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# 1

## Partial Answers to End-of-Chapter Problems

Chapter 0
[1] A 75 min. recording gives 7.938108 bytes for maximum frequency of 22.05 KHz, 8 bits/sample,
two channels (stereo); (b) vocoder reduces number of bits transmitted; (c) texting is cheaper;
(d) DVD audio 192 KHz sampling rate, and 24 bits/sample; (e) 352 240 60 pixels/sec.
[2] Analog and discrete signals for Ts = 0.1 are very similar, not for Ts = 1.
[3] y(t) = 8 sin(2t), finite difference for Ts = 0.01 looks like derivative, not so for Ts = 0.1.
[4] (a) 1 [x[n + 1]] = [x[n]]; (b) average gives better approximation to derivative.
[5] (a) diL (t)/dt + iL (t) = is (t) dual of the difference equation in the chapter.
[6] (a) k cak = ck ak , k [ak + bk ] = k ak + k bk , a0 + a1 + a2 + a3 = a0 + a2 + a3 + a1 (i.e., in
any order); (b) S = 0.5(N (N + 1)); (c) S1 = ( + N/2)(N + 1).
[7] The definite integral is 0.5, then [(N 1)(N 2) + 2(N 1)]/(2N 2 ) 0.5 [(N 1)(N 2) +
2(N 1)]/(2N 2 ) + 1/N .
[8] S1 = S + 50, S2 = S.
[9] (a) S = N ; (b)(c) S = (1 N )/(1 ), 6= 1 if = 1 S = N ; (d) S = 1/(1 ) || < 1; (e)
S1 = /(1 2 ).
[10] (c) = ea ; (d) vc (1) = 0.79.
[11] (a) |z| =

## negligible magnitude, same phase as z.

[12] (a) log(w) = z; (c) w + w = 2e cos(1); (e) | log(w)|2 = 2.
[13] Compare ej ej (use Eulers) to ej(+) .
[14] Use sin() = cos( /2) and sin() = cos( /2).
[15] (a)(b) zz = x2 +y 2 , 1/z = z /(zz ), using polar representation is easier; (b) (z+w) = z +w ,
(zw) = z w ; (d) zw = rej(+) .
[16] (a) z = x + jy = |z|ej , |x| = |z|| cos()| |z| since | cos()| 1; (b) add two vectors graphically.
[17] (a)(b) x(t) = (1 t2 ) + j2t, y(t) = 2t + 2j; (c)
[18] ejn = (1)n ; (b)(c) use Eulers identity

R T0
0

R1
0

## x(t)dt = (2/3) + j; (d)

sin(t) cos(t)dt = 0.

R1
0

x (t)dt = (2/3) j.

2
[19]

R1
0

## sin2 (2t)dt = 0.5.

[20] z 2 = 1 has roots 1 and 1; z 2 = 1 has roots j and j; z 3 = 1 has roots 1 and ej2/3 ; z 3 = 1
has roots 1 and ej2/3 .
[21] log(2) = log(2) j, log(2ej/4 ) = log(2) + j/4.
[22] cosh() = cos(j) is even; sinh() = j sin(j) is odd.
[23] (a) sin(0 t) = cos(0 t /2); (b) phasor Aej/2 generates sine; (c) phasor Aej/2 .

Chapter 1
[1] (a) E2 = 1; (b) 0 < x2 (t) < x(t) so x(t) absolutely integrable; (c) Ey = 0.5; for C = 1mF then
R = 1 K.
[2] (a) Pa = 0; (b) Pa = 0.25; (c) Pa = 0.5; (d) the real part of the complex power, P = 0.5Vs I for
phasors Vs and I, in given cases gives same results.
[3] (a) x(t) periodic of period T0 = 2; (b)(c) Px = Px1 + Px2 = 2.5; (d) y(t) not periodic, Py =
Py1 + Py2 .
[4] (a)(b) T1 = 2 period of x1 (t), T2 = 2/3 period of x2 (t); (b) x(t) periodic of period T0 = T1 =
3T2 = 2; (c) T1 /T2 = 1/4 so that the period is T0 = 4T1 = T2 .
[5] (a) x(t + 1) is x(t) advanced by 1, i.e., shifted to the left by 1; (b) x(t + 1) is x(t) (reversal
of x(t)) shifted to the right by 1; (c) y(t) equals (t) except y(0) = 2 while (0) = 1.
[6] (a)-(c) cosh(t) = 0.5(et + et ), < t < is even, sinh(t) = 0.5(et et ), < t < is
odd; (d) x(t) = et u(t).
[7] (a) Triangular pulse has width 2 and height 1/ thus unit area, as 0 it gives (t); (b)
R
S (t) = sin(t/)/(t), S (0) = 1/, and S (t)dt = 1, so that as 0 it gives (t).
[8] (a) y(t) = 0 sin(0 t); (b) z(t) = 0 sin(0 t)u(t) + (t); (c)

Rt

## z(t0 )dt0 = cos(0 t)u(t).

[9] (a) Steady state: voltage across capacitor equals voltage of source, so no current through
resistor; (b) vc (t) = 1 in steady state; (c) (d) capacitor discharges through resistor.
[10] (a) r(t) =

Rt
0

Z

0

()d = u(t)

## [11] ssT (t) =

k=0 u(t kT ), a stairway to the stars; (b) digitized ramp and cosine, using ssT (t)
approximate signal.

