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Q - 1. The U.S. census is not perfect: thousands of Americans probably go uncounted. Howe er!

the basic statistical portrait of the nation painted by the census is accurate. "ertainly some of the poor go uncounted! particularly the homeless# but some of the rich go uncounted as well! because they are often abroad or tra eling between one residence and another. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument abo e depends% &A' (oth the rich and the poor ha e personal and economic reasons to a oid being counted by the census. &(' All Americans may reasonably be classified as either poor or rich. &"' The percentage of poor Americans uncounted by the census is close to the percentage of rich Americans uncounted. &)' The number of homeless Americans is appro*imately e+ual to the number of rich Americans. &,' The primary purpose of the census is to analy-e the economic status of the American population. Q - .. )octor: /esearch shows that adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis are three times as li0ely to de elop carpal tunnel syndrome as are adolescents who do not play ideo games. 1ederal legislation that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors would help curb this painful wrist condition among adolescents. The doctor2s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions% A. The ma3ority of federal legislators would ote for a bill that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors. (. 4ot all adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. ".5laying ideo games is the only way an adolescent can de elop carpal tunnel syndrome. ).6ost parents would refuse to purchase ideo games for their adolescent children. ,. The regular playing of ideo games by adolescents does not produce such beneficial effects as better hand-eye coordination and impro ed reaction time. Q - 7. 8ast year all refuse collected by Shelby ille city ser ices was incinerated. This incineration generated a large +uantity of residual ash. 9n order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelby ille generates this year to half of last year2s total! the city has re amped its collection program. This year city ser ices will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truc0loads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year2s number. $hich of the following is re+uired for the re amped collection program to achie e its aim% &A' This year! no materials that city ser ices could separate for recycling will be incinerated. &(' Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelby ille less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

&"' /efuse collected by city ser ices will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year. &)' The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truc0load incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. &,' The total +uantity of refuse collected by Shelby ille city ser ices this year will be no greater than that collected last year. Q - :. 4ewspaper editorial: 9n an attempt to reduce the crime rate! the go ernor is getting tough on criminals and ma0ing prison conditions harsher. 5art of this effort has been to deny inmates the access they formerly had to college-le el courses. Howe er! this action is clearly counter to the go ernor2s ultimate goal! since after being released form prison! inmates who had ta0en such courses committed far fewer crimes o erall than other inmates. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends% A.4ot being able to ta0e college-le el courses while in prison is unli0ely to deter anyone from a crime that he or she might otherwise ha e committed. B.1ormer inmates are no more li0ely to commit crimes than are members of the general population. C.The group of inmates who chose to ta0e college-le el courses were not already less li0ely than other inmates to commit crimes after being released. D.Ta0ing high school le el courses in prison has less effect on an inmate2s subse+uent beha ior than ta0ing college-le el courses does. E.The go ernor2s ultimate goal actually is to gain popularity by con incing people that something effecti e is being done about crime. Q - ;. 5eople who do not belie e that others distrust them are confident in their own abilities! so people who tend to trust others thin0 of a difficult tas0 as a challenge rather than a threat! since this is precisely how people who are confident in their won abilities regard such tas0s. The conclusion abo e follows logically if which one of the following is assumed% &A' 5eople who belie e that others distrust them tend to trust others. &(' "onfidence in one2s own abilities gi es one confidence in the trustworthiness of others. &"' 5eople who tend to trust others do not belie e that others distrust them. &)' 5eople who are not threatened by difficult tas0s tend to find such tas0s challenging. &,' 5eople tend to distrust those who they belie e lac0 self-confidence. Q - <. Since the new publisher too0 control! a news maga-ine2s co ers ha e featured only models and mo ie stars. 5re iously! the co ers had displayed only politicians! soldiers! and business leaders. A leading gossip columnist claimed that the changes made the maga-ine rele ant again. Howe er! many newspaper editorials disagreed and suggested that the new publisher is more interested in boosting sales than in reporting important news e ents.

