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ROMNIA MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI, CERCETRII TINERETULUI I SPORTULUI UNIVERSITATEA DE TIINE AGRICOLE I MEDICIN VETERINAR CLUJ-NAPOCA DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU EDUCAIE

CONTINU, NVMNT LA DISTAN I FRECVEN REDUS Str. Mntur Nr.3-5, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romnia tel.+ 40-264-596.384; fax + 40-264-593.792

FACULTATEA DE HORTICULTUR SPECIALIZAREA: HORTICULTUR ANUL I

CURS

LIMBA ENGLEZ
PROF. DR. RODICA STAN

ACADEMICPRES CLUJ-NAPOCA 2010

FRUIT-GROWING AND VEGETABLE-GROWING


Test your grammar

Mr. David: Are vegetables and fruit I. What is the difference between these grown in the U.K.? sentences: Mr. Thompson: Only for our own 1. My brother, who is a farmer, lives in use. Quite a lot of vegetables England. especially early vegetables - are My brother who is a farmer lives in produced by market gardens, which England. 2. Farm managers, who do not work have facilities for intensive hard, are not successful. production. Most of the home-grown Farm managers who do not work hard tomatoes, lettuce and cucumbers are are not successful. produced by market gardeners, not to 3. I have a tractor, which is very mention almost all the cut flowers. unusual. I have a tractor that is very unusual. Mr. David: What about fruit? 4. He doesnt know where to repair his Mr. Thompson: The chief fruittools. growing areas are in the southwest He doesnt know where he repaired Midlands and southeast England. his tools. Many different kinds of fruit are II. Insert the right negative words in the grown: apples, pears, plums, cherries, sentences below. Choose from: no one, strawberries,raspberries, gooseberries none, neither, nor, not, never, no longer, and blackcurrants are the main ones. no, nobody, no more. The orchards of Somerset and Devon 1. The farmers got.... time to waste. provide apples and pears for making 2. There was ...... left on the farm to talk to. cider and perry; Kent, one of the most 3. When we arrived at the stables, they important fruit-growing areas, also were... there. produces most of the hop that goes 4. Im not interested in fertilizers. .... is my into our beer. I expect youve seen brother. pictures of the hop pickers. 5. The twins studied agriculture, yet..... works on a farm. Mr. David: Yes, I have. Im very 6. There are three night trains for Glasgow grateful to you for answering so many , but ........of them stops in Lensie. of my questions, Mr. Thompson. I 7. We could visit some orchards next hope Im not taking up too much of week, but ....... on Monday. your valuable time. I know how busy farmers are. Mr. Thompson: Not at all. Its a great pleasure to meet you, and please dont worry about taking up my time. The hay harvest is finished and the corn wont be ripe for another fortnight, so we are not too overworked at the moment. Mr. David: In that case perhaps I could ask you a few more questions. Mr. Thompson: By all means. Mr. David: Do you grow potatoes for sale, for fodder or for seed? 3

Mr. Thompson: All three. After sorting, the high-quality potatoes are sold for eating or for seed, and the rest are used as fodder for pigs. Mr. David: Are you able to harvest the potatoes alone or do you have to get outside help? Mr. Thompson: Oh, we cannot manage entirely by ourselves. We employ casual labour, mainly women and children, to pick potatoes. Mr. David: When the potatoes and root crops are out of the ground, ploughing, harrowing and sowing begin again. A farmers work is never done. Mr. Thompson: Youre quite right. Im afraid we shant get much of a rest before Christmas. Mr. David: Well, Mr. Thompson, thank you for showing me round and answering all my questions. I really am very obliged to you. Mr. Thompson: Please dont mention it. Come along inside, my wife has got a real farm-house tea waiting for us. Table talk 1. Talk about the chief British/Romanian fruit-growing areas. 2. Find and display information about the orchards of Somerset and Devon. 3. Enlarge upon the importance of vegetable growing in Britain/Romania. Language work I. Complete this list of root vegetables: potato carrot II. Make a list of legumes: pea III. Complete the table below: Berries FRUITS Citrus fruits Melons Tropical fruits

IV. Fill in the blanks, with words from the text: 1. ......... is used for fattening beef cattle and brewing beer. 2. The ....... of Devon and Cornwall supply apples and pears for making ......... and perry. 3. Farm workers often have to work twelve hours a day at ......... time. 4. Women and children are often employed to ....... potatoes. 5. The use of artificial fertilizers, weed-killers and pesticides has led to a much higher ....... per acre. 4

6. In autumn the farmer ........ the fields, and ...... them to break up the soil and level it. Seeds are then .......... by means of a seed-drill. 7. A machine that picks potatoes mechanically is called a ......... . 8. Farm animals are known collectively as ......... . 9. When crops are out of the ground, ....... , .......... and sowing being again. 10. A farmers work is never ............ . V. Ask questions so as to elicit the following answers: 1. They are sold for eating or used as fodder for pigs. 2. Potatoes, sugar beet, cereals and grass. 3. Apples and pears for making cider and perry. 4. Hop is used for making beer. 5. For all three. 6. Casual labour - mainly women and children. 7. Tomatoes, lettuce, and cucumbers. 8. Apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, and blackcurrants. 9. Ploughing, harrowing, and sowing begin again. 10. A real farm-house tea. VI. Ask questions to the underlined words in the sentences below: 1. They grow vegetables for their own use. 2. I am very grateful to you for answering so many questions. 3. After sorting, potatoes are sold for eating. 4. They have to get outside help to harvest the potatoes. 5. The farmers cannot manage entirely by themselves. 6. Their farm-house is beautiful. 7. The beautiful farm-house on the left of the road is ours. 8. We shant get much of a rest before Christmas. 9. They have been working for a fortnight. 10. I have seen pictures of the hop pickers. VI. Enlarge upon: 1. Dairy farming, arable farming, stock farming, market gardening in Britain. 2. Livestock production an essential branch in agricultural production. 3. Fruit-growing in Britain. 4. The importance of agriculture for British/Romanian economy. Idioms a. full of beans - feel energetic, in high spirits e.g. She is full of beans tonight and doesn`t want to stop talking. b. spill the beans - tell a secret to someone who is not supposed to know about it e.g. Please don`t spill the beans about my plans to quit working and go back to school next year. c. carrot and stick - promising to reward or punish someone at the same time e.g. The government took a carrot and stick approach to the people who were illegally protesting against the construction of the dam. 5

