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BrioQuery Explorer 6.

1
(Course Code: PE 181)

Student Guide
ERC 1.0

IBM Learning Services Worldwide Certified Material

BrioQuery 6.1 Explorer


Copyrights Copyright 2000 International Business Machines Corporation. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, manual, optical or otherwise, without prior written permission of International Business Machines Corporation. Trademarks BrioQuery, Brio Enterprise Server, Brio Broadcast Server, Brio OnDemand Server, Brio.Insight, Brio.Quickview are trademarks of Brio Technology, Inc. Macintosh and Mac are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., used under license. Microsoft, MS, and MS-DOS are registered trademarks and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. UNIX is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc., in the United States and other countries. Motif is a registered trademark of Open Software Foundation, Inc. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. Sybase is a registered trademark of Sybase, Inc. Red Brick is a trademark of Red Brick Systems. Informix is a registered trademark of Informix, Inc. All other product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective owners. Acknowledgments This manual was produced by IBM Learning Services using Adobe Framemaker 5.5 and includes concepts from the following training materials produced by Brio Technology: BrioQuery Explorer Training Manual, Version 6.0, Second Edition Additional information Further information including course listings on BrioQuery Explorer can be obtained from the following websites: WorkSmart Home Page- http://w3-1.ibm.com/transform/crm/crmsite.nsf/public/quote WorkSmart ExpertEDGE - http://w3-1.ibm.com/transform/crm/crmsite.nsf/public/expertedge IBM Global Campus - http://w3.education.ibm.com/ Brio Technology Home Page - http://www.brio.com

Table of Contents
Unit 1 Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1 .................................... 1-1
The Features and Benefits of BrioQuery Explorer 6.1 ............................. 1-2
Too Much Data, Not Enough Information ............................................... Enter BrioQuery...................................................................................... The BrioQuery Process .......................................................................... BrioQuery Features and Benefits ........................................................... BrioQuery Navigator ............................................................................... BrioQuery Explorer ................................................................................. BrioQuery Designer ................................................................................ BrioQuery Insight.................................................................................... BrioQuery Quickview .............................................................................. 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-5 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-8 1-8

The BrioQuery Editions ............................................................................ 1-7

The BrioQuery Interface .......................................................................... 1-9


BrioQuery Explorer Workspace (Interface) ......................................... 1-10 More about the BrioQuery Sections ..................................................... 1-16

Creating An Open Catalog Extension .................................................... 1-19

Unit 2

Connecting to a Database.................................................... 2-1


Connecting to a Database ....................................................................... 2-2
Monitoring Connections.......................................................................... 2-5

Changing the Default OCE and Default Location .................................... 2-6

Unit 3

Data Modeling ....................................................................... 3-1


Creating a Query ..................................................................................... 3-2
Elements of a Query in BrioQuery.......................................................... 3-2 The Steps in Creating a Query ............................................................... 3-2 The Query Building Process, an Overview............................................. 3-3

Creating a Data Model ............................................................................. 3-4


The Data Model Building Process, an Overview .................................... Displaying the Table Catalog ................................................................. Basic Database Terminology ................................................................. Adding a Table to the Data Model .......................................................... Using Structure View .............................................................................. Using Detail View ................................................................................... Using Icon View...................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... 3-4 3-4 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-6 3-7 3-8

Changing Topic Views ............................................................................. 3-6

Creating Single Topic Data Models ......................................................... 3-9

BrioQuery 6.1 Table of Contents

Creating a Single Topic Data Model....................................................... 3-9 Step 1: Create a Data Model with One Topic ......................................... 3-9 Step 2: Create a Request line ................................................................ 3-9

Creating Multi-Topic Data models ........................................................ 3-12


Showing Database Remarks ................................................................ 3-14

Modifying Topic Properties and Item Displays ....................................... 3-16


Modifying a Column Display ................................................................. 3-17

Limiting a Query ..................................................................................... 3-18


Setting a Limit: General Steps.............................................................. Using the Show Values Button ............................................................. Entering Limit Values ........................................................................... Modifying Limits.................................................................................... Custom Values Lists............................................................................. Loading Limit Values from a Text File .................................................. Complex Limits ..................................................................................... Variable Limits ...................................................................................... Using local files .................................................................................... Instructing the Database to Sort the Data ............................................ Estimating Query Sizes ........................................................................ 3-18 3-20 3-20 3-20 3-21 3-22 3-23 3-24 3-24 3-27 3-27

Aggregating Data .................................................................................. 3-32


Setting Limits on Aggregated Items ..................................................... 3-35

Unit 4

Results ................................................................................... 4-1


Reviewing the Results in the Results Section ......................................... 4-2
Reviewing the Results ............................................................................ 4-2 Sorting the Results ................................................................................. 4-3 The Sort Line in the Results Section ...................................................... 4-3

Local Limits .............................................................................................. 4-5 Building a Dataset for Reports ................................................................. 4-7
Query versus Results ............................................................................. 4-7 Example: Datatype Conversions ............................................................ 4-8 Example: Concatenation ...................................................................... 4-10 Example: Left and Right Trim ............................................................... 4-11 Example: Substring .............................................................................. 4-11 Example: Decoding Data...................................................................... 4-12 Example: Replacing Null Values .......................................................... 4-12 Example 1: Concatenating Strings ....................................................... 4-14 Example 2: Date Functions .................................................................. 4-15 Example: Adjusting Real Numbers....................................................... 4-15 Example 4: Cumulative Columns ......................................................... 4-16 Example 5: Numeric Functions ............................................................ 4-17 Example 6: Modifying Text Case.......................................................... 4-19

Exporting the Results Data .................................................................... 4-24 Importing Data Files ............................................................................... 4-25

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Grand Totals and Break Totals .............................................................. 4-26


Grand Totals......................................................................................... 4-26 Break Totals ......................................................................................... 4-28

Tabular Reports ..................................................................................... 4-32

Unit 5

Joins and Limits.................................................................... 5-1


Joining Topics .......................................................................................... 5-2
Auto-Join Feature ................................................................................... 5-2

Automatic Join Path Generator ................................................................ 5-4


Manual Joins .......................................................................................... 5-4 Custom Joins.......................................................................................... 5-6

Overview of All Join Types ...................................................................... 5-7 Simple Equal Join .................................................................................... 5-8 Left Join ................................................................................................. 5-11 Right Join ............................................................................................... 5-12 Outer Join .............................................................................................. 5-13 Self Joins ............................................................................................... 5-14 Complex Data Models Using Left and Right Joins ................................ 5-15 Developing Defined Join Paths .............................................................. 5-17 Local Results ......................................................................................... 5-18 Limit Local Results Join ......................................................................... 5-20

Unit 6

Computed Columns.............................................................. 6-1


Using Computed Columns ....................................................................... 6-2
Logic Notes for Computed Items ............................................................ 6-6

Computed Columns in Results Section ................................................... 6-7 Grouping Columns ................................................................................... 6-9

Unit 7

Pivot Reports......................................................................... 7-1


Creating and Customizing the Pivot Report ............................................. 7-2 Reorganizing the Report .......................................................................... 7-5
Understanding Nested Labels ................................................................ 7-5 Using the Pivot Feature .......................................................................... 7-5

Adding Totals ........................................................................................... 7-7 Surface versus Underlying Values ........................................................... 7-9 Drilling Features ..................................................................................... 7-10
Drill Path Functionality.......................................................................... 7-11

Sorting ................................................................................................... 7-18

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Spotlighting ............................................................................................ 7-20 Cumulative Totals .................................................................................. 7-23 Using Computed Items to Design Calculations ..................................... 7-26
About Computed Items in Pivot ............................................................ 7-26

Exporting Report Sections ..................................................................... 7-33 Chart This Pivot Feature ..................................................................... 7-34

Unit 8

Charts..................................................................................... 8-1
Creating A Chart ...................................................................................... 8-2
Chart Legend.......................................................................................... 8-3

Two-Dimensional Charts ......................................................................... 8-4


Bar Charts .............................................................................................. 8-4

Multidimensional Charts .......................................................................... 8-8


Three-Dimensional Bar Charts ............................................................... 8-8

Drilling into Charts ................................................................................. 8-15 Using Computed Items to Design Calculations ..................................... 8-18

Unit 9

Designing Reports ................................................................ 9-1


Creating and Customizing Using the Report Designer ............................ 9-2
The Structure of Report Designer .......................................................... 9-2 Report Formats ...................................................................................... 9-6

Sorting Reports ...................................................................................... 9-17


Sorting by Formula ............................................................................... 9-18 Data Functions ..................................................................................... 9-18

Print Preview .......................................................................................... 9-24


Finishing Touches ................................................................................ 9-24

Unit 10

The Scheduler ................................................................... 10-1


The Scheduler ....................................................................................... 10-2
What is a Scheduler? ........................................................................... 10-2 About Broadcast Server ....................................................................... 10-2 Job Repositories................................................................................... 10-2 Run Cycles ........................................................................................... 10-8 Resolving Variable Limits ..................................................................... 10-9 Defining Actions ................................................................................. 10-10 Scheduling Patterns and Associated Parameters .............................. 10-17 Job List Fields .................................................................................... 10-21 Monitoring Jobs .................................................................................. 10-21 Modifying Jobs ................................................................................... 10-21 Deleting Jobs...................................................................................... 10-22

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Appendix A Glossary A-1 Appendix B Functions and Operators B-1 Appendix C Application Preferences C-1

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Unit 1

Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Describe the features and benefits of using BrioQuery ! Describe the editions of BrioQuery (Explorer, Designer, Insight,
Quickview)

! Use the Brio workspace (navigation)

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THE FEATURES EXPLORER 6.1

AND

BENEFITS

OF

BRIOQUERY

This unit describes the process of using query and reporting software tools with todays multidimensional and relational databases. It explains how anyone, no matter how nontechnical, can use BrioQuery to quickly access, view, and retrieve data from databases, and then present this data as meaningful information in reports and graphics.

Too Much Data, Not Enough Information


At the core of the modern enterprise is data. Each day, businesses

collect and process oceans of datamuch of which is discarded or ignored because the organization is unable to extract it from the database tables and turn it into meaningful information.
Why has it been so difficult to extract data? Because, until recently, users had to rely on Structured Query Language (SQL) as the sole method of data extraction. SQL involved more learning and labor than most users were willing to exert to extract the data they desired. Consequently, the data remained in databases, untapped. Eventually, this untapped data translated into

missed opportunities and untapped revenues.

Enter BrioQuery
BrioQuery changes all that. BrioQuery is an ad hoc query and reporting
application for client/server database environments. It is very sophisticated, yet relatively easy to use. Using familiar business terms, such as sales and revenue, BrioQuery enables nontechnical users to drag and drop items to formulate sophisticated database queries. BrioQuery accepts these queries, writes the required SQL statements, and then extracts the data. BrioQuery does all the work so business users dont have to become SQL experts to collect and generate expert queries. After the queries are generated, the data is processed and returned to the user. At this stage, the user can use BrioQuerys powerful reporting and analysis tools to examine the data in ways that were previously not possible. The user then presents this information as eye-catching sales reports, inventory analyses, or marketing presentations. Potentially, some of this in-depth analysis can lead to new corporate initiatives, such as tapping new markets that generate new sources of revenue.

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The BrioQuery Process


Step 1: Business Questions An executive formulates a question about a business trend. Step 2: Creating a Query BrioQuery quickly turns the question into SQL statements and sends them to the database.

"Notes

Step 4: Results BrioQuery displays results in tabular format

Step 3:Processing The database processes the BrioQuery instructions and returns the desired data.

Step 5: Visualization The executive then uses BrioQuery reporting tools to present data in different visual formats

Connecting to a Database
The following diagram illustrates the process of connecting to a database, creating and processing a query, and then building various reports:

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"Notes

Reading Data from the Database


BrioQuery read data from data warehouses and report on it. BrioQuery can create a Repository in these data warehouses to store prebuilt data models, queries, and reports. This repository is accessible by anyone. The warehouse also contains tables, which BrioQuery Explorers access to create data models and queries. The following diagram depicts a data warehouse.

The BrioQuery Repository (stores data models, queries and reports)

Database Tables (each table contains specific business data)

The Data Warehouse

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"Notes

With Brio, users can present their information from as many different views and in as many different formats as they want. And at any time, they can reconnect to the server and refresh their reports. Users can also analyze data and produce reports disconnected from the server. They can save results in the desired format for additional refinement in BrioQuery, or even export the data to other applications for further analysis. Disconnected mode lessens users reliance on the computer, decreases computer traffic, and increases individual productivity.

BrioQuery Features and Benefits


BrioQuery provides a range of features and benefits unmatched in any other query and reporting tool of comparable price, including, but not limited to: A modernized workspace with a browser layout that combines pointand-click and drag and drop functionaliy. This gives users a familiar desktop experience and makes Brio quick to learn and easy to use. Source-left, target-right drag and drop content creation. The BrioQuery Repository featuring a library of Data Models, queries, report templates, and style sheets that can be sharedand intelligently deployedenterprise-wide. Repository of prefabricated SQL statements for streamlined query creation. With BrioQuery, users dont have to be SQL experts to create sophistocated queries.

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Resuable data models, called master data models that enable users to create multiple queries within the same document. A new connection wizard that makes accessing a database quick and easy. The capacity to create unions and subqueries to make query building even more flexible and comprehensive than in previous versions. Additional join path functionality, including limit local results join and automatic join path generator. Additional pivot functionality, including statistical and numeric functions, predefined drill paths, and drill to detail analysis of different data relationships More flexibility in apply colors across report components. The capacity to create break totals and grand totals in reports. The Report Designer for advanced reporting functionality that enables users to create professional reports quickly and easily. An updated Outliner, a drag-and-drop template for creating and modifying Table, Pivot, Chart, and Report sections quickly and easily. An easy-to-use charting utility for graphically displaying data, including drill-down analysis Support for Microsoft Windows, the MacOS, Motif (UNIX), HPUX version 11, and AIX 4.2 with complete file compatibility between the platforms Client editions that maintain a consistent interface for the client and administrative editions of BrioQuery, but that provide different levels of access to BrioQuery features. Industry-standard databases support, including AS/400, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Red Brick Warehouse, DB2, OLAP, Teradata and Broadbase. The capacity to access both relationship and multidimensional databases. This takes querying to a new level and enables users to do basic datamining. Extensive online help.

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THE BRIOQUERY EDITIONS


To address the different needs of all end users, BrioQuery 6.0 comes in different editions. This multi-edition structure accommodates users different ways of working with databases, different information needs, and different levels of technical expertise. However, each edition incorporates core query, analysis and reporting features. The different editions include: 1. Navigator new to building simple queries 2. Explorerexperienced data retrievers 3. Designerdatabase administrators 4. Insightuse existing data models 5. Quickviewviewing report data

"Notes

BrioQuery Navigator
Navigator is targeted for users who need access to reports quickly and who need to build queries in a structured environment. These users access the same type of information, do not have a strong technical understanding of databases, and focus on retrieving data. To accommodate these users, the feature set in Navigator is weighted towards information processing and simplified query building. Prebuilt data models, which shield users from complicated database schema, are stored in the BrioQuery Repository, where they are easily accessible. Users select these data models to create their own queries. They then use BrioQuerys reporting and analysis features to massage their data.

BrioQuery Explorer
BrioQuery Explorer is targeted for users who need the additional flexibility of creating data models. These users are sophistocated information seekers who often combine information from different tables or different databases. They understand the database table and join structure and know how to find the information they need. To accommodate these users, Explorer provides the BrioQuery Repository and the Table Catalog. These enable users to access distributed predefined data models or to create their own data models from database tables.

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BrioQuery Designer
BrioQuery Designer is targeted for database administrators who have a solid understanding of Explorer. In addition to their own query needs, they manage the BrioQuery environment by building data models which they distribute to Navigator and Explorer users. The feature set of the Designer edition includes auditing and Repository creation and user and security management. The BrioQuery Repository is a storehouse of prebuilt data models that can be implemented across an enterprise.

BrioQuery Insight
BrioInsight is also targeted for users who lack a technical understanding of databases. Consequently, it is weighted towards information processing. It contains a feature set similar to BrioQuery Navigator. BrioInsight is a plugin for the users browser. Insight users access information through BrioQuery data models created by an administrator. Users use these data models to create their own queries. They can use all of BrioQuerys reporting and analysis features to analyze the data from their own queries and work with resulting datasets.

BrioQuery Quickview
BrioQuickview is targeted to information consumers who need read only access to the prebuilt analyses Charts, Pivots, and reports. Consequently, the feature set is limited to only information report viewing.

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THE BRIOQUERY INTERFACE


With BrioQuery, you work in document files that consolidate the different specifications for querying, analyzing, and presenting data stored on the database server. Each BrioQuery document can include: A data model that graphically represents the database A query that retrieves a subset of data from the database A results set displayed in a spreadsheet-style format Multidimensional pivot reports that permit drill-down analysis of data results Charts that graphically display your query results and enable you to view your data from different perspectives These documents are created in the following BrioQuery workspace. This workspace provides a starting point for all your database operations.

"Notes

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"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer Workspace (Interface)


The BrioQuery workspace, or interface, is a tri-pane window where you create your queries and receive your results.

(1) Section Title Bar The Section Title bar displays the current section.

To hide or close the Section title:


On the View menu, click Section Title Bar.

(2) Section Pane The Section Pane lists all the sections available in a document.

To hide or close the Section pane:


Click the X icon to the right of the Section heading.

To reopen the Section pane:


Click the Section/Catalog icon on the Standard toolbar.

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(3) Content Pane The Content Pane provides a view of the current section (for example, Query, Results, Chart). (4) Catalog Pane The Catalog Pane displays tables, items, reports, or reporting tools. The Catalog appears in a directory tree format (different levels of organized information). NOTE: The Catalog Pane below displays a list of tables in the database.
Only BrioQuery Explorer can access tables. This pane is blank for BrioQuery Navigators.

"Notes

To navigate through the directory tree:


Click the + (plus) and - (negative) signs next to the Table Catalog. Click the + (plus) sign to expand the directory tree, and click the sign to collapse the directory tree. (5) Document Sections Documents consist of the following sections: Query: Database tables are listed in the Catalog pane and data models are displayed in the Content pane. You use the Request line, Sort line, and Limit lines to create queries. OLAP Query: Queries can be built against multi-dimensional databases in this section. Data is returned in this section in a crosstabular report style. Results: Rows of data returned from a query are stored here in a table format. Data can be sorted, limited, computed, and formatted. Table: New tables can be created based on the rows of data stored in the Results section. Pivot: This is a cross-tab report style section where data can be analyzed. Chart: Bar, line, pie, area, ribbon and pareto charts are created here. Report: This section provides free-form structured reporting where multiple result sets are displayed in one report. EIS: This section, the Executive Information System, has a streamlined, push-button approach to querying a database. Graphics can be imported, buttons added, and hotspots scripted to create a customized console which retrieves data and runs reports with a mouse click.

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"Notes

To navigate to a section:
Click the section name in the Section pane of the application. If the Section frame is not displayed, on the View menu, click Section/ Catalog.

To insert a new section:


On the Insert menu, click the section type you want to insert. (6) Toolbars Three toolbars provide quick access to frequently used features.

To toggle a toolbar:
On the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click the (toolbar name). (a) Standard Toolbar The Standard toolbar contains shortcut buttons to the most commonly used operations. The functionality of each icon depends on the

current BrioQuery section. The Standard toolbar is displayed by default.


These buttons include New Document, Open Document, Save Document, Print, Print Preview, Format Painter, Show Section/Catalog, Insert New, Properties, Limit, Sort Descending, Sort Descending, Grand Total, Group Labels, Process, Connect, Disconnect, Back, Forward, Home, and Help. The Standard toolbar:

(b) Format Toolbar The Format toolbar provides buttons to format text in the Results, Pivot, and Chart sections. BrioQuery Explorer and Designer users can rename items and format the appearance of Data Models in the Query section using this toolbar. The Format toolbar:

Formatting buttons include Font Name, Font Size, Bigger Font, Smaller Font, Bold, Italics, Underline, Left Justify, Center, Right Justify, Line Color, Fill Color, Text Color

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(c) Section Toolbars Specific Section toolbars are available in the Chart, Report, and EIS sections. The Chart Section buttons include Chart Type, Set Legend On, and Zoom.

"Notes

The Report Section buttons include Alignment, Make Same Size, Layer, Set Spring, and Zoom.

EIS Section buttons include Design/Run, Alignment, Make Same Size, and Layer.

(7) Command Lines The Request, Sort, and Limit lines are drag-and-drop command lines that enable you to move items and resize objects on your desktop. The Request line is the default. If you hide command lines, the conditions are maintained until you make changes and display the command lines again.

To toggle the command lines:


On the Section Title bar, click (command option). (a) Request Line The Request line appears in the Query section and references the items in the query. You can add items to the query by dragging them from a data model to the Request line. The Request line is expandable and can wrap text to display multiple rows of request columns. The Request Line:

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"Notes

(b) Sort Line The Sort line tracks sort conditions applied data set, and allows you to specify compound and nested sorts. Apply a sort to an item by dragging a Request item to the Sort line. The Sort Line:

(c) Limit Line The Limit line tracks constraints placed on a query. A limit can be applied to an item by dragging a item from the data model in the content area to the Limit line. A Limit line is also available in the Results and Table sections to filter data locally. The Limit Line:

(8) Status Bar The Status Bar is located below the content area and displays live information about data retrieval and the connection status.

To toggle the Status Bar:


On the View menu, click Status Bar.

Outliners Outliners are drag-and-drop templates used in the Table, Pivot, Chart, and Report sections. Each Outliner panel corresponds to a specific layout element of the report. To create reports, drag items from the Catalog into an Outliner panel. Data appears simultaneously in the content area with the appropriate formatting. Also use the Outliner to manage a report. The Outliner lets you add, move, reorder and remove items quickly and easily.

To toggle Outliners:
Click Outliner on the Section Title bar. Table Outliner

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Pivot Outliner

"Notes

Chart Outliner

Report Outliner

Interface components
Interface components, such as toolbars, lines, and Outliners, can be undocked by dragging a docking bar to a new location.

Once a component is undocked, it can be resized. To re-dock, double-click the top of the component. Selection Techniques Brio clients follow standard mouse procedure for selecting items in a series.

To select a contiguous range of items: 1.Click the first item in the range. 2.Hold the [Shift] key and click the last item in the range. The entire
range of items is selected.

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NOTE: You cannot make contiguous item selections in the Chart section.
You have to select each chart object as discontiguous items.

To select discontiguous items:


CTRL-click each item (Windows or Motif), or command-click each item (Macintosh)

More about the BrioQuery Sections


Because the sections are the heart of BrioQuery, its a good idea to familiarize yourself with what they do.

Query Section The Query section is BrioQuery's interface with the database server. From

the Query section, you connect to a database server through database connection files (oce). In the Query workspace, you examine
the informational contents of the database and verify the actual data values. Depending on your edition of BrioQuery, you can use the Query section to either download or build a data model, and to customize it. This is also where you build your query, apply limits, compute and modify items, and process your request. Access to the Open Catalog, Data Modeling features, and the BrioQuery Repository make Query by far the most important section for database administrators using BrioQuery Designer.

Results Section The Results section displays your data set as it appears in the database. Although the query might have accessed several different database tables, the results set is displayed as a consolidated single table. Each requested item is arrayed in a column field with a row for each database record. You use the Results section to verify the accuracy of your query and to refine the data. You can also return to the Query section to refine and reprocess. You can also use the Results section to make changes to your data set before creating reports, format a quick report, or export your data to a second application. You can apply limits to further refine the data set, calculate totals and subtotals, and compute or group new data items.

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Table Section Tables are a subset of the results set, is a new type of report sectionin BrioQuery 6.0. Tables display tabular reports, or data-grid views, and can be formatted in various ways. These reports can be viewed and printed in their own right, or they can be used as building blocks for Report sections, EIS sections, and even other Table reports. Tables are built by introducing items from a Results section in the Catalog Pane or the Table section Outliner. Tables can also be the source for another Table section, becoming a subset of a subset.

"Notes

Pivot Section Pivot reports are analytical tools that resemble spreadsheets or crosstab reports. However, a pivot report overlays a dynamic datacube, which allows data to be sliced and diced for ad hoc, interactive, and multidimensional queries. The Pivot tab quickly performs the most sophisticated computations and ad-hoc analyses with which you can massage your data. You can pivot your data at any time to change the way you view it, or you may drill down to see how it all adds up. Pivot reports also allow you to add, move, rename, focus on and group dimensions to gain customized views of the data. You can use these tools to present data in different context and with heightened emphasis.

Chart Section BrioQuery charts are fully interactive, three-dimensional views of data. Use charts to convert your raw data into dynamic visual information for dramatic impact. With a varied selection of chart types, and a complete arsenal of OLAP

tools like group and drill-down, the BrioQuery Chart tab is built to support simultaneous graphic reporting and ad-hoc analysis. You can change the look and architecture of a chart literally by clicking a button. You can add, move, stack, cluster, repaint, focus on, and drill down into chart objects to gain customized views of the data. You can apply new colors and rearrange axes to view data from a completely different perspective. You can also add charts to Detail reports to complement data values with graphic representations.

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Report Designer The Report Designer retains knowledge about categories and break-style boundaries, the backbone of reporting. The strict adherence to banded report layout of previous versions has been eliminated. This elimination, combined with extended functionality, enables users to create professional reports. The report structure is divided into group headers and body areas, with each body area typically holding a table of data. Tables are created with dimension columns and fact columns. Dimension columns hold text while fact columns hold numeric content. These tables are very flexible: several tables can be inserted into each band and each table can be sourced from the same or different result sets in the document. As with tables, any other Pivot or Chart report can be inserted into the new Report Designer. These components can be introduced into the Group headers or directly into the body of the report. They appear as free-floating objects within the report area, which can be moved anywhere in the report by simply dragging them. Free-form text boxes, computed expressions, a set of predefined computed fields, labels, and graphic objects can be introduced into the report at any location to enrich the content. Because they can relate big picture categories and detailed facts concisely, reports are ideal for comprehensive and summary reporting jobs, lists and forms. You can define nested category layers and view data at any desired breakdown level. Reports also support sophisticated text styling and layout alteration for polished reporting. You can embed graphics to complement the data in your Detail report, including snapshots of Pivot reports and charts! Navigating Between Sections You can easily move between the various sections of your document.

To move to a section
BrioQuery displays the section you selected. As you add reports, BrioQuery provides additional tabs for accessing the different parts of your document.

