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1 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real time performance constraints that must be met, for reason such as safety and usability; others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs. An embedded system is not always a separate block - very often it is physically built-in to the device it is controlling. he software written for embedded systems is often called firmware, and is stored in read-only memory or flash convector chips rather than a disk drive. !t often runs with limited computer hardware resources" small or no keyboard, screen, and little memory. #ireless communication has become an important feature for commercial products and a popular research topic within the last ten years. here are now more mobile phone subscriptions than wired-line subscriptions. $ately, one area of commercial interest has been low-cost, low-power, and short-distance wireless communication used for personal wireless networks.% echnology advancements are providing smaller and more cost effective devices for integrating computational processing, wireless communication, and a host of other functionalities. hese embedded communications devices will be integrated into applications ranging from homeland security to industry automation and monitoring. hey will also enable custom tailored engineering solutions, creating a revolutionary way of disseminating and processing


information. #ith new technologies and devices come new business activities, and the need for employees in these technological areas. Engineers who have knowledge of embedded systems and wireless communications will be in high demand. &nfortunately, there are few adorable environments available for development and classroom use, so students often do not learn about these technologies during hands-on lab e'ercises. he communication mediums were twisted pair, optical fiber, infrared, and generally wireless radio.

ABSTRACT (verhead line distribution system is generally used in rural area with a free space. !n case of broken conductor, the pedestrian may be in)ured from high-voltage conductor, if the system cannot detect and make a command to open the circuit breaker. !n this paper, we apply the principle of time shifting to detect the broken line conductor on the source side with a variation of fault impedance compared with the ratio of negative to positive sequence current. #hen the fault is detected the *icrocontroller (perates the +elay ,evice. he -rotective alarm is connected to +elay and !ntimates the .roken /onductor !nformation and 0ault !nformation. he studied results were taken from the -ro)ect ,emo 1it and the +esults are found Satisfactory


CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Service-orie !e" A"v# ce" Me!eri $ I %r#&!r'c!'re %or S(#r! )ri"& Abstract2Advanced *etering !nfrastructure 3A*!4 enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. 5owever, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and security issues. !n this paper, we introduce a service-oriented approach to A*! aiming at solving the intercommunication problem and meanwhile providing a trust and secure environment for smart grids. !n this approach heterogeneous systems e'pose services to the network. System integration and cooperation are done through service composition. A generic service interfacing method is designed to develop standardi6ed services for heterogeneous power systems. *oreover, role-based access control mechanism is used to guarantee the secure access to smart grids. 2. *' c!io #+ A #+,&i& o% A"v# ce" Me!eri $ I %r#&!r'c!'re i )ri" Abstract- oday, smart grid has been widely discussed in worldwide. As advanced metering infrastructure is one of main technologies of smart grid, its structure and functions of each component is represented. !n terms of basic features of smart grid, some key capabilities that advanced metering infrastructure should possess are analy6ed, and its impacts on power grid networks as well. /ombining current research situation of power utility information acquisition system in china,


this paper provides reference for building smart grid of user side on the basis of these preliminary analyses. -. I(.rove(e ! o% !/e S/or! Ter( Lo#" *orec#&!i $ T/ro'$/ !/e Si(i+#ri!, A(o $ Co &'(.!io Pro%i+e& Abstract2 !n order to achieve high quality standards in electrical power systems, utility companies rely upon load forecasting to accomplish critical activities such as optimal dynamic dispatch and smart performance in the power wholesale market. Several works propose hybrid intelligent forecasting models to deal with the dynamic and nonlinear characteristics of the load at a relatively high computational cost. #hile such approaches give emphasis to the forecasting itself, this paper presents a procedure to detect similarities among distinct consumption profiles. Empirical results show that similar profile share similar sets of relevant predictors. As finding similarities among profiles is less costly than finding the set of relevant predictors from scratch, a new parameter selection method is proposed. Such method is employed to build some neural forecasters with a marked improvement in the learning time. 0. D#!# Co++ec!i $ %ro( S(#r! Me!er& i I %r#&!r'c!'re Abstract2 he classical solution for collecting data from energy meters, # A"v# ce" Me!eri $

based on displacements of peoples, tends to be replaced by modern solutions" drive-by and Automated *eter +eading 3A*+4. A*+ means to automatically collectdata from meters and send them to a central computer. An Advanced *etering !nfrastructure 3A*!4 is an A*+ infrastructure with bidirectional smart meters 7 gateway communication, this leading to e'tra facilities.