d. cool as a cucumber - calm, not nervous or anxious e.g. He is always as cool as a cucumber and never worries about anything. e. hot potato - a question or argument that is controversial and difficult to settle e.g. The issue of building the nuclear power plant is a real hot potato for the local town council. f. apple of one`s eye - someone or something that one likes a lot e.g. The little girl is the apple of her grandfather`s eye. g. apple-pie order - tidy, well organized. e.g. The room is in apple pie order for our guests. h. polish the apple - flatter someone e.g. Nobody likes her because she is always trying to polish the apple with her teacher. i. rotten apple - the one bad person among a number of good ones. e.g. His youngest son was the rotten apple. j. a banana skin - a pitful for the unwary which makes the victim look ridiculous. e.g. The government has slipped on too many banana skins for its own good. k. hard nut to crack - something or someone difficult to understand or do e.g. He is a very serious person and is a very hard nut to crack. h. l. in a nutshell - briefly, in a few words e.g. We went to the meeting and they told us in a nutshell what would be happening to everyone next year. m. nutty as a fruitcake - crazy e.g. He is a very nice man but he acts strange sometimes and I often think that he is as nutty as a fruitcake. Proverbs 1. Better an apple given than eaten. 2. The rotten apple injures its neighbours. 3. When the tree is fallen, everyone runs to it with his axe. 4. A tree with deep roots never fears a storm. 5. The highest tree hath the greatest fall. 6. The tree does not fall at the first blow. 7. Like tree, like fruit. 8. Much bruit, little fruit. 9. He that would eat the fruit, must climb the tree. Website addresses www.soilassociation.org - The Soil Association is the UK's leading campaigning and certification body for organic food and farming. www.farmshopping.com - The Farm Retail Association represents farmer,growers and farm-based food producers selling direct to the public. 6

II. LESSONS OF SPECIALITY

FRUIT TREES
APPLE Description
The apple tree is a small deciduous tree with a dense crown and gray bark. The twigs are downy at first; toothed, elliptical pointed leaves grow with pinkflushed, white flowers on short side twigs. Flowers open with the leaves. Fruits are rounded green apples which ripen in the fall.

Where Found
Cultivated throughout Europe and North America and naturalized in Eastern United States, on the prairies, in Southern Canada and the Pacific states.

Medicinal Properties
Astringent, laxative, diuretic

Biochemical content
Carbohydrates, sodium, potassium, and iron salts magnesium,

Legends, Myths and Stories


Apples are rightly called the King of Fruits. In the 2nd century, Galen, the famous court physician to the emperors and the gladiators, prescribed apple wine as a cure-all for nearly every ailment. Eating an apple a day and getting proper exercise will change your life from ill health to healthy. Apples are thought to originate in Southwest Asia, in the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. The diggings of Stone Age lake dwellers in Central Europe show apple usage long before recorded history. The origin of the Trojan War was attributed to "the apple of discord", a golden apple down in front of an assembly of gods by the goddess of hate, Eris. Inscribed on the apple were the words For the Fairest. Hera, wife of Zeus, queen of the gods, Athene, goddess of wisdom, and Aphrodite, goddess of love, all wanted the apple. Paris, son of the King of Troy, was to decide which goddess got the apple. Hera offered him power and riches, Athene offered wisdom and fame, Aphrodite promised to give him the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris, with Aphrodite's help, abducted Helen, the wife of a Greek king. His refusal to return her started the Trojan War. Grimm's Fairy Tales have at least four stories (taken from old folk tales) involving apples, including Snow White. The lives of William Tell and Johnny Appleseed can also be considered in the folk tradition although they involved real people. In Gerard's time, an ointment made of pulp of apples, swine's grease and rosewater was sold in shops to beautify face and take away roughness of skin. The juice of sour apples was rubbed on to remove dead cells.

Uses
Apples regulate the digestive system, preventing constipation and stopping diarrhea, also neutralizing the effects of rich fatty foods. They help purify the blood, clear gout and rheumatism, and prevent gallstones. They also help to keep the teeth clean. Tea made from apple tree bark is an old fashioned remedy. It is said to be a tonic, relieves biliousness and intermittent fever, helps digestion (too much 9

stomach acid, eat sweet apples; not enough stomach acid, eat sour apples), dysentery, insect stings, rabid dog bites, and toothache. Peeled and grated apple relieves flatulence and diarrhea. A fasting diet of one or two days of unripe apples should do the job. As a laxative, eat two or more apples. Apple peels can be dried and made into a tea, recommended for rheumatism; it regulates blood sugar in diabetes. Apple wine is an ancient cureall mentioned by Galen in the 2nd century AD. Wine at least two years old should be used. Apple juice will turn to apple cider and if aged will become hard apple cider with alcoholic content. Studies show that apples can reduce blood cholesterol levels. According to one reference, the ordinary apple cider is not fit to be used. Table talk I. Discuss the following topics: 1. Attempts are being made to develop those areas of the world where production is low in order to improve the living standards there. 2. Careful planting of trees can help to change the general climate of the land. 3. Trees can prevent loss of moisture since they reduce the speed of the wind. 4. Erosion caused by wind can be reduced by planting trees. 5. The timber from trees is valuable but the by-products are not. Idioms a. apple of one`s eye - someone or something that one likes a lot e.g. The little girl is the apple of her grandfather`s eye. b. apple-pie order - tidy, well organized. e.g. The room is in apple pie order for our guests. c. polish the apple - flatter someone e.g. Nobody likes her because she is always trying to polish the apple with her teacher. d. rotten apple - the one bad person among a number of good ones. e.g. His youngest son was the rotten apple. e. upset the applecart- ruin a plan or event by surprise or accident e.g. Everything was going well at the company until he came along and upset the apple cart. Proverbs 1. 2. 3. 4. Better an apple given than eaten. The rotten apple injures its neighbours. Like tree, like fruit. He that would eat the fruit, must climb the tree.

