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Aero II Study Questions (LT Thompson in underline) CHAP 7 What is Maximum nduran!

e" Maximum endurance is the max amount of time an airplane can stay in the air with a given amount of fuel. Where does minimum #uel #lo$ o!!ur #or a tur%oprop" Minimum fuel flow occurs at minimum Pr for a turboprop, at a velocity less than L/D max and a higher angle of attack. What is the tor&ue settin' #or Min (uel (lo$ on a T)*+" !" ft#lbs of tor$ue.

What is Max ,an'e and $here is it #ound" Max range is the greatest distance over ground and is found at Pr L/D max and velocity What is the Max ,an'e tor&ue settin' on a T)*+" %!" ft lbs of tor$ue. What $ill head$inds and tail$inds do to Max ran'e per#orman!e- Will they ha.e an a##e!t on Max enduran!e" &eadwinds will decrease maximum range performance while tailwinds will increase max range performance. 'hey will have no affect on Max (ndurance. /es!ri%e An'le o# Clim% )ltitude gained per distance traveled. /es!ri%e ,ate o# Clim%0 )ltitude gained per time taken to get there. What does $ei'ht do to An'le o# Clim% and ,ate o# Clim%" *oth will decrease with an increase in +eight. What $ill a head$ind to the Max An'le o# Clim%" &eadwind will increase Max )ngle of ,limb. /o $inds a##e!t rate o# !lim% per#orman!e" -o As an airplane !lim%s and Pe de!reases1 rate o# !lim% $ill also de!rease What are the .alues #or the #ollo$in' !eilin's0 Com%at0 %"" fpm ,limb. Ser.i!e0 0"" fpm ,limb. A%solute Ceilin'0 " 1pm Cruise0 /"" fpm climb.

/es!ri%e Max 2lide ,an'e- What $ould you use it #or" What is the 3IAS o# Max 2lide ,an'e #or a T)*+" 2f you lose engine power and need to get to an airport, you may be able to fly the max glide range. 'his is directly related to 'e and will be at L/D max for any aircraft. 32)4 for '#/ is 56 32)4. What must you #ly at to minimi4e rate o# de!ent" 7ou need to fly at the min power deficit. Where is Max 2lide nduran!e on the Po$er Cur.e" )t a 8elocity less then L/D Max What $ill an in!rease in $ei'ht do to Max 2lide ,an'e and nduran!e" )n increase in weight will not affect max glide range. )n increase in weight will cause the airplane to fly and descend faster but it will still glide the same. What is the sin'le most important thin' you !an do in a tur%oprop to in!rease 'lide per#orman!e" 1eather your Prop9 What is more important then #eatherin' your prop" -ot running out of gas in the first place so you won:t have to glide.

/es!ri%e ,e.erse Command0 ;everse ,ommand is when you are on the left of the thrust and power re$uired curves. 'o slow down, you must increase power and increase )<) and to speed up you must decrease power and decrease )<). 3eep in mind that )ltitude remains constant. CHAPT , 5 What do Trim Ta%s do" 'hey reduce the force re$uired to hold control surfaces in place to maintain desired flight attitude. What dire!tion do they mo.e relati.e to !ontrol sur#a!es" 'rim 'abs must always be moved in the opposite direction as the control surfaces to reduce pressure. /es!ri%e Aileron Trim= )ileron trim is ad>usted >ust after takeoff and is then rarely ad>usted, 2n the '#/ only the left trim tab is moved, right one is set by maintenance. What is !ontrol %alan!in'" ,ontrol *alancing= )erodynamic center must be balanced around the hinge line in order to regulate control pressure, prevent control flutter and provide control free stability. What does the T)*+ use #or Aerodynami! 6alan!in'" '#/ uses shielded horns on the elevator and rudder and an overhang on the ailerons. What7ho$ is mass %alan!in' used on the T)*+0 1or the '#/ to locate ,enter of ?ravities on the hinge line, weights are placed inside the control surfaces in the area forward of the hinge line. 'his is called mass balancing. T)*+ uses !on.entional !ontrols1 a ser.o trim ta% on the aileron1 anti ser.o !ontrol on the rudder1 and 8eutral Trim Ta%s on the ele.atorWhat are /o$nsprin's and 6o% Wei'hts and $here are they used on the T)*+" (levator uses bob weights and downsprings to provide pilot with artificial feel for elevator. Downspring increases the force to pull back on the stick at low airspeeds. 'he bobweight increases the force re$uired to pull back during maneuvering flight. In the mo.ie Top 2un1 $hat is I!eman9s real name" 'om 3a@ansky, played by 8al 3ilmer /es!ri%e all !ontrol mo.ements ( le.ator1 Aileron1 ,udder) (levator controls pitch, )ileron controls ;oll, ;udder controls 7aw. CHAPT , : The Chart on C)7 is important to ;no$ #or this !hapter/e#ine Sta%ility0 4tability is the tendency of an ob>ect to return to a state of e$uilibrium after it has been disturbed. What is Stati! Sta%ility" 4tatic 4tability is the initial tendency of an ob>ect to move toward or away from its original e$uilibrium position. What is /ynami! Sta%ility" Dynamic stability is the position with respect to time, or motion of an ob>ect after a disturbance. What is Positi.e Stati! Sta%ility" Positive 4tatic 4tability is an initial tendency toward its original e$uilibrium position after a disturbanceA