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Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1

CREATING AN OPEN CATALOG EXTENSION


Each Query section in a document is associated with a database through a small connection file known as an Open Catalog Extension (OCE). These files store connection information such as the database and connectivity software used, routines, instructions, protocols and parameters. They also preserve database-specific connection preferences and specifications for automatic access to metadata. OCEs are generally created by an administrator and distributed to users so that users need only supply a database user name and password each time they log on to query a database. Users choose a particular connection file so that they can log on to various databases and create data models and queries, independent of the BrioQuery Repository. Applications talk to databases through middleware. This middleware is either a database-specific Application Program Interface (API) or a vendorneutral API such as Open Database Connection (ODBC). Databasespecific APIs are often preferable because they enable full use of the database functionality. Most common connection software is supported by BrioQuery. The following table lists the type and version of software that works with BrioQuery. Connections are continually being updated and added periodically. Middleware must be configured before creating an OCE in Brio. If you need help, contact your DBA for more information.

"Notes

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Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1

"Notes

Connection Software

Databases

Platforms

Essbase

4.0

Essbase 4

Win16 Win95 WinNT Win95 Win16 Win95 WinNT Win16 Win95 WinNT WinOS/2 AIX Win16 Win95 WinNT

ODBC

Client Access 0.0 Client Access IBM v3 r6

AS400 AS400 V3 R1 or Greater

Client Application Enabler 2.12

DB2

HIT 3.0

AS400 V3 R1 or Greater

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1


In this topic, you use the BrioQuery Connection Wizard to create a connection file to BrioQuerys sample database.

"Notes

To connect to a sample database OCE 1. In the Welcome to BrioQuery dialog box, click the button for A
New Database Connection File.

2. Click OK. The Database Connection Wizard prompts you for a


connection file. NOTE: This dialog box enables you to create a new connection file or select
a database connection file from a menu list. You can also use the file selector box to open recent document files. When opening a previously used document, BrioQuery automatically uses the connection file that was used to create the document, provided the connection file has not been moved, renamed, or deleted.

a) In the What connection software do you want to use? field, click ODBC as the connection software. b) In the What type of database do you want to connect to? field, click ODBC as the database software. c) Click Next>. The Database Connection Wizard prompts you for a connection file.

3. In the User Name and Password fields, accept blanks, and click
Next>. NOTE: The sample file does not need a user name nor password. When
using your own files, see your database administrator for your user name and password.For security reasons, user passwords are not saved with Ones.

4. In the Host field, click Brio 6.0 Sample. 5. Click Next>. The Database Connection Wizard notifies you that
the connection file will be saved with the extension oce.

6. Click Finish. The BrioQuery dialog box asks you if you want to
save your OCE.

7. Click Yes. The Save Open Catalog dialog box appears. a. In the Name field, type Brio 6.0 Sample 1.oce. b. Click Save. A blank BrioQuery workspace displays an active Query section and the Request, Limit, and Sort Lines.

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Getting Started with BrioQuery 6.1

"Notes

Summary
The concepts introduced in this lesson included: When you open BrioQuery Explorer application, a prompt appears with options to create new documents or open existing documents. The Brio workspace consists of a Section Title bar, Section pane, Content area, and a Catalog pane. Document sections include Query, OLAP Query, Results, Table, Pivot, Chart, Report, and EIS. Toolbars include the Standard toolbar, Formatting toolbar, and Section toolbar. Command lines include the Request line, Sort line, and Limit line. Outliners are available in the Table, Pivot, Chart, and Report sections. The Status bar can be viewed in all sections. Brio clients follow standard mouse procedure for making contiguous and discontiguous selections. Users have the option to use standard menu, speed menu, and keyboard commands to perform a variety of tasks.

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Unit 2

Connecting to a Database

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Describe how to connect to a database ! Connect to an Open Catalog extension (OCE) ! Change the default Open Catalog location

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

CONNECTING

TO A

DATABASE

When a new document is created, at least one connection to a database server is required in order to begin creating a query. Each Query section in a document is associated with a database by way of a connection file. Recall that connection files are also referred to as Open Catalog Extensions, which store connection information such as the database and connectivity software used, routines, instructions, protocols, and parameters. They also preserve database-specific connection preferences and specifications for automatic access to metadata. They are generally created by an administrator and distributed to users.

To create a new document and connect to a database upon opening BrioQuery Explorer: 1. Open BrioQuery Explorer. A Welcome to BrioQuery dialog box
appears.

2. Configure the Welcome to BrioQuery dialog box and click the OK


button.

! In the Create a New Document area, select the Recent Database Connection Files radio button (selected by default) ! Browse and select a connection file or select a file listed in the Recent Database Connection Files list. When a file is selected from the list, the path is displayed in the edit field

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

3. In the connection file dialog box, enter a Host User and Host
Password to logon to the database and click the OK button.

NOTE: Once a document is associated with a connection file, it is fast and


easy to logon and logoff of the database.

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

To get started from within BrioQuery Explorer: 1. On the File menu, click New. 2. In the New File dialog box, select an existing connection file. 3. If the current document is connected to a database, the new
document can automatically log on using an existing connection

4. In the connection dialog box, enter a Host User and Host


Password to logon to the database and click the OK button.

To logon/logoff of the database:


On the Tools menu, point to Connections, then click Logon or Logoff. Alternatively, double-click the connection icon in the Status bar

Once Connected... Once a Query section is connected to a data source, take note of a few things in the application: The connection icon in the Status bar does not have an X through it, indicating an active connection to a data source A Query and Results section are automatically created to begin the querying process A list of Tables is presented in the Catalog pane. Click the + symbol to expand the tree A query is associated with a single connection file. There can be multiple queries in a document, each using a different connection file

Selecting Connection Files If when attempting to connect a query to a data source, the associated connection file cannot be found, the user is prompted to select a connection file.

To connect to a database by selecting a connection file: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Connections and click Select. Select
will be dimmed if the query is already connected to a data source.

2. In the Select Connection dialog box, browse and select a


connection file (*.oce) and click the Open button.

3. Enter a Host User and Host Password to logon to the database


and click the OK button.

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Connecting to a Database

Monitoring Connections
You can monitor your current connection status by observing the connection icon at the lower right on the Status bar. An X over the icon indicates there is no current database connection. The Status bar shows that BrioQuery is not currently connected to a database server. Before attempting to connect, make sure you are not already connected to the database.

"Notes

Connection icon indicating disconnected status.

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

CHANGING LOCATION

THE

DEFAULT OCE

AND

DEFAULT

Unless otherwise directed, BrioQuery automatically looks for the default OCE in the Open Catalog Extension folder or directory. You can change the default location.

Changing the default Open Catalog location 1. Click Tools > Options. 2. In the Program Options dialog box, click the File Locations tab.

3. Browse to a desired file or directory, or type paths directly into the


edit field.

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

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Connecting to a Database

"Notes

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Unit 3

Data Modeling

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Create and use queries ! Create and use data models ! Create a data model consisting of single and multiple topics ! Change topic views ! State how to modify topic and item displays in a data model ! Create a data model that limits the type of data retrieved from the
server

! Determine the number of records a query will receive ! Set query governors to limit the amount of data retrieved from the
server

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Data Modeling

"Notes

CREATING

QUERY

A query is a set of database instructions to retrieve data from a database to answer a specific question. Each row returned in the results set, or response, is an answer to the question. The results might return a few rows or many, depending on the question. A query might also contain a limit, such as, Show me only the data for the week of May 7.

Elements of a Query in BrioQuery


A BrioQuery is made up of several elements: the Request and Limit line items, the aggregate values, and sorting parameters.

Request Line Items and Limits


Your query consists of the column names from which you want to retrieve data, as well as specific limit parameters that you define before you process your query. Limits are necessary in order for your query to return a specific answer set quickly.

Aggregate Values
If you want the returned data to be summarized into groups, you must aggregate the query. That is, you receive a very low level of detail or a summarized results set.

Sorting
You can define how you want the data sorted, or organized, before you process the query. The database then sorts the data and returns it to you. You can also sort the data locally, after the result set is returned. This enables you to look at your data from different perspectives. These are the main components of a query. When building queries, carefully consider each step in the process so that you create effective queries.

The Steps in Creating a Query


Building queries in BrioQuery is very simplistic. There are many easy techniques to help you build the queries, such as drag-and-drop, double-

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click, right-mouse click, toolbars, etc. Below is a quick checklist of steps to follow when creating a query in BrioQuery:

"Notes

1. Retrieve or create a data model. 2. Learn about the data in each of the tables. 3. Set limits in the query. 4. Add column names to the Request line. 5. Aggregate some of the numerical items in the Request line. 6. Define how you want the data to be sorted. 7. Save the query. 8. Process the query.
By following these steps, you should be able to create queries that retrieve just the data you need and run as quickly as possible.

The Query Building Process, an Overview


BrioQuery enables you to easily create effective and efficient queries queries that retrieve just the data you need and that run as quickly as possible. But even though the process is easy to perform and easy to understand, and even though a certain amount of experimentation with your data is desirable, youd be wise to plan your query before you begin. Know what you want to accomplish and know how you want your reports to look.

To create a query: 1. Log On: Start BrioQuery and log on to the database. 2. View and Select: From the workspace, click the Query section>
DataModel > Table Catalog. The Table Catalog list appears in the Catalog Pane. Study the data in each of tables, and then click the tables you want to use in your data model.

3. Design the Query: Build the Request, Limit, and Sort Lines, and
aggregate any data you want summarized.

4. Process the Query: Save the query and then send it to the
database. The database searches the tables in your query and returns the your results set.

5. Massage the Results: Review the Results section to ensure the


results are what you need. Then, resort the data, create additional local limits and new computed columns, and reformat to the data as appropriate.

6. Build Reports: Build a pivot, detail, or chart report using the data
in the Results section (local work).

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Data Modeling

"Notes

CREATING

DATA MODEL

The Data Model Building Process, an Overview


After familiarizing yourself with the database, you typically find it contains many more tables than you need for your query. To limit your query to only the tables you need, you must create a data model.

To create a data model:

1. Access the Table Catalog (in the Catalog Pane) to view the tables
in your database.

2. Drag the tables you need to the workspace where they become
topics.

3. Create joins between the topics as appropriate. 4. Modify a topic or item as appropriate.

Displaying the Table Catalog


The Table Catalog is a list of the tables available on your database. Once connected to a database, you can display the Table Catalog and drag the topics you want to include in a data model to the workspace. After you connect to a database, you can access the Table Catalog. This

catalog displays tables, views, files.

Basic Database Terminology


Data models represent views of database information. These views act as building blocks for queries. They are created by choosing database tables from the Catalog pane and assembling the tables as topics in the Content pane. A data model can consist of one or more topics. Most databases are quite large. It is important to learn what data is stored in each table and how the tables relate to each other. Data can be stored in different types of databases. The most common types include relational (for example, Oracle) and multidimensional (for example, Essbase). Relational databases are designed using a star schema approach with fact and dimension tables. Multidimensional databases store data in a format often referred to as a cube, where measures are pre-calculated.

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Data Modeling Table


A table is the basic unit of data storage in a database. The tables of a database hold all of the user-accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns. Every table is defined with a table name and set of columns. Each column is given a: Column name Data type Length (which may be predetermined by the data type, as in DATE) Once a table is created, valid rows of data can be inserted into it. The table rows can then be queried by users. To enforce defined business rules on the data in the table, integrity constraints can also be defined for a table (See Data Integrity).

"Notes

Adding a Table to the Data Model


After you display the Table Catalog, you start building your data model by adding tables from this catalog to the workspace.

To add a table to the workspace, do one of the following:


Click a table name in the Table Catalog and drag it to the workspace. Double-click a table name in the Table Catalog to automatically position it in the workspace. Right-click a table name in the Table Catalog. A pop-up menu appears. Click Add Selected Items.

To remove a topic on the workspace: 1. Right-click the title bar of a topic. A pop-up menu appears. 2. Click Remove or press Delete on the keyboard.

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Data Modeling

"Notes

CHANGING TOPIC VIEWS

Using Structure View


You can display your topics several different ways including structure view, detail view, and window shade view. Structure view is the default display. A topic in structure view displays the name of the topic and lists the items within the topic. If a topic is in structure view, you can query any item in it.

Using Detail View


Another useful BrioQuery feature that helps you learn about your data is Detail View. Detail View allows you to see ten actual rows of data within the topic.

Detail View
To view actual rows in a database table, convert a topic in a data model to Detail View. The default is to display 10 rows of data; however, an administrator can set this number. Detail View is not available when: the topic contains computed columns an administrator has disabled Detail View for a topic

To change a topic into Detail view:


Right-click the topic title bar and click Detail View To return to the original view (which is referred to as Structure View), right-click the topic title bar and click Structure View

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Data Modeling

"Notes

Structure View Detail View

NOTE: You can widen the columns in the Detail View picture by clicking a
column, placing the cursor on the column divider (or side line), and clicking and dragging the column open. Sometimes, however, as a result of expanding the width of the columns, the titles in the headings disappear. This is because you changed the font size. To correct, click the font icon on the Format toolbar and select a suitable font size.

Using Icon View


Icon View shrinks a selected topic to an icon in the workspace. The topic remains part of the data model, but is deactivated and cannot be accessed by the query. Associated items are removed from the Request line when a topic is iconized, and the topic is not joined to other topics. Use this feature to: Reduce the results set size of a query. Reduce the processing time for a query. Any topics that are left in Structure view that are not part of your query can cause your query to take longer to process. You should always convert a topic into icon view if it is not needed in a query. NOTE: You should always convert a topic into icon view if it is not necessary
in a query. A topic is necessary if it provides the join relationships between other topics. Be careful when using Icon view.

Test a fast query on specific tables or to temporarily remove a topic.

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Data Modeling

"Notes

A data model may be initially presented to you with some topics in Structure view and others in Icon view. To include a topic in the query, double-click its icon. Otherwise, you can leave a topic in icon view.

Structure view

Icon view

Put topics in Icon view if: You arent using any items from that topic in your query (that is, no items from that topic appear on the Request or Limit lines) Your workspace contains a topic that is not part of a relationship (join) between other topics in the workspace.

To put a topic in icon view: 1. Click a topic name. 2. Click DataModel > Topic View > Icon. To restore an iconized topic to the workspace:
Double-click on the icon.

To quickly convert a Topic view to Icon view:


Click the down arrow on the upper right-hand corner of the topic:
Click here to put a topic in Icon view

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Data Modeling

CREATING SINGLE TOPIC DATA MODELS


You create a query against a single topic if you want to: Learn more about the data in a table Create a list from the table (for example, product codes and their descriptions) Build a large query one step at a time

"Notes

Creating a Single Topic Data Model


Building a data model from a single topic requires planning. The process consists of the following steps:

1. Create a data model with one topic 2. Create a Request line 3. Process the query
Next, youll review the process in more detail, one step at a time, and then youll complete an exercise on each step. Youll be introduced to a few tips for building a Request line and for processing a query.

Step 1: Create a Data Model with One Topic


To create a single table data model: 1. Click File > New to create a new file. 2. Log on to the sample database. 3. Click the Table Catalog and expand the list of tables. 4. Drag the desired table to the workspace where it becomes a topic.

Step 2: Create a Request line


After you place the topic in the workspace, you are ready to build a Request line. Notice that the topic contains items, such as Item Id, Dealer Price, and Retail Price. These items correspond to columns in the database. By placing these items in the Request line, you are instructing the database to return all the data from each of these columns to the results set.

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Data Modeling

"Notes

To build the Request line: 1. Click the Query section. 2. Drag items from the topic to the Request line. 3. Reorder the items on the Request line by dragging and dropping
them to different positions within the Request line. NOTE: When dragging items to the Request line (also Sort and Limit lines),
be sure you see the cursor change to the small vertical bar before you drop the item. If you dont do this, the items might appear somewhere else or not appear at all. Drag and drop with care.

Tips for building a Request line


To simultaneously select several items in a topic, use the Shift key for contiguous selection or the Ctrl key (Option key) for noncontiguous selection. Click the items to highlight, and then drag them to the Request line in one step. To remove Request line items, drag the items off the Request line. To remove all the items on the Request line, right-click Request. A pop-up menu appears. Click Remove. To rearrange items on the Request line, drag and drop them to new positions. To remove a topic from the data model, right-click the title of that topic. A pop-up menu appears. Click Remove. Any items on the Request line from that topic will also be removed from the query. To add an item anywhere in the Request line, do one of the following: a) Drag and drop the item on to the Request line. b) Highlight an item in a topic and click Query > Add Request Item(s). c) Right-click on an item and then select Add Selected Items(s).

Process the Query


When you are satisfied with your query, click Process to activate the query. Processing translates your query into SQL (Structured Query Language) and sends it to the database to which you are connected. After the database has processed your query, the results are returned to you in the Results section.

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Data Modeling
To process a query:

1. Click Save on the Standard toolbar.


The Save File dialog box is displayed.

"Notes

2. Select the desired folder and type the name of the document. 3. Click Save. 4. Click Process on the Standard toolbar. Alternatively, click Tools >
Process Query >Current. NOTE: During retrieval, the Status bar dynamically displays the row count,
which indicates the status of processing and network transfer.

Tips for processing queries


You can read the number of rows on the Status bar. You can always return to the Query section from another section by clicking Query in the Query section. You can always return to the Query section and modify the query. You should execute single topic queries only on relatively small tables. If a table is large, you must first set limits on the data.

Cancelling Queries
If the Status bar indicates rows are being retrieved to the desktop, you can cancel the query.

To cancel a query:
Simultaneously press and hold the Alt and End keys on your keyboard until the query is cancelled. NOTE: If the database server is performing computations prior to sending
the data across the network, you can only cancel the query if you are using an asynchronous API, such as Open Client.

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Data Modeling

"Notes

CREATING MULTI-TOPIC DATA

MODELS

Create a query that displays the Order Date, Quarter, Amount, Store and Item Name for each sale.

1. Click DataModel > Data Model Options > General Tab and
ensure that Auto-join tables is checked.

2. From the Table Catalog, drag Pcw Customers, Pcw. Sales, Pcw
Items, and Pcw Periods to the workspace.

3. Manually, join Pcw Periods to Pcw Sales by clicking Order Date in


Pcw Sales and dragging it to Day in Pcw Periods.

4. Drag Order Date, Quarter, Amount, Store, and Item Name to the
Request line. The Request line looks like this:

5. On the Standard toolbar, click Process. After processing, the


Results set should contain 1005 rows:

6. Go back to the Query section. 7. Right-click Request. A pop-up menu appears. Click Remove. The
Request line is cleared.

8. Click File > Save As and save this data model as


brioquery\samples\datamod1.bqy. Note the location of this file because you will use it again. NOTE: Saved data models can be used to access frequently used sets of
topics.

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Data Modeling

Saving Documents
Documents can be saved locally or on a file server for future use. Saving a document is similar to saving other application files. Content from all sections is saved. The following saving options are available: Save the results of your query with the document Save the document in a compressed format. This results in smaller file sizes which saves valuable storage space and enables the document to be quickly transmitted. The decompression of the compressed file happens automatically when the document is reopened. Brio clients can be configured to save all documents in compression file format by globally enabling the Compress All Documents option Password protect a document. Users must enter a password to open the document.

"Notes

To save a new document: 1. On the File menu, click Save As. 2. In the Save File dialog box, select a directory, enter the name of the
file, choose a file type and click the Save button.

To save the document in a compressed format:


On the File menu, point to Save Options and click Compress Document. A check mark is displayed next to the Compress Document feature

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Data Modeling

"Notes

To configure all documents to save in compression file format: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options and click Program Options. 2. In the General tab, choose Compress all documents and/or
Create new documents compressed.

To save the results with a document: 1. On the File menu, point to Save Options and click Save Results
With Document.

2. In the Save Results With Document dialog box, click the check
boxes for the queries for which to save results and click the OK button.

Showing Database Remarks


Database remarks function similarly to context-sensitive help by displaying information about selected topics or items, and can be very helpful when creating queries. Remarks often include descriptive text, date last updated, and information about where the data originated. If an administrator has not configured the connection file to look up remarks, then you will not be able to do this.

To display a remark for a topic or item:


Right-click the topic title bar or an item and click Show Remarks

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Data Modeling

"Notes

MODIFYING TOPIC PROPERTIES

AND ITEM

DISPLAYS

Sometimes you need to modify the topics or items to streamline your queries.

Modifying Topic Properties


You modify topic properties when you want to: Rename a topic Reorder the items in a topic Hide or display items in a topic Enable or disable a Detail view Enable or disable Icon view

To modify topic properties: 1. Click the title bar of a topic. 2. Click Properties on the Standard toolbar.
The Topic Properties dialog box appears.

3. Configure the dialog box:


a) In the Topic Name field, type the new name for the topic you want changed. b) Click Hide All, or click the asterisk for any item you want hidden. c) Click Sort if you want to rearrange items alphabetically. d) Click Allow Icon View if you want this option.

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e) Click Allow Detail View if you want this option, and then type the number of rows to be displayed. Finally, click Cause Reload to query the database again.

"Notes

Modifying a Column Display


You can view an item to learn more about it or to change its name. When you view an item, the following information is displayed: Datatype Length Name of item Primary Key information Foreign Key information Index information NOTE: If you are not using server defined joins with Auto-join enabled, the
information displayed beside Primary Key, Foreign Key, and Index is irrelevant and not correct.

To modify an item: 1. Click the item name in the topic display. 2. Click Properties on the Standard toolbar. The Topic Item
Properties dialog box appears.

3. View item information. 4. Type new names for any items you want renamed, and then click
OK.

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Data Modeling

"Notes

LIMITING

QUERY

Most queries require that a limit be set on the data to be retrieved. Database tables usually contain large amounts of data and users want to avoid requesting unnecessary information. Before processing a query, make sure that all of the appropriate limits are set in the Query section. In the Query section, users can: query a database for possible limit values manually specify limit values create custom lists of limit values obtain limit values from a text file define compound limit formulas on the Limit line set limits as variable to prompt the user to select values

Setting a Limit: General Steps


To set a limit in a query: 1. Click Limit on the Section Title bar in the Query section to display
the Limit line.

2. Drag a topic item to the Limit line. The Limit dialog box appears.

3. Configure the Limit dialog box and click the OK button. The limit is
set and the item is added to the Limit line. Choose a logical operator from the pull-down list

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Click the Show Values button to display database values associated with the item or enter values (separated by commas) in the Edit field Select one or more values depending on the comparison operator. For example, when using "=", select as many values as needed. When using "between", select two values. When using ">=", however, select only one value

"Notes

Field Definitions Available fields and options for the Limit dialog box are: Option
Ignore Include Null Operator Not Edit

Function
Suspends a limit temporarily without deleting it. Toggles the inclusion/exclusion of null values. Choose a logical operator for use in a limit equation. Reverses the effect of an operator (for example, Not >= is equivalent to <). Enter a value (or multiple values separated by commas), and click the green check mark button to add them to the custom values list to complete the limit definition. Click the red x button to erase the contents of the Edit field.

Show Values and Transfer

Retrieves all potential values associated with the item from the database. This allows users to consider and select from the actual range of values when applying a limit. Transfer adds selected values to the custom list. Show Values cannot be used in the Query section for limits on computed, aggregate or computed meta topic items. Displays a list of potential values saved with the limit or read from a file. This feature enables users to select values from a pre-defined pool. Users can create and save a custom list with each limit. Displays the Custom SQL dialog box for coding limits directly in SQL. Selects all values displayed in the values panel.

Custom Values

Custom SQL Select All

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"Notes

Option
Remove Advanced

Function
Removes selected values from a custom list or a limit. Toggles a Custom Values list to be read from a file or from the database. Use Change File to read values from a different file. If values are read from a text file, each value must be delimited by vertical tabs or paragraph markers. Read from the file using Show Values.

Using the Show Values Button


When the Show Values button is selected in the Limit dialog box, the database is queried for a list of possible unique values for that particular item. This feature makes it possible to set limits accurately without being familiar with the contents of the database. Because the Show Values feature retrieves every unique value available, it is best not to use this feature in the Query section when there is a large number of possible database values. Show Values cannot be used for limiting computed or aggregate items.

Entering Limit Values


Limit values can be manually entered in the Limit dialog box. This essentially creates a list of Custom Values. Enter values as opposed to using the Show Values button for items that rarely change.

Modifying Limits
Limits can always be modified by double-clicking them on the Limit line and reconfiguring the Limit dialog box. Beware in the case of the Show Values mechanism. When a Limit item is reopened and Show Values was last selected, the database is automatically re-queried to refresh the values list. This can add time when modifying limits. If limit values are entered into the Limit dialog box, then the next time the limit is altered, the limit values are instantly presented because they are stored locally with the document. An advantage to entering limit values in the Limit dialog box is that it reduces the time required to alter limits because the values are stored with the document.

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Data Modeling

Custom Values Lists


The Custom Values feature enables users to select values from a predefined pool in the Limit dialog box. Limit values can be manually entered to create a Custom Values list or values from a data source can be queried and copied into a Custom Values list. Create Custom Values lists if the possible values for an item rarely change since it is more efficient to select values from a list than to continuously query to show database values. Another advantage is that using Custom Values lists reduces the time required to alter limits because the list is stored with the document.

"Notes

To create a custom values list and apply a limit: 1. Drag a topic item to the Limit line or drag a computed Request item
to the Limit line. The Limit dialog box appears.

2. Choose a logical operator from the pull-down list. 3. Query limit values or enter limit values: ! Enter a value (or values, separated by commas) in the Edit field
and click the green check mark, or

! Click the Show Values button to display database or file values


associated with the item

4. Click the Select All button or select one or more values from the list
and click the Transfer button to copy the values to a Custom Values list.

5. Select one or more values depending on the comparison operator.

6. When the desired values are highlighted in the values panel, click
the OK button. The limit is applied to the item and an icon is added to the Limit Line.

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"Notes

Loading Limit Values from a Text File


Limit values can be obtained from a text file (*.txt). Values in the text file must be separated by carriage returns, and not by tabs or commas.

To load limit values from a text file: 1. Drag a topic item to the Limit Line or drag a computed Request item
to the Limit Line. The Limit dialog box appears.

2. Choose a logical operator from the pull-down list. 3. Click the Advanced button. 4. Click the Load From File radio button.

5. In the Select Limit File dialog box, browse to a directory, select a


limit file (*.txt file) and click the Open button.

6. Click the Show Values button to display the values in the limit file. 7. Select one or more values depending on the comparison operator
and click the OK button. The limit is applied to the item and an icon is added to the Limit Line.

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Data Modeling

Complex Limits
Use the Limit Line in the Query section to apply more than one limit to a single item, or create complex conditions dependent on more than one constraint. The Limit Line provides AND and OR Boolean operators as well as parentheses, which are used to control the order of operations on the Limit Line. The second instance of an item on the Limit Line displays a 2 next to the item name, and so on. NOTE: The OR operator and parentheses are not available in the Results
section.