0.2 BLOCK DIA)RAM DESCRIPTION BLOCK DIA)RAM E1PLANATION2 he above block diagram gives the overview of the pro)ect in the pictorial form with the help of the block diagram we will create pre model of the pro)ect and analy6e the function of the pro)ect the e'planation of the pro)ect with block diagram over view is given as follows. BLOCK DESCRIPTION Po3er S'..+, Sec!io 2 his section is meant for supplying -ower to all the sections mentioned above. !t basically consists of a ransformer to step down the 89:; ac to <=; ac followed by diodes. 5ere diodes are used to rectify the ac to dc. After rectification the obtained rippled dc is filtered using a capacitor 0ilter. A positive voltage regulator is used to regulate the obtained dc voltage.

Microco !ro++er Sec!io 2 his section forms the control unit of the whole pro)ect. his section basically he

consists of a *icrocontroller with its associated circuitry like /rystal with capacitors, +eset circuitry, -ull up resistors 3if needed4 and so on. *icrocontroller forms the heart of the pro)ect because it controls the devices being interfaced and communicates with the devices according to the program being written. Tr# &%or(er&2 !n general, the ac line voltage present in your house wiring is not suitable for


electronic circuits. *ost circuits require a considerably lower voltage, while a few require higher voltages. he transformer serves to convert the ac line voltage to a voltage level more appropriate to the needs of the circuit to be powered. At the same time, the transformer provides electrical isolation between the ac line and the circuit being powered, which is an important safety consideration. 5owever, a line transformer is generally large and heavy, and is rather e'pensive. herefore, some power supplies 3notably for -/s4 are deliberately designed to operate directly from the ac line without a line transformer. he output of the transformer is still an ac voltage, but now of an appropriate magnitude for the circuit to be powered.

ADC2 Analog to digital 3A>,, A,/4 converters are electrical circuit devices that convert continuous signals, such as voltages or currents, from the analog domain to the LCD digital domain where the signals are represented by numbers. Sec!io 2 Di&.+#,

his section is basically meant to show up the status of the pro)ect. his pro)ect makes use of $iquid /rystal ,isplay to display > prompt for necessary information. Se &or&2 his part of the system consists of current sensor. /onverter. Re+#,2 !n this pro)ect +elays are used to the rip the transformer. A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of another electrical circuit. !n hese sensor sense various parameters of load- current and are then sent to the Analog to ,igital


the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts

CHAPTER 4 HARDWARE2 -(#E+ S&--$?" -ower supply is a reference to a source of electrical power. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit or -S&. he term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others.

A 89:v, @:56 Single phase A/ power supply is given to a step down transformer to get <8v supply. .ridge +ectifier. his voltage is converted to ,/ voltage using a he converted pulsating ,/ voltage is filtered by a 88::uf

capacitor and then given to A=:@ voltage regulator to obtain constant @v supply. his @v supply is given to all the components in the circuit. A +/ time constant


circuit is added to discharge all the capacitors quickly. o ensure the power supply a $E, is connected for indication purpose.

-(#E+ S&--$?" ,E0!B! !(B" A power supply 3sometimes known as a power supply unit or -S&4 is a device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads. he term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones, and rarely to others.

0igure A.2.lock diagram of a basic power supply.


As illustrated in view . of figure, the first section is the +ABS0(+*E+. he transformer steps up or steps down the input line voltage and isolates the power supply from the power line. he +E/ !0!E+ section converts the alternating current input signal to a pulsating direct current. 5owever, as you proceed in this chapter you will learn that pulsating dc is not desirable. 0or this reason a 0!$ E+ section is used to convert pulsating dc to a purer, more desirable form of dc voltage. 0igure ..2.lock diagram of a basic power supply. he final section, the

+EC&$A (+, does )ust what the name implies. !t maintains the output of the power supply at a constant level in spite of large changes in load current or input line voltages. Bow that you know what each section does, letDs trace an ac signal through the power supply. At this point you need to see how this signal is altered within each section of the power supply. $ater on in the chapter you will see how these changes take place. !n view . of figure E-<, an input signal of <<@ volts ac is applied to the primary of the transformer. he transformer is a step-up transformer with a turns ratio of <"9. ?ou can calculate the output for this transformer by multiplying the input voltage by the ratio of turns in the primary to the ratio of turns in the secondary; therefore, <<@ volts ac F 9 G 9E@ volts ac 3peak-to- peak4 at the output. .ecause each diode in the rectifier section conducts for <=: degrees of the 9H:-degree input, the output of the rectifier will be one-half, or appro'imately <A9 volts of pulsating dc. he filter section, a network of resistors, capacitors, or inductors, controls the rise and fall time of the varying signal; consequently, the signal remains at a more constant dc level. ?ou will see the filter process more clearly in the discussion of the actual


filter circuits. he output of the filter is a signal of <<: volts dc, with ac ripple riding on the dc. he reason for the lower voltage 3average voltage4 will be e'plained later in this chapter. he regulator maintains its output at a constant <<:volt dc level, which is used by the electronic equipment 3more commonly called the load4. Simple @; power supply for digital circuits

