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Redes AON: Redes pticas activas (Active Optical Network)

Red ptica activa (Active Optical Network) AON, en la cual se utilizan elementos activos que requieren energa para su alimentacin y permiten largas distancias entre la sala de equipos y los a onados! "asado en el #tandard $%%% &'(!a), las redes activas %t)ernet proveen de anc)o de anda sim*trico con velocidades superiores a +, ps por puerto so re una -nica .i ra utilizando para ello dos longitudes de onda multiple/adas y di.erenciadas so re cada .i ra ptica! 0e *sta manera con cada longitud de onda tenemos dos slots de transmisin, un slot se utiliza como canal de transmisin y otra para el canal de recepcin! %sto nos permite una transmisin de datos 1ull20-ple/ mediante una cone/in punto a punto con un anc)o de anda dedicado al usuario! %n las redes 3ON de.ine como m4/ima distancia entre un O56 y un equipo ON7 de (' 8m para que la red 3ON sea operativa, con las redes %t)ernet activas *ste lmite desaparece permiti*ndose distancias superiores a &'8m desde el punto de distri ucin )asta el usuario!

Whats The Difference Between Networks%

!ON And "!ON Optical #i$er

http://electronicdesign.com/what-s-difference-between/what-s-difference-between-epon-and-gpon-optical-fiber-networks Jan. 6, 2014&o' #ren(el | Electronic Design 3assive optical networks de.ined and e/plained! %3ON and ,3ON are introduced and compared! %3ON and ,3ON are popular versions o. passive optical networks (3ONs)! 6)ese s)ort2)aul networks o. .i er2optical ca le are used .or $nternet access, voice over $nternet protocol (9o$3), and digital 69 delivery in metropolitan areas! Ot)er uses include ack)aul connections .or cellular asestations, :i21i )otspots, and even distri uted antenna systems (0A#)! 6)e primary di..erences etween t)em lie in t)e protocols used .or downstream and upstream communications! !assive Optical Networks A 3ON is a .i er network t)at only uses .i er and passive components like splitters and com iners rat)er t)an active components like ampli.iers, repeaters, or s)aping circuits! #uc) networks cost signi.icantly less t)an t)ose using active components! 6)e main disadvantage is a s)orter range o. coverage limited y signal strengt)! :)ile an active optical network (AON) can cover a range to a out +'' km (;( miles), a 3ON is typically limited to .i er ca le runs o. up to (' km (+( miles)! 3ONs also are called .i er to t)e )ome (166<) networks! 6)e term 166/ is used to state )ow .ar a .i er run is! $n 166<, / is .or )ome! =ou may also see it called 1663 or .i er to t)e premises! Anot)er variation is 166" .or .i er to t)e uilding! 6)ese t)ree versions de.ine systems w)ere t)e .i er runs all t)e way .rom t)e service provider to t)e customer! $n ot)er .orms, t)e .i er is not run all t)e way to t)e customer! $nstead, it is run to an interim node in t)e neig) or)ood! 6)is is called 166N .or .i er to t)e node! Anot)er variation is 166>, or .i er to t)e cur ! <ere too t)e .i er does not run all t)e way to t)e )ome! 166> and 166N networks may use a customer?s uns)ielded twisted2pair (763) copper telep)one line to e/tend t)e services at lower cost! 1or e/ample, a .ast A0#5 line carries t)e .i er data to t)e customer?s devices! 6)e typical 3ON arrangement is a point to multi2point (3(@3) network w)ere a central optical line terminal (O56) at t)e service provider?s .acility distri utes 69 or $nternet service to as many as +; to +(& customers per .i er line (see the figure)! Optical splitters, passive optical devices

