 36.521-1. Table 8.3.3.2.3.3-7: RRCConnectionReconfiguration (step 5, Table 8.3.3.2.3.2-2) Table 8.3.3.2.3.3-8 MeasConfig (step 5, Table 8.3.3.2.3.2-2) Table 8.3.3.2.3.3-9: MeasObjectUTRA-CGI (step 5, Table 8.3.3.2.3.2-2) Table 8.3.3.2.3.3-10: ReportConfigUTRA-CGI (step 5, Table 8.3.3.2.3.2-2) Table 8.3.3.2.3.3-11: RadioResourceConfigDedicated-DRX (step 5, Table 8.3.3.2.3.2-2)

Following is one example of Measurement Report that UE reported.

Examples of Measurement - Measuring RSRP, RSRQ for current Cell Following is an example for RRC Connection Reconfiguration (Measurement) for the current cell (Serving Cell). You would notice that we don't need to configure anything about MeasurementGap since UE does not have to jump to other frequencies for the measurement.
+-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionReconfiguration] +-rrcConnectionReconfiguration ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionReconfiguration-r8] +-rrcConnectionReconfiguration-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [100000] +-measConfig ::= SEQUENCE [01010110000] OPTIONAL:Exist

| +-measObjectToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-measObjectToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-MeasObjectToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-measObjectId ::= INTEGER (1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | | +-measObject ::= CHOICE [measObjectEUTRA] | | +-measObjectEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE [001000] | | +-carrierFreq ::= INTEGER (0..maxEARFCN[65535]) [2175] | | +-allowedMeasBandwidth ::= ENUMERATED [mbw50] | | +-presenceAntennaPort1 ::= BOOLEAN [FALSE] | | +-neighCellConfig ::= BIT STRING SIZE(2) [00] | | +-offsetFreq ::= ENUMERATED OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-cellsToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-cellsToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxCellMeas[32]) [1] OPTIONAL:Exist | | | +-CellsToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | | +-cellIndex ::= INTEGER (1..maxCellMeas[32]) [1] | | | +-physCellId ::= INTEGER (0..503) [0] | | | +-cellIndividualOffset ::= ENUMERATED [dB-24] | | +-blackCellsToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-blackCellsToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-cellForWhichToReportCGI ::= INTEGER OPTIONAL:Omit | +-reportConfigToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-reportConfigToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-ReportConfigToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-reportConfigId ::= INTEGER (1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | | +-reportConfig ::= CHOICE [reportConfigEUTRA] | | +-reportConfigEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE | | +-triggerType ::= CHOICE [periodical] | | | +-periodical ::= SEQUENCE | | | +-purpose ::= ENUMERATED [reportStrongestCells] | | +-triggerQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [rsrp] | | +-reportQuantity ::= ENUMERATED [both] | | +-maxReportCells ::= INTEGER (1..maxCellReport[8]) [1] | | +-reportInterval ::= ENUMERATED [ms480] | | +-reportAmount ::= ENUMERATED [infinity] | +-measIdToRemoveList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit | +-measIdToAddModList ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxMeasId[32]) [1] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-MeasIdToAddMod ::= SEQUENCE | | +-measId ::= INTEGER (1..maxMeasId[32]) [1] | | +-measObjectId ::= INTEGER (1..maxObjectId[32]) [1] | | +-reportConfigId ::= INTEGER (1..maxReportConfigId[32]) [1] | +-quantityConfig ::= SEQUENCE [1000] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-quantityConfigEUTRA ::= SEQUENCE [11] OPTIONAL:Exist | | | +-filterCoefficientRSRP ::= ENUMERATED [fc4] OPTIONAL:Exist | | | +-filterCoefficientRSRQ ::= ENUMERATED [fc4] OPTIONAL:Exist | | +-quantityConfigUTRA ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-quantityConfigGERAN ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit | | +-quantityConfigCDMA2000 ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit | +-measGapConfig ::= CHOICE OPTIONAL:Omit | +-s-Measure ::= INTEGER OPTIONAL:Omit | +-preRegistrationInfoHRPD ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit | +-speedStatePars ::= CHOICE OPTIONAL:Omit +-mobilityControlInfo ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

+-dedicatedInfoNASList ::= SEQUENCE OF OPTIONAL:Omit +-radioResourceConfigDedicated ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit +-securityConfigHO ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