Website addresses www.bensonsapplejuice.co.uk - use different varieties of apples and add other fruit to make healthy and delicious drinks for your friends and family to enjoy anytime. www.ifrn.bbsrc.ac.uk/public/FoodInfoSheets/applefacts.html - Apple Facts 1 0

www.parkfruitfarm.co.uk/

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PRUNUS
Description: Prunus is the botanical name for a large group of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs.

These popular plants are greatly valued for their delicious, edible fruits, gorgeous spring blossoms and some, for their colorful foliage; some varieties are grown for decoration alone, since all do not produce edible fruits. Numerous varieties have been developed from the wild forms; some were bred for maximum fruit production and better quality fruit while others were bred for larger and more abundant blossoms; some varieties can survive in different climates than others can. They are among the most beautiful trees and shrubs. Included in this group are the almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach and plum trees. Most of the species need to be grown in Temperate regions though some, such as the evergreen kinds, need to be grown in mild climates. Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) - The apricot is native to Asia. These trees are grown for their beautiful, fragrant blossoms and their delicious, velvety soft fruits, which resemble small peaches. Apricots are suitable for growing in cities because they tolerate pollution more than other woody plants. Apricots are very early bloomers, which makes them susceptible to injury from late spring frosts.

A warm spell during the spring or even the winter urges the flower or leaf buds to begin swelling and the subsequent cold kills them. European apricots can 1 2

only be grown in mild climates. Asian apricots are harder and can survive harsh winters, though will still be damaged if the weather warms enough to induce blooming and then freezes up again. Apricots can be grown safely in mild climates and in very cold climates, where winter stays until late in the season. Most years, you'll get to enjoy the delicate white or pink flowers and some years you'll be able to harvest fruit. If your spring weather is variable, watch the weather carefully. If a cold spell is predicted and your tree is small enough, you can cover the tree with a light blanket or sheet. Weight the corners with stones attached with rubberbands and throw the cover over the budding or flowering tree. The next morning, as soon as the temperature rises, remove the cover. Some apricots are cultivated especially for their gorgeous blossoms such as Prunus mume (Japanese apricot) and Prunus dasycarpa (Purple apricot). Prunus mume is a small tree that bears almond-scented, pink flowers in early spring; its variety Beni-shidare produces sweet scented, double, dark rose-pink blossoms. These two can survive in climates where temperatures fall to -30 F. Prunus dasycarpa is a small tree that grows up to 25 feet high. It has white flowers and dark purple or black fruit. This variety is grown more for ornament than for its insignificant fruit. Cherry (Prunus avium - sweet / Prunus cerasus - sour) Cherries are originally from Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and Persia. The Cherry is a very beautiful tree that provides excellent fruit.

There are two kinds of Cherry trees - Sweet Cherries, which are cultivars of Prunus avium, and Tart or Sour Cherries, which are cultivars of Prunus cerasus. The dark red sweet Cherries are the kinds most often seen in the grocery store. Some Sweet Cherries have yellowish flesh, these are usually used for canned fruit cocktails. Sweet Cherries are best eaten fresh as their delicate flavors don't stand up to cooking well. 1 3

Tart or Sour Cherries are hardly ever seen at the store. These Cherries are the varieties used in jams, tarts, pies, etc., thus another common name is Pie Cherry. If sour Cherries are left on the tree to fully ripen, they may also be enjoyed fresh as sweet Cherries. Cherries not only provide delicious fruits, but also bear bunches of pretty white flowers in the spring. However, species have been bred specifically for their blossoms, which may be white or varying shades of pink. Nectarine (Prunus persica var. nucipersica) & Peach (Prunus persica) Nectarines and Peaches are the same species, Prunus persica; the Nectarine is a variety of the Peach tree. They differ only by a single gene - Peaches have the gene and are fuzzy-skinned.

Nectarines lack the gene and have smooth skin. Nectarines occur naturally on Peach trees and once in a while, a Nectarine tree will produce "mutant" peaches. The Nectarine tree is the same as the Peach tree, though the fruits are not. Nectarines are a bit smaller than peaches and some say they taste sweeter. The flesh of Nectarines is a little less melting than that of Peaches. Nectarines and Peaches are natives to China and were originally cultivated for their gorgeous blossoms and branches. Peach trees are moderately small, with dense, erect growth unless pruned to encourage spreading growth.

The long, glossy bright green leaves are from 4 to 9 inches long with finely serrated edges. These trees, when grown on their own roots, will grow from 8 to 20 feet high. Most, however, are grafted onto other rootstocks to control height, increase cold hardiness or resistance to pests and diseases. Most varieties are self-pollinating, therefore you'll only need to plant one tree to obtain fruit. These trees only live about twelve years. To take the place of an aging tree, plant a new tree. 1 4

Plum (Prunus domestica) - The Plum is widely cultivated throughout Europe and the U.S., since there are varieties suitable for growing in every state. Plums are extensively grown for commerce in Oregon, Washington, California and Idaho.