"Notes

The following rules of syntax apply to all Limit Line expressions. When creating a complex limit, be sure to verify that the expression is delivering the correct results. The AND operator retrieves data that meets both conditions To retrieve data which satisfies either of two conditions, use the OR operator By default, equations are solved from left to right, with enclosed suboperations evaluated first. AND is evaluated before OR Sub-operations override the default evaluation order, and may be required for certain operations involving both AND and OR operators

To create complex Limit Line expressions: 1. Drag two or more topic items to the Limit Line and apply individual
limits using the Limit dialog box. An AND operator appears between each item on the Limit Line.

2. Click the small arrow at the left edge of the Limit Line. The Limit Line
is adjusted to display the Limit Line control buttons.

3. Select from the limit controls to complete the equation: ! Switch Boolean operators AND and OR by clicking the operator ! Enclose sub-operations by selecting items to be enclosed and
clicking the parentheses () button. To remove parentheses, right-click and click Remove
between March 1st and 31st, 1999.

between January 1st and 31st, 1999.

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"Notes

Variable Limits
A variable limit is a preset limit that is resolved when a query is processed. At that time, a user is prompted to select or enter limit values to complete the constraint. Using variable limits eliminates the need for multiple queries using different limit values. This enables administrators to deploy one query, versus several. Variable limits work particularly well with Custom Values lists. If a Custom Values list is created, a user can respond to the prompt by simply selecting a value from the list. Each time a document is processed, limit values are selected rather than manually redefined each time.

To establish a variable limit: 1. Display the Limit Line in the Query section. 2. Click the small arrow at the left edge of the Limit Line to display the
extension.

3. Select a Limit item and click the Var button on the Limit Line
extension.

! The Limit item is displayed with a V(1) beside it, indicating a


variable limit

! If other limit items are variable, they are displayed with V(2),
V(3), etc. to indicate the order in which the user is prompted to respond to the Variable Limit dialog box when the query is processed

Using local files


In addition to adding a BrioQuery document to a data model, a local file may be included as a topic. Supported file types are XLS, TXT, and CSV.

Adding a local file as a topic


Create a text file with a few Store Ids and Names. Import the text file into BrioQuery as a topic and query the Pcw Sales topic with the text file.

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Data Modeling
Part I. Create a small text file in a word editor containing Store Ids and Store Names:

"Notes

1. Open Notepad by selecting Start > Programs > Accessories >


Notepad. Type Store Id <tab> Store as the first row in the text file. These headings will become the items in the topic in BrioQuery. Click Enter on your keyboard.

2. Next, type:
a) 2 <tab> Computer City <Enter> b) 3<tab> Office Mart <Enter> c) 8 <tab> Discount Electronics The text file should look like this:

3. Click File > Save As and save the text file as Names.txt in the
brioqry\samples directory. Part II. Create a BrioQuery document that imports the Names.txt file as a topic.

1. Start a new query in BrioQuery. 2. Log on to the sample database. 3. Click DataModel > Table Catalog. 4. Add Pcw Sales to the workspace. 5. Right-click the Table Catalog, and then click Local Results. An
Import Query File dialog box appears. The Files of Type popup menu appears.

6. Click Tab delimited File (*.txt) in Browse and select the file named
Names.txt, and then click OK. A Names.txt topic is displayed on the

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"Notes

workspace beside Pcw Sales:

7. Manually join Store Id in the Names.txt topic to Store Id in the Pcw


Sales topic.

8. Add Store Id and Store from the Names.txt topic to the Request
line.

9. Add Item Id, Units, and Amount from the Pcw Sales topic to the
Request line.

10.Click Process. Since the data is already stored in the Names.txt


file, you will not be prompted to log on to a database for the imported file. 107 rows will be returned to you:

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Data Modeling

Instructing the Database to Sort the Data


Use the Sort line in the Query section to instruct the database to sort the data before it is returned. It is possible to define nested sort conditions. The database sorts items on the Sort line from left to right. Only items on the Request line can be included on the Sort line.

"Notes

To instruct the database to sort Request items: 1. Click Sort on the Section Title bar to view the Sort line. 2. Drag the items to sort from the Request line to the Sort line.
Alternatively, select Request items and click one of the sort icons on the Standard toolbar.

Drag Request items to the Sort line.

3. Double-click a Sort item to toggle ascending and descending sort


orders. Alternatively, select a Sort item and click the Sort Ascending or Sort Descending icon on the Standard toolbar.

4. When the query is processed, the database sorts the data and then
returns it.

Estimating Query Sizes


Use the Estimate Query Size feature to query the database for the number of records a query will retrieve. Use this feature to test questionable queries and postpone processing huge results sets during peak network periods.

To estimate the size of a query:


On the Query menu, click Estimate Query Size Variable limits need to be resolved before the Query Count dialog box displays the results

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"Notes

NOTE: Query Size is not available when the Custom SQL window is in use.

Query Properties
When working with very large or unfamiliar databases, occasionally a query takes a long time to process or it returns more data than is manageable. To prevent problems under these conditions, set a temporary constraint on the query by modifying the query properties. NOTE: A distributed data model may include query restrictions set by an
administrator. If additional query restrictions are set by the user, the more restrictive setting takes precedence.

To modify query properties: 1. On the Query menu, click Query Options. A Query Properties
dialog box appears.

2. Set the desired restrictions for the current query and click the OK
button.

Field Definitions Available fields and options for this dialog box are: Fields and Options
Return Unique Rows Return First ___ Rows

Definition
Select the check box to eliminate duplicate rows from the data set retrieved by the query. Select the check box and enter a value in the adjacent field to limit the number of database rows retrieved.

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Fields and Options


Time Limit ___ Minutes

Definition
Select the check box and enter a value in minutes to limit the time the query is allowed to run. Seconds are entered as a decimal number. Time limits work for asynchronous database connections, and cancel at the earliest opportunity for non-asynchronous connections. Select the check box to customize the Group By criteria used to compute aggregate Request items, with selected items not factored into the grouping. This feature is available only when a data function is placed on a Request item. (Red Brick Warehouse database only) Select the check box to specify a Standard Query to be processed automatically on download from the Repository. (BrioQuery Designer only)

"Notes

Custom Group By

Auto-Process

Processing Queries
Since multiple queries can exist in a document, there are three processing options on the Standard toolbar: Process Current processes the query that is currently active Process All processes every query in the document. If a query is not connected to a database, users are prompted to logon Process Custom opens a Process Custom dialog box and enables users to choose specific queries to process Once a query is created, it is ready to be processed by the database. Processing requires a database connection. Queries may process quickly or take a while, depending on what the database is requested to do, the number of users running queries on the database and how busy the network traffic is at that moment. When the data is retrieved, the Results section displays it in tabular form. If the Results set was not what was needed, the query can be modified and reprocessed at any time. NOTE: An administrator can disable the Process button (via a setting in the
connection file) if topics in a data model are not properly joined. This may happen if users remove a topic in a data model and it is needed to join two other topics together.

To process a query:
Click the Process button on the Standard toolbar

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"Notes

During retrieval, the Status bar displays a dynamic row count indicating the rate and progress of database processing and network transfer

To cancel a query:
Simultaneously press and hold the [Alt] and [End] keys on the keyboard until the query is cancelled (For Macintosh, press [Command]+[.(period)]) NOTE: If the database is performing computations prior to sending the data
across the network, the query can only be cancelled if an asynchronous API, such as Open Client is used.

To process multiple queries:


Select Process All or Process Custom on the Standard toolbar

If Process Custom is selected, a Process Custom dialog box appears. Click the check boxes beside particular queries and click the OK button

Multiple Queries per Document


Documents can contain multiple queries; that is, multiple Query sections.

BrioQuery Explorer

To add a new query to a document: 1. On the Insert menu, click Insert New Query. 2. In the Auto Logon dialog box, select a connection file in the pulldown menu and click the Yes button. A new Query and Results section is created.

! If the Auto Logon dialog box does not provide the proper
connection file, click the No button

! In the Insert Query dialog box, browse and select the


connection file needed and click the OK button

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"Notes

AGGREGATING DATA
Aggregating the data means summarizing numerical values before the data is returned to the Results section. Examples of aggregate functions are sum, average, count, minimum, maximum, and weighted average. These functions reduce your result set to fewer rows, which provide an overview of your business data. This is particularly helpful when you want to look only at totals. NOTE: The Pivot and Chart sections automatically aggregate data. Do not
aggregate data at the server if you plan to drill down

Calculating a sum Amount


Build a query that instructs the database to calculate the sum Amount for each Store. Part I. Run the query without aggregating the Amount column:

1. In the Query section, right-click on the Request line and click


Remove to clear the line. Right-click on the Limit line, and then click Remove to clear the line.

2. Drag Store Id and Store from the Pcw Customers topic to the
Request line.

3. Drag Amount from the Pcw Sales topic to the Request line. 4. Click Process.

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You will notice that each customer has placed several orders. You should retrieve 1005 rows:

"Notes

Part II. Return to the query section and aggregate the Amount column. You will notice a significant difference in rows returned.

1. Click the Query section. 2. Right-mouse click Amount and choose


Data Function > Sum. The Request line looks like this:

3. Click Process.

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"Notes

Sales for each store are summed by the database. You should retrieve 31 rows:

Part III.Test other data functions available.

1. Click the Query tab to return to the Query section. 2. Right-click on Amount and choose
Data Function > Average or Count.

3. Click Process. 4. Return to the Query section and change the aggregate function on
Amount back to Sum. Part IV. Add in another Request line item.

1. Drag Item Type to the Request line. 2. Click Process. 3. Position Item Type Column between Store and Amount.

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Data Modeling
Now the data is broken down further by Item Type. You should retrieve 180 rows:

"Notes

Setting Limits on Aggregated Items


In the Query section you can set a limit on an aggregated item in the Request line.

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"Notes

Setting limits on aggregated items


Suppose you wanted to return only the stores that had sales greater than $50,000 for any Item Type. Use the previous query and create a limit on SUM(Amount).

1. Your Query section should look like this before you continue.

2. Drag SUM(Amount) from the Request line down to the Limit line. 3. In the Limit dialog box, type 50000 and click the greater than (>)
operator from the pull-down list. Click the green check mark, and then click OK.

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Data Modeling The Limit line should show the aggregated limit on the right:

"Notes

4. Click Process. You will notice each row contains a sales amount
greater than $50,000. You should retrieve 5 rows.

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"Notes

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Unit 4

Results

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Review the results with the results stored in a new table on a database. ! Manipulate data retrieved from the server using the Results tab

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"Notes

REVIEWING

THE

RESULTS

IN THE

RESULTS SECTION

In the Results section, you can: Verify that your query returned the correct information. Refine and extend the data set by applying limit conditions or creating new computed or grouped items. Sort, or use text and column formatting features, to enhance the appearance of data results. Add summary totals or subtotals and compute them with data functions. Print or export the retrieved data to spreadsheets and other applications. Retain the data set with the BrioQuery document for off-line work. NOTE: This can be done in disconnected mode.

Reviewing the Results


When you process a query, BrioQuery retrieves data to your desktop and displays it in the Results section. The Request line remains the same, but each data item you requested now appears as a column of data in a table.

Reviewing the results


Build a simple query and examine the results set.

1. Click File > Open and select datamod1.bqy from the


brioqry\samples directory.

2. Log on to the database. 3. Drag Year Number, State, Item Type, Item Name, and Units to
the Request line.

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Results 4. Click Process. You should retrieve 1005 rows.

"Notes

5. Double-click on the connection icon in the lower right corner of the


display to disconnect form the database.

Sorting the Results


BrioQuery performs simple or complex sorts with the local data set after the query has been processed. When you sort in the Results section, you sort the data on your desktop.

To quickly apply a sort criteria


Sort the data in ascending or descending order to single or multiple columns in the Results section.

1. Click the columns you needed to sort. Make sure to highlight


multiple columns in the order you wish them to be sorted.

2. Click the ascending


Standard toolbar.

or descending

Sort button on the

The Sort Line in the Results Section


When you sort more than one data item at a time, the left to right order of data on the Sort line dictates the sort order and creates a nested effect. The item on the left of the Sort line is sorted first. Then items to the right are sorted in progression, each within the categories of the preceding item. The difference between using the Sort line and using the Sort buttons is that with the Sort line option, you can apply ascending or descending sort criteria to each item on the Sort line before you initiate the Sort. Using the Sort buttons allows you to sort multiple items at the same time, however, it restricts you to one sort criteria for all items.

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"Notes

To use the Sort line in Results 1. Click Sort if the Sort line is not already displayed. 2. Drag items from the Request line or the workspace and place them
in the order you want them to be sorted on the Sort line. NOTE: Double-click items on the Sort line to toggle between ascending and
descending sort orders. A (D) indicates a descending order sort.

3. Click the Sort Now button. To clear or remove all items on the Sort line 1. Click Sort on the Sort line. 2. Click Remove on the Standard toolbar. Sorting items in descending order
Using the Sort line, sort Year Number, State, Item Type, and Units (descending order).

1. Richt-click the Sort line in the Results section and click Remove on
the Standard toolbar to clear the Sort line.

2. Drag Year Number, State, Item Type, and Units to the Sort line. 3. Double-click on Units in the Sort line to apply a descending sort. 4. Click Sort Now.
Your results set is reordered:

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Results

LOCAL LIMITS
Set limits on columns in a table report to filter the data displayed. Table section limits are in addition to the limits set in the Results section. Keep in mind that limits applied in a Table section are also applied to other reports that stem from a Table section. Limits can be suspended or deleted to return data to the display and make it available for reporting. The Status bar displays the total number of rows in the table report, with limits applied. Only one limit per column can be applied.

"Notes

To limit data in a table report: 1. Double-click a column in a table report. A Limit dialog box appears. 2. Configure the limit dialog box:
a) Choose a logical operator from the pull-down list b) Create a Custom Values list by supplying a value (or values, separated by commas) in the Edit field and clicking the green check mark button c) Alternatively, click the Show Values button to display column values and select one or more values depending on the comparison operator

3. When the values are highlighted in the values panel, click the
OK button. The limit is applied to the column and the column name is added to the Limit line.

To remove a limit in a table report: ! Right-click a Limit item and click Remove

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"Notes

To remove all limits in a table report: ! Right-click Limit on the Limit line and click Remove

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Results

BUILDING

DATASET

FOR

REPORTS

"Notes

Since each report section has the capability of creating computed items, many basic calculations can be done within the report section. Some calculations, such as equations using aggregated values, must be done in a report section. With this in mind, the next topic is about creating computed items in the Results section or Query section. A computed item must be created in these sections if the: computed item is needed in multiple reports, and the user only wants to create it once computed item needs to use data at a lower level of granularity than the report sections can provide formula to create the computed column is not available in a report section

Query versus Results


When do you create a computed item in the Query versus the Results section? In some cases, it does not matter. Here are some points to consider. Computed items defined in the Query section are calculated by the database. Computed items defined in the Results section are calculated internally by the Brio client. If the database supports a function that the Brio client does not, then the computed item must be created in the Query section. If the function is available in both, then both are options Creating new items in the Results section can be done off-line Often it is useful to make small modifications to Request items in the Query section before using them in the new Results section columns. For example, changing the datatype of a Request item or replacing null values so that the item can be used in local calculations

Query Section
In the Query section, Request items can be modified or new items added. Both are considered computed items. Computed items in the Query section can reference any topic item in the data model, as well as items on the Request line (some of which may be computed).

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"Notes

To compute or modify a Request item in the Query section: 1. Right-click the Request button on the Request line and click Add
Computed Item.

! To modify a Request item, from the Request line, doubleclick on it

2. Configure the Modify Item (or Item Properties) dialog box and click
the OK button.

! Rename the item to reflect the result of the computation in the Name field ! Define the new item by building an equation in the definition area
a) Click the Functions button to apply database functions. Refer to Appendix B for a listing of database-specific functions b) Click the Reference button to select topic items and Request items, as part of the definition c) Use the operator buttons to include arithmetic and logical operators into the definition

Example: Datatype Conversions


NOTE: Datatypes can be explicitly set in a computed items dialog box, via
the Options button. Use this option for simple conversions.

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Results
In general, expressions cannot contain values of different datatypes; therefore, sometimes it is necessary to convert a value from one datatype to another. This can be done using SQL functions. Some databases interpret the SQL and automatically convert datatypes (for example, Oracle). Automatic datatype conversion can have a negative impact on performance, especially if the datatype of a column value is converted to that of a constant rather than the other way around. It is recommended that conversions be specified to ensure the SQL is correctly interpreted and to avoid impacting database performance. Common SQL conversions include: From (Datatype)
Char Number Date

"Notes

To (Function)
Number: (TO_NUMBER) Date: (TO_DATE) Char: (TO_CHAR) Date: (TO_DATE) Char: (TO_CHAR) Number: (TO_CHAR)

Julian Date: The number of days since January 1, 4712 B.C. use the format character, J

! example: January 1, 2000 = 2451545


NOTE: The following conversions refer to Oracles datatype conversion
methods.

TO_CHAR Converts a date or number datatype to a varchar2 datatype. When converting a date, if a date format is not specified, the default date format is used.

Syntax: to_char(input, format) Examples: ! Converting a date to a standard date format: TO_CHAR(opened_date, 'Month DD, YYYY') ! Converting a date to a Julian date format: TO_CHAR(opened_date, J) ! Converting a number: TO_CHAR(product_sku) ! Converting a number or character value into a roman numeral (only numbers between 1 and 3999 possible): TO_CHAR(Year, RN) BrioQuery 6.1 Student Guide 4-9

Results

"Notes

! Converting a number or character value into scientific notation: TO_CHAR(Measurement, 9.9EEEE)


TO_DATE Converts a character (char or varchar2) or number datatype into a date datatype. If a date format is not specified, the item to be converted must be in the default date format. If the format specified is 'J', for Julian, then the item to be converted must be an integer. Syntax: to_date (input, format) Examples:

! Converting a character to a date: TO_DATE(SHIP_DATE,'Month dd, YYYY'), where an example of a SHIP_DATE is June 30, 1999 ! Converting a Julian date to a regular date format: TO_DATE(DAY_KEY,J)
TO_NUMBER Converts a character (char or varchar2) datatype to a number datatype in a specified number format. Syntax: to_number (input, format) Example:

! converting character data so that it can be manipulated mathematically: to_number(employee_age)

Example: Concatenation
CONCAT (Concatenation) Returns a string with two strings spliced together. The double pipes character operator (||) enables multiple strings to be concatenated together; whereas, the CONCAT function splices together two strings only.

! Not all databases support the use of double pipes ! Some implementations of SQL use the plus sign (+) to concatenate strings
Using Pipes (||) To concatenate City, State, and Country together, use the formula: Stores.City||', '||Stores.State_Province||', '|| Regions.Country

! Notice the comma is enclosed in single quotes


Using chr(10)

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Results
Use chr(10) to concatenate a carriage return. This is useful when creating mailing lists. For example: Stores.Store_Manager || chr(10) || Stores.City || ', ' || Stores.State_Province || chr(10) || Stores.Postal_Code returns as one string: Store Manager City, State Province Postal Code

"Notes

Example: Left and Right Trim


LTRIM (Left Trim) Returns a string with specific characters removed from the beginning. For example, this function can be used to remove leading zeros in a phone number: LTRIM ( Stores.Phone_Number,'0' ) NOTE: Not all databases support the second argument option. If this is the
case, only leading blank spaces can be removed.

RTRIM (Right Trim) Returns a string with specific characters removed from the end. For example, to trim blank spaces from the end of Store Name: RTRIM ( Stores.Store_Name )

Example: Substring
SUBSTR (Substring) Returns a portion of an input string beginning at a specified starting point and has a defined length. For example, to create an item containing the first three characters (digits) of a phone number string:
substring (312/989-9989,1,3)= 312

NOTE: If a negative number is used as the second argument, the starting


point is determined by counting backwards from the end. For example, if -2 is used, the starting point is the second to the last character in the string.

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"Notes

Example: Decoding Data


DECODE The decode function compares character data to a defined value. If there is a match, it returns a specified value, otherwise it returns a default specified value. Syntax: DECODE (column name, search value, resulting value, default value) Examples: To convert values in the weekend_flag column: DECODE (weekend_flag, 1, Weekend, Workday) To convert values in an answer column: DECODE ( Num_Test.Roman_Num,1, 'Yes', 2, 'No', 3, 'Maybe', 'Undecided')

Example: Replacing Null Values


A null value is absent of data. Null values can be replaced with visible values using the NVL (Null Value Replacement) function.

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NVL (Null Value Replacement) NVL substitutes null data in a column with a value. For example, to substitute null values with tbd for stores that do not have a remodel date, the definition is: NVL ( Stores.Remodel_Date, ' tbd ' )

"Notes

Results and Table Sections


Many of the computed items available in the Query section are also available in the Results (and Table) section. If the database queried does not support a particular function needed, try creating the item locally, using an internal function instead. One major advantage to creating computed items locally is that it can be done off-line. Creating computed items is identical in the Results and Table sections. Both sections can be used to provide new data to the report sections; however, use the Results section to compute new data and reserve the Table section for building tabular-style reports. Computed items appear as new columns in a Results section. In a computed item, new values are calculated for each row. Data in the Results and Table sections is at its lowest level of granularity. Common computations include: Manipulating string values. For example, concatenating a first name and a last name Creating additional data information using the Date Groups feature Creating hierarchical data using the Grouping Columns feature

To create a computed item in a Results or Table section: 1. Create a query and process it. 2. In the Results or Table section, right-click in the Content pane and
click Add Computed Item.

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"Notes

3. Configure the Computed Item dialog box and click the OK button. ! Rename the item to reflect the result of the computation in the Name field ! Define the new data item by building an equation in the definition box
a) Click the Functions button to apply internal functions b) Click the Reference button to select items to use in the definition. Reference items are limited to those in the query c) Use the operator buttons define arithmetic and logical equations d) The definition can be manually entered, if desired. Replace spaces in item names with underscores (_) NOTE: Refer to Appendix B for a complete listing of internal functions.

Example 1: Concatenating Strings


Strings can be concatenated in the Results (or Table) section. Use the CONCAT function to join two strings together. Use the plus symbol (+) to join multiple items together. Examples: To create a Location column: Store_Name + ', ' + City + ', ' + State_Province

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Results
To concatenate Store Key and Region Key using the concat function: Concat ( Store_Key, Region_Key )

"Notes

Example 2: Date Functions


There are several internal date functions available. These are listed under Date Functions. Below are several examples. AddMonths: Adds a specified number of months to a given date. AddMonths ( employee_start_date, 3 )

DayOfMonth: Returns the day number in a month for a given date. Possible values range from 1 to 31. DayOfMonth ( Opened_Date )

LastDay: Returns the date of the last day in a month for a given date. LastDay ( Invoice_Date )

MonthsBetween: Returns the number of months between two given dates. MonthsBetween ( Opened_Date, Remodel_Date )

NextDay: Returns the date of the first specified weekday after a given date. The weekday value, for example, Wednesday, is not case sensitive. NextDay ( Opened_Date, 'Wednesday' )

Sysdate: Returns the current date and time recorded on the users computer. Use the Number format option to format the date. Sysdate()

Example: Adjusting Real Numbers


There are several functions that can be used to adjust real numbers. These are listed under Math Functions. Round: Rounds a real number to a specified number of decimal places. Numbers are either rounded up or down. If the number of decimal places is not specified, the number is rounded to zero decimal places. Round ( Amount_Sales, 2 )

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"Notes

15.359 --> 15.36 100.001 --> 100.00


Ceil: Rounds a real number up and to zero decimal places. Ceil ( Amount_Sales )

20.5 --> 21
Floor: Rounds a real number down and to zero decimal places. Floor ( Amount_Sales )

20.5 --> 20
Trunc: Returns a number truncated to a specified number of decimal places. The number is not rounded. Trunc ( Amount_Sales,2 )

20.579 --> 20.57 20.0135 --> 20.01

Example 4: Cumulative Columns


Cumulative columns work the same way in the Results and Table sections as they do in the Pivot section. CUME: Returns a cumulative running total for each value in a column of numbers. In the illustration below, the last column is a cumulative column based on Advertising Cost. The Cume column restarts at zero for each Quarter. Therefore, Quarter is referred to as the break column. A break column is optional.

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"Notes

Cume ( Advertising_Cost, Quarter )

Example 5: Numeric Functions


There are several different numeric functions that can be applied to a dataset. Here are a few examples: ColMin: Returns the smallest value in a column of numbers. Syntax: ColMin (column, break column1, break value*)

ColMax: Returns the largest value in a column of numbers. Syntax: ColMax (column, break column*, break value*)

Count: Counts the number of rows in a column, including duplicates. Syntax: Count (column, break column*, break value*)

CountNonNull: Counts the number of rows in a column that do not contain null values. Duplicate values are counted twice. Syntax: CountNotNull (column, break column*, break value*)

1. optional parameters

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"Notes

CountDistinct: Counts the number of distinct values in a column. Nulls are counted as 1. Syntax: CountDistinct (column, break column*, break value*)

Next: Returns the next value in the column. Syntax: Next(column)

Prior: Returns the previous value in the column. Syntax: Next(column)

In the illustration below, computed items are created using several different numeric functions. Notice that most of them use the Product Key column as the break column. This is needed to calculate different values for each Product Key. The last column, Price Change Counter, compares the values in the Suggested Retail Price column. If the price changes between months, then the counter is equal to 1. Then, the Price Change Counter is tallied up in the Number of Price Changes column. The numeric function, CountNonNull is used for this column to avoid counting null values as 1. The first five columns have suppress duplicates applied to make the report easy to read. The last column can be hidden, since it does not serve any other purpose other than to assist in creating the Number of Price Changes column.

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Results

CountDistinct ( Suggested_Retail_Price, Product_Key) CountNonNull ( Price_Change_Counter, Product_Key

"Notes

ColMax ( Suggested_Retail_Price, Product_Key ) ColMin ( Suggested_Retail_Price, Product_Key )

if (Next ( Suggested_Retail_Price ) != Suggested_Retail_Price) {1}

Example 6: Modifying Text Case


Sometimes data needs to be reformatted in the Results section for reporting purposes. Use the upper, lower, and initcap string functions to format the data correctly. UPPER: Returns a string with all characters in upper case. Example: upper (postal_code)

LOWER: Returns a string with all characters in lower case. Example: lower (day_name)

INITCAP: Returns a string with the first character in upper case and the others in lower case. Example: initcap (month_name)

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Results

"Notes

Date Groups
The Date Groups feature separates columns of date datatype into Year, Quarter, and Month columns. The display format for the new Month item is automatically set to mmm so that the month names sort chronologically (as opposed to alphabetically) in the report sections. Quarters are based on the calendar year beginning January 1st.

To add a date group:


Select a column of date datatype in a table, then on the Results (or Table) menu, click Add Date Groups

These columns are automatically created based on the Date column.

The Date Month column, used in a chart, sorts chronologically.