3
[12] (a) y(t) 6= z(t), operations do not commute.
[13] (a) x(2t) = 2t[u(t) u(t 0.5)], i.e., x(t) has been compressed; (b) x(t/2) = 0.5t[u(t) u(t 2)],
i.e., x(t) has been expanded; (c) play it faster (contraction) or slower (expansion) than the
speed at which it was recorded.
[14] (a) Even-odd decomposition

0.5(1 t) 0 < t 1
xe (t) =
0.5(1 + t) 1 < t 0

1
t=0

0<t1
0.5(1 t)
xo (t) =
0.5(1 + t) 1 < t 0

0
t=0

## (b) Ex = Exe + Exo

[15] (a) g(t) = u(t) 2u(t 1) + u(t 2); (b) x(t) =

k=

## g(t + 2k); (d) w(t) = 2

k=

(t 2k),

periodic of period T0 = 2.
[16] (a) x(t/2) is periodic of period 4; (b) x(2t) is periodic of period 1.
P
[17] (a) y(t) = k= [u(t 2k) 2u(t 1 2k) + u(t 2 2k)]; (b) z(t) = 0; (c) neither is final
energy.
[18] (a) T0 = 1; (b) z(t) periodic of period T1 = 2; (c) v(t) = ej3t has period T3 = 2/3.
[19] (a) Py = 0.5; (b) Py < 1
[20] Fs = 8192 samples/sec, N N = 4096 samples.
[21] (a) 1 + 0.7ejt = (1 + 0.7 cos(t)) + j0.7 sin(t) = A(t)ej(t) , A(t) =
(t) = tan1 (0.7 sin(t)/(1 + 0.7 cos((t)).

p
1.49 + 1.4 cos(t),

Chapter 2
[1] (a) v0 (t) = (1 + 0.5 cos(20t))u(t); (b) v0 (t) = R(t)u(t 50 103 ); (c) v0 (t) 6= v0 (t 50
103 ), TV system.
[2] (a) Nonlinear system.
[3] (a) h(t) = (1/T )(u(t + T /2) u(t T /2), non-causal ; (b) y(t) = (1/T )(t + T /2)[u(t + T /2)
u(t T /2)].
[4] (a) Convolution integral, h(t) = et u(t); (b) causal; (c) s(t) = (1 et )u(t); (d) use superposition and TI.
[5] (a) Nonlinear; (b) large q/kT gives large current for positive voltages; (c) nonlinear.
[6] (a) is1 (t) = u(t) u(t 1), vc (0) = 1 then vc1 = 1 + r(t) r(t 1), if is2 (t) = 2is1 (t),
vc (0) = 1, vc2 6= 2vc1 , i.e., nonlinear; (b) nonlinear.

4
[7] (b) i1 (t) = 2 sin(2t)[1 + 2 cos(2t)]; (c) time varying system.
[8] Not LTI, LTI, not LTI, LTI respectively.
[9] x1 (t) = u(t) y1 (t) = cos(t)u(t), x2 (t) = u(t 1) y2 (t) = cos(t)u(t 1) 6= y1 (t 1),
TV system; (b) TV; (c) x1 (t) = u(t) y1 (t) = 0.5[u(t) + u(t 1)], x2 (t) = u(t 1) y2 (t) =
0.5[u(t 1) + u(t 2)] = y1 (t 1), TI system.
[10] (a) Linear, time-varying, causal, BIBO stable system; (b) modulated signal is periodic of period 28; (c) x(t) = u(t) y(t) = u(t)u(t2) and x(t3) = u(t3) u(t3)[u(t)u(t2)] =
0 6= y(t 3), TV system.
[11] (a) Nonlinear if y(0) 6= 0; (b) dy(t)/dt + 2y(t) = 2x(t); (c) yss (t) = 1, independent of IC; (d)
convolution gives y(t) = (1 et )u(t); (e) BIBO stable.
[12] Nonlinear, time invariant system.

[13] (a) TV; (b) s(t) = 2m(t) cos(c t /4), one modulator with a phase, linear.
[14] (a) LTI system

0
x(t) = u(t) y(t) =
t

t<0
0t<1
t1

0t<1

t
x1 (t) = x(t) x(t 1) y1 (t) =
2t 1t2

0
otherwise

[15] (b) y(t) =

k=0 (0.1)

PM

k=0

k x(t k ), LTI.

## [16] (a) Non-causal; (b) BIBO stable.

[17] (a) h(t) = (1/T )[u(t)u(tT )], BIBO stable; (b) r(t) not bounded, output y(t) = (tT /20u(t)
also not bounded.
[18] (a)(b) x (t) xs (0)[1 et/rC ]u(t) 0 t , x (t) = x ()et/RC u(t) t Ts .

Chapter 3
[1] Use L[(t )] = es .
[2] (a) X(s) = cos(s), (c) X(s) = cos() cosh()+j sin() sinh() from which you find magnitude
and phase.
[3] (a) Y (s) = 2(1 es )/(s2 + 4 2 ) with ROC the whole plane; (b) X(s) = (1 es )((1/s)
(s/(s2 + 4 2 )) with ROC the whole plane except for the origin; (c) 0.5[(1/s) + (s/(s2 + 4)].
[4] No Laplace transform, empty ROC.

5
[5] X(s) = (es1 s + es1 2)/(s2 1), ROC > 1.
[6] (a) d2 y(t)/dt2 + 4y(t) = x(t), (b) y(0) = 0 and y 0 (0) = 1.
[7] H(s) = (s + 2)/(s(s + 1)2 ) with ROC > 0.
[8] (a) First two terms: 4(t) and d(t)/dt; (b) x(t) = (t) 2et u(t) e2t u(t); (c) x(t) =
2u(t) + 7et u(t) 5e2t u(t).
[9] (a) 0.1; (b) 0.2; (c) no steady-state response; (d) yt (t) = 0.5et cos(t)u(t) + 0.5et sin(t)u(t).
[10] (b) x(t) = 0.5(1 e2t )u(t) e2(t1) u(t 1) = et sinh(t)u(t) e2(t1) u(t 1)
[11] (a) y(t) = 0.5(1 e2t )u(t) 0.5(1 e2(t3) )u(t 3); y(t) = r(t) 2r(t 1) + r(t 2) smoother
than x(t) as output of an averager; (c) 3M.
[12] (a) x(t) = 4u(t) 4et u(t); (b) h(t)=u(t)-u(t-1).