t)at divide a single optical signal into multiple equal ut lower2power signals, distri ute t)e signals to users! An optical network unit (ON7) terminates t)e 3ON at t)e customer?s )ome! 6)e ON7 usually communicates wit) an optical network terminal (ON6), w)ic) may e a separate o/ t)at connects t)e 3ON to 69 sets, telep)ones, computers, or a wireless router! 6)e ON7AON6 may e one device! $n t)e asic met)od o. operation .or downstream distri ution on one wavelengt) o. lig)t .rom O56 to ON7AON6, all customers receive t)e same data! 6)e ON7 recognizes data targeted at eac) user! 1or t)e upstream .rom ON7 to O56, a time division multiple/ (60@) tec)nique is used w)ere eac) user is assigned a timeslot on a di..erent wavelengt) o. lig)t! :it) t)is arrangement, t)e splitters act as power com iners! 6)e upstream transmissions, called urst2 mode operations, occur at random as a user needs to send data! 6)e system assigns a slot as needed! "ecause t)e 60@ met)od involves multiple users on a single transmission, t)e upstream data rate is always slower t)an t)e downstream rate! "!ON Over t)e years, various 3ON standards )ave een developed! $n t)e late +BB's, t)e $nternational 6elecommunications 7nion ($67) created t)e A3ON standard, w)ic) used t)e Async)ronous 6rans.er @ode (A6@) .or long2)aul packet transmission! #ince A6@ is no longer used, a newer version was created called t)e road and 3ON, or "3ON! 0esignated as $6726 ,!B&C, t)is standard provided .or ;(( @ itsAs downstream and +DD @ itsAs upstream! :)ile "3ON may still e used in some systems, most current networks use ,3ON, or ,iga it 3ON! 6)e $6726 standard is ,!B&E! $t delivers (!E&& , itsAs downstream and +!(EE , itsAs upstream! ,3ON uses optical wavelengt) division multiple/ing (:0@) so a single .i er can e used .or ot) downstream and upstream data! A laser on a wavelengt) (F) o. +EB' nm transmits downstream data! 7pstream data transmits on a wavelengt) o. +C+' nm! $. 69 is eing distri uted, a wavelengt) o. +DD' nm is used! :)ile eac) ON7 gets t)e .ull downstream rate o. (!E&& , itsAs, ,3ON uses a time division multiple access (60@A) .ormat to allocate a speci.ic timeslot to eac) user! 6)is divides t)e andwidt) so eac) user gets a .raction suc) as +'' @ itsAs depending upon )ow t)e service provider allocates it! 6)e upstream rate is less t)an t)e ma/imum ecause it is s)ared wit) ot)er ON7s in a 60@A sc)eme! 6)e O56 determines t)e distance and time delay o. eac) su scri er! 6)en so.tware provides a way to allot timeslots to upstream data .or eac) user! 6)e typical split o. a single .i er is +GC( or +G;E! 6)at means eac) .i er can serve up to C( or ;E su scri ers! #plit ratios up to +G+(& are possi le in some systems! As .or data .ormat, t)e ,3ON packets can )andle A6@ packets directly! Recall t)at A6@ packages everyt)ing in DC2 yte packets wit) E& .or data and D .or over)ead! ,3ON also uses a generic encapsulation met)od to carry ot)er protocols! $t can encapsulate %t)ernet, $3, 6>3, 703, 6+A%+, video, 9o$3, or ot)er protocols as called .or y t)e data transmission! @inimum packet size is DC ytes, and t)e ma/imum is +D+&! A%# encryption is used downstream only! 6)e latest version o. ,3ON is a +'2,iga it version called H,3ON, or +',23ON! As t)e demand .or video and over t)e top (O66) 69 services )as increased, t)ere is an increasing need to oost line rates to )andle t)e massive data o. )ig)2de.inition video! H,3ON serves t)is purpose! 6)e $67 standard is ,!B&I! H,3ON?s ma/imum rate is +' , itsAs (B!BDC(&) downstream and (!D , itsAs ((!E&&C() upstream! 0i..erent :0@ wavelengt)s are used, +DII nm downstream and +(I' nm upstream! 6)is allows +'2, itAs service to coe/ist on t)e same .i er wit) standard ,3ON! Optical split is +G+(&, and data .ormatting is t)e same as ,3ON! @a/imum range is still (' km! H,3ON is not yet widely implemented ut provides an e/cellent upgrade pat) .or service providers and customers!

)ost !ONs are confi*'red like this+ The n',$er of splitters and split levels varies with the vendor and the s-ste,+ .plit ratios are 's'all- /:01 or /:23 $'t co'ld $e hi*her+