Trees may have erect or spreading growth, depending on the variety. The leaves vary in shape, also, but are usually egg-shaped with finely serrated edges. The fruits are oval or round having smooth, thin skin. The flesh may be purple, blue, red, green or yellow, also depending on the variety. There are more than 2,000 varieties of plums available. Many plums bear fruit three years after planting. Plums may be eaten fresh, preserved in jellies or jams, dried, juiced, or fermented as a liqueur. Plums come from three different backgrounds: American, European, and Japanese. Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) have sweet flesh that is somewhat tart near the pit. Japanese plums are usually clingstone, which means the flesh sticks to the pit. These plums grow well where peaches flourish, tolerate heat and need only a short period of winter dormancy. However, these trees bloom at the first touch of warm weather, making them susceptible to damage from late spring frosts. Most of these trees require an American or Japanese pollinator, but if your garden is small, look for a self-fruitful hybrid, such as 'Catalina'. European plums (Prunus domestica) are hardier than Japanese plums. European varieties include the late-season prune plums, which are great for drying and eating fresh, and the Gage types, small, greenish fruits valued for their light sweetness. European plums are ordinarily freestone, which means the flesh easily separates from the stone, making canning easy. Many varieties of the European plum will bear fruit with only one tree planted, though the crop will be heavier with a pollinator. European plums also bloom later than Japanese plums, making them ideal for regions with fickle spring weather. However, these plums ripen late (from September to October), so if your growing season is short, these plums aren't for you. American plums include the beach Plum (Prunus maritima), the Canada Plum (Prunus nigra), the American plum (Prunus americana), and the Sierra or Klamath plum (Prunus subcordata). Most of these plums tolerate heat 1 5

and drought. The small plums of these trees vary in quality from one tree to another, but are delicious eaten fresh as well as in jellies, preserves, wines, and liqueurs. The flowers of these trees have a wonderful scent and the branches may be clipped for indoor decoration. There are varieties of plums that are grown for ornament rather than for their fruits. Single flowered varieties will bear edible, but small fruits, but the showy double-flowered varieties won't produce any. Prunus cerasifera (Cherry Plum, Myrobalan Plum) is a hardy, small, deciduous tree producing a ton of small, white, single flowers in early spring. Mature trees will sometimes produce red cherry-plums. A variety of Prunus cerasifera, 'Hessei', is a medium-sized, shrubby tree with light green leaves that gradually turn to bronze-purple with white to yellowish or pink margins. Pure white flowers are borne in mid-spring. Another hardy variety, atropurpurea, is a beautiful variety grown for decoration. It reaches a height from 15 to 20 feet and has dark reddish-purple foliage.

Table talk 1. Explain how pollution influences fruit-growing. 2. Point to the difference between European and Asian varieties of apricots, cherries and plums 3. Explain under what circumstances, mutant fruits can be produced.

Idioms

a. cream of the crop - best of a group, the top choice e.g. The company is well-known as a good place to work and is always able to hire the cream of the crop of university graduates. 1 6

b. nutty as a fruitcake - crazy e.g. He is a very nice man but he acts strange sometimes and I often think that he is as nutty as a fruitcake. c. take root - to grow, become established. e.g. The ideas of Karl Marx have never taken root in the United States. d. grow down roots - to develop interests and friendship. e.g. We have grown too many roots here to emigrate. Proverbs 1. Those that eat cherries with great persons, shall have their eyes squirted out with the stones. 2. Like tree, like fruit. 3. Much bruit, little fruit. 4. He that would eat the fruit, must climb the tree. 5. Great boast and small roast.

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HERBS

Calendula
Description
Calendula, or Marigold, is an annual garden plant. It reaches a height of 20-28 inches, with an angular, branched, hairy stem 1-2 feet high. The leaves are alternate, sessile, spatulate or oblancleolate, dentate with widely spaced teeth, and hairy. From June to October the plant bears large, brilliant, yellow or orange, terminal flower heads that measure over 1.6 inches across. Opens its petals at nine and closes them at four. This is not the common America garden marigold (Tagetes lucida), which is derived from Mexican marigold. True marigold is an old European plant.

Legends, Myths and Stories


In medieval England, a popular religious legend described the Virgin as being accustomed to wearing golden blossoms which the monks of the period decided should be named in her honor; from that association of the golden herb with the Virgin Mary, old poets began calling the herb, "Mary Gowles" and "Mary Golde". Years later in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, the marigold flowers were referred to as the "winking Marybuds". Often used as a less-expensive substitute for saffron, fresh or dried petals give subtle flavor and golden color to seafood, soups, stews, puddings, rice and omelets. The dried petals, softened in hot milk, can be added to the batters of cakes, breads and cookies. The fresh, tender young leaves are good in salads. There is another marigold (Tagetes lucida) of the sunflower family, known as sweet scented marigold or Mexican marigold, Mexican tarragon, pericon, and sweet mace. This plant has nothing to do with Calendula officinalis. Do not mistake identification. The garden marigold in American gardens is derived from this Mexican marigold (T. lucida). The marigold of old Europe is the true marigold. There is also a French marigold (Tagetes patula). The Tagetes and related species should not be confused with Calendula. The Tagetes species are used as insecticides and weedkillers. 1 8

Yellow dye has been made from the flowers of marigold and, as a saffron substitute, used for coloring butter and cheese. It was the Davids who recorded that the marigold was usually in bloom on the first day (calends) of every month. The Latin generic name Calendula and the common Italian name "fiore d'ogni" were given to the herb from this observation.

