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Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

P&H Foundation Systems


By Shelton L. Stringer, PE, GE, PG, EG
Earth Systems Global Inc.

2011 Earth Systems Global Inc.

The Patrick and Henderson Tensionless Pier (P&H Pier)


The P&H Pier consists of a large, cast-in-place cast in place pier foundation to support monopole towers (US Patent No. 5,586,417, Canadian Patent 2205502, Chinese Patent 201020166104.7).

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Advantages of the P&H Pier

P&H foundations are the most economical available for wind turbine support. 25% to 35% less than the cost of a gravity spread foundation About 3% to 6% savings in total project development costs P&H foundations are the most environmentally green. The smallest footprint available, with far less ground disturbance than a gravity spread foundation Uses far less total concrete and steel than a gravity spread foundation with much quicker assembly Fewer materials make the P&H foundations a more attractive ecological and environmental solution for foundation support. A smarter choice

P&H Foundations Built Supporting Wind Energy Projects

27 States, 5 Provinces 5 Provinces 4900+ Built 4200+ sinceBuilt 2000 5700+ 149 Projects

28 States,

200+ Projects

Earth Systems
Southwest

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

SNYDER WIND ENERGY PROJECT Scurry County, Texas


Tallest wind turbines in the United States to date. d Height to Blade Tip = 150 m, 492 feet! 21 Vestas V90 3.0-megawatt wind turbines on 105 m towers. P&H pier foundations 40-feet deep Used Anderson Drilling Big Stan 18foot diameter auger rig.

BUFFALO MOUNTAIN WIND ENERGY PROJECT Anderson County, Tennessee


Tennessee Valley Authority project 15 towers Vestas V80 1.8-MW turbines on 80-meters towers P&H Pier foundations are on reclaimed land from coal mine spoils

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

P&H Pier Construction in China ,, 2009

2 - Goldwind 750 kW Turbines in Inner Mongolia


2750KW
4/3/2011 7

Construction of the P&H Pier

Construction of the pier begins by digging a hole with an excavator or drill rig. Rock sites require controlled pre-blasting. y Typical depth 25 to 34 feet (7.5 to 10.5 m) Cranes set an outer corrugated metal can (CMP) in the hole, typically 12 to 16 feet diameter (3.7 to 4.9 m).

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Construction of the P&H Pier

Sand-cement slurry is placed as backfill between the outer CMP and the excavation sides. Threaded steel rods (encased in PVC sleeves) are arranged with a template that matches the base flange of the tower. These rods are set and bolted to an embedment ring within the annular space between CMP cans.

Construction of the P&H Pier


A smaller, inner CMP is set concentric within the hole, typically 10 to 12 feet diameter (3.0 to 3.7 m). A lower plug of concrete and the excavated spoils are placed within the inner can. Foundation concrete is placed between the two CMP cans, forming a hollow cylinder. A concrete floor slab and top collar is cast.

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Construction of the P&H Pier

The tower is bolted to the threaded rods extending above the concrete. The grout trough beneath the base flange is filled. The rods are post-tensioned to keep the concrete in compression (hence tensionless) during loading.

How the P&H Pier works

The lateral and moment capacity i developed is d l d by b side id bearing b i as the rigid pier is free to rotate within the earth. The ultimate passive resistance is dependent on the shear strength of the surrounding soil or rock (friction angle, and cohesion, c). Pier rotation and deflection are dependent on compressibility of the soil or rock, expressed as a non-linear, load-deformation (p-y) curve.

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Key Geotechnical Issues

The geotechnical report for the project is the basis for the properties of the soil or rock in analyses. Overturning stability with a global safety factor of at least 2 against extreme loads Pier rotations and deflections should remain within a tolerable range
typically, 2 to 5 mm operational, 10 to 20 mm extreme 1 mm/m rotation operational 3 mm/m rotation - extreme

Foundation rotational stiffness to avoid resonance and excessive vibrations

Design Loads

Loads come from the wind turbine manufacturer based on IEC. IEC Typical Extreme Wind Loads (unfactored): Axial 140 575 kips (700 - 2550 kN) Lateral 70 200 kips (300 900 kN) Moment 10,000 to 58,000 ft-kips (14 - 78 MN-m) Seismic loads, even in moderate seismic regions, are generally less than design wind loads
Exception: 2010 California Building Code, active faults, < 10 km, non-building structure, minimum design force controls, CsW = 0.8S1/(R/I) - San Andreas & Garlock faults. GL & IEC Rules of applying EQ + Operational Load

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Rotational (Rocking) Stiffness

Important factor for performance of wind turbine foundations Rotational Stiffness, K = M/, where M = moment, = rotation t ti Normal requirement: K = 20 to 60 GN-m/radian

Greatly exaggerated rotation from FEM

3D Finite Element Modeling (FEM)


Half Model Loading at Top of Tower
Tower

P&H Pier

Ground

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

FEM Results Lateral D f Deformation ti of Pier

Tower Frequency Verification Testing

Frequency q y response p of tower recorded by accelerometers, displacements recorded by transducers Tower frequency changes when considering SoilStructure Interaction The wind turbine natural frequency should be a margin away from the rotor rotation frequency to avoid dynamic amplification.

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

P&H Rock & Pile Anchors Foundations

Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 2004


4 NEG-Micon 950 kW on P&H anchor foundations using Con-Tech self-drilling anchors in conglomerate

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

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Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Hull II Wind Project, Massachusetts

Hull II Wind Project 2006

Vestas V-80 1 1.8MW 8MW turbine on 80-m tower 67 feet of landfill over dense rock Supported on P&H pile anchor foundation Piles driven to rock and rock anchors extended below Two rows of piles Featured at 2006 AWEA Conference

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

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Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

Locust Ridge, Pennsylvania


Gamesa 2.0 MW turbines on rock anchor foundations

Setting g the anchor bolt cage g


shown at right

Placing concrete for cap


shown below

Ground Anchor Components


Unbonded length (free stress zone) Bonded Length Anchor or Tendon Grout Anchor Head & Bearing Plate

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

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Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

High Strength Anchor Bars

PTI Proof Testing & Maintenance Checks

Initial Proof Test each bolt to 133% of design load (DL) Periodic Maintenance Program to check and retension anchors at 3 months and 1 year

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

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Patrick and Henderson Foundations

4/3/2011

The P&H Pile Anchor Foundation


Note Void (gap) between cap and pile anchor US Patents 7,533,505 & 7,618,217 Chinese Patent 201020166104.7

Mind the Gap


Di Disconnected t d Pil Pile Foundation F d ti No structural connection between anchor and cap The gap is the key Gap allows post-tensioning of anchor and retensioning Pile Anchor uplifts and cap compresses the subgrade Post-tensioning improves subgrade modulus by confinement and compression

2011 Earth Systems Global inc.

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