$hich of the following is an assumption necessary for the argument made by the gossip columnist2s opponents% The charitable acti ities of models and mo ie stars often focus public attention on pressing problems. 1inal authority for choosing the co er sub3ect of the maga-ine lies with the publisher. A maga-ine can boost sales while highlighting the co erage of important world leaders. Some of the mo ie stars featured are now running for political office. 6aga-ine issues with models or mo ie stars on the co ers are purchased at a rate more than three times greater than is the case with issues featuring politicians on the co ers. Q - =. >ne sure way you can tell how +uic0ly a new idea!for e*ample! the idea of ?pri ati-ation? !is ta0ing hold among the population is to monitor how fast the word or words e*pressing that particular idea are passing into common usage. 5rofessional opinions of whether or not words can indeed be said to ha e passed into common usage are a ailable from dictionary editors! who are itally concerned with this +uestion. The method described abo e for determining how +uic0ly a new idea is ta0ing hold relies on which one of the following assumptions% &A' )ictionary editors are not professionally interested in words that are only rarely used. &(' )ictionary editors ha e e*act numerical criteria for telling when a word has passed into common usage. &"' 1or a new idea to ta0e hold! dictionary editors ha e to include the rele ant word or words in their dictionaries. &)' As a word passes into common usages! its meaning does not undergo any se ere distortions in the process. &,' $ords denoting new ideas tend to be used before the ideas denoted are understood. Q - @. The stated goal of the go ernment2s funding program for the arts is to encourage the creation of wor0s of artistic e*cellence. Senator (eton claims! howe er! that a go ernmentfunded artwor0 can ne er reflect the independent artistic conscience of the artist because artists! li0e anyone else who accepts financial support! will ine itably try to please those who control the distribution of that support. Senator (eton concludes that go ernment funding of the arts not only is a burden on ta*payers but also cannot lead to the creation of wor0s of true artistic e*cellence.

$hich one of the following is an assumption on which Senator (eton2s argument is based% &A' 6ost ta*payers ha e little or no interest in the creation of wor0s of true artistic e*cellence. &(' Ao ernment funding of the arts is more generous than other financial support most artists recei e. &"' )istribution of go ernment funds for the arts is based on a broad agreement as to what constitutes artistic e*cellence. &)' >nce an artist has produced wor0s of true artistic e*cellence! he or she will ne er accept go ernment funding. &,' A contemporary wor0 of art that does not reflect the independent artistic conscience of the artist cannot be a wor0 of true artistic e*cellence. Q - B. )octor: /esearch shows that adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis are three times as li0ely to de elop carpal tunnel syndrome as are adolescents who do not play ideo games. 1ederal legislation that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors would help curb this painful wrist condition among adolescents. The doctor2s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions% 1CThe ma3ority of federal legislators would ote for a bill that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors. .C4ot all adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. 7C5laying ideo games is the only way an adolescent can de elop carpal tunnel syndrome. :C6ost parents would refuse to purchase ideo games for their adolescent children. ;CThe regular playing of ideo games by adolescents does not produce such beneficial effects as better hand-eye coordination and impro ed reaction time. Q - 1D. The popular notion that a tree2s age can be determined by counting the number of internal rings in its trun0 is generally true. Howe er! to help regulate the internal temperature of the tree! the outermost layers of wood of the (ra-ilian ash often peel away when the temperature e*ceeds B; degrees 1ahrenheit! lea ing the tree with fewer rings than it would otherwise ha e. So only if the temperature in the (ra-ilian ash2s en ironment ne er e*ceeds B; degrees 1ahrenheit will its rings be a reliable measure of the tree2s age. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument abo e depends% A. The growth of new rings in a tree is not a function of le els of precipitation. (. >nly the (ra-ilian ash loses rings because of e*cessi e heat. ". >nly one day of temperatures abo e B; degrees 1ahrenheit is needed to cause the (ra-ilian ash to lose a ring. ). The internal rings of all trees are of uniform thic0ness.