[13] s(t) = (2/ 3)e0.5t sin( 3t/2)u(t) then response to x1 (t) is y1 (t) = s(t) s(t 1), response
Rt
to x3 (t) is 0 s( )d .
[14] (a) P (s) = (1 es )/s, whole s-plane. (b) pole s = 0, zeros sk = j2k for < k < ,
pole/zero cancellation.
[15] (a) X(s + ), frequency shift; (b) X(s) = s/(s2 + 20 ); (c) Y (s) = s/(s2 20 ).
[16] (a) X(s) has infinite number of zeros on j axis; (b) Y (s) =

k=2 (s

+ 4 2 k 2 ).

[17] (a) x1 (t) = Ae3t cos(t/2 + )u(t), x2 (t) = Bu(t), x(t) = x1 (t) + x2 (t); (b) poles 0, 3 1.57j
with residues 0.087 and 0.044 0.083j.
[18] (a) Y (s) = X(s)/(s2 + 0.5s + 0.15); (b) the system is not LTI; (c) Y1 (s) = (s2 + 1.5s + 2)/(s3 +
0.5s2 + 0.15s).
[19] (a) Ignoring IC, (D2 + 2D + 3)y(t) = x(t) where D is derivative operator; (b) y(0) = 1,

## y 0 (0) = 1; (c) h(t) = (1/ 2)et sin( 2t)u(t).

[20] (a) The zero-state response is yzs (t) = [1tet et ]u(t); (b) yzi (t) = et u(t); (d) yss (t) = u(t).
[21] (a) System is unstable; (b) limt y(t) 0.
[22] (a)

|h(t)|dt |A|

R
0

et dt = |A|; (b) yss (t) = 0.2u(t); (c) steady state response is infinite;

## (d) output is not bounded.

1
T

[u(t) u(t T )]; (b) y(t) = r(t) r(t 1) r(t 2) + r(t 3).
h

i


[24] (a) y(t) = 61 12 e2t + 31 e3t u(t); (b) y(t) = 61 1 et cos( 5t) 55 et sin( 5t) u(t).

## [23] (a) h(t) =

[25] (a) System is not BIBO stable; (b) x(t) = 2 cos(2t)u(t); (c) No.

6
[26] (a) y(t) =
[27] (a)

d2 y1 (t)
dt2

1
T

Rt
tT

## x( )d ; (b) Input is cos(t)u(t).

1 (t)
+ 2 dydt
+ 4y1 (t) = x(t) +

d3 y3 (t)
dt3
t

dx(t)
dt ,

## General solution is of the form y1 (t) = [A + Be

y3 (t)
3 (t)
+ 2 d dt
+ 10 dydt
= x(t) +
2

cos( 3t + )]u(t).

dx(t)
dt ;

(b)

[28] (a) X(s) = 1s (e0.5s e0.5s ), y(t) = r(t + 1) 2r(t) + r(t 1); (b) If (t) = L1 (1/s3 ) we have
that y3 (t) = (t + 1.5) 3(t + 0.5) + 3(t 0.5) (t 1.5).
H(s)
1+H(s) ; (c) Negative feedback:
1/(s+1)
1
11/(s+1) = s , y(t) = r(t).

G(s) =

1/(s+1)
1+1/(s+1)

1
s+2 ,

## [30] If K = 1, g(t) = 2et u(t) is absolutely integrable.

[31] (b) Hap (s) = K s1
s+1 ; (c) G(s) = H(s)Hap (s) =

(s1)
s+1
(s1)(s2 +2s+1) s+1

## [32] (a)(b) Expressions for x1 (t) are equivalent; (c) X(s) =

[33] (a)(b) Y (s) =
[34] (a) E1 (s) =

X(s)N (s)
D(s)

1
s(1+1/D(s)) ;

1
(s+1)2

2(1+e0.5s )
(s2 +4 2 )(1e0.5s ) .

s+2
s2 ((s+4)2 +9) .

## (b) Final-value theorem: limt e1 (t) = 0.

Chapter 4
[1] No, the eigenfunction property is not valid for non-linear systems as in (a) or time-varying
systems as in (b).
[2] yss (t) = 2|H(j2)| cos(2t + H(j2)
[3] (a) H(j0 ) = (1 ej0 T )/(j0 T ); (b) H(s) = (1/sT )[1 esT ]
[4] (a) T1 /T2 = 2 so x(t) not periodic; (b) yss (t) = |H(j)| cos(t + H(j)) + |H(j2)| cos(2t +
H(j2)), where H(j) =
0.124551.49

1
5+j

5j
26

## [5] y(t) = 0.5 + 0.447 cos(t + 18.4o )

[6] (a) yss (t) = 4|H(j0)| cos(0t + H(j0)) = 4 0.5 = 2; (b)
Y (s) =

s((s +

1.5)2

4
A
= +
2
+ (2 1.5 ))
s

## and yss (t) = A = Y (s)s |s=0 = 2.

[7] (a) Xk = j/(2k); (b) x1 (t) = r(t) r(t 1) u(t 1),
Xk =
X0 =

R1
0

tdt = 0.5.

1
ejk
1
j
X1 (s)|s=jk0 =
sin(k)
=
, k 6= 0,
T0
2j 2 k 2
j2k
2k

7
[8] (a) x1 (t) = r(t) r(t 1) u(t 1), T0 = 2,0 =
(
j/(2k)
k 6= 0 even
Xk =
2 2
(2 + jk)/(2 k ) k odd
X0 =

1
2

R1
0

## tdt = 0.25; (b) Yk = Xk ; (c)

k 6= 0 even
0
Zk =
0.5
k=0

2/( 2 k 2 ) k odd

X1 (s) =

## es/2 (es/2 es/2 )

;
s

(c)
Xk =

sin(k/2) jk/2
1
X1 (s) |s=jk = 0.5
e
2
k/2

e0.5s 0.5s
+ e0.5s ),
s2 + 2 (e
2
2
0 = 2 and Xk = (14k
2 ) , X0 = ;
2, 0 = and Xk = (1k1 2 ) ejk/2 cos(k/2), X0

## [10] x1 (t) = sin(t)u(t) + sin((t 1))u(t 1), X1 (s) =

Full-wave: T0 = 1,
Half-wave: T0 =

1
;

(b) xh (t) =

## 0.5[xf (t) + sin(t)].

1 sin(k/2) jk/2
,
2
k/2 e
2|Xk |2 and X0 = 12 = Y0 .