Uses
The flowers may be eaten raw, taken as a standard infusion or the latter applied as a lotion. As a lotion, a marigold infusion (petals only) provides the ideal balancer of an over-oily skin, and all complexions will benefit from a salve or ointment composed of marigold flowers, so they say. Calendula ia used to help measles, smallpox, earache, colds, reduces fevers. Externally, it is used as an ointment or oil for burns, bruises, and injuries. The flowers are used for gastro-intestinal problems such as ulcers, chickenpox, fever, stomach cramps, recurrent vomiting, colitis, and diarrhea; externally it is also used for boils and abscesses, a good salve for wounds, bruises, sore nipples, yeast infections, shingles, bedsores (decubitus ulcers), sprains, varicose veins, acne, pulled muscles, sores, warts (rub fresh juice on surface). The tincture is used for gastritis and menstrual difficulties and cramps. It is said that if the fresh flowers are rubbed on wasp or bee stings there is instant relief.

Nutrient Content
Phosphorus

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Chamomile
Description
From a short root, the creeping chamomile, a nearly prostrate perennial, puts forth a stem of 3-12 inches tall, from which bi- to tripinnatipartite lacy leaves grow. The small flower heads, which grow singly at the ends of the shoot tips, consist of a corona of white ligulate, daisy-like flowers and many (up to 400) yellow tubular disk flowers at the center. Chamomile blooms in late spring through late summer. The fruits (seeds) are extremely tiny. Cases of mistaken identity may result in allergic reactions to the application of chamomile. Consequently, buy chamomile in a pharmacy or health food store.

Growing chamomile in the garden or in bowls or pots on the balcony or patio is rewarding. Once the chamomile culture is established, no tending is necessary. The seeds cast by this annual will produce plenty of new plants each year. However, chamomile does need humus, nutritious soil that is not too heavy and plenty of sun. If there is no rainfall for a prolonged period, the plants will need watering. Chamomile seeds are sold in every seed store. Sow them in spring in well-prepared (loosened) soil, which has to be kept damp at first. Because chamomile germinates in the light, broadcast the seeds and press them down very lightly. Harvest the flower heads as soon as they have opened, taking as little of the stalk as possible. The entire herb is strongly apple scented.

Medicinal Properties
Stimulant, bitter tonic, aromatic, emmenagogue (promotes menstrual flow), anodyne, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, carminative, nervine, analgesic, emetic, stomachic.

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Biochemical Information
Antheme, anthemic acid, anthesterol, apigenin, calcium, chamazulene, iron, magnesium, manganese, volatile oils, potassium, tannic acid, tiglic acid, and vitamin A. The essential oil contains up to 50% alpha-bisacolol as well as chamazulene, a blue substance.

Legends, Myths and Stories


Chamomile is a herb with a split personality, chiefly because it is really two plants, though most people think of it as a single plant. The trouble is that German camomile (A. nobilis) and Roman camomile (M. recutita) are two distinct plants with similar characteristics, but people familiar with one tend to think of it as the only chamomile. Sometimes they are simply ignorant of the other plant; other times they are aware of it but choose to ignore it; and still other times they resort to the ploy of denigrating the other plant, attempting to disprove its legitimacy as a chamomile. The chamomiles are best known for their apple-like fragrance and flavor, qualities which surprise the uninitiated, for none of the chamomiles have any visual resemblance to an apple or apple tree. The name, chamomile is derived from the Greek "kamai" meaning "on the ground" and melon (apple) for ground apple. The chamomiles are considered insect repellents. Chamomile was supposedly dedicated to the sun by the Egyptians because of its curative value in the treatment of ague (chills and fever). Throughout the Middle Ages, chamomile was very popular. In Spain the chamomiles were called Manzanilla, and the flowers were used to flavor the finest dry sherries. A cup of chamomile tea was often prescribed to relieve female anxiety.

Uses
A good nerve tonic helping to relax, sleep aid, appetite stimulant, colic, sciatica, gout, flu, nausea, and digestive aid. Relieves bladder, colds, asthma, colitis, toothache, fever, headaches, hemorrhoids, muscle cramps, and pain. Effective in the treatment of rheumatism, worms, gallstones, and jaundice. Chamomile is also used to make a soothing and sedative tea, which may be used to alleviate insomnia. An excellent general tonic that increases the appetite and is good for dyspepsia. Good to regulate monthly periods and relieve menstrual cramps. Splendid for kidneys, spleen, colds, bronchitis, bladder trouble. The tea makes an excellent wash for sore and weak eyes and also for swellings. Intermittent fever and typhoid fever can be broken up in the early stages with this herb. Good in hysteria and nervous diseases. Made and used as a poultice, it will prevent gangrene. It is combined with bittersweet as an ointment for bruises, sprains, calluses, or corns. Leaves and flowers are good for herbal baths and cosmetics; a rinse made from the leaves is used to brighten blond hair.

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Nutrient Content
Contains easily assimilable form of calcium.

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Nettle
Description
Nettle is a potent herb, the many qualities compensating for the stung fingers that inevitably accompany the harvest. The sting is caused by the formic acid in the plant and can be soothed by rubbing the spot with dock leaves (Rumex obtusifolus). Providence, somehow, usually plants the dock alongside the nettle beds. Nettle is like a beast with a heart of gold. Nettle is a perennial 2-7 feet high: the root is creeping and branching, the plant is clothed in stinging hairs and bears opposite, cordate, deeply serrate, pointed leaves which are downy underneath, heart-shaped. A clump of upright, four-angled, 1-2 foot stems are covered with downy hair and with venomous spines. The plant emits an acrid fluid when touched, causing pain. Each spine is a hollow needle filled with venom which is released whenever the plant is brushed. The venom stings like a bee and produces a red rash. The virulent qualities are destroyed by cooking (boiling or steaming) or drying the plant. The small, greenish flowers grow in axillary clusters in "tassels", male and female on separate plants; blooms from July to September. Fruits are small nutlets enclosed in dried sepals.

Where Found
Found on waste land, vacant lots, pastures and in hedges, nettles can be found in plenty. Found all over the world.