,. The number of rings that will be lost when the temperature e*ceeds B; degrees 1ahrenheit is not predictable. Q - 11. ,*posure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools as cleaners or pesticides causes allergic reactions in some children. ,lementary school nurses in /enston report that the proportion of schoolchildren sent to them for treatment of allergic reactions to those chemicals has increased significantly o er the past ten years. Therefore! either /enston2s schoolchildren ha e been e*posed to greater +uantities of the chemicals! or they are more sensiti e to them than schoolchildren were ten years ago. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends% A. The number of school nurses employed by /enston2s elementary schools has not decreased o er the past ten years. (. "hildren who are allergic to the chemicals are no more li0ely than other children to ha e allergies to other substances. ". "hildren who ha e allergic reactions to the chemicals are not more li0ely to be sent to a school nurse now than they were ten years ago. ). The chemicals are not commonly used as cleaners or pesticides in houses and apartment buildings in /enston. ,. "hildren attending elementary school do not ma0e up a larger proportion of /enston2s population now than they did ten years ago. Q - 1.. 6ar0et resaerchers recently reported that ninety percent of the people inter iewed ob3ected to a particular detergentEs ad ertisement because of their portrayal of women. Fet this detergent is purchased by twenty percent of consumers. So its ad ertisements must be considered to be unob3ectionable to at least twenty percent of consumers. The conclusion of the argument abo e depends on which of the following assumption% a' 5eople who ob3ect to a produntEs ad ertisements may still buy that product. b' The people who buy this detergent are familiar with its ad ertsement. c' 6ost of the people who do not buy this detergent consider tis ad ertisements to be ob3ectionable. d' 6ost people wash thier onw colthes! so they ha e to buy some brand of detergent. e' 6ost of the people in the mar0et research study were women.

Q - 17. 4o chordates are tracheophytes! and all members of 5teropsida are tracheophytes. So no members of 5teropsida belong to the family Hominidae. The conclusion abo e follows logically if which one of the following is assumed% &a' All members of the family Hominidae are tracheophytes &b' All members of the family Hominidae are chordates &c' All tracheophytes are members of 5teropsida &d' 4o members of the family Hominidae are chordates &e' 4o chordates are members of 5teropsida Q - 1:. )ebater: The a erage amount of o ertime per month wor0ed by an employee in the manufacturing di ision of the Haglut "orporation is 1: hours. 6ost employees of the Haglut "orporation wor0 in the manufacturing di ision. 1urthermore! the a erage amount of o ertime per month wor0ed by any employee in the company generally does not fluctuate much from month to month. Therefore! each month! most employees of the Haglut "orporation almost certainly wor0 at least some o ertime. The debaterEs argument is most ulnerable to criticism on which of these grounds% &A' 9t ta0es for granted that the manufacturing di ision is a typical di ision of the corporation with regard to the a erage amount of o ertime its employees wor0 each month. &(' 9t ta0es for granted that if a certain a erage of amount of o ertime is wor0ed each month by each employee of the Haglut "orporation! then appro*imately the same amount of o ertime must be wor0ed each month by each employee of the manufacturing di ision. &"' 9t confuses a claim from which the argumentEs conclusion about the Haglut "orporation would necessarily follow with a claim that would follow from the argumentEs conclusion only with a high degree of probability. &)' 9t o erloo0s the possibility that e en if! on a erage! a certain amount of o ertime is wor0ed by the members of some group! many members of that group may wor0 no o ertime at all. &,' 9t o erloo0s the possibility that e en if most employees of the corporation wor0 some o ertime each month! anyone corporate employee may! in some months! wor0 no o ertime. Q - 1;. The go ernment should stop permitting tobacco companies to subtract ad ertising e*penses from their re enues in calculating ta*able income. Tobacco companies would then ha e to pay more ta*es. As a conse+uence! they would raise the prices of their products and this price increase would raise the prices of their products and this price increase would discourage tobacco use. $hich of the following is an additional premise re+uired by the argument abo e% &A' Tobacco companies would not offset the payment of e*tra ta*es by reducing costs in