An example of Measurement Report for the measurement configuration specified above is as follows.
+-c1 ::= CHOICE [measurementReport] +-measurementReport ::= SEQUENCE +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [measurementReport-r8] +-measurementReport-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [0] +-measResults ::= SEQUENCE [0] | +-measId ::= INTEGER (1..maxMeasId[32]) [1] | +-measResultServCell ::= SEQUENCE | | +-rsrpResult ::= INTEGER (0..97) [52] | | +-rsrqResult ::= INTEGER (0..34) [18] | +-measResultNeighCells ::= CHOICE OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

Overview of CSFB (CS Fallback, LTE --> WCDMA) Before you go through this, I recommend you to read through CS Fallback section of LTE Quick Reference if you are totally new to the concept of CS Fallback. There are several variations in CS Fallback. i) Somebody make a voice call to you when you are in <Idle in LTE>. (CSFB is triggered by Paging message) ii) You make a voice call when you are in <Idle in LTE> iii) Somebody make a voice call to you while you are in <Connected Mode in LTE> and you switch to a legacy network by Redirection. iv) Somebody make a voice call to you while you are in <Connected Mode in LTE> and you switch to a legacy network by Handover. v) You make a voice call when you are in <Connected Mode in LTE> and you switch to a legacy network by Redirection. vi) You make a voice call when you are in <Connected Mode in LTE> and you switch to a legacy network by Handover. Following is an example of CS Fallback from LTE to WCDMA Voice Call. You will get some detailed information that was not posted in the Quick Reference Page. (This is for case iii) listed above) Step 1 Direction UE <---> SS < Power On > Message Target Cell Cell 1 Memo

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

UE <---> SS UE ---> SS UE <--- SS UE ---> SS UE <---> SS UE ---> SS UE <--- SS UE ---> SS UE <---> SS SS UE <--- SS UE ---> SS UE <--- SS UE <---> SS UE ---> SS UE <---> SS UE <---> SS

< PRACH and RACH Response > RRC Connection Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete + Attach Request + PDN Conn Req < NAS : Security Mode Establishment > < RRC : Security Mode Establishment > RRC Connection Reconfiguration + Attach Accept + ... RRCConnectionReconfigurationComplete / Attach Complete / ... < Packet Data Transaction > LTE Network Gets CS Notification from WCDMA NW CS Service Notification with Paging Identity Extended Service Request RRC Connection Release with Redirected Carrier Info < RRC Connection Setup with cause of terminatingConversationCall > Routing Area Update Request < Authentication > < Voice Call Setup >

Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1

Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 2 Cell 2

One important thing to notice is that 'EPS/IMSI combined Attach' process should be properly completed during the attach process (Step 3 ~ 9).

If I decribe the combined attach process including core network activity, it goes as follows. i) UE send the Attach Request to MME. In this message, the attach type should be 'EPS/IMSI Combined Attach' and this means that UE is capable and configured to use CS fallback. If UE support SMS only in CS domain and does not support CSFB, UE have to indicate 'SMS-only'. ii) MME allocate a default LAI and derives the VLR number based on the allocated LAI and IMSI. iii) MME sends a Location Update Request message to VLR. This Location Update Request message contains new LAI, IMSI, MME IP, Location Update Type etc. iv) The VLR stores the MME address v) The VLR performs Location Updating procedure in CS domain

vi) The VLR sends Location Update Accept with TMSI to the MME vii) The MME send Attach Accept carrying LAI and TMSI. The existence of LAI and TMSI in the Attach Accept message indicates successful attach to CS domain.

Followings are the two messages that triggers CSFB process. < CS Service Notification >
+-c1 ::= CHOICE [dlInformationTransfer] +-dlInformationTransfer ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [dlInformationTransfer-r8] +-dlInformationTransfer-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [0] +-dedicatedInfoType ::= CHOICE [dedicatedInfoNAS] | +-dedicatedInfoNAS ::= OCTET STRING SIZE(ALIGNED) [270DCBC04504076401] +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit CS service notification ::= DIVISION +-Security header type ::= V | +-Security header type ::= CHOICE [Plain NAS message, not security protected] +-EPS mobility management protocol discriminator ::= V | +-Protocol discriminator ::= PD [7] +-CS service notification message identity ::= V | +-Message type ::= MSG [64] +-Paging identity ::= V | +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | +-spare ::= FIX [0] | +-Paging identity value ::= CHOICE [TMSI] +-CLI ::= TLV OPTIONAL:Omit | +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | | +-CLI IEI ::= IEI [60] | +-Octet2 ::= DIVISION | | +-Length of CLI ::= LEN (0..255) [0] | +-Octet3 ::= DIVISION | | +-ext ::= EXT (0..1) [1] | | +-type of number ::= INT (0..7) [0] | | +-Numbering plan identification ::= INT (0..15) [0] | +-Octet3a ::= DIVISION | | +-ext ::= EXT1 [1] | | +-presentation indicator ::= CHOICE [Presentation allowed] | | +-spare ::= FIX [0] | | +-screening indicator ::= CHOICE [User-provided, not screened] | +-Octet4-12 ::= DIVISION | +-Number digit ::= DIGIT SIZE(0..10) +-SS Code ::= TV OPTIONAL:Omit