Medicinal Properties
Astringent, hemostatic, diuretic, galactagogue (promotes flow of milk), lowers blood sugar levels, expectorant, tonic, nutritive, styptic, rubefacient

Biochemical Information
Formic acid, silicon, potassium, tannins, glucoquinones, histamine, acerylocholine, serotonin, chlorophyll, carbonic acid, mucilage, magnesium, iron, many minerals and vitamins A, B, and C.

Legends, Myths and Stories


Nine of the 30 species of Urtica are found in the United States and Canada growing wild. It is an old English custom to drink nettle tea on occasion. This habit was believed to have been brought with the Roman conquerors to the Isles, who used the tea as a bracer in the rigorous climate. Nettle is often an ingredient in herbal prescriptions. The addition of nettle leaves to Oriental tea in a proportion of 1 part nettle to 3 parts tea, makes a cup of tea well appreciated by the connoisseur. It is said that the flavor is improved if the mixture is stored for some times before using. A novel use of the nettle plant was as a counter-irritant in rheumatic cases. The afflicted person was "whipped" on the rheumatic joint with whole plants. The idea was that the pain of nettle stings would make the sufferer forget the pain of the rheumatism. Caesar's troops introduced the Roman nettle (U. pilulifera) into Britain because they thought that they would need to flail themselves with nettles to keep warm. 2 3

Nettle rash can be relieved by applying the juice of the leaves themselves, thus taking away the stinging of the nettles. It is said that if hens are given dry nettles in the winter, broken in small pieces, with their food, they will fatten and increase egg production all winter long. When nettle is cut and allowed to wilt, used as fodder for livestock, it is said to increase the amount of milk produced. In Germany, dried nettle is mixed with feed for thin horses suffering digestive troubles. Horse dealers mixed the nettle seed with oats and other feeds to give the animals a sleek coat. In Egypt, oil from the nettle seeds is used in burning lamps. The Russians make a beautiful green dye for wool from the nettle plant. The root boiled with alum makes a yellow dye. The tall stalks yield a stronger and finer fiber than flax. The Germans used this in place of cotton in World War II. According to an old recipe book, steel dipped in the juice of the nettle becomes flexible.

Uses
Widely used to treat rheumatism and poor circulation, but also cures bronchitis, prevents scurvy, reduces the risk of hemorrhage, neuralgia, scrofula, sore throat, sore mouth, sciatica, vaginal yeast infections, anemia, increases milk flow for nursing mothers, lowers blood sugar, joint aches, neuralgia, gout, first stages of dropsy, bee stings, whooping cough, expel worms, and dispels melancholia. The leaves may be boiled and then eaten like any green vegetable, or else used for an infusion. A decoction may also be made from the root, this is good for dissolving renal (kidney) stones and other internal obstructions. Old herbals say that nettles are useful in weight-reducing diets. Treats tuberculosis, anemia, clorosis, rickets, scrofula, lymphatic problems. A good spring tonic. Boiled leaves applied externally will stop bleeding almost immediately. Externally applied for eczema. A tincture made of the seeds is recommended for goiter and low thyroid. In raising the thyroid function, it effectively reduces the associated obesity. The warm tea is used for asthma, hay fever, allergies, colds, fever, grippe, flu, mucous condition of the lungs, pleurisy, leprosy, diarrhea, cholecystitis, dysentery, hemorrhoids, various hemorrhages, scorbutic affections, and mucous in the colon in adults. Boiling the entire plant in a mixture of vinegar and water, then adding eau de cologne was supposed to produce a good hair lotion. Combing the hair with expressed nettle juice was supposed to stimulate hair growth, bring back the natural color of the hair. If you dip fingers in and thoroughly massage the scalp, it will cure dandruff. Pulped nettle leaves make a marvelous compress and bring cooling relief when inflammation is present.

2 4

Nutrient Content
Vitamins A and C, magnesium and iron .

2 5

Rosemary
Description
Rosemary is an evergreen shrub with numerous branches. It is ash-colored, scaly bark and bears opposite, leathery, thick leaves which are lustrous and dark green above and downy white underneath. They have a prominent vein in the middle and margins which are rolled down. The pale blue, sometimes white, relatively small, flowers grow in short axillary racemes, arranged in false whorls on the upper parts of the branches, blooming during April and May, or later in cooler climates.

Where Found
Originated in the Mediterranean area; it is now widely cultivated for its aromatic leaves and as a kitchen seasoning.

Medicinal Properties
Stimulant, diaphoretic, carminative, nervine, aromatic, cephalic antispasmodic.

Legends, Myths and Stories


In the sixth century Charlemagne decreed that rosemary should be grown in all the imperial gardens, and it was beloved by the Romans long before that. Romans made crowns and garlands of Rosemary. Centuries later, Anne of Cleves, bride of King Henry VIII, "wore on her head a circlet of gold and precious stones set full with dainty twigs of Rosemary." In Queen Elizabeth's time, this herb was considered an emblem of fidelity to lovers and was worn at weddings, funerals, and to give to friends. 2 6