[11] Xk =

Yk =

1
2

sin(k/2)
k/2

2

## (1)k using 1 cos(k) = 2 sin2 (k/2). |Yk | =

[12] Periods: x1 (t) = u(t) u(t 1), 0 t T0 = 2, y1 (t) = x1 (2t) = u(2t) u(2t 1) =
u(t) u(t 0.5), 0 t T1 = 1, Xk =

sin(k/2) jk/2
e
k

## for k0 = k and Yk = Xk for

k1 = 2k.
[13] (a) Derivative of period of x(t) in 0.5 t 0.5 gives
y1 (t) =
and y(t) =

## [14] (a) Ts (t) =

dx1 (t)
= 2(t + 0.25) 2(t 0.25)
dt

k=

(t kTs ) =

1 jks t
;
k= Ts e

## period s and magnitude Ts .

[15] (a) x(t) periodic of period T0 , x(t+T0 ) =
k =

2
T0 k

periodic.
[16] (a) Xk =

2(1)k
(14k2 ) ,

## X(0) = 2/ then H(j0) = 1 and H(j2k) = 0 for k 6= 0.

k=,k6=0

Xk H(j2k)ej2kt , if y(t) =

8
[17] (a) Zk = Xk + Yk ; (b)
(
Wk =

Xk

k odd

Xk + Yk

k even

(
Yk =

2X0 3

k=0

2Xk

k 6= 0

## z(t) is periodic of period T0 and Zk = Xk (1 + e2j0 k ); w(t) is periodic of period T0 /2 and

(
Xk/2 k even
Wk =
0
otherwise
[19] (a) y1 (t) = dx1 (t)/dt = u(t) 2u(t 1) + u(t 2), Yk = 2/(jk) for k 6= 0 odd;
X

(b) z(t) = 1 + 4

k>0,

## (d) x(t) = 0.5 +

odd

X
k=1,

odd

sin(kt)
;
k

4 cos(kt )
.
(k)2

[20] N = 5.
[21] (a) Zn =

Xk Ynk ; (b) Zn =

Xk Y(nk)/2

Rt
R 0.5
P
[22] (a) s(t) = 0 x1 ( )d t, 0 t 1; (b) p(t) = k,odd (4/(k))ej2kt ; (c)(d) 0.5 p( )d =
P
4 sin(k)
=0
k
k, odd k
[23] X0 = 1/2, X2 = X2 = 1/4; (b) Yk = 2/((1 4k 2 )); (c) x(t) 6= y(t); (d) low-pass filter of
magnitude 2 and cutoff frequency 0 < x < 4 gives a steady state z(t) = 1.
[24] (a) Wk = 2ejk (cos(k) cos(k/2))/(20 k 2 )

[25] = 4

k=1

sin(k/2)/k

[26]

x (t)dt 2

=
T0

XZ
k

k k (t)dt +
x(t)X

T0

XX
k

k X
`
X

k (t)` (t)dt

T0

Chapter 5
[1] (a) X0 =

1
T0

R 0.5
0.5

dt =

1
T0 ;

(b) Xk =

1 sin(k/T0 )
T0 kk/T0 ;

## increases (so multiply Xk by T0 )

[2] (b)X1 () = sin(/2)/(/2), X2 () = 4ej(/4) cos(/4)/(4 2 2 ), X3 () = 2(1cos())/2

9
[3] (b) Absolutely integrable,

|x(t)|dt = 2

R
0

8
4+2 ;

## (d) X(s) when

s = j is FT.
[4] (a) x(t) absolutely integrable and finite energy, (b)
X() = X(s) |s=j = 2
[5] (a)(c) X1 () =

1
2+j

and X3 () =

1
(2+j)2

j + 2
(j + 2)2 + 4 2

## 1/s , > 0 so we cant find its FT (j-axis not included)

[6] (a) IFT x(t) =

A
t

## u( 0.5)], (b) X1 (2t) = sin(t)/t [u( + 1) u( 1)]

R
[7] (a) x(t) even, y(t) odd; (b) X() = 2 0 e|t| cos(t)dt since cos(.) is even then X() =
R
2j
2
X(); (c) X() = 1+
2 (d) Y () = j y(t) sin(t)dt, Y () = Y (); (e) Y () = 1+2
[8] (a) T0 = 1, X() =

sin(/2) j/2
/2 e

sin(5) j5
5 e

and

[9] (b) X() =

sin(/2)
/2 ;

## (c) Y () = X() + 0.5X( ) + 0.5X( + ); (d) y(t) is smoother than

x(t).
[10] (a) x(t) = r(t+1)2r(t)+r(t1), triangular pulse, y(t) = dx(t)/dt = u(t+1)2u(t)+u(t1),
sin2 (/2)
(/2)2 ;

## two pulses; (b) X() =

(/2)
(c) Y () = j sin(/2)
2 , |Y ()| = |X()|||

## [11] (b) X() = j (sin(/2))

, imaginary as x(t) is odd; (c) Y () =
/4

sin(/2)
/2

2

dX()
d

## = Y () so that y(t) = x(t)(jt) = j(t 1) + j(t + 1),

Y () = 2 sin()
[13] (a) X() = 2 cos(T1 ); (b) Y () = 1 + 2

k=1

## cos(kT0 ), both y(t) and Y () are periodic of

period 2/T0
[14] (b) k =

1
Ts , Ts (t)

1 jks t
,
k= Ts e

s =

2
Ts

with FT () =

2
Ts

( ks ); (c) Ts (t)

## and Ts () periodic, of periods Ts and 2/Ts

2

[15] (b) X() = sin(/2)
ej
/2
[16] (a)(b) X() = X1 ()
P
2
m ( m0 )
T0

ejkT0 =

2X1 ()
T0

## (k0 ) where 0 = 2/T0 ; (c)

ejkT0 =

1
[17] (b) P () = 2 sin()
; (c) X() = P () + 2 [P ( 2) + P ( + 2)]