1.1 S'((#r, o% circ'i! %e#!'re&

.rief description of operation" Cives out well regulated I@; output, output current capability of <:: mA /ircuit protection" .uilt-in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator !/ gets too hot /ircuit comple'ity" ;ery simple and easy to build /ircuit performance" ;ery stable I@; output voltage, reliable operation Availability of components" Easy to get, uses only very common basic components ,esign testing" .ased on datasheet e'ample circuit, ! have used this circuit successfully as part of many electronics pro)ects Applications" -art of electronics devices, small laboratory power supply -ower supply voltage" &nregulated ,/ =-<=; power supply -ower supply current" Beeded output current I @ mA /omponent costs" 0ew dollars for the electronics components I the input transformer cost


4.1 ATME)A 5 4.1.1 CONCEPTS O* MICROCONTROLLER2 *icrocontroller is a general purpose device, which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system on to single chip. !t has inbuilt /-&, memory and peripherals to make it as a mini computer. A microcontroller combines on to the same microchip" he /-& core

*emory3both +(* and +A*4 Some parallel digital i>o

*icro controllers will combine other devices such as" A timer module to allow the micro controller to perform tasks for certain time periods. A serial i>o port to allow data to flow between the controller and other devices such as a -!/ or another *icrocontroller. An A,/ to allow the *icro controller to accept analogue input data for processing. *icro controllers are " Smaller in si6e /onsumes less power !ne'pensive


*icro controller is a stand alone unit ,which can perform functions on its own without any requirement for additional hardware like i>o ports and e'ternal memory. he heart of the microcontroller is the /-& core. !n the past, this has traditionally been based on a =-bit microprocessor unit. 0or e'ample *otorola uses a basic H=:: microprocessor core in their H=:@>H=:= microcontroller devices. !n the recent years, microcontrollers have been developed around specifically designed /-& cores, for e'ample the microchip -!/ range of microcontrollers.


18 *EATURES2 Hi$/-.er%or(# ce6 Lo3-.o3er A!(e+JAVRJ 5-7i! Microco !ro++er K A"v# ce" RISC Arc/i!ec!'re <9: -owerful !nstructions 7 *ost Single-clock /ycle E'ecution 98 L = Ceneral -urpose #orking +egisters 0ully Static (peration &p to <H*!-S hroughput at <H*56 (n-chip 8-cycle *ultiplier Hi$/ E "'r# ce No -vo+#!i+e Me(or, &e$(e !& =1bytes of !n-System Self-programmable 0lash program memory @<8.ytes EE-+(* <1byte !nternal S+A* #rite>Erase /ycles" <:,::: 0lash><::,::: EE-+(* ,ata retention" 8: years at =@M/><:: years at 8@M/3<4 (ptional .oot /ode Section with !ndependent $ock .its !n-System -rogramming by (n-chip .oot -rogram Peri./er#+ *e#!'re& wo =-bit imer>/ounters with Separate -rescaler, one /ompare *ode imer>/ounter with Separate -rescaler, /ompare *ode, and

(ne <H-bit /apture *ode

+eal ime /ounter with Separate (scillator hree -#* /hannels


=-channel A,/ in N0- and N0B>*$0 package Eight /hannels <:-bit Accuracy H-channel A,/ in -,!- package Si' /hannels <:-bit Accuracy .yte-oriented wo-wire Serial !nterface -rogrammable Serial &SA+ *aster>Slave S-! Serial !nterface -rogrammable #atchdog imer with Separate (n-chip (scillator (n-chip Analog /omparator

S.eci#+ Microco !ro++er *e#!'re& -ower-on +eset and -rogrammable .rown-out ,etection !nternal /alibrated +/ (scillator E'ternal and !nternal !nterrupt Sources 0ive Sleep *odes" !dle, A,/ Boise +eduction, -ower-save, -ower-down, and Standby I8O # " P#c9#$e& 89 -rogrammable !>( $ines 8=-lead -,!-, 98-lead N0-, and 98-pad N0B>*$0 O.er#!i $ Vo+!#$e& 8.A; - @.@; 3A mega=$4 E.@; - @.@; 3A mega=4 K S.ee" )r#"e&