other areas. &(' Tobacco companies would not continue to ad ertise if they were forced to pay higher ta*es. &"' 5eople would not continue to buy tobacco products if these products were no longer ad ertised. &)' The money the go ernment would gain as a result of the increase in tobacco companies2 ta*able income would be used to educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use. &,' The increase in ta*es paid by tobacco companies would be e+ual to the additional income generated by raising prices. Q - 1<. Harry Tre alga: Fou and your publication ha e unfairly discriminated against my poems. 9 ha e submitted thirty poems in the last two years and you ha e not published any of themG 9t is all because 9 won the 1enner 5oetry Award two years ago and your poetry editor thought she deser ed it. 5ublisher: /idiculousG >ur editorial policy and practice is perfectly fair! since our poetry editor 3udges all submissions for publication without e er seeing the names of the poets! and hence cannot possibly ha e 0nown who wrote your poems. The publisher ma0es which one of the following assumptions in replying to Tre algaHIJs charges of unfair discrimination% &A' The poetry editor does not bear a grudge against Harry Tre alga for his winning the 1enner 5oetry Award. &(' 9t is not unusual for poets to contribute many poems to the publisherHIJs publication without e er ha ing any accepted for publication. &"' The poetry editor cannot recogni-e the poems submitted by Harry Tre alga as his unless Tre algaHIJs name is attached to them. &)' The poetry editorHIJs decisions on which poems to publish are not based strictly on 3udgments of intrinsic merit. &,' Harry Tre alga submitted his poems to the publisherHIJs publication under his pen name. Q - 1=. The drought in the central part of the country is estimated to reduce this yearEs national corn har est by more than one-third from its normal le els. Such a shortfall would subse+uently increase meat and other food prices by about 1=K in one year and .DK in two years. So! either we spend a small amount now to irrigate the largest affected corn fields and a ert se ere inflation later! or else fail to irrigate now and insure inflation later. The argument is alid only if other American agricultural areas are also not e*pected to meet their anticipated corn yields this year irrigation is the only way that the national corn yield can be significantly increased the heat wa e and drought will persist through the ne*t two years irrigation will insure that corn har ests reach normal le els it is politically feasible for go ernment authorities to spend money irrigating fields at the present time

9 need help to decide bw ( and ) Q - 1@. Although it is sometimes claimed that consuming caffeine at high le els does not cause insomnia! statistical e idence shows that it does. Study after study has found that people with high le els of caffeine consumption from be erages such as coffee! tea! and soft drin0s are far more li0ely to suffer from insomnia than people who consume little or no caffeine.

$hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends%

A. "onsumption of caffeine from sources other than coffee! tea! and soft drin0s is unli0ely to cause insomnia. (. "affeine consumption is the only commonly occurring cause of insomnia. ". 5eople suffering from insomnia do not typically respond to their lac0 of sleep by consuming much more caffeine than they would if they did not suffer from insomnia. ). The only e idence a ailable to show whether caffeine causes insomnia is statistical e idence showing correlations between caffeine consumption and insomnia. ,. Anyone who regularly consumes caffeine in more than moderate +uantities will suffer from insomnia. Q - 1B. 6ost people who betray their country through some form of espionage are dri en by irrational desires to feel powerful or important! to see0 re enge! or e en to ta0e ris0s. 9f these people were thin0ing rationally! they would not be in ol ed in such self-destructi e beha ior. The argument abo e rests on which of the following assumptions% A. Self-destruction is the most fre+uent result of espionage. (. The desire to feel powerful is always irrational. ". Those in ol ed in espionage do not ha e rational reasons for their beha ior. ). ,spionage is rarely a successful way to gain re enge. ,. /is0-ta0ing is a less fre+uent moti ation for espionage than the desire to feel important.