(/2) j
, X() = 4 sin j
e
;

10
[19] (a) s(t) =

P6

S() =

k=4

6
X

k=4

## (c) Same message available at different carrier frequencies

[20] (a) Fourier coefficients: Xk = cos(k/2)ejk/2 /((1 k 2 )), X0 = 1/, |X1 | = 1/4 and |X2 | =
1/(3); (b) Low-pass filter: amplitude and cut-off frequency 0 < c <
[21] Capacitor: VC (s)/Vs (s) = 1/(s2 +s+1), low-pass filter. Inductor: VL (s)/Vs (s) = s2 /(s2 +s+1)
high-pass filter. Resistor: VR (s)/Vs (s) = s/(s2 + s + 1), band-pass filter
[22] (a) X() = 4[( 1000) + ( + 1000)], Y () = 0.5[X( 10000) + X( + 10000)]
FT of the transmitted signal y(t). Filter output is 10y(t), the received signal; (b) z(t) =
10y(t) cos(10000t), Z() = 5X() + 2.5[X( 20000) + X( + 20000)]. Pass z(t) through
low-pass filter G() of magnitude 1/5 and c > 1000 to get x(t)
[23] (a) h(t) = sin(t)/(t), non-causal; (b) g(t) = h(t)2 cos(5t) with magnitude response G(j) =
H(j( 5)) + H(j( + 5))
[24] H1 (s) = (s 1)((s 1)2 + 2 )/((s + 1)((s + 1)2 + 2 )), all-pass filter. H2 (s) = (s + j)(s
j)/((s+1)(s+1+j)(s+1j)), notch-filter. H3 (s) = (s1)/((s+1)(s+1+j)(s+1j)),
low-pass filter
[25] m(t) = p(t) sin(2t), for p(t) = u(t) u(t 1), M () = (1/2j)[P ( + 2) P ( 2)]; y1 (t) is
suppressed-carrier AM, Y1 () = 0.5(M ( + 20) + M ( 20)); y2 (t) is AM with envelope
similar to message

Chapter 6
[1] (a) V3 (s)/V1 (s) = 1/(s2 + 3s + 1); (b) V3 (s)/V1 (s) = V3 (s)/V2 (s) V2 (s)/V1 (s) = 1/(s + 1)2 ;
(c) cascading three filters with transfer functions H1 (s) = 1000/(s + 100), H2 (s) = 1/(s + 1),
H3 (s) = 1/1000 gives G(s)
[2] (a) 0 = 40 103 rad/sec; (b) passing s(t) with spectrum S() = (/4)(M () + M ( +
2c ) + M ( 2c ) through a unit gain ideal lowpass filter and bandwidth 2BW we get
(/4)m(t), to get m(t) let = 4
[3] (R2 /R1 )Vi (s) = V0 (s) + (V0 (s)/A)(1 + R2 /R1 ) can be written as negative feedback. As
A V0 (s)/Vi (s) = R2 /R1
[4] (a) RC circuit transfer function V0 (s)/Vi (s) = (1/RC)/(s + 1/RC) from which to obtain the
feedback system; (b) steady-state error e(t) = vi (t) v0 (t) = 0

11
[5] Differential equation corresponding to transfer function is
d2 vo (t) dvo (t)
+
+ vo (t) = vi (t)
dt2
dt
can be implemented using two integrators and an adder; (b) Vo (s)/Vi (s) = (1/s)/(1 + (s +
1/s)) = G(s)/(1 + G(s)H(s)) so that G(s) = 1/s and H(s) = s2 + 1 for the negative feedback
system; limt e(t) = 0
[6] (a) Y (s)/X(s) = G(s)/(1 + G(s)H(s)) = 1/(1 + s/K); (b)If G(s) = s, H(s) = s/K the transfer
function of the feedback system corresponds to a band-pass filter
[7] If T (s) = N (s)/N (s) all-pass filter; negative feedback: G(s) = N (s)/(N (s) N (s)H(s)) =
((s)2 + 2 )/4s, H(s) = 1; positive feedback: H(s) = 1 and G(s) = ((s)2 + 2 )/(2(s2 +

2 + 2 )). Replace = = 2/2 to get feedback implementations for the given T (s)
[8] (a) H(s) = 1/(s2 + (K 1)), for K > 0 it is not possible to stabilize system; (b) H(s) =
G(s)Ha (s) = 1/(s + 1)2
[9] (a) E(s) = (X(s)D(s))/(D(s) + N (s)), D(s) = sD1 (s) and roots of D(s) + N (s) in left-hand
s-plane for steady-state error to be zero; (b) e(0) = 1 and ess (t) = 2/3
[10] (a) Z(s) = P (s)Q(s) = 2 + 5s + 6s2 + 5s3 + 2s4 + s5
[11] (a) E(s) = X(s)(s(s + 1)(s + 2))/(1 + s(s + 1)(s + 2)); (b) for x(t) = u(t), e1ss = 0; (c) for
x(t) = r(t), e2ss = 2
[12] (a) L1 = 48.5 103 ; (b) r(t) = 1.9 cos(2 1950t 2 0.065)
[13] (a) C =

## [14] (a) Nb = 6, Nc = 4; (b)(c) Butterworth: hp = 1787.4, (p ) = 0.5 dB and (s ) = 32.023 dB;

Chebyshev:  = 0.3493, hp = 1639.7, (p ) = 0.5 dB and (s ) = 36.65 dB
[16] Butterworth: K = 10 dc gain, N = 6 minimum order, hp = 1.79 103 half-power frequency;
Chebyshev: K = 10.6, N = 4,  = 0.349, hp = 1.64 103 ; minimum order depends on ratio
of the two frequencies

Chapter 7
[1] (a) fs 10 KHz, bits/hour = 288 106 ; (b) fs 44KHz
[2] (a) X() = [u( + 1) u( 1)]; (b) Ts sec/sample; (c) Ts /2; (d) Ts =