: - =*56 3A mega=$4 : - <H*56 3A mega=4 PIN DESCRIPTIONS2 1.VCC ,igital supply voltage. 2.)ND Cround. -. 1TAL181TAL28TOSC18TOSC2 Por! B :PB;..PB<= -ort . is an =-bit bi-directional !>( port with internal pull-up resistors 3selected for each bit4. he -ort . output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, -ort . pins that are e'ternally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. he -ort . pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,even if the clock is not running. ,epending on the clock selection fuse settings, -.H can be used as input to the inverting (scillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.,epending on the clock selection fuse settings, -.A can be used as output from the inverting (scillator amplifier.!f the !nternal /alibrated +/ (scillator is used as chip clock source, -.A..H is used as (S/8..<input for the Asynchronous imer>/ounter8 if the AS8 bit in ASS+ is set. Por! C :PC4..PC<= -ort / is an A-bit bi-directional !>( port with internal pull-up resistors 3selected for each bit4. he -ort / output buffers have symmetrical drive


characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, -ort / pins that are e'ternally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors.

PC>8RESET !f the +S ,!S.$ 0use is programmed, -/H is used as an !>( pin. Bote that the electrical characteristics of -/H differ from those of the other pins of -ort /.!f the +S ,!S.$ 0use is unprogrammed, -/H is used as a +eset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a +eset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a +eset. Por! D :PD;..PD<= -ort , is an =-bit bi-directional !>( port with internal pull-up resistors 3selected for each bit4. he -ort , output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, -ort , pins that are e'ternally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. he -ort , pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active,even if the clock is not running. RESET +eset input. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. 4.1.2.- AT(e$#5:L=


AVCC A;// is the supply voltage pin for the A>, /onverter, -ort / 39..:4, and A,/ 3A..H4. !t should be e'ternally connected to ;//, even if the A,/ is not used. !f the A,/ is used, it should be connected to ;// through a low-pass filter. Bote that -ort / 3@..E4 use digital supply voltage, ;//. ARE* A+E0 is the analog reference pin for the A>, /onverter. ARCHITECTURAL OVER VIEW


4.2 LCD DISPLAY2 $iquid crystal displays 3$/,s4 have materials which combine the properties of both liquids and crystals. +ather than having a melting point, they have a

temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to a crystal. An $/, consists of two glass panels, with the liquid crystal material sand witched in between them. he inner surface of the glass plates are coated with transparent electrodes which define the character, symbols or patterns to be displayed polymeric layers are present in between the electrodes and the liquid crystal, which makes the liquid crystal molecules to maintain a defined orientation angle. (ne each polarisers are pasted outside the two glass panels. hese polarisers would rotate the light rays passing through them to a definite angle, in a particular direction #hen the $/, is in the off state, light rays are rotated by the two polarisers and the liquid crystal, such that the light rays come out of the $/, without any orientation, and hence the $/, appears transparent. #hen sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes, the liquid crystal molecules would be aligned in a specific direction. he light rays passing through the $/, would be rotated by the polarisers, which would result in activating > highlighting the desired characters.


LCD "i&.+#,2 4.2.1 1> ? 2 c/#r#c!er LCD "i&.+#,2 An $/, is a small low cost display. it is easy to interface with a microcontroller because of an embedded controller 3the black blob on the back of the board4. his controller is standard across many displays 3hd EEA=:4, which means many micro-controllers have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line of code. $/, $/, stands for $iquid /rystal ,isplay. $/, is finding wide spread use replacing $E,s 3seven segment $E,s or other multi segment $E,s4 because of the following reasons"


<. 8.

he declining prices of $/,s. he ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. his is in contrast to $E,s, which are limited to numbers and a few characters.

9. !ncorporation of a refreshing controller into the $/,, thereby relieving the /-& of the task of refreshing the $/,. !n contrast, the $E, must be refreshed by the /-& to keep displaying the data. E. Ease of programming for characters and graphics. hese components are Ospeciali6edP for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that they cannot be activated by standard !/ circuits. hey are used for writing different messages on a miniature $/,. $/, ,isplay

A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in practice. !t is based on the 5,EEA=: microcontroller 3 Hitachi4 and can display messages in two lines with <H characters each . !t displays all the alphabets, Creek letters, punctuation marks, mathematical symbols etc. !n addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its own. Automatic shifting message on display 3shift left and right4, appearance of the pointer, backlight etc. are considered as useful characteristics. -!B 0&B/ !(BS"


here are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the microcontroller. here are total of <E pins marked with numbers 3<H in case the background light is built in4. heir function is described in the table below"

$/, screen"


$/, screen consists of two lines with <H characters each. Each character consists of @'A dot matri'. /ontrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are displayed in one or two lines. 0or that reason, variable voltage :-;dd is applied on pin marked as ;ee. rimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have built in backlight 3blue or green diodes4. #hen used during operating, a resistor for current limitation should be used 3like with any $E diode4.