Q - .D. 5rofessor "han: The literature department2s undergraduate courses should co er only true literary wor0s! and not such fri olous material as ad ertisements. 5rofessor $igmore: Ad ertisements might or might not be true literary wor0s but they do ha e a powerfully detrimental effect on societyLlargely because people cannot discern their real messages. The literature department2s courses gi e students the critical s0ills to analy-e and understand te*ts. Therefore! it is the literature department2s responsibility to include the study of ad ertisements in its undergraduate courses. $hich one of the following is an assumption on which 5rofessor $igmore2s argument depends% &A' Te*ts that are true literary wor0s ne er ha e a detrimental effect on society. &(' "ourses offered by the literature department cannot include both true literary wor0s and material such as ad ertisement. &"' Students who ta0e courses in the literature department do not get from those courses other s0ills besides those needed to analy-e and understand te*ts. &)' 1orms of ad ertising that con ey their message entirely through isual images do not ha e a detrimental effect on society. &,' The literature department2s responsibility is not limited to teaching students how to analy-e true literary wor0s. Q - .1. The Action-5ac0ed Aaming "ompany! based on the success of the pre ious season2s ideo game featuring the character Sam 8i! of the popular 1ist of Awe series of martial arts mo ies! de eloped for the current season a similar martial arts game featuring a new character who is also a martial arts master. The new game had impro ed 7-) graphics! enhanced multiplayer capability! and do-ens of new martial arts mo es de eloped by reallife masters. Howe er! mar0eting sur eys showed that teenagers were uninterested in this new game! and the game sold ery poorly. The passage implies that an e*planation for the failure of the new game is based on doubt regarding which of the following assumptions% A' Teenagers ma0e purchasing decisions based on the technological merits of ideo games! not the name recognition of the games2 main characters. (' (uyers of ideo games prefer to purchase games based on popular mo ies. "' The 1ist of Awe series of mo ies was e*tremely popular with teenagers who regularly purchase ideo games. )' Technological impro ement from one ideo game to the ne*t does not guarantee a corresponding increase in sales. ,' The successful ideo game may ha e benefited from ad ertising associated with the 1ist of Awe mo ies! a benefit the failed ideo game did not ha e.

Q - ... $hen cable TM consumers e ade cable access fees by purchasing illegal ?pirated? cable bo*es! a icious cycle results. The use of pirated cable bo*es by consumers forces cable companies to raise rates! which! in turn! leads more consumers to purchase pirated cable bo*es in order to recei e free cable programming. The cycle described abo e could not result unless which of the following were true% An increase in cable TM rates causes some consumers to cancel their ser ice or reduce the number of premium channels to which they subscribe. Some methods for detecting and disabling pirated cable bo*es are effecti e at forcing pirated cable TM consumers to pay user fees or forgo cable TM programming! although the success rates ary considerably. $hen cable TM e*ecuti es establish cable access fees in order to generate an acceptable le el of profit! they do not ade+uately account for re enue that will be lost through pirated cable use. 4o one who routinely uses illegal pirated cable bo*es can be induced by lower cable access fees to stop using pirated cable bo*es unless fines for the use of such bo*es are raised at the same time. "able TM consumers do not differ with respect to the cable access fees that would cause them to consider purchasing illegal pirated cable bo*es. Q - .7. Scientists ha e disco ered a new species of butterfly that li es only in a small region of "entral America and is acti e only at night. )uring the day! it rests in treetops! where its green color matches the foliage perfectly. Therefore! the scientists must ha e disco ered the butterfly at night. The argument depends on which of the following assumptions? N The newly disco ered butterfly is not related to any other species of butterfly. N There is no way for the scientists to detect the butterfly during the day. N 4o other butterfly species li es in this region of "entral America. N The foliage in the butterfly2s habitat is completely green. N The butterfly cannot sur i e in areas outside of "entral America. Q - .:. Mernland has long been signifi cantly lower than that in neighboring (orodia. Since (orodia dropped all tariffs on Mernlandian tele isions three years ago! the number of tele isions sold annually in (orodia has not changed. Howe er! recent statistics show a drop in the number of tele ision assemblers in (orodia. Therefore! updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of tele isions (orodia imports annually from Mernland has increased. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the