12
[3] (a) Y () = ej (sin(/2)/(/2))2 ; (b)(c) y(t) smoother than x(t), since x = 5.6 > y = 2.6
rad/sec, Tsy > Tsx , aliasing if x(t) is sampled using Tsy ; (d) Tsx appropriate for sampling x(t)
and y(t)
[4] (a)(b) max 22 rad/sec; computing (t) and () the uncertainty bound is satisfied.
[5] (a) X() = 2[u(+0.5)u(0.5)]; (b)(c) bandlimited, Ts 2; (d) Xs () = (1/(2))

X(0k) =

1, passing x(t) through a low-pass filter with amplitude 2 and cutoff frequency 1/2 we obtain the original signal
[6] (b) Maximum frequency is 3.3 rad/sec; (d) antialiasing filter: ideal low-pass of magnitude 1
[7] (a) X() = 0.5[M (c )+M (+c )]; (b) Ts (1/64)103 sec/sample; (c) use bandwidth
of signal
[8] (a) max y = 4000; (b) maximum frequency of Y () remains the same, Ts 0.25 103 ; (c)
No.
[9] (a) Ts = 1, s = 2 2max , low-pass filter of magnitude 1 and cutoff frequency max <
c < 2 max ; (b) maximum frequency should be less than
[10] CD player is reproducing a signal that has been processed by an antialiasing filter before
being sampled, quantized and coded. High frequencies might have been filtered out and also
quantization error is present possibly making the reproduced signal of less quality than the
original
[11] (a)-(c) Sampled signal values x(nTs ) = 0.8 cos(2n0.025) + 0.15, 0 n 40

Chapter 8
[1] x[3] = 2, x[4] = 3, x[5] = 5
[2] (b) x[n] has finite energy, 4/3
[3] (a) A = 1, 0 = 3Ts ; (b) Ts = (2m)/(3N ) for integers m and N
[4] (a) x[n] = (1 + 0.25n)[u[n] u[n 5]]; (b) even component

0.5(1 0.25n) 1 n 4
xe [n] =
1
n=0

0.5(1 + 0.25n) 4 n 1
(e) 2x = 2xe + 2xo
[5] (a) r[n] = u[n 1] + u[n 2] +

13
[6] (a) Period for n 0 x[n] = r[n] 2r[n 1] + r[n 2]; (b) period 3
[7] (a) z[n] = x[2n] = cos(4n/7); (b) y[n] = x[n/2] periodic of period 14; (c) upsampled signal
cannot be obtained by decreasing the sampling period.
[8] (a) = e2 ; (b) x[n] is absolutely summable; (c) x[n] is finite energy.
[9] x[n] is periodic of period N0 = 2; z[n] is not periodic; v[n] is periodic.
[10] (a) z[n] is periodic of period 12; w[n] is periodic.
[11] (a) For non-divisible integers K and M , x[n] + y[n] is periodic of period M N1 = KN2 ; (c)
when x[n] has period N1 = 3 and y[n] is periodic of period N2 = 2, the gdc[2, 3] = 1, so
N0 = 6.
[12] (a) Ti = 2Ri /343
[13] (a) T0 = 3Ts ; (b) sampled envelope is
e(nTs ) = (1/3) [r(nTs ) r((n 30)Ts ) 0.1r((n 200)Ts ) r((n 300)Ts )]
[14] (a) Sampler is linear; (b) sampler is time-varying
[15] (a)(b) Quantizer is non-linear but time-invariant
[16] (a)(b) Windowing is linear but time-varying, consider x[n] = nu[n], w[n] = u[n] u[n 6]
then output y[n] = nw[n], for x[n 6] then x[n 6]w[n] = 0 6= y[n 6]
[17] (a) h[n] = 0.15(n/2) for n 0 and even, 0 otherwise
[18] (a) h[n] =

P5

k=1

P5

k=1

## ku[n k]; (d) bounded ouput

[19] (a)(b) By superposition and by convolution sum: y[n] = h[n] + h[n 1] + h[n 2]
[20] (a) a = 0.5; (b) h[n] = 0.5n u[n]
[21] (a) A; (b) either
[22] (a) h1 [n] = (0.5)n u[n]; (b)(c) both IIR and FIR systems are BIBO stable; (d) FIRs always stable
[23] (a) If s[n] is unit-step response then h[n] = s[n] s[n 1]; (b) the ramp response is
[n] =

s[n k]

k=0

[24] (b) y[0] = 1, y[1] = 1.5, y[2] = 7/4, y[n] = 15 0.5n for n 3; (b) use superposition

14

Chapter 9
[1] (a) Poles s = 1 j1 are mapped into z = e1 ej1 ; (b) z = e ej for Ts = 1
[2] (a) s = log(z)/Ts ; (b) z = 1 is mapped into s = 0, z = 1 into s = j/Ts
[3] (a) S1 (z) = 1/(1 z 1 ), ROC |z| > 1; (b) No z-transform
[4] (a) X(z) = 1/(1 z/), ROC |z| < ||; (b) /(z )2 (n 1)(n1) u[n]
[5] (a) X2 (z) = 1/(1 z 1 ), |z| < 1, (b) without ROCs it would not be possible to distinguish the
Z-transforms of x1 [n] 6= x2 [n].
[6] (a) F (z) = z 1 /(1 z 1 z 2 ); (b) poles i , i = 1, 2 are such that 1 + 2 = 1
[7] (a) x(0.1n) = [u(t) u(t 1)]t=0.1n ; (b) N = 11; (d) X(z) = Xs (s)|z=e0.1s
[8] (a) (b) X(z) = (1 z 10 )/(1 z 1 ); (c) X(z) has not poles on the unit circle
[9] (b) X(z) = 2/(1 z 1 ), ROC |z| > ||
[10] (b)(c) X(z) = 1/(1 z 2 ) |z| > 1
[11] (a) Y (z) = X(z)/(1 + 0.5z 1 ) 0.5y[1]/(1 + 0.5z 1 ); (c) H(z) = 1/(1 + 0.5z 1 )
[12] (a)(b) H(z) = z 2 /[(z rej0 )(z rej0 ); (c) For 0 = /2 or 3/2 we get the same transfer
function
[13] (a) y[n] = 2 cos(0 )y[n 1] y[n 2] + Ax[n] A cos(0 )x[n 1], n 0, zero ICs, x[n] = [n];
(b) Let y[n 1] = y1 [n] where y[n] is above solution
P9
[14] (b) X(z) = k=0 z k , 9th -order polynomial; (c) pole-zero cancellation
[15] (a) y[2] = 4, y[1] = 2; (b) steady state 4/3
[16] (a) x[n] = [n] + 0.5[n 1]; (b) h[n] = 0.5[(0.5)n + 0.5n ]u[n]
[17] (b) y[n] = [n] + 2[n 1] + 3[n 2] + 2[n 3] + [n 4]
[18] x[n] = [3(0.25)n + 4(0.5)n ]u[n], zero steady state
[19] (b) f [n] = u[n 2] + u[n 3]
[20] (c) y[n] = [4 + 3.16(0.707)n cos(n/4 161.5o )]u[n] steady state 4
[21] (a) Equation for denominator coefficients:

