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Literature Review As stated in the article entitled, The effects of rape and sexual assault posted by Pathfinder on Feb

2, 2008. Many victims suffer from rape related (PTSD) Post Trauma Stress Disorder. The most common long term effects of rape and social assault are the invisible ones. Unpredictable and intense emotions are the immediate symptoms of rape trauma. Psychological effects of rape can be include PTSD and rape trauma syndrome in the long term. People mask these symptoms in order to get along with society. According to Jennifer McGrath(http://voices.yahoo.com/why-men-rape-psychological-

versus-sociological-3179564.html?cat=72) who graduated with a degree in psychology, have written Why Men Rape: The Psychological Versus Sociological View on May 20th 2009, could it be because of psychological illness or is it because of emotions? Psychologists agreed that rape is cause by some psychological illness when it comes to the offender, other psychologists really believes that rapists are emotionally disturbed, lack of personality, sexual addiction and sexual inadequacy. Sociologists agreed that offenders have no problems that are psychological, some of them say that rape is regarded as a behaviour that is not approved by other people and desire in the society that causes rape. Feminist say that rape is an impression which men rape women as an expression of male dominance as well as threatening women. Some explanations that may make people ponder over whether who is right or wrong. Trauma Intervention Programs, Inc. (http://www.tipnational.org/images/tRape_Reactions_of_the_Victim.pdf) has written about Rape: Reactions of the victims. First, sexual assault or rape can happen suddenly and it cannot be predicted when and where it will happen, it depends on different types of situations and circumstances. It threatens the life of the victim and gives a harsh and a long-term emotional trauma. There are two stages of the victims responses, the first is the initial reactions, and the victim will receive treatment under the hospital personnel care after the following assault. The second stage is the subsequent reactions, which is after the days and weeks of the victim getting discharged from the hospital, the victims will take time to regain their strength and appreciate the values there are in life. According to an article that was written by Devika Gupta whose article that entitle Can a rapist be reformed? the effect of rapist and the way to overcome it. Psychological imbalance by an individual will be one of the effects in it. But as researcher discovered, family

background would be the main reason an individual to be a rapist. In order to reduce this crime, some of the expert in psychology have classified rapist in four categories which are power-assertive rapist, anger-retaliatory rapist, rapist seeking power- reassurance and angerexcitation rapist.