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Results Grouping Columns


The Grouping Columns feature creates a new column in a dataset by grouping data from an already existing column. Use grouping columns to consolidate non-numeric data values into more general group values and map the group values to a new column in the dataset. Grouping columns add hierarchical relationships within a dataset because they represent a summary level above the data used to create them. Use grouped items in report sections to reveal relationships that might not otherwise be seen.

"Notes

To create a grouped column: 1. Select a column of non-numeric data (name or date type) as a base
for the grouping column. The column should include the values to combine into summary-level groupings.

2. Right-click and click Add Grouping Column. A Grouped Column


dialog box appears.

3. Configure the Grouped Column dialog box and click the OK button. ! Type a name for the new column in the Column Name field ! To map data from the original column into new groupings:
a) Click New Groups to create groups and add them to the Groups panel b) To add values to a group, click a group name in the Groups list, select values in the Available Values list, then click the arrow button

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"Notes

c) To remove selected values from a group, click a group name and double-click values in the Items in Group panel d) To modify a group name, double-click it

To specify how ungrouped columns appear: 1. In the Grouped Column dialog box, click the Options button. The
Grouping Options for Ungrouped Columns dialog box appears.

2. Define the preference for ungrouped columns by selecting one of


the radio buttons and click the OK button.

! Click Null to add a null value to the column ! Click Default to specify a default name ! Click Individual Group to assign values to each ungrouped column

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Results
In the illustration below, the Store Name column is grouped alphabetically for a phone list. Results Section

"Notes

Report Section

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"Notes

EXPORTING

THE

RESULTS DATA

BrioQuery can export directly into several common file formats including Microsoft Excel and Lotus 1-2-3. BrioQuery also exports to HTML and JPEG formats, making it easy to distribute data to many users through corporate intranets or web sites.

Exporting the results data


Export the Results section as a .csv file called Results.csv.

1. Click the Results section. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Click File > Export > Section. Save the file in the brioqry\samples directory. In the Name field, type the name Results. Click on a file type CSV (Comma text) (*csv). Click Save.

NOTE: To allow appropriate column spacing, we recommend exporting as


a .csv file.

Viewing the results data in Lotus 1-2-3


View the data you just exported as a .csv file in Lotus 1-2-3

1. Open Lotus 1-2-3. The Welcome to 1-2-3 window appears 2. Click Cancel to close.the window. 3. Click File > Open. 4. Open the directory c://Program files/Brio/BrioQuery/Samples/
results.csv.

5. Click the file and then click Open.


NOTE:
If you dont see the file (results.csv), click the down arrow n the Files of type field, and then click Text (txt, prn. csv, dat, out, asc). The file should now appear in the window.

The data is now in the spreadsheet.

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IMPORTING DATA FILES


An alternate method of querying is to import data from a file. BrioQuery can import spreadsheets saved as (.xls), (.wks), and both comma (.csv) and tab (.txt) delimited text formats. When you import data, the content of a file is delivered to BrioQuerys desktop data cache and displayed in the Results section. You can use imported data as you would the results of a query to build reports and perform data analysis.

"Notes

To import a data file: 1. Create a new blank BrioQuery document. 2. Click File > Import Data File > Data File. The Import File dialog
box appears. 3. Navigate to the location of the file you want to import to BrioQuery. You can import *.csv, *.txt, or *.xls files. NOTE: For this demonstration, you can import the results.csv file you
created.

4. Click the correct file type of the import file from the File Type popup menu to make the file easier to find. 5. Select the import file and click Open. 6. Activate the Results section. The data from the imported file is displayed in columns in the Results section.

NOTE: You cannot import a Lotus 1-2-3 file into Brio Query Explorer.
Therefore, it is recommended that you save all Lotus 1-2-3 files as a *.csv file prior to importing. Saving as a *.txt file might cause problems with the columns when importing.

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"Notes

GRAND TOTALS

AND

BREAK TOTALS

Reports can display grand totals and break totals. Multiple grand totals can be displayed at the bottom of a column, each with a different data function applied. Break totals are defined in reference to data in other columns, which define a break point for the total. Data functions for break totals can also be defined. Break totals are generated using break columns. The break column contains the data by which to group (break) the totals. The break column usually contains text values.

Grand Totals
To generate a grand total on a column: 1. Select any column in a report. 2. Right-click and click Grand Total. 3. Configure the Insert Grand Total dialog box: ! Select a data function from the first pull-down menu ! Select a column from the second pull-down menu

4. Once the Insert Grand Total dialog box is configured, click the
OK button. A total is displayed at the bottom of the selected column.

Tip

To quickly create a grand total using the sum data function, select a column and click the Grand Total button on the Standard toolbar.

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Results To remove a grand total in a report: 1. Highlight a grand total row by clicking in the left margin. The grand
total row is highlighted.

"Notes

2. Right-click and click Remove Row. The grand total is removed. To remove all grand totals in a report: 1. Select any column in a report, right-click, and click Grand Total. 2. In the Insert Grand Total dialog box, click the Remove All button
and click the OK button. All grand totals are removed in the report.

To change the data function applied to a grand total: 1. Double-click a grand total in a report. 2. In the Modify Total Function dialog box, select a data function from
the pull-down menu and click the OK button.

To create a label for the grand total row: 1. Double-click a grand total in a report. 2. In the Modify Total Function dialog box, select Other from the pulldown menu.

3. In the Custom Function dialog box, enter text in double-quotes


before or after the total function. Concatenate text and function with a plus sign +.

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"Notes

4. In the Modify Total Function dialog box, click the OK button to finish.

Break Totals
To calculate break totals: 1. Select any column. 2. Right-click and click Break Total. 3. Configure the Insert Break Total dialog box: ! Select a break column from the first pull-down menu (for example, to view totals for each State/Province, then State Province is the break column) ! Select a data function from the second pull-down menu (for example, to add Amount Sales values for each State Province, then Sum is the data function) ! Select a column to be used in the break total calculation (for example, to sum Amount Sales values for each State Province, Amount Sales is the column to add the break total)

4. In the Insert Break Total dialog box, click the OK button to finish.
Break totals are added to the report.

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"Notes

To remove break totals in a report: 1. Highlight a break total row by clicking in the left margin. The break
total row is highlighted.

2. Right-click and click Remove Row. All related break totals are
removed.

To modify a break totals function: 1. Double-click a break total in a report. 2. In the Modify Total Function dialog box, select a data function from
the pull-down menu and click the OK button.

To modify the label for a break total:


Double-click a break total row label, enter/modify text in double quotes, and click the OK button

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"Notes

Formatting Reports
Use the techniques listed below to format reports. Format
Resize a column

Options
Drag the left or right margin of the column to resize it manually

or Double-click the column margin to AutoSize or On the Format menu, point to Column and click Auto-Size Width or Standard Width Resize a row Select a row (by clicking in the left margin), position the cursor on the edge, and drag the edge up or down to resize a row manually or Select a row (by clicking in the left margin); on the Format menu, point to Row and click Standard Height to resize a row to a standard size

NoteTotal rows need to be resized separately than regular data rows. Font On the Format menu, click Font. Select a Font type, Style (Regular, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic), Size, and Effect (Underline, Overline, Double Overline). Columns can have different fonts. On the Format menu, click Number. Select a number format from the Category area (Number, Currency, Percentage, Date, Time, or Custom). Highlight columns and click a justification icon on the Format toolbar. Select a column, right-click, and click Suppress Duplicates. This feature can be applied to multiple columns. On the Format menu, click Row Numbers to toggle them on or off. On the Format menu, click Grid Lines to toggle them on or off. In the dialog box, select properties for horizontal and vertical grid lines: Default, None, or Custom (choose a Color, Width, and Style).

Numbers, Dates, and Times

Justify data Suppress duplicate values

Display row numbers Display grid lines

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Format
Display column titles Wrap text in a column Modify the border around a report

Options
On the Format menu, click Column Titles to toggle them on or off. Select a column; then, on the Format menu, click Wrap Text. On the Format menu, click Border and Background. In the Border area, select properties for the border: Default (Black line), None, or Custom (choose a Color, Width, and Style). On the Format menu, click Border and Background. In the Fill area, select properties for the background: Default (white), None, or Custom (choose a Color). Select an alternating color if desired. Select a column, then on the Format menu, select a text color from the Text Color pulldown menu.

"Notes

Modify the fill of a report

Column text color

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"Notes

TABULAR REPORTS
The Table section is used for creating tabular-style reports. The data is not summarized in the Table section, as it is in the other report sections. The data is presented at the same granularity level as in the Results section. Table sections share the same functionality as Results sections. Pivots, Charts, and free-form reports can be created based on a tables dataset, in the same way reports are derived from a Results dataset. The Outliner in the Table Section contains Request items that are to be included in the table report. Below is an example of a blank Table section.

To create a table report:

1. On the Insert menu, click New Table. 2. Drag Request items from the Catalog into the Outliner. Click the
Outliner button on the Section Title bar if it is not displayed below the content area. A Request item can be added only once to a table. Removing and Hiding Columns Columns can be removed from or hidden in a table report. If a column is not added to the Outliner or it is removed from the

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Outliner, then it cannot be displayed in reports or referenced in local computed columns. If a column is added to the Outliner, and then hidden, it is not displayed in the table report, but can be referenced in local computed columns and displayed in other reports. To remove a column in a table report:

"Notes

# Select a column in a table, right-click, and then click Remove


Column. To hide a column in a table report:

# Select a column in a table, right-click, and then click Hide


Column.

Sorting Tables
The rows in a table report can be sorted based on a single column or multiple columns. Use the Sort buttons on the Standard toolbar to quickly sort a column or multiple columns in the same order (ascending or descending). Use the Sort Line to view Sort items and to apply nested sorts to multiple columns using combinations of ascending and descending sort orders. To sort a column using the Sort buttons:

# Select a column to be sorted, and then click the Sort button on


the Standard toolbar. To apply sort conditions using the Sort line:

1. Click Sort on the Section Title bar to display the Sort line. 2. Drag Request items from the Catalog pane to the Sort line. # Establish a final sort sequence by reordering Sort items.
Items are sorted from left to right.

# Double-click specific Sort items to toggle ascending and


descending sort orders. Ascending is the default sort order.

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"Notes

3. Click Sort on the Sort line to begin sorting.

Local Limits
Set limits on columns in a table report to filter the data displayed. Table section limits are in addition to the limits set in the Results section. Keep in mind that limits applied in a Table section are also applied to other reports that stem from a Table section. Limits can be suspended or deleted to return data to the display and make it available for reporting. The Status bar displays the total number of rows in the table report, with limits applied. Only one limit per column can be applied. To limit data in a table report:

1. Double-click a column in a table report. A Limit dialog box


appears.

2. Configure the limit dialog box: # Choose a logical operator from the pull-down list. # Create a Custom Values list by supplying a value (or
values, separated by commas) in the Edit field, and then clicking the green check mark button.

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Results # Alternatively, click the Show Values button to display


column values, and then select one or more values depending on the comparison operator.

"Notes

3. When the values are highlighted in the values panel, click the
OK button. The limit is applied to the column and the column name is added to the Limit line. To remove a limit in a table report:

# Right-click a Limit item, and then click Remove.


To remove all limits in a table report:

# Right-click Limit on the Limit line, and then click Remove.

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"Notes

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Unit 5

Joins and Limits

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Create and modify the joins between data topics. ! Develop queries and process them. ! Join topics in a data model to query several topics at one time. ! Modify the join type between two topic items. Create a left or a right join
between two topics.

! Create a self join. ! Create defined Join Paths to include or exclude tables.

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"Notes

JOINING TOPICS
A join is a link between two topics that indicates the presence of the same items or very similar items, within each topic. Joins are required to relate information in one topic to another. This join is symbolized by lines connecting two or more topics in your data model. Joins can be configured to occur automatically, as an auto-join or manually by the user. Joins link row records in different tables based on shared information in a column field. For example, a row record in the Customer table joins to a related record in the Orders table when the Customer ID value for the record is the same for both tables. This links the order record to the record of the customer who placed the order. Although joins are resolved at the database level, the data model displays join lines to clarify the relationships between topics as a reference for querying. If you request items from unjoined topics, the database server has no way to correlate the information between the two tables. This leads to run-on queries. You can join items using one of the following options: Auto-join Manual

Auto-Join Feature
The auto-join setting instructs BrioQuery to join database tables automatically as they are added to the Contents pane. If the auto-join feature is enabled, BrioQuery will automatically join topic items of the same name and datatype. These joins appear as lines connecting similar topics. If this feature is disabled, you can manually join topics in the Contents pane.

Using the auto-join feature


Examine the effects of auto-join on your data model. Some topics are joined automatically. For example: Store Id in the Pcw Customers topic is joined to Store Id in the Pcw Sales topic. Item Id in the Pcw Sales topic is joined to Item Id in the Pcw Items topic. The only topic that does not automatically join to another is the Pcw Periods topic. This is because there are no common item names between the Pcw Periods topic and other topics on the workspace. It remains unjoined until you join it manually.

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Joins and Limits To set the auto-join feature: 1. Remove all of the topics from the workspace. 2. Insert a new query and connect to the Brio PCW.oce. 3. Click DataModel > Data Model Options. The Data Model Options
dialog box appears.

"Notes

4. Click the General tab. Make sure Auto join tables is checked. If it
isnt, click it to enable it.

5. Click OK. 6. Drag the Pcw Customers, Pcw Sales, Pcw Periods, and Pcw
Items tables onto the workspace .

Automatically created

Automatically created

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"Notes

AUTOMATIC JOIN PATH GENERATOR


The automatic join path generator is the new default join strategy. The 5.5 join default often returned a lot of unusable data because the SQL statement built into it stated, Use All Topics. With this statement, every table in the data model is returned. For example, suppose a data model contains ten tables, but a user requests items from only two of those tables. With the 5.5 default, all ten tables are queried. This, of course, could result in a lot of unusable data. The automatic join path generator default operates more efficiently. It generates the join based on the context of the users query and then dynamically generates the most efficient SQL to determine the minimum set of tables needed for the query. That is, after a data model is built, automatic join path generator queries only those tables from which a user requests elements plus any tables required for the appropriate joins. Thus, in the proceeding example, BrioQuery 6.1 sends the request to only those two tables from which elements are actually requested (plus any table necessary for any joins). The automatic join path generator enables users to create complicated queries with ease. It is especially beneficial for nontechnical users who must create their own data models but are not familiar with complex database join theory or methodology.

Setting the automatic join path generator as the default


You want to make sure the automatic join path generator is set as your default join strategy.

1. At the workspace, click DataModel > Data Model Options. The


Data Model Options dialog box appears

2. Click the Joins tab, and then click Use automatic join path
generation.

Manual Joins
You must create a manual join if two items that need to be joined, cannot be joined automatically. You can join topics manually by linking topic items in the Contents pane. NOTE: The Auto-Join feature creates joins based on Brios interpretation of
data. Some data may require you to turn off the auto-join feature and create a manual join to accurately reflect the data relationships.

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Joins and Limits To join two topic items:


Click a topic item, drag it over another topic item to be joined, and release. A join line appears between the two joined items.

"Notes

Notes on Manually Joining Items


Listed are a few dos and donts when manually joining items: Make sure all topics in your data model you are pulling from

are joined.
Join dates to other dates. Join items in only one direction. Join items that contain the same data. Avoid joining long, descriptive items. Avoid joining the same items twice. If you do, then delete all the joins and re-create the join from scratch.

Manually joining topics


Create a join between Day in the Pcw Periods topic and Order Date in the Pcw Sales topic. This will complete the data model. Use the data model you have already begun to create. Drag Day from the gPcw Periods topic on top of Order Date in the Pcw Sales topic. This does not actually move any of the items; it merely creates a relationship between them.

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"Notes

All the items in the Pcw Periods topic pertain to the Order Dates because of the join relationship.

NOTE: If you receive a join error message This query is not properly joined.
Do you want to continue?, do not click OK. Click Cancel and correct the join.

Custom Joins
Custom joins connect topics by assignment according to pre-defined schema coded in SQL. The database administrator can create a table in the database that contains join information. In a connection file, BrioQuery refers to the table of join information to create joins between topics when they are used in data models. As a user, all you need to do is drag topics to the workspace and the joins should occur automatically.

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OVERVIEW

OF

ALL JOIN TYPES

"Notes

BrioQuery enables you to modify the join type between two topic items. When you change the join type, you alter the way BrioQuery matches values between topic items. There are several different join types available including: simple left right outer Some of the join types might not be available to you; it depends on whether the database you are connected to supports the join type.

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"Notes

SIMPLE EQUAL JOIN


The simple join is the most common join, and is automatically created by BrioQuery. When you manually create joins, or use the auto-join settings, simple joins are created. A simple join is a one-to-one match of values between two items. If the values between two items are identical, then a single row will be returned in the Results section. If there are not any exact matches, then you will return zero rows. For example, in the data model below, sales transactions are represented by the Sales Facts table. To create a query to include information about the Stores and their transactions, a relationship between Store Key in the Sales Fact table and Store Key in the Stores table needs to be established. This is done by creating a simple join between the two items. This instructs the database to return rows where the Store Keys match.

Joins need to occur between items containing the same data. Often, the item names between two topics are identical, which sometimes indicates which items join. Exercise caution with this method, however, because two items might share the same name but refer to completely different data. For example, an item called Name in a Customer table and an item called Name in a Product table are probably unrelated.

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Joins and Limits Performing a simple join


Create a data model using the topics Pcw Customers and Pcw Sales, then build a simple query that retrieves sales information for those customers who have had sales.

"Notes

1. Insert a new query and connect to Brio PCW OCE. 2. Drag Pcw Customers and Pcw Sales from the Catalog Pane to the
workspace. The auto-join feature automatically connects these two topics.

3. Drag Store Id and Store from the Pcw Customers topic to the
Request line.

4. Drag Amount from the Pcw Sales topic to the Request line. 5. Highlight Amount on the Request line and choose
Query > Data Functions > Sum to aggregate the Amount column. This will summarize the sales for each Store.

6. Click Process.
You should retrieve 31 rows (31 different Store Ids):

Note the following facts about the proceeding query: Only the Stores that had sales are displayed in the Results. The Store Ids are sorted in ascending order because the Amount column is aggregated (in other words, the Amount data is grouped by Store Id).

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"Notes

The Amount sum is a total of every sale that occurred for a particular Store. There are no limits on the time period for sales transactions.

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LEFT JOIN
A left join between two items causes the query to return every possible row from the topic on the left side of the join. At the same time, it returns also any rows from the topic on the right that have matching values in the join column.

"Notes

Creating a left join


Create a query that displays all stores in the Pcw Customers topic and their respective sales information. Also display those stores that do not have any sales information.

1. Return to the Query section. You can alter your existing query to
find the information needed.

2. Double-click on the join to modify the join type. 3. Click Left Join, and then click OK. 4. Click Process.
Notice that most stores have sales, however, Store Id #32 does not. You should return 32 rows.

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"Notes

RIGHT JOIN
A right join between two items causes the query to return every possible row from the topic on the right side of the join. At the same time, it also returns any rows from the topic on the left that have matching values in the join column.

Creating a right join


You can reverse the query logic and create a query to summarize the sales that do not have a matching Store Id value.

1. Return to the Query section. 2. Double-click the join and change the join type to a Right Join. 3. Click Process.
You should retrieve 31 rows, and each row should display a Store Id number. This indicates that there are no sales in the Pcw Sales topic that refer to a non-existent Store Id number in the Pcw Customers topic.

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Joins and Limits

OUTER JOIN
An Outer join retrieves all rows from two topics, matching joined column values if found, or retrieving nulls for nonmatching values. This is equivalent to a Left and Right join combined in a single query. Because outer joins are not available with the sample database, there is no exercise for creating outer joins.

"Notes

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"Notes

SELF JOINS
A self join is a join that occurs between a topic and itself. These types of data models can be used for checking data integrity and validity.

Creating a self join


Find all products that share the same Item Name in the Pcw Items table.

1. Insert a new query and connect to Brio PCW.Oce. 2. Drag Pcw Items to the workspace twice. There shouldnt be any
joins between items at this point.

3. Manually join Item Name in the Pcw Items topic to Item Name in
the Pcw Items_2 topic. This restricts the query to return only those rows in the Pcw Items topic that have duplicate Item Names.

4. Manually join Item Id in the Pcw Items topic to Item Id in the Pcw
Item 2 topic.

5. Double-click the join between Item Ids and change the join to
simple and select not equal from the popup. Click OK. This restricts the query to return only those rows that have different Item Ids, but identical Item Names. The data model should look like this.

6. Add itemid from Pcw items to the request line. 7. Add all items except itemid from Pcwitem2 tot he request line. 8. Click Process. The results set should return 14 rows:

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Joins and Limits

COMPLEX DATA MODELS USING LEFT JOINS

AND

RIGHT

"Notes

If you use a left or a right join between two topics and add topics that extend from the joined topics, you are potentially courting disaster. Often, either the query results are altered or the database errs during query processing. Added topics must be joined with either a left join or right join to continue the join logic of the first join. Otherwise, the query is restricted to a simple join.

Example
In the data model below, three topics are joined together using left joins. The first left join enables the query to return all customer names that have sales as well as those customer names that do not have sales.

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Joins and Limits

"Notes

The following picture displays the results set you obtain if you run a query using only the first two topics (Pcw Customers and Pcw Sales) with a left join between them.
Item Id and Amount are from the Pcw Sales topic.

Computer Shack does not have any sales and therefore there are no Item Id or Amount values.

The second left join continues the join logic. In this case, the Pcw Items topic is added to the data model and the Item Id items are joined. Notice that in those cases where a store had no sales, there is no matching Item Id. Computer Shack is such an example. To include every row that would be returned using the first two topics (Pcw Customers and Pcw Sales) and match to rows in the third topic (Pcw Items), a left join must be used between Pcw Sales and Pcw Items. Any resulting Null Item Id values do not need to be matched in the Pcw Items topic, because there is a left join.

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Joins and Limits

DEVELOPING DEFINED JOIN PATHS


Defined Join Paths are customized join preferences which enable BrioQuery to include or exclude appropriate tables based on the items referenced on the Request and Limit lines. Bridge tables, which are not explicitly referenced in the query, are transparently added to the SQL From clause. The net effect limits the query to all referenced tables based on available table groupings, generating the most efficient SQL for queries off the data model.

"Notes

Developing defined join paths


Create a data model of using the Pcw Customers, Pcw Sales, and Pcw Items topics giving the users 2 defined join paths.

1. Insert a new query and connect to Brio PCW.oce. 2. Drag Pcw Customers, Pcw Sales, and PCW Items and PCW
periods into the workspace.

3. Create a manual join between Order Date in Pcw Sales and Day
in Pcw Periods.

4. Click DataModel > DataModel Options then go to the Joins tab. 5. Click the button for Use defined join paths and click Configure. 6. Click New Join Path and type Customer, Sales & Items. Click OK. 7. In Available Topics, double-click the terms Pcw Customers, Pcw
Sales, and Pcw Items to move the topics into the box on the right for the defined join path.

8. Click New Join Path and type Customers & Sales. Click OK. 9. In Available Topics, double-click the terms Pcw Customers and
Pcw Sales to move the topics into the box for the defined join path. Click OK.

10.Click OK to close the Data Model Options dialog box. 11.Drag Store ID and Store from the Pcw Customers topic to the
Request line. Drag amount from PcwSales to the request line.

12.Click Process. A window prompts you to select the desired join


path.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

5 - 17

Joins and Limits

"Notes

LOCAL RESULTS
With a local results set (formerly heterogeneous join), you can add the results of one query to another in a BrioQuery document. That is, you can query two different databases and combine the results of the two queries. Or you might combine the result set of one query with a second query on the same database. After processing, BrioQuery joins them locally in the Results section. For example, if you want to see budget figures drawn from an MS SQL server and sales figures drawn from an Oracle database combined in one Results set, you could do a local join. NOTE: Local results are memory and CPU intensive, so use this feature with
caution and limit your local results wherever possible.

Combining Two Results Sets


Create a query that displays all of the customer names. Combine this query with another query that searches for information about the customers. Part I. Create a query to display all of the Store Ids and Names in the Pcw Customers table.

1. Insert a new query and connect to Brio Pcw.oce. 2. Add Pcw Customers to the workspace. 3. Add Store Id, Store and Zip from the Pcw Customers topic to the
Request line. The Query tab should look like this:

4. Click Process. You should retrieve 32 rows. 5. Rename the query section Name Query and rename the results
section Name Results.

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Joins and Limits


Part II. Locate the sales Amounts and Item Units for the list of Customer Names you had acquired in Part I.

"Notes

1. Insert a new query and connect to Brio Pcw.oce. 2. Add Pcw Sales to the workspace. 3. Right-click the Table Catalog, and then click Local Results. I 4. Drag the Name Results to the workspace as a topicThe items in the
Names Results topic are the Request line items in the Name Query..

5. Manually join Store Id in the Names Results topic to Store Id in the


Pcw Sales topic.

6. Add Store Id, Store and Zip from the Names Results topic to the
Request line.

7. Add Item Id, Amount, and Units from the Pcw Sales topic to the
Request line.

8. Click Process. You should retrieve 1005 rows.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Joins and Limits

"Notes

Limit Local Results Join


A limit join is new with BrioQuery 6.1. It is a variation of the local results function and is applied in the Query section. Rather than independently running two queries and then locally joining the data at the desktop, a limit local results join runs the first query to retrieve a list of values and then uses those values in a limit on a column in the second query. The fact that the limit join processes the queries separately is an advantage; it enables the user to query two different databases. For example, you might run a query from an inventory table in an Oracle database to retrieve a list of out-of-stock part numbers. Then, you could use the resulting list of part numbers as a limit join to define the list of values retrieved from the work-in-process table in another database. This limit join would determine the status of the stock replenishment. In this example, the advantage of the limit join is that Brio queries only those sections of the database that contain data about those specific part numbers. This significantly narrow your final results. NOTE: With the limit local results join, users cannot query off the local
results set, they can only limit by it. Also, with this join, the second query the potentially could result in a very long SQL statement, so think about about what you want before using this feature.

Creating a limit local results join


Create a limit local results join.

1. Build the first query you want to include as a limit in your second
query: a) Verify item data types and associated data values in source documents so you will know how to join them in the second query. b) Build the Request line, adding server limits, data functions and computations to the query as needed.

2. Click Process. 3. On the Insert menu, click Insert New Query. 4. Build the second query.
a) Verify item data types and associated data values in source documents so you will know how to join them to the first query.

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Joins and Limits


b) Build the Request line, and add server and local limits, data functions and computations to the query as needed.

"Notes

5. Right-click the Section Catalog. A popup menu appears. Click


Local Results. A Local Results icon appears in the Catalog pane.

