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ENGINEERING CALCULUS 1 (MTH 1112)

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COMPLEX NUMBERS
The Real Number System,
i. Natural Numbers, = {1, 2, 3, 4, }
- Also called positive integers
- The first used in counting
ii. Negative Integers and Zero = {, -3, -2, -1, 0}
- Permit solutions of equations such as x b a + = where and are natural numbers
- Lead to the operation of subtraction and we write
- The set of positive and negative integers, and zero is called the set of integers
iii. Rational Numbers,
- Fractions such as
5 9
7 5
, etc.
- Permit solutions of equations such as bx a = , where , , 0
- Lead to the operation of division and we write
a
b
x = , a is the numerator andbis
the denominator
iv. Irrational Numbers
- Numbers that cannot be expressed as
a
b
where , , 0
- Example: 2 =1.41423 and =3.14159
The Complex Number System,
i. Set of complex numbers is introduced to permit solutions of equations of the type
2
1 0 x + = .
- Complex number, is written in the form where ,
- i is called the imaginary unit, having the property
- a is called the real part of , denoted by { ; Re z and is called the imaginary part
of z, denoted by { ; Im z
ii. If
1
z a bi = + and
2
z c di = + are two complex numbers, then
1 2
, z z a b c d = : = =
iii. Conjugate of , indicated by z or z
-
is z a bi =
- z is basically the reflection of z on the real axis
-
2 1 2 1
z z z z =
-
2 1 2 1
z z z z = and 0 ;
2
2
1
2
1
= =
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z
z
z
z
z
a b
x a b =
z z a bi = +
2
1 i =
z b
z a bi = +
ENGINEERING CALCULUS 1 (MTH 1112)
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iv. Fundamental operations of complex numbers. Consider
1
z a bi = + and
2
z c di = +
- addition & subtraction: , ) , ) , ) , )
1 2
z z a bi c di a c b d i = + = +
- multiplication: , ) , )
2
1 2
. z z ac adi bci bdi ab bd ad bc i = + + + = + +
- division:
, )
1
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
.
ac bd bc ad i z
a bi c di ab bd bc ad
z c di c di
c d c d c d
i
+ +
+ +
+
+ + +
= = = +
v. Absolute Value or Modulus of
is defined as
2 2
z a bi a b = + = +
-
1 2 1 2
z z z z =
-
1 1
2
2 2
, 0
z z
z
z z
= =
-
1 2 1 2
z z z z + s +
-
1 2 1 2
z z z z >
- z z = and z z =
-
2
z z z =
vi. Operational Principles
-
1 2 2 1
z z z z + = +
- , ) , )
1 2 3 1 2 3
z z z z z z + + = + +
-
1 2 2 1
z z z z =
- , )
1 2 3 1 2 1 3
z z z z z z z + = +
Example: = 2 + 3 ; = 6 2
vii. Graphical Representation
- Complex Plane or Argand Diagram or zplane
- x -axis as the real axis and y -axis as the imaginary axis
- A nonzero complex number iy x z + = can be associated by a directed line segment
or complex vector from the origin to the point , ) y x z , . Thus the modulus
2 2
y x z + = is geometrically the distance between the point , ) y x z , and the origin
or the length of the vector representing z .
viii. Polar Form
IfWis a point in the complex plane corresponding to, ) , x y or x yi + , then
cos , sin x r y r = = where
2 2
r x yi x y = + = + . Thus the polar form of
z x yi = + is , ) cos sin z r i rcis = + = where
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=

x
y
1
tan
- is called amplitude or argument of z(denoted arg z), measured counter
clockwise from the positive real axis ( x -axis)
z a bi = +
ENGINEERING CALCULUS 1 (MTH 1112)
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- s O < is called the principal range and the value Ois called principal value
of z arg denoted by z Arg
- , 2 , 1 , 0 ; 2 arg = + = n n z Arg z
ix. De Moivres Theorem
If , )
1 1 1 1
cos sin z r i = + and , )
2 2 2 2
cos sin z r i = + , it can be shown that
, ) , )
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
cos sin z z r r i = + + + (

, ) , )
1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
cos sin
z r
i
z r
= + (

Thus , ) cos sin
n n
z r n i n = + De Moivres Theorem
x. Eulers Formula or Exponential Form
- The polar form , ) sin cos i r z + = can be written more compactly in exponential
form as
i
re z = where
i
e or , ) i exp is defined by means of Eulers Formula as

sin cos i e
i
+ =
- For , ) y i y e e e e e
x iy x iy x z
sin cos + = = =
+
xi. Binomial formula remains valid with complex numbers,
, ) , )

=
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= +
n
k
k k n n
n z z
k
n
z z
0
2 1 2 1
, 2 , 1
where
, )
, ) n k
k n k
n
k
n
, , 2 , 1 , 0
! !
!
=

=
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References:
1. Spiegel, M. R., Theory and Problems of Complex Numbers (1981), Schaum
Outline Series, McGraw-Hill Book Company
2. Brown, J. W. and Churchill, R. V., Complex Variables and Applications, 7
th
Ed.
(2003), McGraw-Hill Book Company
ENGINEERING CALCULUS 1 (MTH 1112)
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Review Exercises:
1. Let =

a. Convert into
i. rectangular form +
ii. exponential form
b. Sketch onto Argands diagram
2. For = 1 + , determine

and

3. Convert (1 ) into polar form
4. Determine { }, { } and

of =
5. Find the real and imaginary parts of = exp ln(1 )
6. Convert | + | = 2 into Cartesian (rectangular) form and sketch
7. Write in polar form and sketch on complex plane
8. Interpret the geometric effect of multiplying a complex number by the complex
number .
9. Determine { } and { } of =