$/, display panel $/, .AS!/ /(**AB,S" All data transferred to $/, through outputs ,:-,A will be interpreted as commands or as data, which depends on logic state on pin +S"


+S G < - .its ,: - ,A are addresses of characters that should be displayed. .uilt in processor addresses built in Omap of charactersP and displays corresponding
Co((# " /lear display /ursor home Entry mode set ,isplay on>off control /ursor>,isplay Shift 0unction set Set /C+A* address Set ,,+A* address +ead O.&S?P flag 3.04 #rite to /C+A* or ,,+A* +ead from /C+A* or ,,+A* RS RW D; D> D4 D0 D- D2 D1 D< : : : : : : : : : < < : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : < : : < , : < < ' E?ec'!io Ti(e <.HEmS <.HEmS E:uS E:uS E:uS E:uS E:uS E:uS E:uS E:uS

!> S , & . ' '

< ,>/ +>$ ' 0 '

: : < ,$ B : < <

/C+A* address ,,+A* address ,,+A* address

< .0

: ,A ,H ,@ ,E ,9 ,8 ,< ,: < ,A ,H ,@ ,E ,9 ,8 ,< ,:

symbols. ,isplaying position is determined by ,,+A* address. his address is either previously defined or the address of previously transferred character is automatically incremented.+S G : - .its ,: - ,A are commands which determine display mode. $ist of commands for lcd" $/, /onnection" ,epending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there are =- bit and E-bit $/, modes. he appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the process in a phase called Oinitiali6ationP. !n the


first case, the data are transferred through outputs ,:-,A as it has been already e'plained. !n case of E-bit $E, mode, for the sake of saving valuable !>( pins of the microcontroller, there are only E higher bits 3,E-,A4 used for communication, while other may be left unconnected. /onsequently, each data is sent to $/, in two steps" four higher bits are sent first 3that normally would be sent through lines ,E-,A4, four lower bits are sent afterwards. #ith the help of initiali6ation, $/, will correctly connect and interpret each data received. .esides, with regards to the fact that data are rarely read from $/, 3data mainly are transferred from microcontroller to $/,4 one more !>( pin may be saved by simple connecting +># pin to the Cround. Such saving has its price. Even though message displaying will be normally performed, it will not be possible to read from busy flag since it is not possible to read from display. $/, !nitiali6ation" (nce the power supply is turned on, $/, is automatically cleared. mode of operating is set by default. his means that" <. ,isplay is cleared 8. *ode ,$ G < /ommunication through =-bit interface B G : *essages are displayed in one line 0 G : /haracter font @ ' = dots his

process lasts for appro'imately <@mS. After that, display is ready to operate. he


9. ,isplay>/ursor on>off , G : ,isplay off & G : /ursor off . G : /ursor blink off @. /haracter entry H. !, G < Addresses on display are automatically incremented by <

S G : ,isplay shift off Automatic reset is mainly performed without any problems. *ainly but not alwaysQ !f for any reason power supply voltage does not reach full value in the course of <:mS, display will start perform completely unpredictablyR !f voltage supply unit can not meet this condition or if it is needed to provide completely safe operating, the process of initiali6ation by which a new reset enabling display to operate normally must be applied.Algorithm according to the initiali6ation is being performed depends on whether connection to the microcontroller is through E- or =-bit interface. All left over to be done after that is to give basic commands and of course- to display messages .


/!+/&! ,!AC+A*

Advantages and disadvantages of $/,


$/, -ros"

;ery compact and light. $ow power consumption. Bo geometric distortion. $ittle or no flicker depending on backlight technology. Bot affected by screen burn-in. Bo high voltage or other ha6ards present during repair>service.Scitation neededT /an be made in almost any si6e or shape. Bo theoretical resolution limit.


$imited viewing angle, causing color, saturation, contrast and brightness to vary, even within the intended viewing angle, by variations in posture. .leeding and uneven backlighting in some monitors, causing brightness distortion, especially toward the edges.

Smearing and ghosting artifacts caused by slow response times 3U= ms4 and %sample and hold% operation.

(nly one native resolution. ,isplaying resolutions either requires a video scaler, lowering perceptual quality, or display at <"< pi'el mapping, in which images will be physically too large or wonDt fill the whole screen.