h[M 1]
h[M 2]
h[M N + 1]

h[M ]
h[M 1]
h[M N + 2]

..
..
..

.
.

.
h[M + N 3] h[M + N 4]

h[M 1]

a1

a2
..
.

aN 1

h[M ]

h[M + 1]
..
.

h[M + N 2]

15
After denominator coefficients are found, replace them in the following equation to get the
{bk }:

h[0]

h[1]
..
.

h[0]
..
.

0
..
.

h[M 1] h[M 2]

h[M N ]

1
a1
..
.

b0

b1
..
.

aN 1

bM 1

(b) H(z)
= 1/(1 0.5z 1 )
[22] (a)(b) Hd (z) = 1/(1 0.91 ); (c) compute convolution (h1 h2 )[n] and the find Prony of order
(2,2)
[23] (a) (n + 1)an+1 u[n]

## a/(1 az 1 )2 ; (b) X(z) = 0.5z 1 /(1 0.5z 1 )2 with an inverse

x[n] = 0.5n nu[n] according to Z-transform table and also using result in (a) in the expansion
[24] A = 2, C = 2, B = 4, and D = 2, F = 4, E = 2 giving same x[n] = 2(1 2n (1 n))u[n].
[25] (a) H(z) = 2z/(1 0.5z 1 ) use Prony of order (1, 1) assuming h[n] is causal and adjust for
shift; (b) separate the signal into causal and noncausal

Chapter 10
[1] (a) H(ej ) = (1 2ej )/(1 0.5ej ); (b) |H(ej )| = 2
[2] (a) H1 (ej0 ) = 4, H1 (ej ) = 0; (b) h2 [n] = (1)n h1 [n]
[3] (a) X(ej ) = 0.75/(5/4 cos()); (b) X(1) = 3; (c) x[0] = 1; (c) zero phase
[4] (a) H(ej ) = ej (1 + 2 cos())/3; (b) H1 (ej ) = H(ej() )
[5] (a) x[n] is not periodic; (b)x[n] = cos(0.5n + /4)/ 2 cos(0.71n /8)
[6] (a) IF (n) = n/L; (b) chirp would jam all possible discrete frequencies
[7] (a) h[n] symmetric with respect to n = N ; (b) the low-pass filter is shifted to /2
[8] (a) P (ej ) = (1 ejN )/(1 ej ); (c) y[n] = 0 in steady state
[9] (a) 0.5X1 (ej/2 ) 6= X(ej )
[10] (a) Equivalent to cascade of upsampler of rate M , the lowpass filter of the decimator with
gain M , and downsampler of rate M ; (c) interpolating with L = 3 the input signal with 100
samples gives a signal with 300 samples, which when decimated with M = 2 gives a signal
with 150 samples

16
[11] (a) Angle of complex numbers in second and third quadrants is obtained like in the first and
fourth quadrant and subtracted and added to ; (c) X(z) = z 1 then X(ej0 ) = 0 and any
value can be chosen for phase, when X(z) = 1/(1 z) then X(ej0 ) and the phase is not
defined
[12] (a) |X(ej )| = 2, X(ej ) = 4
[13] (a) X(ej ) = (A + 1) +

P9

n=1

## 2 cos(n); (b) phase corresponding to x1 [n] is linear

[14] (a) Ak = 3|k| for 2 k 2, zero otherwise; (b) T (ej ) has coefficients B0 = 3, Bk = 2(3k)
for k = 1, 2 and zero otherwise
[15] (c) X(ej ) = ej + 2ej2 , Y (ej ) = ej + 2ej2 , Z(ej ) = 2 cos() + 4 cos(2), |Y (ej )| =
|X(ej )|
[16] (a) X(ej0 ) = 9, X(ej ) = 1, (c) phase of X(ej ) is 2 when X(ej )ej2 > 0 and 2
when that term is negative
[17] (c) Xe (ej ) = 0.5(2 cos())/(1.25 cos()), Xo (ej ) = 0.5j sin()/(1.25 cos()); (d) use
Parsevals result to show that Ex = Exe + Exo
[18] (b) There is a zero at zero and poles at z = 2 and z = 0.5; (c) C(ej0 ) = 3, zero phase
[19] (a) The convolution sum gives z[n] = [n 2] + 6[n 3] + 11[n 4] + 12[n 5]; (b)
V (z) = 1 + z 1 + z 2 , W (z) = (3z 2 + 2z + 2z 1 + 3z 2 )V (z)
[20] (a) y[n] = w[n] sin(0.1n), Y (ej ) = (1/2j)(W (ej0.1 ) W (ej+0.1 )
[21] (a) Using the z-transform Xk = (1/N )X1 (z)|z=ej2k/N where X1 (z) is the z-transform of
x1 [n] = x[n](u[n] u[n 10])
[22] (a) X = Sx; (c) for N = 4, Xk = 0.25{x[0]+[x[2](1)k }+(j)k {x[1]+x[3](1)k }, k = 0, 1, 2, 3.
[23] (a) x1 [n] is periodic of period N and FS coefficients Xk ej2N0 k/N ; (c) N should be even; (d)(e)
X0 = X2 = 0 and X1 = X3 = 0.5(1 + j)
[24] (b) Independent of the period N , for a cosine of period N X1 = X1 = 0.5 and for a sine
X1 = X1
[25] (a)-(c) To recover x[n] we demodulate y[n] by multiplying it by (1)n and then lowpass filter
it
[26] (a) Since the length of x[n] is 70 then 2 70 gives 6.13 so we choose = 7
[27] (a) When the signal is aperiodic padding it with zeros increases the frequency resolution,
amplitudes remaining the same; (b) the fundamental frequencies of the periodic signal remain
the same when we increase the number of periods to improve the frequency resolution