!ON 6)e $nstitute o. %lectrical and %lectronic %ngineers ($%%%) developed anot)er newer 3ON standard! "ased on t)e %t)ernet standard &'(!C, %3ON &'(!Ca) speci.ies a similar passive network wit) a range o. up to (' km! $t uses :0@ wit) t)e same optical .requencies as ,3ON and 60@A! 6)e raw line data rate is +!(D , itsAs in ot) t)e downstream and upstream directions! =ou will sometimes )ear t)e network re.erred to as ,iga it %t)ernet 3ON or ,%3ON! %3ON is .ully compati le wit) ot)er %t)ernet standards, so no conversion or encapsulation is necessary w)en connecting to %t)ernet2 ased networks on eit)er end! 6)e same %t)ernet .rame is used wit) a payload o. up to +D+& ytes! %3ON does not use t)e >#@AA>0 access met)od used in ot)er versions o. %t)ernet! #ince %t)ernet is t)e primary networking tec)nology used in local2area networks (5ANs) and now in metro2area networks (@ANs), no protocol conversion is needed! 6)ere is also a +'2, itAs %t)ernet version designated &'(!Cav! 6)e actual line rate is +'!C+(D , itsAs! 6)e primary mode is +' , itsAs upstream as well as downstream! A variation uses +' , itsAs downstream and + , itAs upstream! 6)e +'2, itAs versions use di..erent optical wavelengt)s on t)e .i er, +DID to +D&' nm downstream and +(;' to +(&' nm upstream so t)e +'2, itAs system can e wavelengt) multiple/ed on t)e same .i er as a standard +2, itAs system! .',,ar6elecommunications companies use 3ONs to provide triple2play services including 69, 9o$3 p)one, and $nternet service to su scri ers! 6)e ene.it is muc) )ig)er data rates t)at are essential to video distri ution and ot)er $nternet services! 6)e low cost o. passive components means simpler systems wit) .ewer components t)at .ail or require maintenance! 6)e primary disadvantage is t)e s)orter range possi le, commonly no more t)an (' km or +( miles! 3ONs are growing in popularity as t)e demand .or .aster $nternet service and more video grows! ,3ON is t)e most popular in t)e 7!#!, suc) as 9erizon?s 1oist system! %3ON systems are more prevalent in Asia and %urope!

!ON vs+ "!ON: A !ractical 4o,parison

Onn 5aran6 !assav7 Technolo*ies

$ncreasingly competing wit) copper as t)e in.rastructure .or access networks, .i er is making rapid )eadway in t)e worldMs leading tec)nology2adopter markets! :it) passive2optical2 networking (3ON) tec)nology gaining popularity, two point2to2multipoint standards N %t)ernet passive optical networking (%3ON) and A6@2 ased road and passive optical networking ("3ON) N are ot) in active deployment! @eanw)ile, industry o servers view A6@2 ased ,iga it passive optical networking (,3ON) as t)e eventual successor to "3ON, anticipating t)at mass deployment is at least two years away! ,3ON de.ines a completely new protocol designed to support multiple services in t)eir native .ormats! O.ten seen as a OreplacementO tec)nology .or traditional road and solutions suc) as 0#5 or ca le2modem, 3ON, in its various .lavors, promises andwidt)s o. up to one giga it and eyond! A6@2 ased passive optical networking (A3ON), and su sequently "3ON, got an early start, wit) t)e $nternational 6elecommunication 7nionMs ($67) rati.ication o. t)e ,!B&C standard! $n Panuary (''C, $67 rati.ied ,3ON, ut it )as not yet reac)ed t)e deployment stage! @eanw)ile, in Pune (''E, t)e $%%% rati.ied %3ON as t)e $%%%&'(!Ca) standard! #ince t)en, it )as een rapidly adopted in Papan! %3ON is also gaining momentum wit) carriers in >)ina, 8orea, and 6aiwan! :)ile ,3ON promoters argue t)at t)e $67 standard is approac)ing maturity .aster t)an t)e $%%% %3ON standard, %3ON advocates cite t)e recent emergence o. t)e $%%% standard, deployments o. %3ON underway, and announced deployment plans y carriers as strong evidence o. %3ONMs acceptance! Additionally, %3ON partisans note t)at most data egins and ends its li.e as $3A%t)ernet tra..ic, and t)ey ask t)e question, w)y interpose still anot)er protocol encapsulationJ As you can see .rom a ove, t)e de ate over %3ON and ,3ON runs deep! $n t)is article, weMll provide a practical comparison o. t)e two tec)nologies! 5etMs start y looking at t)e key di..erences etween t)e two tec)nologies and e/amine t)e strengt)s o. eac) protocol! "!ON and !ON Differences 3er)aps t)e most dramatic distinction etween t)e two protocols is a marked di..erence in arc)itectural approac)! ,3ON provides t)ree 5ayer ( networksG A6@ .or voice, %t)ernet .or data, and proprietary encapsulation .or voice! %3ON, on t)e ot)er )and, employs a single 5ayer ( network t)at uses $3 to carry data, voice, and video! A multiprotocol transport solution supports t)e ,3ON structure (#i*'re /)! 7sing A6@ tec)nology, virtual circuits are provisioned .or di..erent types o. services sent .rom a central o..ice location primarily to usiness end users! 6)is type o. transport provides )ig)2quality service, ut involves signi.icant over)ead ecause virtual circuits need to e provisioned .or eac) type o. service! Additionally, ,3ON equipment requires multiple protocol conversions, segmentation and reassem ly (#AR), virtual c)annel (9>) termination and point2to2point protocol (333)!