1E?-A, !B +(,&/ !(B his note describes an method of interfacing a matri' keyboard to EV98= using minimum number of !>( ports. #e use a E'< matri' keypad as an e'ample. !t requires only five !>( ports. 3!n general, it takes nI< ports to interface a n'n matri' keyboard4. !t is a low cost solution. Bo $ logic !/s are used. he components mainly used in the interfacing circuitry include only diodes and resistors which can greatly reduce the system cost and si6e of the product.

5A+,#A+E 0igure < shows a functional block diagram of the keyboard interface. As seen in this diagram, there are two ma)or parts. K !nterrupt W interfacing /ircuity - generates interrupt to EV98= when there is a key pressed and provides connection to EV98=Xs !>( ports K 1eyboard matri' - a E'< matri' keypad !nterrupt W interfacing /ircuit


he interrupt and interfacing circuit includes some diodes, resistors, pull-up resistors and a B-B transistor. he transistor part is designed as an inverter for generating interrupt signal to EV98= when there is a key pressed. here are two groups of diodes mainly for restricting signal flow in single direction so as to enable this circuitry to identify the pressed key uniquely. (ne of these two groups of diodes have been wired together to provide a O(+P function which in turn allows any key pressed on each column of the keypad to signal the transistor part for generating interrupt. -arallel -orts !nterface his solution demonstrates a simple mechanism to build a keyboard with minimum !>( port used. !n this application, we use a E'E matri' keypad as an e'ample. !t requires only five !>( ports for interfacing. (ne of them is used for generating the interrupt signal in the beginning and used as an !>( port for key scanning operation afterwards. ,etail of the method in scanning and identifying the pressed key will be discussed in the section OS/AB 1E?(perationP. !t should also be noted that in this design, EV98= uses five ports for interfacing but only one of them requires interrupt capability. S/AB 1E? (-E+A !(B 0ive ports are used for key scanning function in this system. (ne of them 3-,A4 is used as the interrupt pin before a key is pressed. .efore the key scanning process starts, all of the !>( ports e'cept the one with interrupt capability is configured as output high. hen, when there is a key pressed, one of the columns on the keypad changes state from low to high. As all the columns on the keypad are wired together to form a O(+P logic to the base of the B-B transistor, it will generate an active low interrupt signal to EV98= and initiates the interrupt handler to scan the


pressed key.#hen the key scanning process begins, one of the five !>( ports will be configured to output high while the other ports are configured to input. he states on all ports are then read and compared with the pattern recorded in a predefined lookup table in order to locate which key is pressed. !f the key is not found, another port will be configured to output high instead and read the states again. his process is repeated until all ports have been configured once to output high or a key is found.Since the circuitry provides feedback paths, one of the input port will change state from low to high by the output high port and the states obtained can identify uniquely which key is being pressed. An e'ample of the scanning procedure is illustrated as follows"




ransformer is designed for monitoring single-phase and three-

phase power line voltages in power metering applications. he primary terminals can be connected either in line-to-line or in line-to-neutral configuration. 0used transformer models are designated by a suffi' of %0% for one fuse or %00% for two fuses. A -otential ransformer is a special type of transformer that allows meters to take readings from electrical service connections with higher voltage 3potential4 than the meter is normally capable of handling without at potential transformer. A !r# &%or(er is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors2the transformerDs coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flu' in the transformerDs core, and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. his varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force 3E*04 or %voltage% in the secondary winding. his effect is called mutual induction.


!f a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. !n an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding 3VS4 is in proportion to the primary voltage 3 VP4, and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary 3 NS4 to the number of turns in the primary 3NP4 as follows"

.y appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current 3A/4 voltage to be %stepped up% by making NS greater than NP, or %stepped down% by making NS less than NP. !n the vast ma)ority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable e'ception. ransformers range in si6e from a thumbnail-si6ed coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. #hile new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household 3%mains%4 voltage. ransformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.



!n electrical engineering, a current transformer 3/ 4 is used for measurement of electric currents. /urrent transformers, together with voltage transformers 3; 4 3potential transformers 3- 44, are known as instrument transformers. #hen current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. /urrent transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. $ike any other transformer, a current transformer has a primary winding, a magnetic core, and a secondary winding. he alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core, which then induces a current in the secondary winding circuit. A primary ob)ective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled, so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. he most common design of / measured. consists of a length of wire

wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being he / Ds primary circuit therefore consists of a single DturnD of conductor, with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. he primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. #indow-type current transformers are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding.