17
[28] (a) The approximation is good because the impulse response decreases significantly after n =
30; (b) no truncation is done and results are better than before
[29] (a)(b) Z(z) = X(z)Y (z) and letting z = ej it becomes the DTFT of z[n]; (c) N = 4 < length of
x[n] +length of y[n]1 = 6 so that the linear and the circular convolutions do not coincide; (d)
X(k)Y (k) = ej(2k/N ) +3ej2(2k/N ) +6ej3(2k/N ) +5ej4(2k/N ) +3ej5(2k/N ) and for N =
4 ej4(2k/4) = ej0(2k/4) and ej5(2k/4) = ej1(2k/4) which when replaced the coefficients
of X(k)Y (k) coincide with the values obtained in the circular convolution of length N = 4.

Chapter 11
[1] (a) H(ej ) = (2 + 2 cos()); (b) for = = 0.5 H(z) has pole z = 0 and double zero at
z = 1; (c) G(z) has linear phase
[2] (b) H(z) = (1/9)(z 2 + 4z + 6 + 4z 1 + z 2 ), non-causal filter; (b) h1 [n] = h[n 2] is causal
with linear phase
[3] (a) h1 [n] is even with respect to n = 2, h2 [n] is odd with respect to n = 2; (b) H1 (z) has linear
phase; (c) letting F (z) = z 2 H2 (z) it can be shown F (ej ) is purely imaginary and used to
determine the phase of H2 (ej )
[4] (a) |H2 (ej )| = 1; (c) when phase is linear the delay it causes is known and can be reversed,
not so for nonlinear phase
[5] Nb = 10 , the Chebyshev filter with the same order has a narrower transition band, [1000 1035],
than that of the Butterworth filter [1000 1200] Hz
[6] H(z) = (z + 1)2 /((2 +

2)(z 2 + (2

2)/(2 +

2)), hp = /2

[7] Increase in order changes results, warping makes poles cluster around
[8] (a)(c) G(s) is all-pass with linear phase, H(z) is also all-pass with non-linear phase.
[9] Minimum order N = 7,
1
|s=BT
s+1
1
Hi (z) = 2
|s=BT
s + (1/QI )s + 1
H1 (z) =

[10] (a)(b) Given filter is all-pass, K = 1.4 gives the desired response, discrete filter is all-pass with
approximately linear phase
[11] Desired filter is a low-pass with fp = 1 KHz, max = 3 dB, fst = 2 KHz, min = 10 dB
[12] Generate noise using MATLAB expression noise=0.1*randn(1,256)

18
[13] The minimum orders of the filters is Nb = 20, Nc = 10 and Ne = 6
[14] (a) H(z) = K(1 4z 2 )/(1 0.25z 2 ); (b) H(z) = K(1 z 2 )/(1 0.25z 2 )
[15] (a)(b) H(z) = K(1 + z 4 )/(1/16 + z 4 ), magnitude response looks like a comb, phase cannot be
unwrapped because of zeros on unit circle; (c) notch filters connected in parallel give sharper
response around notches
[16] Desired bank of filters is obtained by connecting in parallel low-pass, band-pass and highpass filters
[17] The cutoff frequency for FIR is c = 2(fc /fs ), designed filter using rectangular window
20
X

H(z)
= 0.25 +

n=0,n6=10

sin((n 10)/4 n
z
(n 10)

## [18] Desired impulse response is

(

sin(n/3)/(n) n 6= 0

hd [n] =

0.33

n=0

## [19] (a) Modulating h[n] of IIR filter gives

H(z)

=
=

H(ej0 z) + H(ej0 z)
B(ej0 z) B(ej0 z)
+
A(ej0 z)
A(ej0 z)

## (b) If a = 0.5 and 0 = /2, the band-pass filter is

H2 (z) =

2
1 + 0.5z 2

[20] (a) The downsampled impulse response is g[n] = 0.25n u[n]; (b) G(ej ) = 1/(1 0.25ej )
[21] (a) h[n] = (1/3)([n] + [n 1] + [n 2]), G(ej ) = H(ej )
[22] Use the convolution property, so that if D(z) has d coefficients, then D2 (z) has coefficients
d d, i.e., the convolution sum of the coefficients d with itself.
[23] (a) h1 [n] = h[n/2] for n = 0, 2, 4, and zero otherwise, H1 (z) = H(z 2 )

2(1 z 1 ) 1 + 2z 1 + z 2
H(z) = H1 (z)H2 (z) =
1 + 0.5z 1 1 0.9z 1 + 0.81z 2

(b) Parallel
H(z) = 4.94 +

2.16
4.78 1.6z 1
+
1 + 0.5z 1
1 0.9z 1 + 0.81z 2

19
[25] Use the z-transform of
g[n] = 2v[n] + 1.8v[n 1] + 0.4v[n 2]
v[n] = x[n] + 1.3v[n 1] 0.8v[n 2]
to get the transfer function G(z)/X(z). For the second cascade Y (z)/G(z) = (3 + 4.5z 1 )/(1
0.3z 1 )