6. Expand the Local Results icon to display the Results table icon. 7. Double-click the Results icon or drag it to the Contents pane. The
results set from your first query appears as a topic in the Contents pane.

8. Manually join a Results topic item to a topic item in the second query
by dragging it over an item in another topic. A join line appears, connecting the different topics. NOTE: You cannot place any item from the Results topic on the Request
line.

9. Double-click the join line between the Results topic item and other
topic item. The Join Properties dialog box appears.

10.Click Limit Local Join, and then click OK. 11.Click Process.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

5 - 21

Joins and Limits

"Notes

5 - 22

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Unit 6

Computed Columns

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Use computed columns in the Query section to perform computations


to add data items or recalculate a data set

! Use computed columns in the Results section to perform computations


to add data items or recalculate a data set

! Use computed columns to perform computations to add data items or


recalculate a data set.

! Generate an aggregate (summarized) results data. ! Use computed columns in the Reporting Sections to design
calculations for data values

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

6-1

Computed Columns

"Notes

USING COMPUTED COLUMNS


Computations can be performed by your database server or by BrioQuery on your desktop. A computation does not add data to the database; instead, new data items are added or recalculated using data from the database, such as unit price, delivery time, tax, and so forth. You can use computed data items while working in report sections to compute additional items. You can also place limits on computed items, or interpret them with data functions. BrioQuery provides different tools for computing data items. You can: Build arithmetic expressions (Units * Amount = Revenue) Build logical expressions (If Score >= 50 Then Pass Else Fail) Build mixed expressions (Tax = Revenue *.35) Apply data functions (abs (Amount_Sold)) Use any of the above in combination NOTE: Computed columns created in either the Query or the Results
section are available to all sections. However, computed items created in either the Pivot, Chart, or Report section are available only within that given section.

Calculating a 10% increase


Create a query that calculates a 10% increase in unit volume for each Item Id.

1. Begin a new query. 2. Log on to the sample database. 3. Click File> Open. Click to select data model
brioqry\samples\datamod1.bqy. Click the OK button.

4. From Pcw Sales, add Item Id, Delivery Date, and Units to the
Request line.

5. Click Request, and then click Query > Add Computed Item. The
Modify Item dialog box appears. a) Type the name Increase Unit in the Name field. b) Click Reference. Select the Pcw Sales topic and then click Units. Click OK. c) Click the * (multiplication button.) d) In the definition area, type 1.1.

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Computed Columns
e) Click OK.

"Notes

6. Click Process. The new column Unit Increase will be added to the
Results set. The database calculated this column. You should retrieve 1005 rows.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

6-3

Computed Columns

"Notes

Creating a computed column


Create a computed column that calculates the number of days it took to deliver an item by subtracting the Order Date from the Delivery Date.

1. Activate the Query section. 2. Click the Request line, and then click Query > Add Computed
Item. The Modify Item dialog appears.

3. In the Name field, type Days to Deliver. Click Reference. Click the
Pcw Sales topic. Click Delivery Date. Click OK.

4. Click the subtraction button (-). 5. Click Reference. Select the Pcw Sales topic. Click Order Date.
Click OK. Click OK on the Modify Item dialogue box.

6. Click Process. The new column, Days to Deliver is added to the


Results section. You should retrieve 1005 rows.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Computed Columns Adding a computed column


Return to the Query section and add a computed column that strings together City, State, and Zip into a single column.

"Notes

1. Click the Query tab. Make sure the topic Pcw Customers is in
Structure view (not Icon view).

2. Click Request, and then click Query > Add Computed Item. 3. In the Name field, type Address. 4. Click Reference, click Pcw Customers, then click City. Click OK. 5. Click the plus button (+). 6. Type a single quote, a comma, a space, and then another single
quote.

7. Click the plus button (+). 8. Click the Reference, click Pcw Customers, and then click State.
Click OK.

9. Click the plus button (+). 10.Type a single quote, a space, and then another single quote. 11.Click the plus button (+). 12.Click Reference, and then click the Pcw Customers topic. Click
Zip. Click OK.

13.Click on options and change data. Type to a string. 14.Click OK on the Modify Item dialogue box. The dialogue box
should look like this:

15.Click Process. BrioQuery creates a new column containing all the


Address information. You should retrieve 1005 rows.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

6-5

Computed Columns

"Notes

Notes
1. The Functions button in the Query Computed Item dialog box will be grayed out if you are not connected to a database. 2. Aggregate functions are also listed in the Functions dialog box. These are also accessible in BrioQuery by choosing Query > Data Functions.

Logic Notes for Computed Items


Item names are not case-sensitive. Type the word null (no quotes) into the expression panel to represent null values. All text string constant values entered in expressions must be enclosed in single quotes. All date constant values entered in expressions must also be enclosed in single quotes. Numbers can be entered without quotes. To join items with a space or other character, simply refer to or type items and strings into the expression panel and join them with the + operator (for example, City + , + State). To join without additional characters, use the Concat function. In division operations, the divisor may not be null or equal to zero. If a data item serves as the divisor in an expression (for example, 5000 / Units_Sold) and includes null or zero values, first create a computed item using if/then/else logic to remove null and zero values, and then compute the item containing the division operation. Two date items may be subtracted, but not added. The Add Month function adds an integer value to a date. You may not nest functions inside the Sum, Cume, Chr, and Breaksum functions.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Computed Columns

COMPUTED COLUMNS

IN

RESULTS SECTION

"Notes

BrioQuery enables you to perform computations on the data after it is returned from the database. You can perform mathematical computations between columns, string functions on columns, and use calculated columns in other calculations.

Creating a column in the Results section


Continue with the query you created in the last exercise. Create a column in the Results section that displays the first three digits of the Phone Number column.

1. Activate the Query section. 2. From the Pcw Customers topic, add Phone to the Request line. 3. Click Process. You should retrieve 1005 rows. 4. Right-click Results. A popup menu appears. Click Add Computed
Item. The Computed Item dialog box appears.

5. In the Name field, type Area Code. 6. Click Functions. The Functions dialog box appears. 7. Click String Functions and then Substr. The dialog box expands. 8. Click Reference. The Reference dialog box appears. 9. In the Item field, click Phone, and then click OK. 10.In the Starting position n, field, type 1.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

6-7

Computed Columns

"Notes

11.In the Number of characters m, type 3. This will retrieve the first
three characters of the Phone column. The dialog box should look like this:

12.Click OK. The Computed Item dialog box displays the formula.
Click OK. The column is added to the Results section.

To modify columns: 1. Right-click the column to be modified. 2. Select Modify Column from the menu. To remove columns: 1. Right-click the column to be removed. 2. Select Remove Column from the menu.

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GROUPING COLUMNS
Grouping columns, like computed items, creates new data in your Results set by grouping data from an already existing column. You can use grouping columns to consolidate non-numeric data values into more general group values and map the group values to a new column in the data set. Grouping columns add hierarchical relationships within your data set because they represent a summary level above the data used to create them. You can use grouped items in report sections to reveal relationships you might not otherwise see. If you want to create a new level in a dimensional hierarchy, use the Grouping columns feature to merge dimension labels into new groupings and aggregate the associated data. This function operates on the same principle as the Group feature. The difference between grouping columns and the Group feature is their implementation levels. The group feature enables you to group labels temporarily for analysis within a particular section. Grouping columns are new items added to BrioQuery's optimized desktop datacube. Grouping columns are available for use in your report sections. For example, your company sales database may contain the items: State, Sales Region and Country, which allow you to aggregate data on different levels in reports. However, suppose you are looking to track sales by subregion, or want to see data for one state vs. an average for all other states combined. You can do this by grouping states together to create a Subregion item or another custom dimension.

"Notes

To add a grouping column 1. Activate the Results section, and then highlight the column you want
to use as your grouping column. You use the column values to build the grouping categories for the new item.

2. Right-click the highlighted column, then select the Add Grouping


Column. The Group Column dialog box appears.

3. In the Column Name field, type a name for the new column. 4. Define the new column by creating custom group values and linking
them to values in the base column: a) Click New Groups to create groups and add them to the Groups panel. b) Associate Available Values from the base column with a chosen group by selecting them and clicking the arrow to add them to Items in Group.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Computed Columns

"Notes

c) Remove selected values from a chosen group by clicking the arrow to remove them from the Items in Group. d) Double-click on group names to modify them.

5. When the grouping definitions are complete, click OK.


The name of the new group column appears in italics on the Request line, and the grouping column is added to the Contents Pane. You can modify a grouping column to change the group structure. NOTE: If you need to modify a grouped column, select the grouped column
in the Results or Table section, and click Modify Column on the Results or Table menu.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Computed Columns Adding a grouping column


Using the new column Area Code, create another column that defines territories based on Area Code. Create three territories A, B, and C.

"Notes

1. Activate the Results section and click the data in the column named
Area Code to highlight it.

2. Right-click the highlighted column, then select the Add Grouping


Column. The Group Column dialog box appears.

3. Click New Group. A New Group dialog box appears. 4. In the Name field, type the letter A, and then click OK. 5. Highlight Area Codes 212 through to 510 and click the arrow key
to add the numbers to group A.

6. Click New Group. A New Group dialog box appears. 7. In the Name filed, type the letter B, and then click OK. 8. Highlight Area Codes 602 through to 619 and click the arrow key
to add the numbers to group B.

9. Click Options and click the button for Default. Enter the value C in
the edit field. The dialog box should look like this:

10.Click OK. The new grouping column is added to the Results


section.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Computed Columns

"Notes

6 - 12

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Unit 7

Pivot Reports

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to: Create and customize Brio pivots, charts, and detailed reports Create pivot reports using the Pivot tab Export a pivot report to alternate formats such as Lotus 1-2-3 Use computed columns in the Report Designer to design calculations for data values

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7-1

Pivot Reports

"Notes

CREATING

AND

CUSTOMIZING

THE

PIVOT REPORT

A Pivot report is an analytical tool that resembles spreadsheets or crosstab reports. A pivot report overlays a dynamic datacube, which allows data to be sliced and diced for ad hoc, interactive, and multidimensional analysis. Pivot reports consist of side labels, top labels, and facts. Side and top labels are referred to as dimensions and have handles that can be pivoted to the top or side of the report. A pivot report is summarized at the dimension levels. The pivot Outliner consists of three panes: Side Labels, Top Labels, and Facts. Add items from the Catalog pane to the Outliner to create a report.

To create a pivot report: 1. On the Insert menu, click New Pivot. 2. Click Outliner on the Section Title bar to display the Outliner if it is
not displayed.

3. Drag Request items from the Catalog to the Side Labels, Top
Labels, and Facts panels of the Outliner.

! Multiple items can be added to any panel ! Items are hierarchically ordered in the sequence in which they
appear in the Outliner panels

! Side and top labels are usually textual

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports ! Fact items are summed by default


In the Pivot report section, the following analysis features are quite useful for viewing the data from multiple perspectives, in an easy to use environment: Drill-down into the data Drill-up out of the data (reverse of Drill-down) Drill-out of one document and into another Group data elements Change data aggregation from the Results section Focus on or hide data elements Calculate new columns of data Calculate cumulative running totals on data items Show increases between data items In the unit on Pivot reporting, you will learn how to create a report similar to this:
Grouping of labels to view the data semiannually, rather than quarterly as it exists in the database. Report is focused on only one year.

"Notes

Sorting by Amount totals for each State in descending order

Increase column added

Nesting of labels

Computed column to see what a 10% increase would have looked like

Spotlighting that emphasizes negative increases

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7-3

Pivot Reports

"Notes

You can further analyze a report like this by drilling-down into the data. For example, if you were interested in finding out more about Computer Town, you could drill-down into Item Type to see the breakdown of sales by Item Type:

In addition, if an Administrator has configured your document for Drill-out, you can navigate from within your current document to linked data models containing more details. This feature allows you to add new data items to existing reports and view data at different levels of aggregation.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

REORGANIZING

THE

REPORT

"Notes

Understanding Nested Labels


As you work with Pivot reports, you will quickly discover that labels from one dimension are frequently nested within labels from another dimension. Nesting means that one set of labels appears as a sub-division within each of the labels at a higher level of data. It is possible to change the nesting relationship of data labels and the order of data values after you create a Pivot report. You can do this two ways. 1. Use the Pivot action. 2. Drag items within the Outliner panels.

Using the Pivot Feature


You can reorient, or pivot, your reports on-the-fly by interchanging the top and side dimensions of the report. This pivot feature is frequently helpful for juxtaposing data in one dimension with data from other dimensions. By pivoting the data from the top to the side, different relationships among the data become evident.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7-5

Pivot Reports

"Notes

Example
In the example below, the Quarter labels are pivoted from the top to the side of the report.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

ADDING TOTALS
You can quickly add grand totals and subtotals to your Pivot report data. The totals and subtotals are created as additional rows or columns in your report. Totals can be calculated for any dimension in a pivot report. When an inner dimension is totaled, subtotals are created for each of the label values in the outer dimensions.

"Notes

To add totals to a pivot report: 1. Select a side or top dimension by clicking a handle in a report. 2. Right-click and click Add Totals (or click the Grand Total button on
the Standard toolbar).

Total Functions Column or row totals added to a pivot report are aggregates (literally, totals of totals), and can be recalculated using different data functions. In the example below, Amount Sales values for each Fiscal Year are averaged and displayed at the bottom of the columns.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

NOTE: Null values in a pivot report (empty values for which no data exists)
are not treated as equal to zero in a total function calculation.

To modify a total function: 1. Alt-click (Option-click for Macintosh, Ctrl-Alt-click for Unix) a total
label in a report. The total row or column is highlighted.

2. Right-click, point to Data Functions, and select a data function from


the list (Sum, Average, Count, Max, Min,% of Column,% of Row,% of Grand, Increase,% Increase, Non-Null Average, Null Count, or Non-Null Count).

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

SURFACE

VERSUS

UNDERLYING VALUES

"Notes

Totals are calculated based on surface values (what is displayed in a pivot report) or underlying values (values in the Results section). When underlying values are used, the aggregate values may appear incongruous with the aggregate surface values of the pivot report. In other words, the total values appear incorrect. To calculate total values based on the aggregate values in the pivot report, use surface values. For example, if you apply a surface average to a total, the total will be converted to the average of the surface values in the corresponding row or column of the pivot report. Displaying Surface Values in Pivot reports is useful for changing the nature of values displayed in summary rows or columns. NOTE: All totals in the report are either based on surface values or
underlying values. Only one method can be used within a report.

To generate totals based on surface values in a pivot report:


On the Pivot menu, click Use Surface Values

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7-9

Pivot Reports

"Notes

DRILLING FEATURES
BrioQuerys drilling featurs allow you to progressively narrow your focus on selected chart data. With this powerful feature, you can isolate an item and break out data using additional criteria. Drilling helps deal with the problem of charts that have too many items on a particular axis. Drill until the data can be manageably charted. You can further refine the view by again isolating a value (bar or slice) in the new display and repeating the drilldown. You can drill into either pie or bar charts. The pie view, however, is especially well-suited to drill-down. You can select a slice of the pie and delve into the slice as a separate pie chart. There are three drilling features: Drill Anywhere Drill to Detail Pre-defined drill paths

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

Drill Path Functionality


Drill Anywhere
Drill Anywhere analysis enables a user to progressively break down dimensions by selected categories. It is an essential analysis tool that reveals the makeup of a Request item as a sum of constituent parts.

"Notes

To Drill Anywhere: 1. Select one or more labels from the same dimension to drill into.

2. Right-click, point to Drill Anywhere, and click an item to drill.


All extraneous labels are hidden, except the selected label(s) The selected label(s) is displayed, broken down by the drill item(s) In the Outliner, the specified drill item is added to the appropriate panel and the drilled item is identified with a drill-bit icon

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

Drill Up The Drill Up feature reverses a drill in one step. This is another powerful analysis tool which allows a user to move from close detail immediately to seeing the big picture.

To Drill Up:
Right-click the new item added to the report after drilling down (select the Outliner item or the dimension handle) and click Drill Up

The dimension is restored in the pivot report Entire dimensions can be restored, but not single dimension labels It is possible to drill up from any level of a hierarchy which has been successively drilled down

Drill to Detail Part of the Drilling Anywhere functionality is the Drill to Detail capability, which enables a user to drill back to the database if the desired data is not in the dataset. With the drill-to-detail function, users can drill into items that are in the current data model but not on the request line. This provides interactive querying of the database from the Pivot or the Chart section. When drill to detail is selected, a copy of the current report and associated data model is automatically added to the document where these modifications are made. This copy is made to preserve the original query and report. Drill to detail additionally applies limits to the new query based on drill selection, enabling Brio to scale much larger fact tables by retrieving a small number of rows for highly aggregated data. For example, the original query might include product family, by quarter, by region and then allow the user to

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports
drill further to see a particular product family in a particular region by month.

"Notes

To Drill to Detail: 1. Select one or more labels from the same dimension to drill down,
right-click, point to Drill Anywhere, and click Drill to Detail.

2. In the BrioQuery dialog box, click the OK button to continue.

3. In the Select Column(s) to retrieve dialog box, select the check


boxes for the items to drill into and click the OK button.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

4. In the Select Column to drill down into dialog box, select an item and
click the OK button.

5. View the data added to the pivot report.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports Predefined Drill Paths


A predefined drill path enables users to go directly to the next level of detail, as defined in the data model. A relational database is required to use the predefined drill path feature. BrioQuery 6.1 adds an additional method for defining user drill paths in Pivot and Chart sections. Drill paths in the data model inherited in all Pivots and Charts are created from all queries associated with the data model. This drill path specifies the hierarchy within dimension tablestables consisting of attributes such as location or amount. Each row in the dimension table is unique. Specifying the hierarchy enables fast navigation up and down the drill path in the reports. This capability can be used to augment the existing drill anywhere capability of BrioQuery, or to drill up and down. This is a predefined path only. The definition of drill paths in the data model or Query sections modifies topics to identify whether it is a dimension or fact table. Items in dimension tables become part of the predefined path based on the order in which they appear in the dimension. Any individual item might be flagged as a fact, which excludes it from the drill path. Drill path specifications can be applied to topics or meta topics.

"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Pivot Reports

"Notes
Predefined Drill Paths A predefined drill path enables a user to go directly to the next item to drill down into when working with dimensional analysis.

To drill down using predefined drill paths: 1. Select one or more labels from the same dimension, right-click, and
click Drilldown into <item>.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports 2. View the data added to the pivot report.

"Notes

NOTE: A relational database is required in order to use the predefined drill


path feature.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7 - 17

Pivot Reports

"Notes

SORTING
In Pivot, you will notice that labels automatically sort alphabetically for you. You can alter this sort by using the Sort Line. The Sort Line allows you to sort labels alphabetically or based on data values in the report. You can also specify whether you want the sort to be ascending or descending. Furthermore, you can sort based on other aggregate values, other than Sum.

To sort labels alphabetically using the Sort buttons:


Select a label to sort and click the Ascending or Descending Sort button on the Standard toolbar

To apply sort conditions using the Sort line: 1. Click Sort on the Section Title bar to view the pivot Sort line. 2. Configure the Sort line.
Select a label to sort from the first pulldown menu Select Label from the by pull-down menu to sort the label alphabetically by label or choose a Fact item from the by pull-down menu to sort referentially by numeric values. The data is sorted according to the specification. The using pull-down menu is disabled when labels are sorted If desired, choose a data function from the 'using' menu when sorting by Fact items. For example, choose Count if the fact column in the report is displaying a count Click a Sort order button to specify ascending or descending sort order NOTE: The Sort order is based on the aggregated value of all labels in a
dimension.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

Example 1 : Region labels are sorted by total sum of Amount Sales for all Quarters i Fiscal Year 2000. Example 1 and 2 are based on the same sort criteria, with Exampl 1 also displaying a quarterly breakdown.

"Notes

Example 2 : Region labels are sorted by summed Amount Sales values for Fiscal

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

SPOTLIGHTING
Some figures can be cause for celebration, or concern. The BrioQuery Spotlighter helps you highlight significant data values with distinguishing type styles and colors. Use the Spotlighter when you need color-guided analysis to identify and emphasize important information in your Pivot reports. You can use the Spotlighter to apply formats within selected rows or columns. Spotlighter formats are applied conditionally, by building an equation and applying the constraint to your report. You can also apply multiple conditions to a selection.

To spotlight exceptional values: 1. Select a Fact column in the report.

2. On the Format menu, click Spotlighter. 3. In the Spotlighter window, build a conditional format and click the
green check mark button.

! Choose a comparison operator from the pull-down menu ! Enter a comparison value in the edit field ! Choose an exception text format by clicking the font style
buttons and color boxes

! Add formatting styles and colors to spotlight the data


The Sample text in the dialog box previews the spotlighter formatting.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports 4. View the spotlighted values in the report.

"Notes

NOTE: Multiple conditions can be applied to a single Fact column.

To modify Spotlighter formats: 1. Select a Fact column in a pivot report that contains a Spotlighter
format.

2. On the Format menu, click Spotlighter. The Spotlighter window


appears, displaying the formats applied to the Fact column in the format scroll box.

3. In the Spotlighter window, double-click the spotlighter format (to be


modified) in the scroll box. All conditional formats applied to the Fact column are captured to the editor.

4. Make any desired changes to the condition or format and click the
green check mark button to reapply the modified spotlighter format. The modified format is reapplied to the Fact column.

To copy Spotlighter formats: 1. Select a Fact column in a pivot report that contains a Spotlighter
format.

2. In the Spotlighter window, select the spotlight formats (to be copied)


in the scroll box and click the Capture button. The spotlighter format is captured to the editor.

3. Select a new Fact column in a pivot report as the target area to


apply the copied Spotlighter formats. The target area can be in the same report or a different one.

4. In the Spotlight window, click the Apply button. The captured


formats are applied to the selected report element.

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

To remove a Spotlight from a selected Fact column: 1. Select a spotlighted Fact column. 2. On the Format menu, click Spotlighter. The Spotlighter formats
applied to the Fact column appear in the scroll box of the Spotlighter window. In the Spotlighter window, select the format to remove in the scrollbox and click the Remove button on the Standard toolbar. The Spotlighter format is removed from the selected Fact column.

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Pivot Reports

CUMULATIVE TOTALS
Cumulative totals can be calculated in a pivot report, restarting at zero for each new dimensional group. In the example below, Amount Sales values are cumulative in the Cume of Amount Sales column.

"Notes

With this feature you can add columns of cumulative running totals to Pivot reports, breaking them by label to restart at whatever level you choose. Keep in mind the following when adding Cume columns: Cumes are surface values and can only be calculated with the SUM data function. Cumes cannot be calculated with data functions such as AVG, COUNT, etc. Cumes are dependent on the sort order of the report, and will be recalculated when you change the sort order. You cannot sort with reference to a cume item.

To add a cumulative total column to a pivot report:

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

1. Select a fact column in a pivot report, right-click, and click Add


Cume.

2. In the Pivot Cume dialog box, type a label name, select a dimension
to define the scope, and click the OK button.

! A new fact named "Cume of {item name}" appears in the report ! The new Cume item maintains a cumulative running sum of the
original fact item

Tip

Cumes work best when all dimensions are located at the top or side of a pivot report, and Fact column headings are placed orthogonally.

Calculating Increase and Percent Increase The Increase or% Increase between two columns/rows at the end of a row/ column can be calculated using the Increase and% Increase total functions. These functions can be applied only at the innermost dimensional level.

To calculate an increase item: 1. Create a total row or column. 2. Alt-click (Option-click for Macintosh, Ctrl-Alt-click for Unix) the total
row or column, right-click, point to Data Function, and click Increase or% Increase.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Pivot Reports

"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

7 - 25

Pivot Reports

"Notes

USING COMPUTED ITEMS

TO

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

About Computed Items in Pivot


Computed Items enable you to design calculations for data values represented in a Pivot dimension. In the Pivot section, computations are performed on the desktop by BrioQuery and involve only the data on the surface of a Pivot report. In this section, therefore, you can only create new Computed Items; you can not modify original data items retrieved directly from the database. Also, because Computed Item calculations are performed exclusively on surface values, toggling off Surface Values to show underlying data values has no effect on Computed Items. Results and Pivot computed items differ only in one respect. In Results, reference items are limited to the items that appear on the Request line. In Pivot, reference items are limited to the items placed in the Outliners data values panel. Computations in Pivot work on the aggregated cell values that make up the core of the report. If you want to perform computations on data before it is aggregated, you should compute the new item in Results. NOTE: Computed items created in the Pivot section are available only within
the Pivot section.

To create a new item in a pivot report: 1. Create a pivot report. 2. Right-click in the Content pane and click Add Computed Item. A
Computed Item dialog box appears.

3. Rename the item to reflect the result of the computation in the Name
field.

4. Define the new data item by building an equation in the definition


box.

! Click Functions to apply functions to items ! Click Reference to select Outliner Items to place in the
equation, or as function arguments

! Click operator buttons provided in the Computed Item dialog


box to insert arithmetic and logical operators into the equation

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Pivot Reports

NOTE: Item, function, and operator names can be typed directly in the
panel. The names are not case-sensitive, but spaces in item names need to be replaced with underscores (_).

"Notes

5. When the equation is complete, click the OK button.

Pivot Examples

Example 1: Mathematical Equations In this example, sales tax is calculated as a percentage of the revenue (3.5%). Net Amount is calculated by subtracting the tax dollars from the revenue.

1. Create a query to retrieve Amount Sales for each Year.

3. Create a computed item in the Pivot section: =Amount_Sales - Tax

2. Create a computed item in the Pivot section: =Amount_Sales x 0.035

Example 2: Measures of Central Tendency Statistical functions, such as median and mode are available. Mean: the average of a set of numbers; calculated by adding the values and then dividing by the number of values. Median: the value of the middle number when the data is arrayed by size. Mode: the value that occurs with the greatest frequency. In this example, Unit Sales represents the total number of product units purchased. Mean of Unit Sales represents the average purchase size. Median of Unit Sales represents the number of product units that scores exactly in the middle of all purchase quantities. The Mode of Unit Sales represents the number of product units most commonly purchased at one time.

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Pivot Reports

"Notes
=Avg ( Unit_Sales, Year ) =Mode ( Unit_Sales, Year )

=Median ( Unit_Sales, Year )

Example 3: Average Numeric Function


Calculated averages can include break columns and break values. In this example, a variety of columns are created, displaying different average calculations based on the Amount Sales column: Amount Sales: sum of Amount Sales by Quarter and Product Line. definition = Sum ( Amount_Sales) Entire Year: average purchase amount (Amount Sales) across all Quarters and Product Lines. definition = Avg ( Amount_Sales) By Quarter: average purchase amount (Amount Sales) in a specific Quarter. definition = Avg ( Amount_Sales, Quarter ) By Quarter and Product Line: average purchase amount (Amount Sales) in a specific Quarter for a particular Product Line. definition = Average data function applied to the Amount_Sales column For Q1: average purchase size (Amount Sales) across all Product Lines for Q1 specifically. definition = Avg ( Amount_Sales, Quarter,'Q1' )

ForBooks: average purchase size (Amount Sales) across all Quarters for
the Books Product Line. definition = Avg ( Amount_Sales, Product_Line,'Books' )

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

This column can be hidden after the computed columns are created.