/urrent transformers are used e'tensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Along with voltage leads, revenuegrade / s drive the electrical utilityDs watt-hour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service and single-phase services greater than 8:: amp. he / is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. (ften, multiple / s are installed as a %stack% for various uses. 0or e'ample, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate / s to provide isolation between metering and protection circuits, and allows current transformers with different characteristics 3accuracy, overload performance4 to be used for the different purpose 4.4 SI)NAL CONDITIONIN) UNIT2 he signal conditioning unit accepts input signals from the analog sensors and gives a conditioned output of :-@; ,/ corresponding to the entire range of each parameter. his unit also accepts the digital sensor inputs and gives outputs he calibration voltagesY 3:, in <: bit binary with a positive logic level of I@;.

8.@ and @;4 and the health bits are also generated in this unit. *icrocontrollers are widely used for control in power electronics. hey provide

real time control by processing analog signals obtained from the system. A suitable isolation interface needs to be designed for interaction between the control circuit and high voltage hardware. A signal conditioning unit which provides necessary interface between a high power grid inverter and a low voltage controller unit.


4.> AMPLI*IER2 Cenerally, an amplifier is any device that will convert a signal with a small amount of energy into a similar signal with a larger amount of energy. !n popular use, the term today usually refers to an electronic amplifier, often as in audio applications. he relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier 2 usually e'pressed as a function of the input frequency 2 is called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the magnitude of the transfer function is termed the gain. )e er#+ c/#r#c!eri&!ic& o% #(.+i%ier& *ost amplifiers can be characteri6ed by a number of parameters. )#i he gain is the ratio of output power to input power, and is usually measured in decibels . 3#hen measured in decibels it is logarithmically related to the power ratio" C3d.4G<:log3-out>-in44. O'!.'! ", #(ic r# $e (utput dynamic range is the range, usually given in d., between the smallest and largest useful output levels. Since the lowest useful level is limited by output noise, this is quoted as the amplifier dynamic range. B# "3i"!/ # " ri&e !i(e he bandwidth 3.#4 of an amplifier is usually defined as the difference between the lower and upper half power points. his is therefore also known as the -9 d. .#. .andwidths for other response tolerances are sometimes quoted 3-< d., -H d. etc.4.


A full-range audio amplifier will be essentially flat between twenty hert6 to about twenty kilohert6 3the range of normal human hearing.4 !n minimalist amplifier design, the ampDs usable frequency response needs to e'tend considerably beyond this 3one or more octaves either side4 and typically a good minimalist amplifier will have -9 d. points Z <: and U H@ k56. -rofessional touring amplifiers often have input and>or output filtering to sharply limit frequency response beyond 8:-8: k56; too much of the amplifierDs potential output power would otherwise be wasted on infrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies, and the danger of A* radio interference would increase. *odern switching amplifiers need steep low pass filtering at the output to get rid of high frequency switching noise and harmonics. he rise time of an amplifier is the time taken for the output to change from <:[ to \:[ of its final level when driven by a step input.*any amplifiers are ultimately slew rate limited 3typically by the impedance of a drive current having to overcome capacitive effects at some point in the circuit4, which may limit the full power bandwidth to frequencies well below the amplifiers frequency response when dealing with small signals.0or a Caussian response system 3or a simple +/ roll off4, the rise time is appro'imated by" r Y .# G :.9@, where r is in seconds and .# is in 56. Settling time and aberrations ime taken for output to settle to within a certain percentage of the final value 3say :.<[4. his is usually specified for oscilloscope vertical amplifiers and high accuracy measurement systems. S+e3 r#!e Slew rate is the ma'imum rate of change of output variable, usually quoted in volts per second 3or microsecond4.


Noi&e his is a measure of how much noise is introduced in the amplification process. Boise is an undesirable but inevitable product of the electronic devices and components. !t is measured in either decibels or the peak output voltage produced by the amplifier when no signal is applied. E%%icie c, Efficiency is a measure of how much of the input power is usefully applied to the amplifierDs output. /lass A amplifiers are very inefficient, in the range of <:7 8:[ with a ma' efficiency of 8@[. /lass . amplifiers have a very high efficiency but are impractical because of high levels of distortion 3See" /rossover distortion4. !n practical design, the result of a tradeoff is the class A. design. *odern /lass A. amps are commonly between 9@7@@[ efficient with a theoretical ma'imum of A=.@[. /ommercially available /lass , switching amplifiers have reported efficiencies as high as \A[. he efficiency of the amplifier limits the amount of total power output that is usefully available. Bote that more efficient amplifiers run much cooler, and often do not need any cooling fans even in multi-kilowatt designs. 4.; DRIVER CIRCUIT2 !n electronics, a driver is an electrical circuit or other electronic component used to control another circuit or other component, such as a high-power transistor. he term is used, for e'ample, for a speciali6ed computer chip that controls the high-power transistors in A/-to-,/ voltage converters. An amplifier can also be considered the driver for loudspeakers, or a constant voltage circuit that keeps an attached component operating within a broad range of input voltages.