argument depends% &A' The number of tele ision assemblers in Mernland has increased by at least as much as the number of tele ision assemblers in (orodia has decreased. &(' Tele isions assembled in Mernland ha e features that tele isions assembled in (orodia do not ha e. &"' The a erage number of hours it ta0es a (orodian tele ision assembler to assemble a tele ision has not decreased significantly during the past three years. &)' The number of tele isions assembled annually in Mernland has increased significantly during the past three years. &,' The difference between the hourly wage of tele ision assemblers in Mernland and the hourly wage of tele ision assemblers in (orodia is li0ely to decrease in the ne*t few years. Q - .;. ,ditorialist: )espite the importance it seems to ha e in our li es! money does not really e*ist. This is e ident from the fact that all that would be needed to ma0e money disappear would be a uni ersal loss of belief in it. $e witness this phenomenon on a small scale daily in the rises and falls of financial mar0ets! whose fluctuations are often entirely independent of concrete causes and are the result of mere beliefs of in estors. The conclusion of the editorialistEs argument can be properly drawn if which one of the following is assumed% A' Anything that e*ists would continue to e*ist e en if e eryone were to stop belie ing in it. (' >nly if one can ha e mista0en beliefs about a thing does that thing e*ist! strictly spea0ing. "' 9n order to e*ist! an entity must ha e practical conse+uences for those who belie e in it. )' 9f e eryone belie es in something! then that thing e*ists. ,' $hate er is true of money is true of financial mar0ets generally. Q - .<. 9n 4orth America there has been an e*plosion of public interest in! and en3oyment of!opera o er the last three decades. The e idence of this e*plosion is that of the =D or so professional opera companies currently acti e in 4orth America!:; were founded o er the course of the last 7D years.

The reasoning abo e assumes which one of the following% a' All of the =D professional opera companies are commercially iable options. b' There were fewer than :; professional opera companies that had been acti e 7D years ago and that ceased operations during the last 7D years. c' There has not been a corresponding increase in the number of professional companies de oted to other performing arts. d' The si-e of the a erage audience at performances by professional opera companies has increased o er the past three decades. e' The :; most recently founded companies were all established as a result of enthusiasm on the part of a potential audience. Q - .=. A newly disco ered painting on wooden panel by 6ichelangelo must ha e been completed after 1;D= but before 1;DB. 9t cannot ha e been painted earlier than 1;D= because one of its central figures carries a coin that was not minted until that year. 9t cannot ha e been painted after 1;DB because it contains a pigment that 6ichelangelo is 0nown to ha e abandoned when a cheaper alternati e became a ailable in that year. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends% A 4o stoc0s of the abandoned pigment e*isted after 1;DB. ( 6ichelangelo did not wor0 on the painting o er the course of se eral years. " The coin depicted in the painting was 0nown to general public in 1;D=. ) The wooden panel on which the painting was e*ecuted cannot be tested accurately for age. , 6ichelangeloEs painting style did not change between 1;D= and 1;DB. Q - .@. 6useum isitor: EThis painting is definitely a 6onet. The brush stro0es! shading! and sub3ect matter are all characteristic of 6onet.E The isitor presupposes which of the following: A' 6onet was a great artist. (' 5ainting is the only type of art that allows a determination of the artist from certain characteristics. "' 4othing besides brush stro0es! shading! and sub3ect matter allows one to identify 6onet as the artist of a painting. )' 9t ta0es little s0ill to identify a 6onet painting.