Figure 1: Diagram sho ing a t!"ical #$%& net or'. %3ON provides seamless connectivity .or any type o. $32 ased or ot)er OpacketizedO OcommunicationsO (#i*'re 1)! #ince %t)ernet devices are u iquitous .rom t)e )ome network all t)e way t)roug) to regional, national and worldwide ack one networks, implementation o. %3ONs can e )ig)ly cost2e..ective! 1urt)ermore, ased on continuing advances in t)e trans.er rate o. %t)ernet2 ased transport N now up to +' ,iga it %t)ernet N %3ON service levels .or customers are scala le .rom 6+ (+!D @ itAs) up t)roug) + , itAs!

Figure 2: Diagram sho ing a t!"ical E$%& net or'. 4o,parisons and 4ontrasts >learly, t)ere are some distinct di..erences etween %3ON and ,3ON at 5ayer (! <owever, t)ese arenMt t)e only di..erences etween t)e tec)nologies! 0esigners will also .ind di..erences in terms o. andwidt), reac), e..iciency, per2su scri er costs, and management! 5etMs look at eac) o. t)ese elements in more detail! 1. Usable Bandwidth "andwidt) guarantees vary etween t)e two protocolsG ,3ON promises +!(D2, itAs or (!D2 , itAs downstream, and upstream andwidt)s scala le .rom +DD @ itAs to (!D , itAs! %3ON

delivers +2, itAs symmetrical andwidt)! %3ONMs ,iga it %t)ernet service actually constitutes + , itAs o. andwidt) .or data and (D' @ itAs o. andwidt) .or encoding! 6)e approac) o. %3ON, as part o. t)e ,iga it %t)ernet standard, parallels t)at o. 1ast %t)ernet, w)ic) also uses (D percent .or encoding! ,3ONMs +!(D2, it service speci.ies a usa le andwidt) o. +!(D , itAs, wit) no requirement .or encoding! :ill t)e additional (D' @ itAs promised y ,3ON promoters stand as a clear advantage .or ,3ONJ 6)e answer may lie not in t)e s)eer andwidt) comparisons, ut in t)e practicality o. +!(D2, it uplinks! ,iga it %t)ernet inter.aces to t)e aggregation switc), central o..ice, and metro are currently t)e cost2e..ective way to aggregate +2, it ports .or transport! :it) no cost2e..ective switc)es .or +!(D , it availa le, t)e added andwidt) promised y ,3ON, alt)oug) measura le, could come at a signi.icant premium over t)e price o. %3ON equipment! $n ot)er words, t)e low2cost uplink .or t)e .oreseea le .uture is likely to e ,iga it %t)ernet, w)ic) is t)e e/act it rate o. %3ON! $n t)at lig)t, ,3ONMs OaddedO andwidt) may not prove advantageous .or carriers! 2. Reach :it) eit)er protocol, t)e practical limitation to reac) comes .rom t)e optical2link udget! :it) t)e reac) o. ot) protocols currently speci.ied at appro/imately (' kilometers, t)e di..erence in split rates N t)e num er o. optical network units (ON7s) supported y one optical line terminal (O56) N is a point o. di..erentiation! ,3ON promises to support up to +(& ON7s! :it) t)e %3ON standard, t)ere is no limit on t)e num er o. ON7s! 0epending on t)e laser diode amplitude, w)en using low2cost optics, %3ON can typically deliver C( ON7s per O56, or ;E wit) .orward error correction (1%>)! 3. Per-subscriber costs 6)e use o. %3ON allows carriers to eliminate comple/ and e/pensive A6@ and #onet elements and to simpli.y t)eir networks, t)ere y lowering costs to su scri ers! >urrently, %3ON equipment costs are appro/imately +' percent o. t)e costs o. ,3ON equipment, and %3ON equipment is rapidly ecoming cost2competitive wit) 90#5! 4. Efficiencies of Each Standard :it) ot) 3ON protocols, a .i/ed over)ead is added to convey user data in t)e .orm o. a packet! $n %3ONs, data transmission occurs in varia le2lengt) packets o. up to +D+& ytes according to t)e $%%% &'(!C protocol .or %t)ernet! $n A6@2 ased 3ONs, including ,3ONs, data transmission occurs in .i/ed2lengt) DC2 yte cells (wit) E&2 yte payload and D2 yte over)ead) as speci.ied y t)e A6@ protocol! 6)is .ormat makes it ine..icient .or ,3ONs to carry tra..ic .ormatted according to $3, w)ic) calls .or data to e segmented into varia le2lengt) packets o. up to ;D,DCD ytes! 1or ,3ONs to carry $3 tra..ic, t)e packets must e roken into t)e requisite E&2 yte segments wit) a D2 yte )eader .or eac)! 6)is process is time2consuming and complicated and adds cost to t)e central2o..ice O56s as well as t)e customer premise2 ased ON7s! @oreover, D ytes o. andwidt) are wasted .or every E&2 yte segment, creating an onerous over)ead t)at is commonly re.erred to as t)e OA6@ cell ta/O! (6)is is t)e case wit) ,3ONMs A6@ encapsulation mode! $n its ot)er encapsulation mode, called ,%@, t)e A6@ cell ta/ does not apply!) "y contrast, using varia le2lengt) packets, %t)ernet was made .or carrying $3 tra..ic and can signi.icantly reduce t)e over)ead relative to A6@! One study s)ows t)at w)en considering trimode packet size distri ution, %t)ernet packet encapsulation over)ead was I!E( percent, w)ile A6@ packet encapsulation over)ead was +C!(( percent!+ $n addition, since %t)ernet .rames contain a vastly )ig)er ratio o. data to over)ead t)an ,3ON, t)at )ig) utilization can e reac)ed w)ile using low2cost optics! 6)e more precise timing required wit) ,3ON results in more e/pensive optics! <ig)2precision optics are mandatory as part o. t)e ,3ON standard!