What is 8e'ati.e Stati! Sta%ility" 'he tendency to continue moving away from the e$uilibrium following a disturbance. What 8eutral Stati! Sta%ility" 'he initial tendency to accept a new displacement position. <ndamped =s!illation is !onstant os!illation a%out a point1 usually #ound $ith Positi.e Stati! and 8eutral /ynami! Sta%ilityWhat is /ire!tional /i.er'en!e" Ho$ is it !aused" Directional Divergence is a condition of flight in which the reaction to a small initial sideslip results in an increase in sideslip angle. 2t is caused by negative directional static stability. Ho$ /oes Spiral /i.er'en!e =!!ur" 4piral Divergence occurs when an airplane has strong directional stability and weak lateral stability. Whi!h $ei'hts more1 a pound o# #eathers or a pound o# steel" -either, they weigh the same. What !auses /ut!h ,oll0 2t is the result of strong lateral stability and weak directional stability. What is pro.erse roll and ad.erse ya$- Proverse is the tendency of an airplane to roll in the same direction as its yawing. )dverse yaw is the tendency of an airplane to yaw away from the direction of aileron roll input. What is Slipstream S$irl" 4lipstream 4wirl is the propeller swirling air around the fuselage hitting the left side of the vertical stabili@er causing a tendency to yaw left at height power setting and low velocity. What is P (a!tor" P factor is the yawing movement caused by one side of the prop creating more lift than the other. /es!ri%e $hat happens $ith thrust line as it relates to relati.e $ind- 2f the relative wind is above the thrust line Bat height velocities and low )<)C, the upgoing blade on the left side creates more thrust and this will cause the plane and yaw to the right. 2f the relative wind is below the thrust line Bheight )<) and low airspeeds, near stallC the down going blade on the right side will produce more thrust and the plane will yaw to the left. &appens during takeoff and landing. CHAPT , >? What is a spin" ) spin is an aggravated stall that results in auto rotation. What is Auto ,otation" )utorotation is a combination of roll and yaw that propagates itself and progressively gets worse due to asymmetrically stable winds. Whi!h has the hi'her A=A on the $in' durin' a spin" 'he down going wing has a &igher )<) than the upgoing wing. Whi!h part o# the $in' has a 'reater Cl" 'he upgoing wing has a greater ,2 due to its smaller )<). Whi!h part o# the $in' has the 'reater Cd" 'he down going wing has a higher ,d due it:s increased )<). What one o# your most relia%le instruments durin' a spin" 2n a spin, the turn needle is the only reliable instrument, however, disregard the ball. Altimeter Airspeed A=A Turn 8eedle

re!t Spin (lat Spin In.erted Spin

/e!reasin' /e!reasin' /e!reasin'

5?)>?? 3IAS ? 3IAS ? 3IAS

*? <nits (P'd) *? <nits @)* <nits

P'd in dire!tion o# spin P'd in dire!tion o# spin P'd in dire!tion o# spin

/es!ri%e a Pro'ressi.e Spin= ) progressive spin occurs when full opposite rudder is applied but you hold full back stick pressure. Ho$ do you re!o.er #rom a spin" 'o recover from a spin, input full opposite rudder and push the stick forward of neutral. What happens i# you don9t re!o.er #rom a spin" 7ou die What is an a''ra.ated spin" Ho$ do you re!o.er" )n aggravated spin comes from pushing the stick forward while maintaing rudder in the direction of the spin. ;ecovery is to input full opposite rudder and stick slightly forward of neutral. CHAPT , >> In a turn1 only the .erti!al !omponent o# li#t opposes $ei'htWhat is Load (a!tor" Load factor is the ratio of total lift to airplane weight, sometimes known as ?. -DL/+ Why are As and IASs !alled a!!elerated stall speeds" 8s and 2)4s are called accelerated stall speeds because they represent stall speeds at velocities greater than minimum straight and level stall speed, and load factors greater then 0. What happens to Stall speed as load #a!tor in!reases" 4tall speed increases when airplane load factor increases past 0. What is Stati! Stren'th" 4tatic 4trength is a measure of a materials resistance to a single application of a steadily increasing load or force. What is Stati! (ailure" 4tatic 1ailure is the breaking of an ob>ect due to cyclic application of load or force. What is Ser.i!e Li#e" 4ervice life is the number of applications of load or force that a component can withstand before it fails. What is limit Load (a!tor" Limit Load factor is the greatest load factor an airplane can sustain without the risk of any permanent deformation. What is the Load (a!tor Limit #or the T)*+" 1or the '#/ the limit is E .%g and F!./g. What is the elasti! limit" 'he elastic limit is the maximum load that may be applied to a component without permanent deformation. What is the ultimate load #a!tor" What is the usual <ltimate Load Limit" 'he Gltimate Load factor is the maximum lad that the airplane can withstand without structural damage. 'here will be some deformation at this point. however, if it is past then structural failure is imminent. 'he Gltimate load limit is 0%"H of limit load factor. What is the maneu.erin' point" 'he point where the accelerated stall lines meet the limit load factor line is called the maneuvering point. 2t is the point that if you are to the left, no damage will occur. What is the maneu.erin' point #or the T)*+" 0/% 3ais/