,' 4o other artist used the brush stro0es! shading! and sub3ect matter obser ed in the painting. Q - .B. "ountry (Es oil production is not sufficient to meet its domestic demand .9n order to sharply reduce its dependence on foreign sources of oil! "ountry ( recently embar0ed on a program re+uiring all of its automobiles to run on ethanol in addition to gasoline. "ombined with its oil production! "ountry ( produces enough ethanol from agricultural by-products to meet its current demand for energy. $hich of the following must be assumed in order to conclude that "ountry ( will succeed in its plan to reduce its dependence on foreign oil% &A' ,lectric power is not a superior alternati e to ethanol in supplementing automobile gasoline consumption. &(' 9n "ountry (! domestic production of ethanol is increasing more +uic0ly than domestic oil production. &"' ,thanol is suitable for the heating of homes and other applications aside from automobiles. &)' 9n "ountry (! gasoline consumption is not increasing at a substantially higher rate than domestic oil and ethanol production. &,' ,thanol is as efficient as gasoline in terms of mileage per gallon when used as fuel for automobiles. Q - 7D. 9f only the people using a carpool and only small cars with single passengers were allowed to use the roads that remain o er crowded throughout the day! it would greatly reduce the congestion on these roads. This will also reduce the accident rates. $hich of the following has been assumed by the abo e passage% N Using small cars would be more con enient for people. N As yet! not many people use a carpool. N A reduction in traffic would lead to people dri ing at a higher speed. N All the roads remain o ercrowded. N The roads are not built to cope with high traffic. Q - 71. Since the new publisher too0 control! a news maga-ine2s co ers ha e featured only models and mo ie stars. 5re iously! the co ers had displayed only politicians! soldiers! and business leaders. A leading gossip columnist claimed that the changes made the maga-ine rele ant again. Howe er! many newspaper editorials disagreed and suggested that the new publisher is more interested in boosting sales than in reporting important news e ents. Which of the following is an assumption necessary for the argument made by the gossip columnists opponents?OiC

N The charitable acti ities of models and mo ie stars often focus public attention on pressing problems. N 1inal authority for choosing the co er sub3ect of the maga-ine lies with the publisher. N A maga-ine can boost sales while highlighting the co erage of important world leaders. N Some of the mo ie stars featured are now running for political office. N 6aga-ine issues with models or mo ie stars on the co ers are purchased at a rate more than three times greater than is the case with issues featuring politicians on the co ers. Q - 7.. Twenty years ago! (al-ania put in place regulations re+uiring operators of surface mines to pay for the reclamation of mined-out land. Since then! reclamation technology has not impro ed. Fet! the a erage reclamation cost for a surface coal mine being reclaimed today is only four dollars per ton of coal that the mine produced! less than half what it cost to reclaim surface mines in the years immediately after the regulations too0 effect. $hich of the following! if true! most helps to account for the drop in reclamation costs described% A. , en after (al-ania began re+uiring surface mine operators to pay reclamation costs! coal mines in (al-ania continued to be less e*pensi e to operate than coal mines in almost any other country. (. 9n the twenty years since the regulations too0 effect! the use of coal as a fuel has declined from the le el it was at in the pre ious twenty years. ". 6ine operators ha e generally ceased surface mining in the mountainous areas of (al-ania because reclamation costs per ton of coal produced are particularly high for mines in such areas. ). , en after (al-ania began re+uiring surface mine operators to pay reclamation costs! surface mines continued to produce coal at a lower total cost than underground mines. ,. As compared to twenty years ago! a greater percentage of the coal mined in (al-ania today comes from surface mines. Q - 77. 9n the years since the city of 8ondon imposed strict air-pollution regulations on local industry! the number of bird species seen in and around 8ondon has increased dramatically. Similar air-pollution rules should be imposed in other ma3or cities. ,ach of the following is an assumption made in the argument abo e ,P",5T: &A' 9n most ma3or cities! air-pollution problems are caused almost entirely by local industry. &(' Air-pollution regulations on industry ha e a significant impact on the +uality of the air. &"' The air-pollution problems of other ma3or cities are basically similar to those once suffered by 8ondon. &)' An increase in the number of bird species in and around a city is desirable.QQQQQQQQ &,' The increased sightings of bird species in and around 8ondon reflect an actual increase in the number of species in the area. Q - 7:. There is a great deal of geographical ariation in the fre+uency of many surgical proceduresLup to tenfold ariation per hundred thousand between different areas in the