Example 4: Percentile Function Users can calculate a percentile value for a column of numbers. In the first pivot report illustration below, the 80th percentile value for Amount Sales is calculated (80th Percentile column). In order for Sales Managers to qualify for a special bonus, they must be within the 80th percentile (Qualify column). The second pivot report identifies Countries that make small size sales transactions (i.e. under $10,000), 95% of the time. Percentile: a value on a scale of one hundred that indicates the percent of a distribution that is equal to or below it

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

The 80th Percentile column calculates the 80th percentile value for all Sales Managers: =Percentile(Amount_Sales, .8) Important: Surface Values must be used in this type of report. Note: This column can be hidden in the Pivot report. To do so, select the column title, right-click, and click Hide Items. 1

The Qualify column determines whether or not a Sales Manager is within the 80th percentile: = if (Amount_Sales >= 80th_Percentile) {'a} The letter a formats as a check mark using the Marlett font.

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Pivot Reports

Calculated by finding the 95th percentile value within each Country. Country is used as the break column. = Percentile ( Amount_Sales, .95, Country ) 2 Important: Calculations must be done using the underlying values, versus the surface values.

"Notes

Percentile values under $10,000 are spotlighted in bold red to identify the countries that are making sales transactions under $10,000, 95% of the time.

Example 5: Rank Function Values in a pivot report can be ranked. In this example, each Country is ranked by the Amount Sales value. NOTE: The Rank function assigns duplicate numbers the same rank. The
presence of duplicate numbers affects the ranks of subsequent numbers.

Rank: the order according to some statistical characteristic

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

Countries ranked by their Amount Sales. =Rank ( Amount_Sales )

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Pivot Reports

EXPORTING REPORT SECTIONS


Report sections can be exported as common file formats such as Excel or Lotus. Sections can also be exported as HTML format, making it easy to distribute data to many corporate intranets or web sites.

"Notes

To export a report as a common file format: 1. On the File menu, point to Export and click Section. 2. Configure the Export Section dialog box and click the Save button. ! Select a destination directory for the export file ! Type a name for the section to be exported ! Choose a file format from the Save as type menu ! The table below describes common extensions for format
types:

HTML (*.htm) Excel 4 (*.xls) Lotus 1-2-3 WKS (*.wks) SYLK (*.slk) Tab-delimited text (*.txt) Comma-delimited text (*.csv)

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Pivot Reports

"Notes

CHART THIS PIVOT FEATURE


Charts can be automatically generated from pivot reports.

To automatically chart a pivot report:


On the Insert menu, click Chart This Pivot to create a new bar chart using the data from the pivot report, and the chart section is displayed automatically

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Unit 8

Charts

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Create a chart using Outliner ! Customize a chart

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Charts

"Notes

CREATING A CHART
Charts are fully interactive, three-dimensional views of data. Use the charts to convert your raw data into eloquent, visual information, which delivers immediate impact.

To add a Chart section to a document:


On the Insert menu, click New Chart Charts are created using the chart Outliner. At least two items must be included in the Outliner panel to create a usable chart. BrioQuerys Chart Outliner functions are similar to those in the Pivot Outliner. The chart Outliner consists of three panels: Y-Facts X-Categories Z-Categories The following table describes each panel of the Outliner:
Axis Panel X (item type) Y (amount) Z (year) Usage Label data only. Reserved exclusively for Label items, that is, nonquantifiable data. Include items such as product listings, periodic information (for example, day, month, or year) Values or Label data. Include quantifiable or measurable items such as sums, units or the like. Also can be used to place Label data. Label or Values data provide a third dimension. Include either type in this panel.

A two-dimensional chart includes x (store/item type) and y (amount/units) values. A three-dimensional chart contains x, y, and z values. To construct a chart using the Outliner: Drag items from the Catalog pane to the Outliner panel. NOTE: Remember, at least two items must be included in the Outliner panel
to create a usable chart.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts To view/hide the Outliner 1. Click the Chart section. 2. Click the Outliner button in the Standard toolbar. The Outliner window will appear.
Chart Outliner

"Notes

To remove an item from the Outliner 1. Select an item in the Outliner. 2. Choose Remove from the Standard toolbar or speed menu.
NOTE: You can interchange labels within the Outliner, but you cannot move
an item from the Values panel into a different panel directly. Remember - you want to keep numerical data in the Values panel.

Chart Legend
In the upper left hand corner of the workspace there will be a Legend. The Legend provides a color-coded index of label information. You can reposition the Legend the same way you reposition text boxes. Heres an example of a Legend that uses Item Type:

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8-3

Charts

"Notes

TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHARTS
Several charts can be created using only two items from the Request line. These include: Bar Charts Pie Charts Line Charts Area Charts Ribbon Charts

Bar Charts
The simplest bar charts are two-dimensional. To create one of these charts, you only need two items in the Outliner. Keep in mind that you always need at least two items in the Outliner panels in order to make a chart.

Creating Bar Charts To create a 2- or 3-dimensional vertical or horizontal bar chart: 1. On the Format menu, point to Chart Type and click Vertical Bar
or Horizontal Bar.

2. Drag each Request item to be included in the chart from the Catalog
to an Outliner panel:

! Drag quantifiable Request items to the Facts panel ! Drag non-quantifiable Request items to the X-Categories panel to create a two-dimensional chart ! If desired, drag a Request item to the Z-Categories panel to add a third dimension 3. Select Legend on X, Legend on Y, or Legend on Z in the Section
toolbar to colorize the bars. The result is a simple bar chart, consisting of an X and Y axis.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts
2-Dimensional Vertical Bar Chart

"Notes

To display this chart horizontally instead of vertically, click the Horizontal Bar Chart button in the Outliner.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

8-5

Charts

"Notes

2-Dimensional Horizontal Bar Chart

Bar Chart Properties To modify bar chart properties: 1. Select a bar, right-click, and click Properties. 2. In the Patterns tab of the Properties dialog box, select a Fill Pattern
(Automatic, None, Custom) and Foreground color (double-click the color box and select a color) for the selected bar.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts

"Notes

3. In the Data Labels tab of the Properties dialog box, select options
for displaying data values.

Bar Gaps

To add/close the gap between bars:


Select any bar, right-click, and click Show Bar Gap

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

8-7

Charts

"Notes

MULTIDIMENSIONAL CHARTS
Frequently, you want to represent more than two dimensions of data at a time. There are numerous ways to chart three or more dimensions of data. You can project data into the third dimension of space (Z axis), or you can represent the data in two spatial dimensions. The following charts are multidimensional: Three-Dimensional Bar Charts Three-Dimensional and Stacked Bar Charts Cluster Bar Charts representing divisions in a data label Three-Dimensional and Stacked Area Charts Three-Dimensional and Stacked Ribbon Charts Combination Line and Bar Charts (Pareto Charts)

Three-Dimensional Bar Charts


You can add more information to your bar chart by adding an additional item or items to the Outliners Z panel. Create a three-dimensional bar chart using Item Type, Year Number, and Amount. Include all three years (1995, 1996, and 1997).

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts
3-Dimensional Horizontal Bar Chart

"Notes

Manipulating Charts
The table below describes various ways to manipulate charts. Select
Modify the chart layout

How To
Reorder Request items within an Outliner panel by dragging or Interchange X- and Z-Categories by dragging items between the panels

Remove a chart item Select a chart element (bar, pie slice, line, or area) Select X- or Z-Category labels in a chart

Select an Outliner item, right-click, and click Remove. Click directly on the element.

Click a label in the Content pane. One label appears selected, however, all labels along the axis are affected.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

8-9

Charts

"Notes

Select
Select left or right axis values in a chart Move a chart object (text box, Legend, or axis label) Resize an object

How To
Click directly on any axis value in the Content pane. All values within the axis are highlighted and affected. Drag an object to a new position in the Content pane. Select an object in the Content pane, place the cursor over a graphic resize handle and the drag it open or closed.

General Chart Properties


Chart properties can be modified at any time. Set the following general chart properties by configuring the General tab in the Properties dialog box: Change the title and/or subtitle of a chart Hide/display the legend of a chart Display a chart as 2- or 3-dimensional Display/hide a border around the chart Resize a chart automatically as the application window is resized Display specific chart planes Rotate a chart Modifying General Chart Properties

To modify general chart properties:


On the Chart menu, click Properties, then make selections in the General tab of the Properties dialog box

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts

"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

8 - 11

Charts

"Notes

To manipulate X- and Z-Category labels:


On the Chart menu, click Properties, then make selections in the Labels Axis tab of the Properties dialog box

To manipulate the left and right axis values:


On the Chart menu, click Properties, then make selections in the Values Axis tab of the Properties dialog box

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts Other Formatting Techniques


The table below lists other formatting techniques applicable to all charts. Format
Resize a chart

"Notes
How To
Click on the workspace, outside of a chart and drag a graphic resize handle. For chart elements (for example, a bar) and planes: click on an element or plane and select a Line and/or Fill color on the Format menu For chart objects (for example, text boxes, labels, axis values): click an object and select a Fill and/or Text color from the Format menu For Legends: click anywhere in a Legend and select a Line or Fill color on the Format menu

Change chart colors

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Charts

"Notes

Format
Justify axis values

How To
Select an axis value, right-click, and select a justification (Left, Center, or Right / Top, Middle, or Bottom / Horizontal, Vertical, Vertical Rotated Up, or Vertical Rotated Down). Select an axis value, right-click, and click Number. In the Properties dialog box, select a format from the list of categories (Number, Currency, Percentage, Date, Time, Custom). Select an axis value or label, rightclick, and click Font. In the Font dialog box, select a Font, Style (Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic), Size, and Effect (Underline, Overline, Double Overline). Select a line, right-click and click Properties. In the Patterns tab of the Properties dialog box, select options for the line (Color, Width and Style) and the markers (Style, Size, Border color, Fill color). For bar and area charts, position cursor over top right-hand corner of chart and drag rotation icon to rotate the chart For pie charts, right-click the contents area and click Rotate. Drag the rotation icon in the lower left-hand corner to rotate the chart

Change the number format of axis values or labels

Change the font of axis values or labels

Change the look of a line or line marker

Rotate a chart

NoteLine and bar-line charts cannot be rotated.

Pivot This Chart


A pivot report can be instantly created from a chart using the Pivot This Chart feature.

To create a pivot report from a chart:


On the Insert menu, click Pivot This Chart

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts

DRILLING

INTO

CHARTS

"Notes

The Chart section has the same drill capabilities as the Pivot section: Drill Anywhere Drill to Detail Predefined Drill Paths Drill Up

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Charts

"Notes

To drill into a chart: 1. Select one or more chart elements (bars, lines, slices, etc.).

2. Right-click, point to Drill Anywhere, and click an item. ! The chart is rebuilt, displaying the selected axis label(s) broken down by the drill item ! In the Outliner, the specified drill item is added to the appropriate panel, and the drilled item is identified with a drill-bit icon

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts

"Notes

To drill up:
Right-click an Outliner item following an item with a drill bit and click Drill Up

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Charts

"Notes

USING COMPUTED ITEMS

TO

DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Computed Items enable you to design calculations for data values represented in multidimensional charts. In the Chart section, computations are performed on the desktop by BrioQuery. This means that just as in the Pivot section, you can only create new Computed Items; you can not modify original data items retrieved directly from the database. Results and Chart computed items differ only in one respect. In Results, reference items are limited to the items that appear on the Request line. In Chart, reference items are limited to the items placed in the Outliners data values panel. Computations in Chart work on the aggregated cell values that make up the core of the report. If you want to perform computations on data before it is aggregated, you should compute the new item in Results. NOTE: Computed items created in the Chart section are available only
within the Chart section.

To create a new item in a chart: 1. Create a chart. 2. Right-click in the Content pane and click Add Computed Item. A
Computed Item dialog box appears.

3. Rename the item to reflect the result of the computation in the Name
field.

4. Define the new data item by building an equation in the definition


box.

! Click Functions to apply scalar functions to items ! Click Reference to select Outliner Items to place in the equation, or as function arguments ! Click operator buttons provided in the Computed Item dialog box to insert arithmetic and logical operators into the equation
NOTE: Item, function, and operator names can be typed directly in the
panel. The names are not case-sensitive, but spaces in item names need to be replaced with underscores (_).

5. When the equation is complete, click the OK button.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Charts Chart Example

"Notes

Example 1: Projected Sales In this example, 20% sales increase projections for each Quarter are calculated, based on Amount Sales for 1999.

= Amount_Sales * .2

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Charts

"Notes

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Unit 9

Designing Reports

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Create and customize a report ! Modify and format a report ! Use data functions ! Sort data

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

9-1

Designing Reports

"Notes

CREATING DESIGNER

AND

CUSTOMIZING USING

THE

REPORT

The Report Designer is a highly elastic tool for presenting and analyzing data. Using the drag-and-drop process, it is easy to create and customize a report to fit your needs by removing, adding, and modifying report components. As you customize the report using the Report Designer, BrioQuery instantly reflects your changes. With the Report Designer, you can create free-form report styles. With a free-form structure, reports can easily be laid out to exact pixel specification. The Report Designer section has flexible page sizing and matrix, including a page view to get an accurate representation of the report layout. Extensive drawing tools are available and background pictures can be incorporated.

The Structure of Report Designer


The Report Designer retains information about categories and break-style boundaries, the backbone of reporting. The strict adherence to banded report layout of previous versions has been eliminated. This change, combined with extended functionality, enables users to create professional reports.

The report structure is divided into group headers and body areas, with each body area typically holding a table of data. Tables are created with dimension columns and fact columns. Dimension columns hold text, while fact columns hold numeric content. These tables are very flexible; several tables can be inserted into each band and each table can be sourced from the same or different result sets in the document.

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Designing Reports
As with tables, any other pivot or chart report can be inserted into the new Report Designer. These components can be introduced into the Group headers or directly into the body of the report. They appear as free-floating objects within the report area and can be moved anywhere in the report by dragging them. Free-form text boxes, computed expressions, a set of predefined computed fields, labels, and graphic objects can be introduced into the report at any location to enrich the content.

"Notes

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Report Designer Section


The Report Designer section is BrioQuerys report writer, which also contains analysis features: Drill-out of one document and into another Change data aggregation from the Results section Hide data elements Focus on data elements Calculate new columns of data

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports Using Report Designer to Create a Report


With Report Designer, you can create reports by dragging items from the Catalog pane to the report Outliner. The Outliner consists of the Group Outliner and Table Outliner. The Table Outliner is divided into the Table Dimensions and Table Facts panes. Table facts are summarized at the table dimension levels, and broken down by report groups. Below is an illustration of the report Outliner.

"Notes

To create a report using Report Designer: 1. On the Insert menu, click New Report. 2. Click Groups and Table on the Section Title bar to view all panes
in the report Outliner.

3. Add Request items from the Catalog to the Groups or Table


Outliner.

! Drag quantifiable items to the Table Facts pane. Totals are automatically generated in the report body. ! Drag non-quantifiable items to the Table Dimensions pane to itemize the facts. ! Drag non-quantifiable items to the Report Groups pane to create separate tables for each label in a report group.

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Modifying a Report
Using Report Designer, you can modify the report format or layout as well as the report elements. The report format consist of items such as showing or hiding the table fact total, resizing a column in a table, resizing a row in a table, and so forth. Report elements consist of items such as labels, columns, pictures, and so forth. Modifying a report format and elements are discussed in the following sections of this document.

Report Formats
For added design flexibility, Report Designer offers a set of formatting options in the Format menu or Format toolbar. Page Layout Mode: Shows report pagination, margins, headers, and footers. Report Setup: Provides user-defined settings for page orientation, margins, number of columns, and sizes of multicolumn reports. Headers and Footers: Enables full customization of the contents, including the introduction of other report elements (such as Pivots and Charts) text labels, and computed fields. Special predefined computed fields are available to easily introduce page number and total pages, date saved and processed and printed, date/time now, and file and report names. Section Boundaries: Displays optional boundary lines for the group regions, header and footer regions, and body areas that can be displayed to make clear where the respective areas begin and end for layout purposes. Design Tools: Provides the same rulers, design grids, design guides, and zoom functions that are available in the EIS section. This builds precision layouts. Multiple Data Sources: Enables the containment of data from multiple, possibly unrelated queries. In addition to including multiple tables in the report (these tables might be from the same or different queries), the data in a single table may be joined across queries in the report. When using columns from multiple result sets in a single report table, the report engine automatically matches the data based on any common keys found. Computed Fields: Offers a new Expression bar that provides a quick access line in Report Designer for building computed expressions. In addition to the built-in functions that the Expression bar exposes, Java script expressions can be written to derive more advanced calculations.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports

"Notes
Figure 9-1 Figure 7. The Expression Bar

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Precomputed Fields
Sets of predefined computed fields are available to quickly introducecommon values into the report, including Page Number and Total, Date Saved and Processed/Printed, Date and Time Now, and File and Report name.

Formatting a Report The table below lists the options available for formatting reports:
Report Modification
Remove a report group, table dimension, or table fact Change the layout of report groups, table dimensions, and table facts

How To
Click an Outliner item, right-click, and then click Remove. Drag a report group or table dimension to a new position in the Outliner or Reorder table facts within the Table Facts panel of the Table Outliner or Drag table dimensions and table facts manually in the reports body

Show/Hide a table facts total

Click a table fact in a report, right-click, and then click Show Column Total. A check mark indicates the total is visible. The Grand Total button on the Standard toolbar can also be used. Select a column in a table. Position the cursor over the columns margin, and then double-click to Auto-Size or drag the margin left or right. Click the left side of the first column in a table to highlight the row.

Resize a column in a table

Resize a row in a table

Position the cursor over the bottom row margin, and then drag the margin up or down. All rows in the table are resized. Resize a report group header Click in a report group header in the report. Position the cursor over the rows margin, and then double-click to Auto-Size or drag the margin up or down. Select any column in a table, right-click, and then click Show Column Titles. A check mark indicates the column titles are visible. Notethis feature hides all column titles in a table

Show/Hide column titles in a table

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Designing Reports
Report Modification
Repeat group headers if content spans multiple pages Resize an objects container

How To
Click in a group header (not on a group header label), right-click, and then click Repeat Header. Position the cursor over an object (for example, a table or pivot report). When it changes to a 4-directional cursor, click the object. Drag the containers handles to resize the container. Select a column, right-click, and then click Suppress Duplicates.

"Notes

Suppress duplicate column values in a table

Modifying Report Elements Each element (label, column, picture, and so forth) in a report has a set of properties that can be easily modified. These element properties include: Font: You can change the font type, text style (Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic), font size, effect (Underline, Overline, Double-Overline), and text color.

Number: You can apply a number format (Number, Currency, Percentage, Date, Time, Custom).

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Alignment: You can modify the horizontal alignment (left, center, right), vertical alignment (top, middle, bottom), rotation (Horizontal, Vertical, Vertical Rotated Up, Vertical Rotated Down), and text control (Wrap Text setting).

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports
Border and Background: You can modify the border (line Color, Width, and Style) and background (Color and Pattern).

"Notes

Gridlines: You can modify the horizontal and vertical line styles in a table.

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Picture: You can specify the file name and location of a bitmap, percent scale (Height and Width), and picture effect (None, Stretch, Clip, Tile).

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports

"Notes

The table below describes the modifiable properties for each report element.

Object
Group Header Label (TextLabel) TextLabel

Properties

How To Find the Properties

Number, Font, Alignment, Double-click a report group header Border, and Background label. Font, Alignment, Border, and Background Position the cursor over the text TextLabel. A 4-directional arrow appears. Click, and the text label border handles appear. Right-click and click Properties. Double-click a table. This only works if there is one column in the table. Double-click a column in a table. Double-click a graphic shape in a report.

Table

Border and Background, Gridlines, Font, Number, Alignment Font, Number, Alignment Border and Background

Column Graphic Shape (Line, Hz Line, Vt Line, Rectangle, Round Rectangle, Oval) Picture

Alignment, Picture

Double-click a picture in a report.

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Report Page Setup

To specify margin sizes and column settings: 1. On the Report menu, click Report Setup (Alternatively, doubleclick the ruler).

2. Configure the Report Page Setup dialog box: ! Set margin sizes in the Margins tab (top, bottom, left, and right)

! Specify the number of Columns per Page and the default column Width and Spacing in the Columns tab

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports
Inserting Page Breaks Page breaks can be inserted before/after a report body or before/after a report group label.

"Notes

To insert a page break:


Select a report group header (be careful not to click the report group label), right-click, and click Page Break After or Page Break Before

Select a blank area in a report group header in order to view the page break options in the speed menu.

To remove a page break:


Select a report group header with a page break applied, right-click, and select Page Break After or Page Break Before to remove the check mark

Adding Totals to Report Group Headers By default, totals are automatically generated for table facts. These totals can be displayed or hidden. The formulas behind these totals can be used to calculate totals for any report group.

To calculate a total in a report group header:


Drag an item from the Catalog pane to a report group header

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Designing Reports

"Notes

For example, drag Amount Sales from the Catalog pane to the Region

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports

SORTING REPORTS
Report groups and table columns can be sorted alpha-numerically or based on formulas.

"Notes

Sorting Report Groups

To sort a report group: 1. Click Sort on the Section Title bar to view the report Sort line. 2. Drag a report group label from the Content pane to the Sort line.

For example, drag Asia Pacific to the Sort line to sort Report Group1 labels.

3. Configure the Sort line. ! Reorder the Sort items to determine the nested sort order ! Double-click Sort items to toggle between ascending and descending sort orders

Sorting Tables

To sort a table:
Select a table column and drag it to the Sort line. Multiple table columns can be added to the Sort line to create a nested sort

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Designing Reports

"Notes

For example, select the Amount Sales column and then drag it to the Sort line to the sort the table based on Amount Sales values.

Sorting by Formula
To sort a report group based on a formula:
In a report group header, select a total value or calculated field and drag it to the Sort line

For example, drag the total $57,343,847 (Amount Sales total) to the Sort line to sort Region report group labels by Amount Sales.

Data Functions
Table facts are automatically summarized in a report based on the table dimensions and report groups; however, the data can be aggregated differently by changing the data function. Also, an item from the Catalog pane can be added multiple times to the Table Facts pane in the Outliner, and be calculated using a different data function, each time.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports To change the data function applied to a table fact: 1. Select a table fact in a report. 2. Right-click, point to Data Function, and click a data function
(Column Name, Sum, Count, Average, Minimum, Maximum, % of Category, Null Count, Non Null Count, Non Null Average).

"Notes

uses the Minimum data function

uses the Percent of Category data function

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Adding Graphics

Shapes Lines, horizontal lines, vertical lines, rectangles, round rectangles, and ovals are available.

To add a graphic to a report: 1. Drag a graphic item from the Graphics folder in the Catalog pane
to the Content pane.

Graphics available for use in the Report section.

2. Modify the graphic. ! To move a graphic, drag it to a different position ! To resize a graphic, select it and drag the handle(s) ! Double-click a graphic to modify the border and background

Text Add text to a report by using the Text Label item.

To add text to a report: 1. Drag the Text Label item from the Graphics folder in the Catalog
to the Content pane.

2. Click TextLabel.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports

"Notes
3. Enter text. 4. Modify the text label properties. ! Position the cursor under the text (the cursor changes to a 4-directional arrow), then click

! Once the text label container handles appear, right-click, and click Properties ! Select options in the Number, Font, Alignment, and Border and Background tabs, and click the OK button To append text to a report group label: 1. Select a report group label. 2. In the Expression line, enter text in double quotes before or after the
equation, enter a plus sign + to concatenate text, and click the green check mark button.

In this example, the text Region: is inserted before the report group label Americas.

Pictures Bitmap pictures can be added to a report.

To add a picture to a report: 1. Drag the Picture item from the Graphics folder in the Catalog to the
Content pane.

2. In the Select Image dialog box, browse and select a bitmap file and
click the OK button. The picture is added to the report.

3. Modify the picture properties. BrioQuery Explorer 6.1 9 - 21

Designing Reports

"Notes

! To move the picture, drag it to a different position ! To resize the picture, select it and drag the handle(s) ! Double-click the picture to modify the properties To add a background picture to a report: 1. Right-click on the Content pane (careful to not select anything) and
click Properties.

2. In the Picture tab of the Properties dialog box, browse and select
a bitmap for the background picture, and click the OK button. The picture is added to the report for each report group header or body.

Embedding Pivot Reports and Charts One of the most powerful features of Report section is the ability to combine pivot reports and charts in a single report. Pivot reports and charts are inserted into report group headers and bodies intelligently, meaning they reflect only the relevant data for the report level in which they are inserted. This type of report is referred to as a Smart Report.

To add a pivot report or chart to a report:


Drag a pivot report or chart from the Query folder in the Catalog pane to a report group header or body

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports

"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

9 - 23

Designing Reports

"Notes

PRINT PREVIEW
Finishing Touches
Once a report is created, add the finishing touches by adjusting page margins, adding headers and footers, and setting page numbers in Print Preview mode. Before printing, preview the finished report as it will appear on the printed page. NOTE: The Report section does not have a Print Preview mode. Margins,
headers, footers, and page numbering can be done in regular mode.

To enable/disable print preview mode:


On the File menu, click Print Preview

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports Page Margins


In all sections, except the Report section, print preview mode must be enabled to change page margins.

"Notes

All Sections (except a Report Section)

To adjust page margins: 1. Position the cursor over one of the dotted lines representing a page
margin. The cursor becomes a two-directional arrow.

2. Drag the dotted line to the desired position. The page is refreshed
with the new margins.

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Designing Reports

"Notes

Headers and Footers


In all sections, except a Report section, multiple headers and footers can be added to a report. To view or modify the header/footer, the report needs to be in Print Preview mode.

All Sections (except a Report Section)

To add a header or footer to a report: 1. On the Insert menu, click Add Header or Add Footer. This can be
done in regular or Print Preview mode. The Edit Header (or Edit Footer) dialog box appears. The dialog box provides hot stamp buttons for adding current date, time, file name, page, page total, or limit values to a header or footer.

nter text ere

date

time

file name

page page number total

query limits

2. Enter the desired text and/or hot stamps to set up the header/footer,
and click the OK button. The new header or footer is added to the report.

To view or edit a header or footer: 1. On the File menu, click Print Preview. 2. In Print Preview mode, double-click a header or footer. The selected
text displays in the Edit Header (or Edit Footer) dialog box.