| +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | | +-SS Code IEI ::= IEI [61] | +-Octet2 ::= DIVISION | +-SS Code value ::= CHOICE [allSS] +-LCS indicator ::= TV OPTIONAL:Omit | +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | | +-LCS indicator IEI ::= IEI [62] | +-Octet2 ::= DIVISION | +-LCS indicator value ::= CHOICE [MT-LR] +-LCS client identity ::= TLV OPTIONAL:Omit +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | +-LCS client identity IEI ::= IEI [63] +-Octet2 ::= DIVISION | +-Length of LCS client identity ::= LEN (0..255) [0] +-Octet3- ::= DIVISION +-LCS client identity(value part) ::= OCTETARRAY SIZE(0..255) [00]

< Extended Service Request >


+-c1 ::= CHOICE [ulInformationTransfer] +-ulInformationTransfer ::= SEQUENCE +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [ulInformationTransfer-r8] +-ulInformationTransfer-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [0] +-dedicatedInfoType ::= CHOICE [dedicatedInfoNAS] | +-dedicatedInfoNAS ::= OCTET STRING SIZE(ALIGNED) [274D83AB1F04074C0105F400000001B1] +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit NAS_LTE:EMM,Extended service request Extended service request ::= DIVISION +-Security header type ::= V | +-Security header type ::= CHOICE [Plain NAS message, not security protected] +-EPS mobility management protocol discriminator ::= V | +-Protocol discriminator ::= PD [7] +-Extended service request message identity ::= V | +-Message type ::= MSG [4C] +-NAS key set identifier ::= V | +-TSC ::= CHOICE [native security context (for KSI ASME)] | +-NAS key set identifier ::= CHOICE [possible values for the NAS key set identifier 0] +-Service type ::= V | +-Service type value ::= CHOICE [mobile terminating CS fallback or 1xCS fallback] +-M-TMSI ::= LV | +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION | | +-Length of mobile identity contents ::= LEN (0..255) [5] | +-Octet2 ::= DIVISION | | +-Identity digit 1 ::= INT (0..15) [15] | | +-Odd/even indication ::= CHOICE [even number of identity digits and also when the TMSI/P-TMSI is used] | | +-Type of identity ::= CHOICE [TMSI/P-TMSI/M-TMSI] | +-Octet3-Octet6 ::= DIVISION | +-Identity digit p ::= OCTETARRAY SIZE(0..4) [00000001]

+-CSFB response ::= TV OPTIONAL:Exist +-Octet1 ::= DIVISION +-CSFB response IEI ::= IEI [B-] +-spare ::= FIX [0] +-CSFB response value ::= CHOICE [CS fallback accepted by the UE]

One of the important steps of CSFB is to optimize 'RRC Release' message from LTE network. (This is step 14 in the example sequence of this section). This is important step because the time delay (Redirection Delay) between LTE RRC Release and UMTS PRACH may vary depending on how much detailed information that this message carries. As far as I experienced, there may be several different types of RRC Release message as shown below (These are only examples) < RRC Connection Release - Release 8> DL-DCCH-Message ::= SEQUENCE +-message ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease] +-rrcConnectionRelease ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease-r8] +-rrcConnectionRelease-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [100] +-releaseCause ::= ENUMERATED [other] +-redirectedCarrierInfo ::= CHOICE [utra-FDD] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-utra-FDD ::= INTEGER (0..16383) [9900] +-idleModeMobilityControlInfo ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

< RRC Connection Release - Release 9 with PCI only and No BCCH Information > DL-DCCH-Message ::= SEQUENCE +-message ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease] +-rrcConnectionRelease ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease-r8] +-rrcConnectionRelease-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [101] +-releaseCause ::= ENUMERATED [other] +-redirectedCarrierInfo ::= CHOICE [utra-FDD] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-utra-FDD ::= INTEGER (0..16383) [9900] +-idleModeMobilityControlInfo ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE [01] OPTIONAL:Exist +-lateNonCriticalExtension ::= OCTET STRING OPTIONAL:Omit