he following circuit will allow you to drive a <8; relay using logic voltage 3an input of E; or greater will trip the relay4. he circuit has its own <8; power supply making it self contained but the power supply portion can be left out if an e'ternal supply will be used. he circuit shows an output from the power supply that can be used to power other devices but it should be noted that the supply is unregulated and not particulary powerful with the parts stated. he <8; ,/ output is suitable for powering a few $E,s or low voltage lights but should not be used to power other electronic boards or motors. 4.5 RELAY2 A relay is an electrically operated switch. *any relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. +elays find applications where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. he first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. +elays found e'tensive use in telephone e'changes and early computers to perform logical operations. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly drive an electric motor is called a contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device triggered by light to perform switching. +elays with calibrated operating characteristics and sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric power systems these functions are performed by digital instruments still called %protection relays%.


B#&ic "e&i$ # " o.er#!io

Small relay as used in electronics A simple electromagnetic relay, such as the one taken from a car in the first picture, is an adaptation of an electromagnet. !t consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flu', a movable iron armature, and a set, or sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. he armature is hinged to the yoke and mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. !t is held in place by a spring so that when the relay is de-energi6ed there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. !n this condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set is open. (ther relays may have more or fewer sets of contacts depending on their function. he relay in the picture also has a wire connecting the armature to the yoke. his ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the armature, and the circuit track on the printed circuit board 3-/.4 via the yoke, which is soldered to the -/.. #hen an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts the armature, and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts either makes or breaks a connection with a fi'ed contact. !f the set of contacts was closed when the relay was ,e-energi6ed, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open.


#hen the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force, appro'imately half as strong as the magnetic force, to its rela'ed position. &sually this force is provided by a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. *ost relays are manufactured to operate quickly. !n a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. !n a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing. 4.@ ALARM An #+#r( gives an audible or visual warning about a problem or condition. Alarms include"

burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries; this is often a silent alarm" the police or guards are warned without indication to the burglar, which increases the chances of catching him or her. alarm clocks can produce an alarm at a given time distributed control manufacturing systems or ,/Ss, found in nuclear power plants, refineries and chemical facilities also generate alarms to direct the operatorDs attention to an important event that he or she needs to address.

alarms in an operation and maintenance 3(W*4 monitoring system, which informs the bad working state of 3a particular part of4 the system under monitoring.

safety alarms, which go off if a dangerous condition occurs. /ommon public safety alarms include"

tornado sirens


fire alarms

%*ultiple-alarm fire%, a locally-specific measure of the severity of a fire and the fire-department reaction required.

o o o o o

car alarms community Alarm or auto dialer alarm 3medical alarms4 air raid sirens personal alarm tocsins 2 a historical method of raising an alarm

Alarms have the capability of causing a fight-or-flight response in humans; a person under this mindset will panic and either flee the perceived danger or attempt to eliminate it, often ignoring rational thought in either case. #e can characterise a person in such a state as %alarmed%. #ith any kind of alarm, the need e'ists to balance between on the one hand the danger of false alarms 3called %false positives%4 2 the signal going off in the absence of a problem 2 and on the other hand failing to signal an actual problem 3called a %false negative%4. 0alse alarms can waste resources e'pensively and can even be dangerous. 0or e'ample, false alarms of a fire can waste firefighter manpower, making them unavailable for a real fire, and risk in)ury to firefighters and others as the fire engines race to the alleged fireDs location.



<. !ndustries 8. E. office 9. 5ome applications



CONCLUSION he progress in science W technology is a non-stop process. Bew things and new echnology are being invented. As the technology grows day by day, we can imagine about the future in which thing we may occupy every place. he proposed system based on Atmel microcontroller is found to be more compact, user friendly and less comple', which can readily be used in order to perform. Several tedious and repetitive tasks. !n this phase we collected e'isting system of meter reading methods and their disadvantages. #e analysed the e'isting method meter reading and we introduced new meter reading method which is very helpful for electricity board. !n proposed system we implementing digital energy meter using wifi, for that we collected all hardware details and software details. !n phase 8 we implementing the digital energy meter and wireless data acquation system using #!0!.


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*ohammad Ali *a6idi.