5. Mana e!ent s"ste!s %3ON requires a single management system, versus t)ree management systems .or t)e t)ree 5ayer ( protocols in ,3ON, w)ic) means %3ON results in a signi.icantly lower total cost o. owners)ip! %3ON also does not require multiprotocol conversions, and t)e result is a lower cost o. silicon! ,3ON does not support multicast services, w)ic) makes support .or $3 video more andwidt)2 consuming! #. Su$$ort for %&'( )*erla" "ot) protocols support a ca le television (>A69) overlay, w)ic) meets requirements .or a )ig)2 speed downstream video service! %3ON wavelengt)s are +EB' nanometers downstream and +C+' nanometers upstream, leaving t)e +DD'2nanometer wavelengt) .or a >A69 overlay N similar to t)e wavelengt)s .or "3ON and ,3ON! +. Encr"$tion :it) ,3ON, encryption is part o. t)e $67 standard! <owever, ,3ON encryption is downstream only! %3ON, on t)e ot)er )and, uses an A%#2 ased mec)anism, w)ic) is supported y multiple silicon vendors and deployed in t)e .ield! 1urt)ermore, %3ON encryption is ot) downstream and upstream! ,. -etwor. Protection "ot) protocols provide vendor2speci.ic and carrier2speci.ic protection! 6)is includes support .or vendor2speci.ic and carrier2speci.ic operations, administration and maintenance (OA@)! Wrap 8p :)ile pundits are lining up in opposite corners o. t)e ring, itMs still unclear w)et)er %3ON or ,3ON will prevail N or i. eac) will take its own s)are in a urgeoning market! One t)ing is clearG .i er deployments will continue e/panding, and at t)e e/pense o. copper, as consumer demands .or Otriple2playO (video, voice and data) grow! A$o't the A'thor )nn /aran is the chief technolog! officer at $assa(). %nn hol*s a +.,c. (cum lau*e) from the -echnion, .srael .nstitute of -echnolog! in /aifa, an* a 0.,c. in Electrical Engineering from -el1 2(i( 3ni(ersit!. /e can 4e reache* atonn.haran5"assa(e.com.