+-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE [10] OPTIONAL:Exist +-cellInfoList-r9 ::= CHOICE [utra-FDD-r9] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-utra-FDD-r9 ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxCellInfoUTRA-r9[16]) [1] | +-CellInfoUTRA-FDD-r9 ::= SEQUENCE | +-physCellId-r9 ::= INTEGER (0..511) [202] | +-utra-BCCH-Container-r9 ::= OCTET STRING SIZE(ALIGNED) +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

< RRC Connection Release - Release 9 with PCI and BCCH Information > DL-DCCH-Message ::= SEQUENCE +-message ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease] +-rrcConnectionRelease ::= SEQUENCE +-rrc-TransactionIdentifier ::= INTEGER (0..3) [0] +-criticalExtensions ::= CHOICE [c1] +-c1 ::= CHOICE [rrcConnectionRelease-r8] +-rrcConnectionRelease-r8 ::= SEQUENCE [101] +-releaseCause ::= ENUMERATED [loadBalancingTAUrequired] +-redirectedCarrierInfo ::= CHOICE [utra-FDD] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-utra-FDD ::= INTEGER (0..16383) [9900] +-idleModeMobilityControlInfo ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE [01] OPTIONAL:Exist +-lateNonCriticalExtension ::= OCTET STRING OPTIONAL:Omit +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE [10] OPTIONAL:Exist +-cellInfoList-r9 ::= CHOICE [utra-FDD-r9] OPTIONAL:Exist | +-utra-FDD-r9 ::= SEQUENCE OF SIZE(1..maxCellInfoUTRA-r9[16]) [1] | +-CellInfoUTRA-FDD-r9 ::= SEQUENCE | +-physCellId-r9 ::= INTEGER (0..511) [9] | +-utra-BCCH-Container-r9 ::= OCTET STRING SIZE(ALIGNED) [285084403C...00] +-nonCriticalExtension ::= SEQUENCE OPTIONAL:Omit

A1/A2 are only used to indicate to the network if the UEi is receiving decent power levels or not. They cannot be used to trigger a handover. They do not monitor the power levels of the neighbour cells. A1 -> Serving becomes better than threshold A2 -> Serving becomes worse than threshold A3 -> Neighbour becomes offset better than serving A4 -> Neighbour becomes better than threshold

A5 -> Neighbour becomes better than threshold and serving becomes worse than threshold. A2 triggering A3/A4/A5 Configuration may be to focus only on the UE whose power levels are deteriorating. As these are event based measurements, network would want to use up the battery life of the UE by unwantedly telling it to monitor for the event conditions of A3/A4/A5 even though they are receiving good power levels.
Event A3 - Neighbor becomes offset better than serving Event A5 - Serving becomes worse than threshold1 & neighbor becomes better than threshold2 In bad coverage conditions, Event A5 makes sure that the target cell is better than a certain value of RSRP. For Event A3, you can't regulate the target's absolute value. Its value is relative to the serving cell. For the sake of explanation, let's assume that the A3 parameters are set up such that the neighbor needs to be 5dB better than the serving & for A5, threshold1 = -100 dBm & threshold2 = -95 For event A3, when the serving is at -105 dBm. In this case the target cell has to be -100 dBm or stronger. Similarly if the UE reaches poor coverage, it could still HO to a cell with weak coverage as long as the target is 5dB stronger than the serving. But the parameters for A5 define the minimum level for the target cell. So in bad coverage conditions, the UE is forced to look for a target stronger than threshold2. The threshold values will need to be optimized for the region they are being applied to. What does UE extract from PBCH? PBCH contains basic system parameters necessary to demodulate the PDSCH,this implicitly tells the UE about the eNode-B antenna configuration. What does UE get from tuning to PSS?

UE detects physical layer identity from PSS and physical layer cell identity group from SSS. Assuming physical layer identity = 1 and cell identity group=2 then the PCI for given cell is PCI = 3*(Physical layer cell identity group)+ physical layer identity = 3*2+1 = 7

Once UE knows the PCI for a given cell, it also knows the location of cell Reference signals as shown in figure (red and black squares). Reference signals are used in channel estimation, cell selection / reselection and handover procedures.
what does UE get in PCCH? This control channel is used for paging information when searching a unit on a network.
i) MIB is transmitted at a fixed cycles (every 4 frames starting from SFN 0) ii) SIB1 is also transmitted at the fixed cycles (every 8 frames starting from SFN 0). iii) All other SIB are being transmitted at the cycles specified by SIB scheduling information elements in SIB1