They were used in sick rooms to "correct the air" when infections were present. The dried leaves were shredded and used in a pipe like tobacco to help a cough. It was used in herbal or tobacco mixtures in England, where smoking was first introduced by Sir Walter Raleigh. The ashes of burnt Rosemary was rubbed on loose teeth to fasten and beautify. Rosemary's name is derived from its Latin name Rosmarinus, meaning "dew of the sea" and referring to its blue flowers or to the fact that this herb thrives by the seashore, especially in Spain where its thick growth covers the cliffs. To explain the range in the color of rosemary's flowers from a pale bluish-white to a deep blue, Christian legend claims that flowers were originally white but were turned varying shade of blue when Mary hung her blue cloak over a rosemary bush. Since the rosemary plant seldom grows higher than a man's height, it was believed that rosemary grew to the height of Christ in 33 years. If the leaves be put beneath your pillow, you will be well protected from troublesome dreams and all mental anxiety. Used as a lotion, this herb or its oil will cure all pains in the head, and a spoonful of the herb mixed with honey and melted butter cannot but help your coughing. Rosemary was taken by the Roman Empire to China during the reign of Wenti of the Wei dynasty (452 AD). Valued for its fragrance, it was used in perfume, and when burned it was supposed to drive away demons and mosquitoes. Through the ages, many legends have been woven about many plants, but probably none as fanciful as those of rosemary. Most of the following legends were from sources more than 300 years old: "Old English belief: where Rosemary flourishes, woman rules." "See the Rosemary in vinegar or wine, and let a thief wash his feet therein, and he shall neither rob, steale, nor fright any man." "Lay Rosemary on thy pillow, to keep thee from all evill dreams." "To be delivered from all evills, boyle the leaves of Rosemary in strong vinegar and apply them to thy stomach."

Uses
Rosemary is a fine tonic for the scalp and skin, adds luster to the hair and is a common ingredient of many commercial shampoos. It is a valuable heart and liver tonic and also helps reduce high blood pressure. It is used to treat 'nerves', digestive disorders, palsy, weak memory, dizziness, migraine, dandruff, stimulates hair growth, restores appetite, and clears sight. It is an old fashioned remedy for colds, colic, and nervous conditions. Very good for headaches, it should be taken warm for these complaints. It acts to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. It is good as a mouthwash for bad breath, gums, and sore throat. It aids digestion, cough, consumption, and strengthens the eyes. Because of the real danger of poisoning, rosemary is more often used externally. Leaves cooked in wine or a salve made from rosemary oil is useful for rheumatism, sores, eczema, bruises, age spots, marks and scars, and wounds. 2 7

An infusion of the leaves can also be used, alone or with borax, as a scalp wash to prevent baldness. The leaves are used for flavoring. The oil is used as a perfume for ointments and liniments. It is reported to prevent premature baldness. Today, rosemary is still regarded as an antidote to mental fatigue and forgetfulness. A tisane (tea) of this herb is becoming popular with tired businessmen and students who find it refreshing and a good natural remedy for bringing added agility to the intellect. Idioms a. to blossom out into - to develop very well. e.g. When he became Prime Minister he blossomed out into a statesman. b. the pick of the bunch - the best, the outstanding one in a group. e.g. She was a hard-working person and was always the pick of the bunch in our group. c. to nip something in the bud - to prevent something from becoming a problem by stopping it as soon as it starts. e.g. If you feel a cold coming on try to nip it in the bud by keeping warm and getting a lot of sleep. d. to be on nettles - to be in an embarrassing situation, in constant fear. e.g. Although he was on nettles he couldnt protest. e. to grasp the nettle to take drastic action to overcome an unpleasant difficulty. e.g. Its time you grasped the nettle and told your friend that you can no longer support him. f. to be nettled - (informal) to be annoyed by someones behaviour. e.g. She was nettled by Holmans remark. Proverbs 1. No morning sun lasts a whole day. 2. Plant the crab-tree where you will, it will never bear pippins. 3. He is unworthy of life that causes not life in another. 4. The sun shines upon all alike. 5. Although the sun shines, leave not thy cloak at home.

2 8

Sunflower
Description
Sunflower is an annual plant growing 6-10 feet high; leaves mostly alternate, rough-hairy, broadly heart or spade-shaped. The flowers are orange-yellow, disk flat from July to October.

Where Found
A North American native plant. Found on prairies, roadsides.

Medicinal Properties
Diuretic, expectorant.

Biochemical Information
The seeds are exceptionally rich in polyunsaturates (approx. 80%) and high quality plant protein, plus natural vitamins and minerals: thiamine (B1), niacin, potassium, iron, phosphorus, calcium, iodine, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, vitamins D and E.

Legends, Myths and Stories


The wild ancestor of the common Sunflower has smaller blooms than the cultivated plant. Competitions are organized to see who can grow the largest sunflower. The present record is 25 feet tall; the largest blossom ever found was over 32 inches across. There are many good varieties of sunflower available; some are best for seed production, and others for ornamental value. In 1835 a practical gardener in the Ukraine cultivated the first commercial sunflower plantation. Native Americans used the seeds as a source of meal; the Spanish conquerors of South and Central America discovered the sunflower and its uses, carrying the seeds to the Old World spreading the plant across Europe. The Incas of Peru made the sunflower a part of religious practices. The Chinese cultivate sunflower and use it for food, the fruits are fed to fowls, the leaves are made fodder for cattle, and the stalks and roots are used as fuel.

Uses
Native Americans used the tea of the flowers for lung ailments, malaria. Leaf tea is used for high fevers; poultice of roots can be used on snakebites and spider bites. Seeds and leaves are diuretic and expectorant. Seeds contain all the important nutrients that benefit the eyes and relieve constipation. Useful 2 9

against dysentery, inflammations of the bladder and kidney. The leaves are astringent.

Nutrient Content
Protein, thiamine (B1), niacin, potassium, iron, vegetable fats, phosphorus, calcium, iodine, fluorine, magnesium, sodium, vitamins D and E. Group work Sunflower is produced mostly for the oil gained after the end of the crushing process. A. Study the diagram and identify how many stages there are in this process, and what the main product and the by-product is. crushing process sunflower seeds

seeds cleaning/dehulling/cracking

crushing

expellers

extraction crude sunflower oil

refining

3 0

refined

dry meal for animal feedstuff

B. Read the following short text about sunflower oil refining. Find all the sunflower reasons why oils need to be refined.

Why does oil sunflower oil have to be refined?