x!essi.e hori4ontal sta%ili4er loads may %e en!ountered i# the T)*+ rea!hes speeds in ex!ess o# @5? 3IASWhat happens to load limit as $ei'ht de!reases" )s airplane weight decreases, load limit will increase Bbe able to handle increased gC What happens to redline airspeed as altitude in!reases" +ith an increase in altitude, indicated redline airspeed decreases. )bove !",""" feet, max airspeed is ! % 32)4 in the '#/ . What is the 'ear do$n and #lap do$n speed in the T)*+" ?ear down is 0%" 32)4, 1laps down 32)4. When is Andre$ the Air (or!e 'uy 'oin' to $ash my tru!;" 2 don:t know, but hopefully soon because it is getting dirty. (laps a##e!t all aspe!ts o# the A)n dia'ramWhat does Asymmetri! loadin' re#er to" )symmetric loading refers to uneven production of lift on the wings of the airplane. 2t may be caused by a rolling pullout, trapped fuel, or hung ordinance. T)*+ asymmetri! loadin' is *'9s (@7* o# +-B) What is the 8AT=PS max tur%ulen!e speed and the optimum penetration speed #or the T)*+-)'<P4 state that the max speed of the '#/ in moderate turbulence is 05% 32)4. &owever the optimum turbulence speed is the maneuvering speed of 0/% 32)4. What happens to turn per#orman!e $ith an in!rease in Aelo!ity" 2f velocity is increased at a steady angle of bank then turn performance will decrease Bturn rate will decrease and turn radius will increaseC. What is the standard rate turn" ) standard rate turn is / degrees of turn per second. 2n the '#/ it is roughly 0%#!"H of airspeed. Ho$ is a s;id !aused" ) skid is caused by too much rudder in the desired direction of the turn. 2n a skid, turn radius will decrease and turn rate will increase. Dangerous because the airplane will roll inverted if stall occurs. Ho$ is a slip !aused" ) slip is caused by insufficient rudder in the desired direction of the turnA 2n slip, turn radius will increase and turn rate will decrease. CHAPT , >@The minimum Ta;eo## airspeed is @?C hi'her than po$er o## stall speed- Minimum Landin' speed is approximately *?C Ho$ are the net a!!eleratin' #or!e and net de!eleratin' #or!e expressed" '#D#1r is called the net accelerating force. DD1r#t is called the net decelerating force. What is the most in#luential #a!tor in Ta;e =## and Landin' distan!es- +eight is the most influential factor in 'ake <ff and Landing Distance. 2t increases ')4 and 2)4. What are the #our #a!tors that in!rease Ta;e o## and Landin'" &igh, hot, &umid, and &eavy are four factors that increase take off and landing distance. )n increase in any one will increase 'ake <ff distance and increase landing distance. Hi'h1 Hot1 Humid1 and Hea.y are also #our #a!tors that dire!tly relate to the han'o.er you $ill re!ei.e $hen !onsumin' !opious amounts o# al!oholi! %e.era'es-

What $ill a Head$ind and tail$ind do to Ta;e =## and Landin' /istan!es" ) headwind will decrease takeoff distance and decrease landing distance. ) tailwind will increase 'ake <ff distance and increase landing distance. What !auses the nose to $eather.ane in the $ind" Lifting the nose wheel before Minimum nose wheel liftoff/touchdown speed will cause the nose to weathervane into the wind. What is the maximum !ross $ind #or the T)*+" Maximum ,ross wind for the '#/ is 0% knots with full flaps and !! knots clean. What does 2round ##e!t do" ?round effect reduces induced drag and increases lift when the airplane is within one wingspan of the ground. What determines hydro planin'" 'ire pressure hydroplaning. +eight has no effect on the velocity an airplane hydroplane. What do $in'tip .orti!es do" +ingtip vortices instantly change the direction of relative wind and can cause one or both of the wings of a trailing airplane to stall. 'hey may also disrupt airflow into the engine inlet causing a compressor stall. The most si'ni#i!ant #a!tor to !ountera!t the roll indu!ed %y !orti!es is relati.e $in'span %et$een air!ra#t- Dou $ant a %i''er $in'spanWhere are .orti!es !reated" 8ortices are created from the point the nose wheel rotates for takeoff and touches down upon landing. When7ho$ do the 'reatest Aorti!es o!!ur" 'he greatest strength when the airplane is operating heavy, slow, and clean. +eight is the most significant factor in wingtip vortices strength. A head on $ind shear $ill in!rease per#orman!e- It in!reases li#t and IAS- A sudden de!rease in $ind speed results in de!reased per#orman!e- A de!rease in IAS and an in!rease in A=A may !ause a stall i# 'ear do$n in preparin' #or landin'- Dou should in!rease approa!h speeds %y the amount o# the shear potential