Where is MIB and SIB1 mapped in frame? This all MIB and SIBs are part of BCCH (logical channel), but MIB is transmitted on PBCH and rest on the PDSCH channel. The reason being that in LTE, all the data which is not mandatory for a UE to access the cell will be sent on Data channel. This way MIB is the message containing only mandatory information to start decoding the PDCCH and hence PDSCH to get the other information. Another reason for this is that with this approach (provides the flexibility), you need not to reserve a specific area of the LTE bandwidth for other SIBs as it is needed for MIB. Those can be scheduled anywhere in the whole spectrum. Both MIBs and SIBs are mapped to BCH transport channels(BCCH -> BCH -> PBCH). and SRBs(1,2) and DRBS are mapped to DL-SCH and UL-SCH, since they can be different for different UEs The MIB is mapped to BCCH logical channel and then carried on BCH, while all other types of SI messages are mapped on the BCCH and then dynamically carried on DL-SCH where they can be identified through the SI-RNTI (SystemInformationRNTI). Both the MIB and SIB1 use a fixed schedule with a periodicity of 40ms and 80 ms respectively while the scheduling of other SI messages is flexible and indicated through SIB1. The eNB may schedule DL-SCH transmissions concerning logical channels other than BCCH in the same subframe as used for BCCH. The minimum UEcapability restricts the BCCH mapped to DL-SCH e.g.regarding the maximum rate. This all MIB and SIBs are part of BCCH (logical channel), but MIB is transmitted on PBCH and rest on the PDSCH channel. The reason being that in LTE, all the data which is not mandatory for a UE to access the cell will be sent on Data channel. This way MIB is the message containing only mandatory information to start decoding the PDCCH and hence PDSCH

to get the other information. Another reason for this is that with this approach (provides the flexibility), you need not to reserve a specific area of the LTE bandwidth for other SIBs as it is needed for MIB. Those can be scheduled anywhere in the whole spectrum. What is Hybrid cell? Hybrid cell is such type of cell which acts as CSG for priority customers and as open access for non priority customers. After reading SI (System Information), what is the action by UE before Cell Selection? How does it get the input?
Information that UE needs to get: Frequency and Timing Synchronization info, System Bandwidth, Number of MIMO Antennas, Identities (C-RNTI, Physical Cell ID, Tracking Area Code), Network PLMN, Signaling & Traffic Radio Resouce, RACH_ROOT_SEQUENCE & PRACH Config. i) Frequency Aquisition ii) Primary Sync Signal Aquisition (Slot Timing Aquired, Secondary Sync Signal Scrambling Code Aquired) iii) Secondary Sync Signal Aquisition (Frame timing Aquired, Cell Group ID sequence aquired) iv) with PSS and SSS, Cell ID can be calculated v) with Cell ID, Reference Signal Location is detected vi) If Reference Signal Location is properly decoded, PBCH (MIB) can be detected vii) From MIB, SFN and System BW can be detected viii) Decode PCFICH and detect how many symbols are allocated for PDCCH. ix) Decode DCI for SIB1 from PDCCH x) Decode SIB1 and get the scheduling information for other SIBs xi) Decode SIBs (other than SIB1)

What is the "S" criteria. Specify the minimum value for candidate Cell.

What is "R" Criteria. What is relation Q_hyst, Q_qualmin, & Q_rxlevmin.

Cell Selection Criteria In order for a cell to be a candidate for a suitable or acceptable cell, the criteria needed to be satisfied is Srxlev > 0 where Srxlev = Qrxmeasured Qrxlevmin Qrxlevminoffset Pcomposition where: Srxlev Cell Selection RX level value (dB) Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density the quality. Gives the quality of the cell and is reported from physical layer Qrxlevmeas Measured cell RX level value i.e. Received Signal Received Power (RSRP). This measured value is the linear average over the power of the resource elements that carry the cell-specific reference signals over the considered measurement bandwidth. Qrxlevmin Minimum required RX level in the cell (dBm) Qrxlevminoffset It is an offset to Qrxlevmin that is only taken into account as a result of a periodic search for a higher priority PLMN while camped normally in a Visitor PLMN (VPLMN). This offset is based on information provided within SIB Type 1. The offset is defined to avoid ping-pong between different PLMN. If not available then Qrxlevminoffset is assumed to be 0dB. Pcompensation max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH-P_MAX,0) (dB) UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH Maximum TX power level UE may use when accessing the cell read in system information message. (dBm)

P_max Maximum RF output power of the UE (dBm). It is UE dependent value

Cell Reselection Criteria Cell reselection is performed on the basis of the ranking of the current and the neighboring cells. The ranking is performed on the basis of the following R values [3] Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts Rn = Qmeas,n Qoffsets,n What is a PF (Paging Frame) and PO (Paging Occasion)?