numbers of hysterectomies! prostatectomies! and tonsillectomies. To support a conclusion that much of the ariation is due to unnecessary surgical procedures! it would be most important to establish which of the following% &A' A local board of re iew at each hospital e*amines the records of e ery operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary. &(' The ariation is unrelated to factors &other than the surgical procedures themsel es' that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered. &"' There are se eral categories of surgical procedure &other than hysterectomies! prostatectomies! and tonsillectomies' that are often performed unnecessarily. &)' 1or certain surgical procedures! it is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternati e treatment would ha e succeeded. &,' $ith respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily! hysterectomies! prostatectomies! and tonsillectomies are representati e of surgical procedures in general. Q - 7;. The a erage hourly wage of tele ision assemblers in Mernland has long been significantly lower than that in neighboring (orodia. Since (orodia dropped all tariffs on Mernlandian tele isions three years ago! the number of tele isions sold annually in (orodia has not changed. Howe er! recent statistics show a droip in the number of tele ision assemblers in (orodia. Therefore! updated trade statistics will probably indicate that the number of tele isions (orodia imports annually from Mernland has increased. $hich of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends% A. The number of tele ision assemblers in Mernland has increased by at least as much as the number of tele ision assemblers in (orodia has decreased. (. Tele isions assembled in Mernland ha e features that tele isions assembled in (orodia do not ha e. ". The a erage number of hours it ta0es a (orodian tele ision assembler to assemble a tele ision has not decreased significantly during the past three years. ). The number of tele isions assembled annually in Mernland has increased significantly during the past three years. ,. The difference between the hourly wage of tele ision assemblers in Mernland and the hourly wage of tele ision assemblers in (orodia is li0ely to decrease in the ne*t few years. "an anybody tell me how to negate option A and e*plain each option in detail Q - 7<. There is a great deal of geographical ariation in the fre+uency of many surgical procedures-up to tenfold ariation per hundred thousand people among different areas in the numbers of hysterectomiesprostatectomiesand tonsillectomies. To support a conclusion that much of the ariation is due to unnecessary surgical

proceduresit would be most important to establish which of the following% &A' A local board of re iew at each hospital e*amines the records of e ery operation to determine whether the surgical procedure was necessary &(' The ariation is unrelated to factors &other than the surgical procedures themsel es'that influence the incidence of diseases for which surgery might be considered &"' There are se eral categories of surgical procedure&other than hysterectomiesprostatectomiesand tonsillectomies'that are often performed unnecessarily &)' 1or certain surgical proceduresit is difficult to determine after the operation whether the procedures were necessary or whether alternati e treatment would ha e succeeded &,' $ith respect to how often they are performed unnecessarily! hysterectomies! prostatectomies! and tosillectomies are representati e of surgical procedures in general. Q - 7=. )octor: /esearch shows that adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis are three times as li0ely to de elop carpal tunnel syndrome as are adolescents who do not play ideo games. 1ederal legislation that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors would help curb this painful wrist condition among adolescents. The doctor2s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions% a'The ma3ority of federal legislators would ote for a bill that prohibits the sale of ideo games to minors. b'4ot all adolescents who play ideo games on a regular basis suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. c'5laying ideo games is the only way an adolescent can de elop carpal tunnel syndrome. d' 6ost parents would refuse to purchase ideo games for their adolescent children. ,'The regular playing of ideo games by adolescents does not produce such beneficial effects as better hand-eye coordination and impro ed reaction time.