3. Edit the text and click the OK button. To justify header or footer text:
Click a header or footer to highlight it, then click a Justification button on the Format toolbar

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Designing Reports Page Numbering

"Notes

All Sections (except the Report Section) To set page numbering in any section (except the Report section), the report must be in Print Preview mode. This feature is useful when combining different reports into a single volume.

To set the starting page number: 1. On the Print Preview menu, click Start Page Number. The Print
Options dialog box appears.

2. Type a starting page number in the field, then click the OK button.
The first page in the report is set to the specified number.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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Designing Reports

"Notes

9 - 28

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Unit 10

The Scheduler

Objectives
After completing this unit you will be able to:

! Schedule new jobs ! Modify existing jobs ! Delete existing jobs ! View your scheduled jobs

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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The Scheduler

"Notes

THE SCHEDULER
What is a Scheduler?
A scheduler is a software application that automatically processes a designated query at a specified time and date, and distributes the results in whatever format(s) desired. Brios scheduling software runs on either a Windows NT or a UNIX-based server, and is known as Broadcast Server.

About Broadcast Server


A Broadcast Server enables users to schedule queries to process on a regular basis or during convenient off-hours and distribute the results across a network or to an intranet. Queries can be processed at any time. For example, tonight, at the beginning of the next fiscal quarter or every Tuesday at 8:30 AM for the next 12 months Documents can be automatically e-mailed or saved to particular directories Reports can be printed or exported as specific file formats (for example, Excel) Users schedule jobs by logging on to a scheduling database and defining details of a job, such as when a document is to be processed and how the reports are to be distributed. Each job is added to a job list, stored on a database. Broadcast Server takes care of the jobs, running them for as long as specified and delivering data and reports exactly as instructed.

Job Repositories
A job repository is a set of database tables which store a queue of scheduled jobs. There can be multiple job repositories in an organization. Job repositories are polled periodically by a Broadcast Server, which downloads and processes the jobs when they are due to run. When a job is submitted or when a user views a job list, a database connection is required. NOTE: Users need to check with their administrator to see which Broadcast
Server and job repository to use for scheduling jobs.

A job repository can be located on any database and need not be the same database where the queries are processed. If more than one Broadcast Server is active in an environment, each server may poll the same job repository or there may be several different job repositories.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler Scheduling Jobs To schedule a job on a document that is currently active: 1. On the File menu, point to Schedule and click Select. If there is a
Preferred Repository defaulted setting, choose it.

"Notes

2. Choose the connection file needed to connect to the job repository.


A prompt appears to log on to the job repository.

3. Enter the database login information and click the OK button. Once
connected, the tabbed Job Detail dialog box appears, displaying the General tab.

4. Describe the attributes of the job using the tabs in the Job Detail
dialog box and click the OK button.

! General tab describes basic job, document, and Broadcast Server information ! Actions tab describes processing and data output actions ! Schedule tab describes the run schedule of a job

5. Enter a username and password in each connection file dialog


box.

6. When the job details have been defined, click the OK button to add
the job to the queue.

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The Scheduler

"Notes

To be prompted to select a specific job repository each time a job is scheduled: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options and click Program Options. 2. In the General tab, select the check box for Always prompt for
owner name.

To schedule a job using a document that is not currently open: 1. On the Tools menu, point to View Job List and click Select. The
Job List appears.

2. Click the Add Job button. The Open File dialog box appears. 3. Navigate and select a document to schedule and click the OK
button. The tabbed Job Detail dialog box appears, displaying the General tab.

4. Describe the attributes of the job using the tabs in the Job Detail
dialog and click the OK button to add to the job to the queue.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler The General Tab


The General tab is where the basic information about the job is supplied.

"Notes

The table below lists the features and usage of fields in the General Tab. Feature
Enabled checkbox

Usage
Toggles the job. If this box is unchecked, the job is disabled and will not run until it is re-enabled. A disabled job remains in the job list. A unique job code assigned by Broadcast Server. A job code remains the same for the life of the job. A descriptive job name describing the job in the Job List. Choose a custom-created calendar for use in scheduling the job. Calendars are provided by your administrator, and can be used to schedule a job by alternate or fiscal calendars.

Job Id field

Job Name field Calendar pull-down

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The Scheduler

"Notes

Feature
Server Name pull-down

Usage
Choose the name of the Broadcast Server instance that will run the job. All servers which poll the selected job repository are listed in the pull-down list. Requests an e-mail confirmation on completion of each job run. If client and server run different e-mail systems, the e-mail address string entered in the field must match the mail protocol used by Broadcast Server, not the addressee. Displays e-mail address book. Pings the e-mail address to check a connection. There is no reply if the address checks.

Send e-mail notification on completion? check box

Address Book button (MAPI-compliant e-mail systems only) Check Name button (MAPI-compliant e-mail systems only)

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler The Queries Tab


The Queries tab lists the queries built in the document. Specify which queries in a document are to be processed.

"Notes

To specify the queries to be processed:


Select the check boxes beside the names of the queries to be processed

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The Scheduler

"Notes

The Actions Tab


Use the Actions tab to specify how to process and route the results of a job. Broadcast Server uses network resources including printers, directories, e-mail systems, and intranets. The tree control on the Actions tab indicates the necessary actions to schedule the job and the available resources. Use the Actions tab to: Assign iterative run cycles (process a query multiple times) Resolve variable limits Add distribution actions for a job Register a document for OnDemand Server (outside the scope of this manual)

Run Cycles
Queries can be processed multiple times, each time performing a different set of actions and/or using a different set of limit values. For example, a query may have three run cycles, each of which process sales data for a different region.

To add a run cycle: 1. Click the Actions tab. ! The job tree control displays the job default run cycle, Cycle 1 ! Variable limits are displayed under the default cycle ! If the queries need to be processed only once, a single cycle (Cycle 1) is sufficient

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler

"Notes

Variable limits

2. Click the Add Cycle button to add a new cycle. Enter a cycle name
in the Cycle dialog box and click the OK button.

! To change the name of an existing cycle, click a cycle in the Actions tab, then click the Modify button

Resolving Variable Limits


Variable limits need to be resolved in scheduled jobs, since there is no user interaction when the queries process; and will appear in the tree control only if it exists in a document. Broadcast Server provides ordinal variables (1st, last, nth) for variable limits applied to dates. If a job is based on a custom calendar, the ordinal variables apply relative to that calendar.

To resolve a variable limit: 1. Double-click a variable limit in the Actions tab. A Limit dialog box
appears.

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The Scheduler

"Notes

! Keep in mind that an administrator can restrict features in a Limit dialog box, giving it a customized appearance

perator cannot be ed while scheduling

Ordinal date options

2. Select or enter limit values and click the OK button. # Users cannot modify the comparison operator of a variable
limit within the Job Detail dialog box

Defining Actions
Job output actions specify where and how to deliver the results of a scheduled job. Broadcast Server can utilize network resources including printers, directories, company internet e-mail systems, and intranets to funnel job output. Scheduling resources are available to users based on privileges assigned to them by an administrator.

To add an action: 1. On the Actions tab, select a job cycle in the tree control. 2. Click the Add Action button to define an output action. An Action
dialog box appears.

! To modify an action, double-click it in the Actions tab ! To delete an action, click an Action in the Actions tab and click the Delete button 3. Choose the Export HTML, Export Section, Print Section, Save
Document, or E-mail action from the pull-down list. The parameters within the Action dialog box vary depending on the action chosen.

4. Define parameters for the job action and click the OK button. 10 - 10 BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler
Action Dialog Box Descriptions Feature
Section Directory

"Notes
Usage
The document section to be printed or exported. The directory where the export file or BrioQuery document will be saved. Broadcast Server Save and Export actions include the ability to save files to FTP server directories. The name of the exported or saved file. Appends both the job ID# and the name of the job report cycle to the saved BrioQuery document or export file to ensure that the file is recognizable if similar files are saved to the same directory. Appends a datestamp to the saved document or exported file, indicating when they were processed.

File Name Append...to ensure uniqueness

Append Date

Export HTML Below is an Action dialog box with the Export HTML option chosen.

NOTE: An Administrator defines the directories to which users can save


documents. A directory can reside on any file server.

Export Section Below is an Action dialog box with the Export Section option chosen. Report sections can be exported in the following formats: Excel, Lotus, CSV, Text, or HTML.

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The Scheduler

"Notes

Print Section Below is an Action dialog box with the Print Section option chosen. Administrators define the printers to which users can print. Be sure to specify the page orientation (Portrait or Landscape).

NOTE: An administrator assigns particular printers to groups of users.

Save Document Below is an Action dialog box with the Save Document option chosen.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler

"Notes

E-mail Document Below is an Action dialog box with the E-mail Document option chosen. In the dialog box, specify the e-mail addresses to send the document. Select Send Results if the document will be used off-line or if the receiver is a Brio.Insight or Brio.Quickview user. Send files in a compressed format to reduce the time it takes to download the e-mail. Alternatively, deselect Send File and enter a message that states that the job is finished and where the document can be accessed (use a hyperlink).

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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The Scheduler

"Notes

E-mail Section Below is an Action dialog box with the E-mail Section option chosen. A section can be exported as an Excel, Lotus, CSV, Text, or HTML file, then e-mailed as an attachment.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler

"Notes

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

10 - 15

The Scheduler

"Notes

The Schedule Tab


The Schedule tab is used to describe when and how many times a job runs. Jobs can be scheduled to run immediately or on a daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or periodic basis. Alternatively, a job can be scheduled to run based on the completion of an external event, such as a weekly update to the database. Below is an example of the Schedule tab. The appearance of this tab changes when different schedule patterns are chosen. If a time threshold is specified, a job will wait in the queue for a finite number of minutes before it disables itself. If Always Run is selected, then a job will remain in the queue during each polling period, until complete. Pre-defined events are defined by an Administrator.

To define when a job will run: 1. Click the Schedule tab. 2. Choose a schedule pattern from the pull-down list. The parameters
available on the Schedule tab vary depending on the pattern chosen.

3. Continue to define the pattern using the available parameters. ! Select weekdays from check boxes ! Choose months, weekdays, ordinal days (e.g. 1st, Nth), and period units from pull-down menus

10 - 16

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler ! Enter dates (for example, 1, 19, 30) in text fields 4. Specify the time of day when the job will run. ! Enter a time (colon delimited) and AM or PM in the Time to execute field, or ! Choose a trigger event from the Upon completion of pulldown menu 5. Enter a value in the Number of executions field to specify a finite
number of times a job will run, or click the Infinite check box.

"Notes

6. If applicable, enter a time in minutes to the Time threshold field to


supply a grace period for a job to be completed before it is postponed. Or, click the Always Run check box to ensure the job always runs, at some point during the scheduled day.

Scheduling Patterns and Associated Parameters


Pattern
Daily Weekly Monthly or Quarterly

Parameter
day check boxes

Setup
Check a box for each day the report should run.

day pull-down menu Choose a day to run the report. day pull-down menus and date field Choose an ordinal date from the first pulldown menu. Select Nth to run the report on any day other than the first or last day of the period. If Nth is selected, enter a numeric date in the middle text field; otherwise leave the field blank. Choose a specific weekday or the generic day from the second pulldown menu. This pattern will pick the correct date relative to any custom calendar chosen for the job. Enter a Starting Date and incremental value in the Every text field. Choose an incremental period unit from the pull-down menu. Choose a pre-defined event as a trigger. The job will run on the specified day if the event has been completed, or upon completion of the event if the event-based pattern is selected. Completion is signified by an update to the BRIOEVNT table. ASAP executes the job at the next poll of the job repository.

Every

increment field and period pull-down menu event choice (or Upon completion of) radio button, and pull-down menu

EventBased

ASAP

no parameters

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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The Scheduler

"Notes

Pattern
All patterns, except eventbased All patterns All patterns

Parameter

Setup

Time to execute Enter a run time (colon delimited) for the job button and time field and a time of day.

Number of executions field and Infinite check box Time threshold field and Always Run check box

Enter the number of times the job should run. Click the Infinite check box to run the job indefinitely. The time threshold is a grace period following the scheduled run time. If the job does not run within the time allotted by the threshold (because of conflicts or limited server capacity), it will be shelved until the next scheduled run. For example, a time threshold of 15 minutes will allow the job to be run up to 15 minutes after its scheduled time if there are conflicts. Click the Always Run check box to always run the job, regardless of conflicts.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler Connection Information


Job repository tables can be located on the same or a different database used to process scheduled documents. The last step for scheduling a job is to supply any additional connection information, if needed. If a document contains multiple queries or at least one query that processes on a different database, then additional connection information is needed

"Notes

To specify connection files to be used for processing:


Configure the Setup Job Connections dialog box. For each query to be processed in the job, select the connection file required to process the query, enter a User ID and Password, then click the OK button

Click the Next but to specify connect information for oth queries.

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

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The Scheduler

"Notes

The Job List


The Job List catalogs each job submitted to the job repository. In the Job List window, a user can: Examine details of his/her jobs Add new jobs Modify existing jobs Delete obsolete jobs Monitor the status of active jobs An administrator is able to see jobs submitted by all users, using an application called Brio Enterprise Server Administrator. Users can view only jobs submitted under their own user account in the job repository.

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BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

The Scheduler

Job List Fields


Field
Job ID Enabled

"Notes
Function
A unique job code assigned by Broadcast Server. Each job code remains the same for the life of the job. Indicates whether a job is currently active. Jobs can be disabled at any time. Disabled jobs are discontinued (but not deleted) until they are re-enabled by a user. The Broadcast Server instance used to schedule the job. The database user account of the person who scheduled the job. A descriptive name submitted to clearly identify the job to the user. The date the job last ran. The status of the previous (or current) job run, such as 'successful' or running. The date the job will run next. The scheduled run time for each iteration. The time interval between runs. The number of run cycles in the life of the job.

Server Name User Name Job Name Last Date Completion Status Next Date Execution Time Interval Repetitions

Monitoring Jobs
To monitor scheduled jobs: 1. On the Tools menu, point to View Job List and click Select. 2. Browse and select a connection file to connect to the database
where the job repository resides.

3. Enter a Username and Password, and click the OK button. The Job
List window appears.

Modifying Jobs
Existing jobs can be modified to change any of the parameters, including output destinations, scheduling times, or the values used to resolve a variable limit.

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The Scheduler

"Notes

To modify a job: 1. Select the job in the Job List and click the Modify button. The Job
Detail dialog box appears.

2. Make changes, then click the OK button. The job is re-saved to the
job list and incorporates the changes.

Deleting Jobs
Users can delete jobs that become obsolete.

To delete a job:
Select the job in the Job List and click the Delete button

10 - 22

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Glossary

Auto-Join An administrator can configure a connection file to cause joins to occur automatically for users via the Auto-Join feature. Auto-join can be configured one of three ways: Best Guess, Custom, and Server-Defined. Auto-Process Auto-Process is the automatic processing of a query. Brio.Insight Brio.Insight is a Brio application (available as a plug-in and standalone application) that enables users to create queries, analyze data, and create reports over the Web. Brio.Quickview Brio.QuickView is a Brio application (available as a plug-in and stand-alone application) that enables users to view and process BrioQuery documents over the Web. BrioQuery Explorer BrioQuery Explorer is a Brio client/server application that enables users to create queries, analyze data, and build reports. Users can access database tables directly in order to create data models, as well as access pre-built BrioQuery documents stored in a Repository. BrioQuery Navigator BrioQuery Navigator is a Brio client/server application that enables users to create queries, analyze data, and build reports. Users access pre-built data models, queries, and reports stored in a Repository or on a file server. Broadcast Server Broadcast Server is a Brio application, residing on a server, that enables users to schedule queries to process on a regular basis or during convenient off-hours, and then distribute the results across a network or to an intranet. Business Intelligence Organizations utilize information from various operational systems, data marts, and/or data warehouses in order to improve business processes, enhance customer service, accelerate sales, and increase profitability. Chart Report Charts are fully interactive, three-dimensional views of data. Users create charts to convert raw data into eloquent, visual information. Chart Section With a varied selection of chart types, and a complete arsenal of OLAP tools like group and drill-down, the Chart section is built to support simultaneous graphic reporting and ad-hoc analysis. Client/Server Client/Server refers to a network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server. Computed Item Computed items are new data items that are computed locally by the Brio client application or on the database. Computed items are

A-1

"

Notes

utilized like normal data items, and can be included in reports or re-used to compute other data. Connection File A connection file, also known as an OCE (Open Catalog Extension), is a small file containing all of the software and network specifications needed to connect to a database. Connection files have a *.oce file extension. Cross Join A cross join creates a query where none of the tables is joined. Every row in one table is joined to every row in another table. Data Function A data function is an aggregate calculation that produces a single value based on a set of values. Examples of data functions include sum, average, and count. Data Model A data model is a semantic layer in a BrioQuery document that represents a subset of database tables, used to create queries. Data Models are displayed in the Query section of a document. Database Function A database function is a pre-defined formula in a database. Datatype Datatype refers to the type of data stored in a specific column in a database. For example, data can be stored as a numeric datatype. Date Group The Date Group feature in the Results and Table sections separates a column of date datatype into Year, Quarter, and Month columns. The display format for the new Month column is automatically set to mmm so that the month names sort chronologically (as opposed to alphabetically) in the report sections. Quarters are based on the calendar year, beginning January 1st. Detail View Detail View displays a topic as a database table. When Detail View is selected by the user, the database returns ten sample rows from the associated table. Each topic item is displayed as a database field. Detail View enables users to browse a sample of the raw data, which is useful when unfamiliar with the data model or the underlying data. Users cannot view a meta topic in Detail View. Dimension Table A dimension table consists of numerous attributes about a specific business process. Each row in a dimension table is unique. Drill Anywhere The Drill Anywhere feature enables a user to drill into and add items to pivot reports residing in the Results section, without having to return to the Query section or trying to locate the item in the Catalog pane. Drill Anywhere items are broken out as new pivot label items. Drill to Detail Drill to Detail enables a user to retrieve items from a data model that are not in the Results section, without having to rerun the original query. This feature provides the ability to interactively query the database and filter the data that is returned. Drill to Detail sets a limit on the query based on the users selection and adds the returned value as a new pivot label item automatically. Expression Line In the Report section, the Expression line displays the JavaScript syntax for each item displayed in a report. Use this line to build equations. For ease of use, it can be undocked and resized.

A-2

Extranet An extranet refers to an intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Extranets are secured by user names and passwords. Fact Table A fact table is created to store business activity measures. Most fact tables are extremely large. Each row in a fact table contains numeric measures (fully additive measures, non-additive measures, and/ or semi-additive measures) and foreign keys to each dimension table. File Server A file server is a computer and storage device dedicated to storing files. Foreign Key A foreign key is a database column or set of columns included in the definition of a referential integrity constraint. Fully Additive Measure Fully additive measures are attributes in a table that can have their values added together across any dimension. Grain The level of detail at which measures in a table are recorded is referred to as the grain. Grouping Column The Grouping Columns feature in the Results and Table sections creates a new column in a dataset by grouping data from an already existing column. Grouping columns consolidate non-numeric data values into more general group values and map the group values to a new column in the dataset. Icon View Icon View shrinks a selected topic to an icon in the Content pane. The topic remains part of the data model, but is deactivated and can not be accessed by the query. Associated items are removed from the Request line when a topic is iconized, and the topic is not recognized as joined to other topics. Icon view is helpful in restricting the use of server time when a topic is infrequently used, and does not have to be active at all times. Indexes Indexes are created in a database to increase the performance of data retrieval. Just as book indexes help to locate specific information faster, database indexes provide a faster access path to table data. Indexes are created on one or more columns of a table. Internal Function Internal functions are built-in formulas, defined in the Brio application. Internet The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Intranet An intranet is a network belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only by organization members, employees, or other authorization users. Intranet Web sites look and act just like any other Web site, but the firewall surrounding an intranet fends off unauthorized access. Item An item is a visual representation of a database column and is a member of a topic in the Query section. Items are used to create queries and reports.

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Notes

A-3

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Notes

JavaScript JavaScript is a World Wide Web scripting language that is understood by a Web browser when it is between <SCRIPT>...</SCRIPT> tags. Job Repository A job repository is a set of database tables which store a queue of scheduled jobs. There can be multiple job repositories in an organization. Job repositories are polled periodically by a Broadcast Server, which downloads and processes jobs when they are due to run. Join A join is a link between two topics, typically indicating the presence of the same item or very similar items, within each topic. The visual joins seen in a data model reflect join relationships established in the underlying database. Join Path A join path is a pre-determined join configuration for a data model. Administrators create join paths for users to simply select the type of data model needed, in a user-friendly prompt, upon processing a query. Join paths ensure that the correct tables in a complex data model are being used in a query. Linked Data Model The term linked data model refers to documents that are linked to a master copy in a Repository. When changes are made to the master, users are automatically updated with the changes when they connect their duplicate copy to the database. Local Limit A local limit is a temporary filter set on a dataset which enables users to focus on specific data in the reports. Multidimensional Database Multidimensional databases store data in a format often referred to as a cube, where measures are pre-calculated. Non-Additive Measure Non-additive measures are attributes in a table that cannot be added across any dimension, such as a percentage value (for example, margin rate). Null value A null value is absent of data. OnDemand Server OnDemand Server is a Brio server application that enables users to view and select from a list of available documents over the Web, as well as to build and process new queries. Outliners Outliners are drag-and-drop templates used in the Pivot, Chart, OLAPQuery, and Report sections. Each Outliner panel corresponds to a specific layout element of the report. When an item is dragged to an Outliner panel, the item assumes the layout attributes of the respective report element. Data appears simultaneously in the Contents pane with the appropriate formatting. Pivot Section The Pivot section is used to create crosstab reports and analyze data. Pivot Dimension A pivot dimension is a row or column of labels and corresponds to an item in the Catalog pane. Pivot Report Pivot reports are analytical tools that resemble spreadsheets or crosstab reports. A Pivot report overlays a dynamic datacube, which allows data to be sliced and diced for ad-hoc, interactive, and multidimensional analysis.

A-4

Pre-defined Drill Paths A predefined drill down path enables a user to drill directly to the next level of detail, as defined in the data model. Query A query is set of database instructions to return an answer set to a specific question. Each row returned in the Results section of a document is an answer to the question posed in the Query section. Relational Database Relational databases, used for decision support, are usually designed using a star schema approach with fact and dimension tables. Report Section The Report section is a dynamic, analytical report writer, providing users with complex report layouts and easy to use report building tools. Pivot reports, table reports, and charts can be embedded in a report. The report structure is divided into group headers and body areas, with each body area containing a table of data. Tables are created with dimension columns and fact columns. These tables are elastic structures. Multiple tables can be ported into each band, each originating from the same or different result sets. Repository refers to a centralized storage location on a database, which stores BrioQuery documents containing data models, queries, and/or reports. A Repository categorizes each document under one of the following titles: Data Model, Standard Query, or Standard Query with Reports. Results Section The Results Section is a section in a BrioQuery document that contains the dataset derived from a query. Data is massaged in the Results section for use in the report sections. Simple Join A simple join between topic items creates a query that retrieves rows where the values in joined columns match. Stand-alone Application A stand-alone application is any application commonly used to open a particular file type. The application is associated with a browser and assists it by automatically opening a file type which the browser cannot open on its own. A stand-alone application is independent of a browser. Standard Query A Standard Query is a type of Repository document that contains pre-built queries (that is, pre-built Query sections) from which users can process and create new reports. Standard Query with Reports A Repository document categorized as a Standard Query with Reports contains pre-built queries and reports which users can view and manipulate. Star Schema In a star schema, a database table is coined as either a dimension or a fact table. Structure View Structure view displays a topic as a list of component items. It allows users to see and quickly select individual data items, which is convenient when they are familiar with the data model and know how they want to build their query. Structure view is the default view setting.

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Notes

A-5

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Notes

Surface Values Use the surface values setting in the Pivot section to base aggregate calculations on the values in the report, rather than the values in the Results section. Table A table is the basic unit of data storage in a database. Database tables hold all of the user-accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns. Table Catalog The Table Catalog displays tables, views, and synonyms to which users have access. Users drag tables from the Table Catalog to the Content pane to create data models in the Query section. Table Section The Table section is used to create tabular-style reports. It is identical in functionality to the Results section, including grain level (table reports are not aggregated). Other reports can stem from a table section. Topic A topic is a visual representation of a database table in the Content pane. Topics are part of data models displayed in the Query section and can contain one or more items. Underlying Values Underlying values is another name for Results values. When Use Surface Values is disabled in a Pivot section, aggregate calculations are based on values in the Results section. Variable Limits Queries can contain variable limits that prompt users to enter or select limit values before the queries are processed on the database. View A view is a custom-tailored presentation of the data in one or more database tables. Views do not actually contain or store data; rather, they derive their data from the tables on which they are based, referred to as the base tables of the views. World Wide Web (WWW) The World Wide Web is a system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files.

A-6

Functions and Operators

This appendix contains information about the following: Database-specific functions Internal Brio client functions Operators in computed dialog boxes

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Notes

Database-specific Functions
The following lists most of the supported functions for a few of the major databases.

Oracle Functions

Function
Absolute Value Add Months

Description
Returns the absolute value of column data. Returns a date advanced by a specified number of months, n. Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to column data. Returns a character string in Date format. Returns column data concatenated with a specified character string. Returns the current date and time. Returns a date as a character string. Compares column data to a defined expression, and returns a specified result if there is a match, or a specified default if there is no match. Returns the largest integer equal to or less than column data. Returns the first letter of each word of column data capitalized, the remainder in lower case. Returns date of the last day of the month containing a date.

Data Types
Numeric Date

Ceiling

Numeric

Character to Date Concat

Date Text

Current Date Date to Character Decode

Date Text Numeric, Text, Date

Floor

Numeric

Initial Caps

Text

Last Day

Date

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" Function
Left Pad

Notes

Description

Data Types

Returns column data left- Text padded to a specified total length, n, using the sequenced characters of a specified string. Left-trims column data up Text to the first character not included in a specified character set. Returns the length of a character string. Returns column data in lower case. Returns fractional value of difference in months between column data and a specified date. Returns date of the next occurrence of a specified weekday after a date. If column data is null, returns specified substitute data. Returns column data raised to a specified exponential power, n. Returns column data right-padded to a specified total length, n, using the sequenced characters of a specified string. Right-trims column data up to the first character not included in a specified character set. Returns column data rounded to a specified integer place, n. Returns indicator of -1, 0 or 1 if column data is variously negative, 0, or positive. Returns square root of column data. Text to Numeric Text Date to Numeric

Left Trim

Length Lower Case Months Between

Next Weekday

Date

Null Replacement

Numeric, Text, Date

Power

Numeric

Right Pad

Text

Right Trim

Text

Round

Numeric

Sign

Numeric

Square Root

Numeric

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Notes
Function
Substring

Description
Returns a portion of column data of specified character length, n, beginning with a specified character, m. Returns column data truncated at a specified integer place, n. Returns column data in upper case. Returns logon name of the current user.

Data Types
Text

Truncate

Numeric

Upper Case User

Text TextDECODE

Redbrick Warehouse Functions

Function
Absolute Value Case (conforms with ANSI SQL-92)

Description
Returns the absolute value of column data. Compares column data to a defined expression and returns a specified result if there is a match, or a specified default if there is no match, c.f. Decode. Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to column data. Compares column data with corresponding argument and returns first non-null value encountered. Returns column data concatenated with a specified character string. Returns a cumulative column total.

Data Types
Numeric Numeric, Date, Text

Ceiling

Numeric

Coalesce

Numeric, Date, Text

Concatenate

Text

Cumulative Current Date Current Time

Numeric

Returns the current date. Date Returns the current time. Date

B-4

" Function
Current Timestamp Current User Date

Notes

Description
Returns the current date and time. Returns logon name of the current user. Returns a date from a character string or timestamp. Returns a date advanced by a specified number, n, of a specified date part. Returns the numeric difference in specified date parts between column data and a specified date. Returns a character string for a specified date part from a date. Returns a decimal value from numeric data or a character string. Compares column data to a defined expression and returns a specified result if there is a match, or a specified default if there is no match. Returns a numeric value for a specified date part from a date. Returns a doubleprecision floating-point value from numeric data or character string. Returns the largest integer equal to or less than column data. Returns an integer value from numeric data or character string.

Data Types
Date Text Date

Date Add

Date

Date Difference

Date to Numeric

Date Name

Text

Decimal

Numeric

Decode

Numeric, Text, Date

Extract

Numeric

Float

Numeric

Floor

Numeric

Integer

Numeric

Left Trim

Left-trims column data up Text to the first character not included in a specified character set.

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Notes
Function
Lower Moving Average

Description
Returns column data in lower case. Returns a moving column average calculated for a specified number of preceding values, n. Returns a moving column sum calculated for a specified number of preceding values, n.

Data Types
Text Numeric

Moving Sum

Numeric

Rank

Returns a numeric rank Numeric of column data measured against column values. Returns a ration of column data to sum of all column values. If column value is null, returns a specified substitute value. Right-trims column data up to the first character not included in a specified character set. Returns time from character string or timestamp. Returns timestamp from character string or date and time arguments. Returns character string from numeric or date/ time values. Returns a portion of column data of specified character length, n, beginning with a specified character, m. Returns a character string tertile ranking of column data measured against column values. Numeric

Ratio to Report

Null If

Numeric, Text, Date

Right Trim

Text

Time

Time

Timestamp

Timestamp

String

Text

Substring

Text

Tertile

Numeric to Text

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" Function
Trim Upper

Notes

Description

Data Types

Trims leading and trailing Text blanks from column data. Returns column data in upper case. Text

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Notes

Informix Functions

Function
Current Date DateTime

Description
Returns the current date and time. Returns numeric column data in Date format. Returns numeric column data in Date and Time format. Returns an integer day (of a month) portion of a date. Returns the length of a character string.

Data Types
Date Date Timestamp

Day

Date to Numeric

Length Month

Text to Numeric

Returns an integer month Date to Numeric (of a year) portion of a date. Returns column data rounded to a specified integer place, n. Numeric

Round

Today Trunc

Returns the current date. Date Returns column data truncated at a specified integer place, n. Returns logon name of the current user. Returns a four-digit year portion of a date. Numeric

User Year

Text Date to text

Sybase Functions

Function
Absolute Value Ceiling

Description
Returns the absolute value of column data. Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to column data. Returns the current date and time.

Data Types
Numeric Numeric

Current Date

Date

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" Function
Date Add

Notes

Description
Returns a date advanced by a specified number, n, of a specified date part. Returns a date as an integer value. Returns the numeric difference in specified date parts between column data and a specified date. Returns a date as a character string. Returns the largest integer equal to or less than column data. Left-trims column data of any blank values. Returns column data in lower case. If column data is null, returns specified substitute data. Returns a numeric value as a character string. Generates a random value. Returns column data in reverse order. Returns column data right-padded to a specified total length, n, using the sequenced characters of a specified string. Right-trims column data of any blank values. Returns column data rounded to a specified integer place, n. Returns indicator of -1, 0 or 1 if column data is variously negative, 0, or positive.

Data Types
Date

Date as Integer Date Difference

Numeric Numeric

Date as String Floor

Text Numeric

Left Trim Lower Case Null Replacement

Text Text Numeric, Text, Date

Numeric to String Random Number Reverse Right Pad

Text Numeric Text Text

Right Trim Round

Text Numeric

Sign

Numeric

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Notes
Function
Substring

Description
Returns a portion of column data of specified character length, n, beginning with a specified character, m. Returns logon name of the current server user. Returns column data in lower case. Returns logon name of the current user.

Data Types
Text

Server User Upper Case User

Text Text Text

Internal Brio Client Functions


Brio clients support a large number of conditional, date, math, and string functions, available in the report sections. In the tables below, the variables n, s, d, and exp (and val) represent data items and columns (State, Amount Sold) or actual values (NY, 6000) as arguments to scalar functions, and indicate number, string, date, or variable types, respectively. The variable c indicates that only a data item reference may be used, and not a constant value. If constant values are substituted for data items, dates and text strings must be enclosed in single quotes. Examples in the table below use a mixture of constants and data items, which are generally interchangeable.

B-10

Conditional Functions

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Notes

Conditional Function
Decode (c,exp,val,exp,val...def)

Description
Compares value of item c to one or more expressions exp, and returns the value val matched to each expression, or a default def. Example: decode (region, South America, Priority 1, Asia, Priority 2, Europe, Priority 3, null) substitutes priority values for the specified regions and leaves other regions null.

Nvl (c,exp1,exp2)

Returns exp2 if null, and exp1 otherwise. Example: nvl (Phone_No,Phone_No, Not Recorded) returns Not Recorded when no telephone number is on record for a customer.

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Notes

Date Functions

Date Function
AddMonths(d,n)

Description
Returns date d offset by a number of months, n. Example: add_months (5/13/99,4) = 9/13/99

DayOfMonth(d)

Returns the numeric day-of-the-month value for each value of d. Example: day_of_month (11/02/99 09:46:00 AM) = 2

LastDay(d)

Returns date of the last day of the month containing date d. Example: last_day (12/6/99) = 12/31/99

MonthsBetween(d1,d2)

Returns the fractional value of difference in months between dates d1 and d2. Example: months_ between (12/5/99, 5/6/99) = 6.9677

NextDay(d,s)

Returns date of the first weekday s after column date d. The default value for s adds one day to d. Example: next_day (12/16/97, Monday) = 12/22/99

Sysdate(c)

Returns the current system date and time for each record in item c. Any item can be used, but an item must be included as a record base. Example: sysdate (Order_No) = 2/11/ 96 19:54:36

Tochar(n)

Returns number n or date d as a text string. This function does not change the data, but rather the item data type. The results cannot be computed mathematically. Example: to_char (50) = 50

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" Date Function


ToDate(s)

Notes

Description
Returns date type in place of date string s. This function does not change the data, but rather the item data type. The results can be computed mathematically. Example: to_date (10/12/96) = 10/12/96

ToMonth(d)

Returns a numeric month value for each value of d. You can change the value to display as a month string (e.g., (Nov) by adding and applying a mmm date format. Example: to_month (11/2/99 09:46:00 AM) = 11/15/99 ~ Nov

ToQtr(d)

Returns a string quarter value for each value of d. Example: to_qtr (11/02/99 09:46:00 AM) = Q3

ToYear(d)

Returns the integer year for each value of d. You can convert the year to display without commas by applying the 0 numeric format. Example: to_year (11/02/99 09:46:00 AM) = 1,999 ~ 1999

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Notes

Math Functions

Math Function
Abs(n)

Description
Returns the absolute value of number n. Example: abs(-3) = 3

Atn(n)

Returns arc tangent of number n radians. Example: atn(1) = .7854

Ceil(n)

Returns the smallest integer value greater than or equal to number n. Example: ceil(5.6) = 6

Cos(n)

Returns cosine of number n radians. Example: cos(0.5) = .8778

Cosh(n)

Returns hyperbolic cosine of number n radians. Example: cosh(0.5) = 1.1276

Count(c)

Returns the number of row values in c (including nulls). Example: count (units) = tally of rows in units

Exp(n)

Returns e (2.718) raised to exponential power n. Example: exp(4) = 54.598

Max(a,b)

Returns the larger of items a and b for each new value. Example: max(7, 10) = 10

Min(a,b)

Returns the smaller of items a and b for each new value. Example: min(7, 10) = 7

Mod(n,m)

Returns the integer remainder of number n divided by number m. If m is larger, the default value is n. Example: mod (6,2) = 0

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" Math Function


Power(n,m)

Notes

Description
Returns number n raised to exponential power m. Example: power(10,5) = 100,000

Round(n,m)

Returns number n rounded to m decimal places. The default value for m is 0. Example: round (5.6178,2) = 5.62

Sign(n)

Returns indicator of -1, 0, or 1 if number n is variously negative, 0, or positive. Example: sign(-4) = -1

Sin(n)

Returns sine of number n radians. Example: sin(86) = -0.923

Sinh(n)

Returns hyperbolic sine of number n radians. Example: sinh(.5) = .5211

Sqrt(n)

Returns square root of number n. Example: sqrt(81) = 9

Tan(n)

Returns tangent of number n radians. Example: tan(30) = -6.405

Tanh(n)

Returns hyperbolic tangent of number n radians. Example: tanh (45) = 1.6198

Trunc(n,m)

Returns number n truncated to number m decimal places. The default value for m is 0. Example: trunc(56.0379,2) = 56.03

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Notes

Numeric Functions

Numeric Function

Description

Avg(numbers, break_col, break_value) Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of values in a number column. The Avg includes NULL values when calculating the arithmetic mean. AvgNonNull(numbers, break_col, break_values) chr(n) Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of values in a number column, excluding null values. Returns string converted from ASCII numeric code n. Example: chr(65) = AZ ColMax(numbers, break_col, break_value) ColMin(numbers, break_col, break_value) Count(numbers, break_col, break_value) CountDistinct(numbers, break_col, break_value) CountNonNull(numbers, break_col, break_value) CountNull(numbers, break_col, break_value) Cume(numbers, break_col) Next(c) Prior(c) Sum(numbers, break_col, break_value) Returns the largest value in a column of numbers. Returns the smallest value in a column of number. Counts and returns the number of rows in a column. Counts and returns the number of values in a column. Counts the number of rows in a column. Counts the number of rows in a column that contain null values. Returns a cumulative running total for each value in a column of numbers. Returns the next row value of the referenced item c. Returns the prior row value of the referenced item c. Returns the total of a column of numbers.

B-16

Statistical Functions

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Notes

Statistical Function
Median(numbers, break) Mode(numbers, break_col) Percentile(numbers, n, break_col)

Description
Returns the median of a column of numbers. Returns the most frequently occurring value in a column of numbers. Returns the Nth percentile of values in a column of numbers in ascending order. Returns the rank of a number in a column of numbers. Returns the rank of a number in a column of numbers in ascending order. Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). If your data represents the entire population, then compute the standard deviation using the StdDevp function. Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population given as arguments. The standard deviation is a measure of how widely values are dispersed from the average value (the mean). If your data represents a sample of the population, then compute the standard deviation using the StdDev function. Estimates variance based on a sample.The Var function assumes that its arguments are a sample of the population. If your data represents the entire population, then compute the variance using the Varp function. Estimates variance based on the entire population.The Varp function assumes that its arguments are the entire population. If your data represents a sample of the population, then compute the variance using the Varp function.

Rank(numbers, break_col) RankAsc(numbers, break_col) StdDev(numbers, break_col)

StdDevp(numbers, break_col)

Var(numbers, break_col)

Varp(numbers, break_col)

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Notes

String Functions

Function
Ascii(s)

Description
Returns an ASCII numeric representation of string s. Example: ascii (AZ) = 65

Concat(s1, s2)

Returns text strings s1 and s2 concatenated. Example: concat (Brio, Query) = BrioQuery

Initcap(s)

Returns string s with the first letter of each word capitalized, and remaining characters in lower case. Example: initcap (santa fe) = Santa Fe

Instr(s1,s2,n,m)

Returns position of mth occurrence of string s2 in string s1, beginning at position number n. If n is negative, the count is made backwards from the end of s1. If no values are found, 0 is returned. Example: instr (Mississippi,s,5,2) = 7

Length(s)

Returns character count of string s. Example: length (Pittsburgh) = 10

Lower(s)

Returns string s in lower case. Example: lower (CD-Rom) = cd-rom

Ltrim(s1,s2)

Trims string s1 from the left, up to the first character not included in string s2. Example: ltrim (Mr. Jones, Mr. ) = Jones

Replace(s1,s2,s3)

Returns string item s1 with all occurrences of string s2 replaced by string s3. The default for s3 deletes each occurrence of s2. Example: replace (customer,Mrs., Ms.) = replaces Mrs. with Ms. for all values of customer containing Mrs.

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" Function
Rtrim(s1,s2)

Notes

Description
Trims column string s1 from the right, up to the first character not included in string s2. Example: rtrim (Columbus, OH, , OH) = Columbus

Substr(s,n,m)

Returns a portion of string s, m characters long, beginning at numeric position n. The default action for m includes all remaining characters. Example: substring (312/989-9989,1,3) = 312

Translate(s1,s2,s3)

Returns string s1, with each character contained in string s2 replaced by the corresponding characters in string s3. Example: translate (12/5/97 3:48:22, /-,-|) = 12-5-97 3|48|22

Upper(s)

Returns string s in upper case. Example: upper (st.) = ST.

Operator Buttons
Double-click the following buttons in a computed item dialog box to add arithmetic logical operators, mixed expressions, and apply functions to a computation. Operators are added at the insertion point.

Operator
+ * / ( ) ==

Definition
Add Subtract Multiply Divide Begin sub-operations End sub-operations Returns true if the operands are equal. Example: suppose var1=3; then 3==var1 returns true

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Notes
Operator
!=

Definition
Returns true if the operands are not equal. Example: suppose var1=3; then var1!=4 returns true

and (&&)

Use the logical operator AND to connect two conditional expressions and retrieve records only if each expression is true, since this determines if a condition is true. Computed items will not be retrieved if any condition belonging to a conditional expression is false. The AND logical operator is usually nested within another conditional expression, for example, expressions which use if and else statments. Example: if (OS == Windows) && (Item_Type == Modem) {Windows} else {other}

or (||)

Use the or logical operator to specify a combination of expressions and retrieve records that includes at least one of the expressions. Example: if one of the words is Washington or Oregon, every record with the expression Washington and every record with the word Oregon is included. Typically the OR logical operator is nested within other conditional expression, for example, expressions which use if and else logical operators. Example: if you want to assign Washington and Oregon to the Northwestern Region and all other states to Other Regions, you write: if (State = = Washington)|| (State == Oregon) {Northwestern Region} else {Other Regions}

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" Operator
if...else

Notes

Definition
if is the only conditional Javascript statement. It executes a set of statements if a specified condition is true. The specified condition may be another statement and can include other nested if statements. Brackets must enclose multiple statements. If the condition is false, another set of statements can be executed if the optional else statement has been included in the script. Example: if (condition) { statements1 } else { statements2 }

mod (%)

The modulus operator returns te remainder of dividing var1 by var 2. Example: 5 % 4 returns 1

<

Returns true if left operand is greater than right operand. Example: var1 < var2

<=

Returns true if left operand is less than or equal to right operand. Example, var1 < = var2

>

Returns true if left operand is greater than right operand. Example: var2 > var1

B-21

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Notes
Operator
>=

Definition
Returns true if left operand is greater than right operand. Example: var2 > = var1

not (!)

Use the NOT logical operator to compute and show items more accurately stated in a negative way. In effect, all records are retrieved except those that fulfill the conditional expression. You enter the conditional expression with the NOT (!) logical operator preceding the conditional expression. The conditional expression can be a simple value or nested within other conditional expressions. For example, expressions using AND and OR. A combined condition expression which uses NOT is true if the condition expression following NOT is false. A combined conditional expression is false if the condition expression following NOT is true. Example: Suppose you are looking to list all states which are not in the Northwestern region. In this case, you enter the conditional expression: if ! (State = = 'Northwestern Region') {Other Regions}

B-22

Application Preferences

Users can set application preferences to perform redundant tasks more effectively. This appendix contains information about the following: Setting default formats Setting default program options Configuring default file locations

C-1

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Notes

Set Default Formats


Users can minimize formatting tasks by setting default format preferences for each section in the Brio client application. Number formats for dates, timestamps, time, real numbers, integers, and null values can also be set. To set default format preferences: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options and click Default Formats. 2. In the Default Fonts and Styles dialog box, click a report section tab or the Numbers tab. 3. Select the preferred formatting option and click the OK button. The following options are available in the Default Fonts and Styles dialog box.

Query tab

Table tab

C-2

Pivot tab

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Notes

OLAP tab

Report tab

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Notes

Chart tab

Numbers tab

C-4

Set Default Program Options


Specific program options can be defined by a user in a Brio client application. Configure the General and File Locations tabs to specify application defaults.

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Notes

General Tab
To configure general program preferences: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options and click Program Options. 2. Make selections in the General tab.

(BrioQuery)

(Brio.Insight)

Available fields and options for this dialog box are listed below.

Field
Auto Logon

Description
Auto Logon maintains an existing connection whenever a new document is created. If the current document is connected to a data source, the user is prompted to use the current connection. Instructs the Brio client to use international support features (such as sort routines).

International Support

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Notes
Field
Compress all documents

Description
Specifies that the Brio client save all documents in compressed file format. This reverses the default setting, which saves documents without compression. If enabled, you can override this privilege and save documents decompressed by clicking Save As on the File menu for users of previous versions of Brio client products. Specifies that the Brio client compress only new documents. Requires that the Brio client prompt for an owner name of job scheduling repository tables whenever you schedule a document. Enable this feature if you schedule documents to more than one job repository. By default, if you enter a date and type only two digits for the year, the Brio client handles the dates as follows:Two digit years entered from 00, up to and including 29, are assigned to the 21st century (2000 to 2029). For example, if you enter 3/12/18, the Brio client accepts the date as March, 12, 2018. Two digit years entered from 30, up to and including 99, are assigned to the 20th century (1930 to 1999). For example, if you enter 3/12/96, the Brio client accepts the date as March, 12, 1996. You can change the default century to which a two-digit year is assigned by using the date handling boxes. These boxes require a range of dates within a 99 year period. For example, if you want the two digit year 25 to be assigned to the 20th century instead of the 21st century use the scroll keys to scroll to the year 1999. The date in the corresponding read-only date handling box is changed automatically to 1990. Whenever possible, we recommend that you enter dates in a four digit format, that is, type 1991 instead of 91.

Create new documents compressed Always prompt for owner name

When a two digit year is entered, interpret as a year between ___ and ___

C-6

File Locations Tab


To specify default file locations: 1. On the Tools menu, point to Options and click Program Options. 2. Define default paths in the fields provided in the File Locations tab.

"

Notes

(BrioQuery)

(Brio.Insight)

"

Notes

Available fields and options for File Locations tab are listed below.

Fields
Document Directory

Description
Specify the default directory to which you want to save documents when the Save File dialog box appears. Documents are saved to the default directory as BrioQuery files on Macintosh, and with the .bqy extension on Windows.

Connections Directory

A directory of connection (.oce) files used to connect to databases. The default connections directory is C:\ program files\ brio\ brioquery \ program \ Open Catalog Extensions. The connection file the Brio client supplies when no connection is specified, such as when you click the connection icon in a new document file. Specify the repository connection file (.oce) you want to see when the Open Repository Connection submenu appears. A directory of HTML Templates used with the HTML Export Wizard.

Default Connection

Preferred Repository Connection

HTML Template Directory

C-8

average numeric functions, 7-28 mean, 7-27 median, 7-27 mode, 7-27

break totals, 4-28 BrioQuery Explorer, 3-30 Broadcast Server, 10-2

C
chart report types bar, 8-6 horizontal bar, 8-3, 8-4, 8-6, 8-9 vertical bar, 8-3, 8-4, 8-5 Chart section adding/closing the gap between bars, 8-7 formatting charts, 8-12, 8-14 general chart properties, 8-10 manipulating charts, 8-9 manipulating the left and right axis values, 8-12 computed items chart report, 7-26, 8-18 percentile functions, 7-29 pivot report, 7-26, 8-18 Query section, 4-8 rank, 7-31 Results section, 4-13 Table section, 4-13 connecting to a database, 1-21, 2-2, 2-4, 7-33, 8-19, 9-18 connection information, 10-19 selecting a connection file, 2-4 data functions, 7-7, 7-8 Data Function, 7-24 data models predefined drill paths, 7-16 database multidimensional databases, 3-4 relational databases, 3-4 datatype conversions, 4-8 datatypes Julian date, 4-9 date groups, 4-20 Detail View, 3-6 dimensions, 7-2 document sections, 1-11 documents creating a new document, 1-21, 2-2, 7-33, 8-19, 9-18 inserting a new section, 1-12 saving, 3-13 saving the results, 3-14 drilling features, 7-10 Drill Anywhere, 7-11, 8-16 Drill to Detail, 7-12 Drill Up, 7-12, 8-17

MonthsBetween, 4-15 Next, 4-18, 4-19 NextDay, 4-15 NVL (Null Value Replacement), 4-13 Prior, 4-18 Round, 4-15 RTRIM (right trim), 4-11 SUBSTR (substring), 4-11 Sysdate, 4-15 TO_CHAR, 4-9 TO_DATE, 4-10 TO_NUMBER, 4-10 Trunc, 4-16 UPPER, 4-19

G
grouping columns ungrouped columns, 4-22

I
interface Catalog pane, 1-11 command lines, 1-13 Limit line, 1-14 Sort line, 1-14 Content pane, 1-11 navigating to a section, 1-12 Request line, 1-13 Section pane, 1-10 Section Title bar, 1-10 Status Bar, 1-14

L
limits AND, 3-23 AND and OR Boolean operators, 3-23 custom values list, 3-21 custom values lists, 3-21 entering limit values, 3-20 loading limit values from a text file, 3-22 local limits, 4-34 modifying limits, 3-20 OR, 3-23 parentheses (), 3-23 Show Values button, 3-20 variable limits, 3-24 logging on/logging off of the database, 2-4

New File, 2-4 null values, 4-12, 7-8 Objectives, 1-1, 2-1, 7-1, 8-1, 9-1, 10-1 Online Help, 1-16 opening BrioQuery Explorer, 1-21, 2-2, 7-33, 8-19, 9-18 Outliner, 1-14

F
functions AddMonths, 4-15 Ceil, 4-16 ColMax, 4-17, 4-19 ColMin, 4-17, 4-19 CONCAT, 4-14 CONCAT (concatenation), 4-10 Count, 4-17 CountDistinct, 4-18, 4-19 CountNonNull, 4-17, 4-19 CUME, 4-16 DayOfMonth, 4-15 DECODE, 4-12 Floor, 4-16 if-then-else, 4-19 INITCAP, 4-19 LastDay, 4-15 LOWER, 4-19 LTRIM (left trim), 4-11

P
Chart This Pivot, 7-34 Pivot section adding a cumulative total column, 7-23 adding totals, 7-7 calculating an increase item, 7-24 creating a pivot report, 7-2 cumulative totals, 7-23 generating totals based on surface values, 7-9 Increase, 7-24 modifying total functions, 7-8 Percent Increase, 7-24 pivot Outliner, 7-2 pivot report, 7-2 total functions, 7-7 processing queries, 3-29 Process All, 3-29 Process Current, 3-29 Process Custom, 3-29 Pivot

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1

Index-1

processing a query, 3-29

Q
query cancelling query, 3-30 estimating the size of a query, 3-27 query properties, 3-28 query sizes, 3-27 Query section, 4-7 adding a new query to a document, 3-30 displaying a remark, 3-14 setting a limit, 3-18 sorting, 3-27

sorting using the Sort buttons, 4-33 using the Sort line, 4-33 spotlighting, 7-20 copying formats copying Spotlighter formats, 7-21 modifying Spotlighter formats, 7-21 surface values, 7-9

R
report object column, 9-13 graphic shape, 9-13 group header label, 9-13 table, 9-13 TextLabel, 9-13 Report section, 9-2 adding a background picture, 9-22 adding a graphic, 9-20 adding a picture, 9-21 adding a pivot report or chart, 9-22 adding text, 9-20 adding totals, 9-15 appending text to a report group label, 9-21 changing the data function, 9-19 column settings, 9-14 embedding pivot reports and charts, 9-22 formatting tables, 4-30 free-form report styles, 9-2 inserting page breaks, 9-15 margin sizes, 9-14 number of columns on a page, 9-14 pictures, 9-21 removing a page break, 9-15 report elements, 7-2, 9-5, 9-9 report Outliner, 9-5 report page setup, 9-14 shapes, 9-20 sorting, 9-17, 9-18 text, 9-20 Results section, 4-7 adding a date group, 4-20 break totals, 4-28 changing the data function, 4-27 grouped column, 4-21 grouped columns, 4-21

Table section, 4-32 break totals, 4-29 creating a label for the grand total row, 4-27 creating a table report, 4-32 generating a grand total, 4-26 hiding a column, 4-33 limiting data, 4-5, 4-34 modifying the label for a break total, 4-29 removing a column, 4-33 removing a grand total, 4-27 removing all grand totals, 4-27 removing break totals, 4-29 sorting, 4-33, 9-17 tables, 3-5 toolbars Formatting toolbar, 1-12 Section toolbars, 1-13 Standard toolbar, 1-12 underlying values, 7-9 using the Sort buttons, 7-18 using the Sort line, 7-18

vertical clustered bar, 8-8

S
scheduling Actions tab, 10-8 adding a run cycle, 10-8 defining actions, 10-10 defining when a job runs, 10-16 deleting jobs, 10-22 E-mail Document, 10-13 E-mail Section, 10-14 event-based, 10-17 Export HTML, 10-11 Export Section, 10-11 external event, 10-16 Job List, 10-20 job repository, 10-2 modifying jobs, 10-21 monitoring jobs, 10-21 ordinal date options, 10-10 Print Section, 10-12 Queries tab, 10-7 resolving variable limits, 10-9 run cycles, 10-8 Save Document, 10-12 Schedule tab, 10-16 scheduler, 10-2 scheduling a job, 10-3, 10-4 specifying connection files, 10-19 selection techniques, 1-15 Smart Report, 9-22

Index-2

BrioQuery Explorer 6.1