Just as with all oils with a neutral taste (e.g. corn, rape, soya), sunflower oil also must be refined in order to: satisfy the taste of consumers who usually do not like the flavour and cloudy appearance of simply pressed sunflower oil produce first-class quality oil which can be stored for long time (at least for 1 year) The so-called refining process enables the plant to remove a number of components of the crude oil that can have a negative impact on its nutritional properties, its preservation or its presentation (colour, smell). At present the refining process of oil can be run in either a physical or a chemical way.

OILSEED RAPE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASE - A LETTER C. Read the following letter and complete the tasks below:
From Dr. P. M. Dixon and Mr. B. McGorum. SIR- Residing permanently outdoors is the optimal environment for horses in suitable climates and much equine respiratory disease, i.e., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (C.O.P.D.) is due to housing. However, a small minority of horses can suffer respiratory diseases associated with pasture. Most equine headshakers are 'seasonal headshakers' which appears to be caused by a pollen induced rhinitis and such cases will frustrate most attempts at treatment. Last summer we saw five cases of C.O.P.D., two of which grazed adjacent to oilseed rape (OSR) fields. In a discussion of a paper on this topic at the British Equine Veterinary Association annual congress, it became clear that many practitioners recognised this type of outdoor pulmonary disease and could identify cases in which it recurred annually. By the first week of May this year, we were already aware of 11 cases of suspect pasture and in all cases the horses were grazing adjacent to OSR fields. In one instance the owner's were suffering from hay fever, diagnosed as being due to OSR. OSR is also in Scotland associated with lower airway disease i.e., asthma-like in man. Because of the vast increase in acreage of the unsightly OSR crop throughout Britain, presumably an E.C. attempt to acquire a balanced portfolio of surplus foodstuffs, it may be coincidental that so many horses have respiratory disease while adjacent to OSR fields. However, it appears more likely that this early flowering plant which appears to act as an irritant rather than an allergen in the human respiratory tract, may also cause respiratory diseases in the horse. P.M.DIXON B.McGORUM Department of Veterinary clinical studies, University of Edinburgh Veterinary Field stationRoslin.

3 1

Pair work A. Decide what you think is meant by the following terms: optimal environment equine headshakers equine respiratory disease pollen induced rhinitis frustrate treatment outdoor pulmonary disease recur annually balanced portfolio surplus foodstuffs irritant rather than allergen

B. Find less formal ways of expressing the following: Residing Identify Optimal Unsightly Adjacent to

C. Changing register. Rewrite the letter in a less formal, less medically specific register as if from an owner of a horse suffering from this disease to a fellow horse owner/ farmer.

3 2

ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE
Test your grammar
I. All modal verbs can be used to express degrees of probability. Which of these sentences express probability? Put a . Which dont? Put a X. Example: This landowner must be very rich. (Probability) You must work ten hours a day. X a. He could be working in the field. b. The farm manager could speak five languages by the time he was employed here. c. We might buy this orchard for our children. d. You mustnt smoke inside a glass house. e. The weather forecast says it may rain tomorrow. f. May I speak to the owner of this farm? g. Will you help me order a new seatdrill? h. That will be Ken on the phone. He promissed to ring. i. You should pay the fertilizers as soon as possible. j. You should have told her the truth. II. What concepts do the other sentences express? Example: You must work ten hours a day. (Obligation)

Within the general context of the development and modernisation of Romanian economy, concern with the development of agriculture has been a dominant feature of Romanian economic policy. Agriculture is important to the economy as it supplies food for the population, raw-materials for many industrial enterprises and, as it contributes to foreign trade, both as a direct earner of foreign exchange and of food and industrial inputs. 3 3

Our country has an important agricultural area available, favourable soil and climatic conditions that have made possible a many-sided development of agriculture. Although crop fields have fluctuated widely from one year to the next, the overall expansion of agricultural production has been considerably providing the basis for higher levels of food consumption per capita and larger agricultural exports. Land melioration programs that include better flood protection, irrigation, damming and draining operations have reduced yield fluctuations and have risen yields to higher levels.

Table talk A. Discuss the following instructions and warnings, taken from different areas of agriculture. In groups, arrange them into the categories of Dos and Don'ts. 1. Ensure that no one is under the tree while work is in progress. 2. Play on or near machines. 3. Check that machines and equipment that have to pass under overhead lines have adequate clearance for safe passage. 4. Light fires or play with matches on the farm. 5. Keep children away from bale stacks and handling and stacking operations. 6. Go near livestock buildings, pens, milling and mixing plants. 7. Make sure that dust, fume and noise are kept within safe levels. 8. Touch or drink chemicals used on the farm. 9. Wear outer clothing which will not catch on brush; also wear a safety helmet, ear defenders, eye protection, gloves and safety boots. 10. Stick to the countryside code. 11. Erect stacks or buildings or create dumps under or near overhead lines. 12. Ensure that your employees have healthy working conditions including adequate lighting, heating, ventilation, toilet facilities etc. 13. Stay well away from slurry pits, lagoons etc. 14. Take special care when metal ladders, irrigation pipes or other long objects have to be handled near overhead lines. 15. Exceed the rated capacity of lifting machinery. 16. Make sure that you provide the training, information and supervision necessary to ensure health and safety. 17. Attempt to fell a tree in high wind. 18. Check that tools (saws, axes etc) are sharpened and in good condition before starting work. 19. Only use properly designed and constructed mechanical handling equipment for handling bales, eg. a loader or a lift truck. 20. Make sure that cables and ropes are in a good condition before starting to pull, haul or winch. 21. Stack higher than the lifting capabilities of the handling equipment used for stacking and destacking. 3 4

B. Choose one danger area from the list. With a partner write health and safety instructions for the area chosen. Group work A. Choose one aspect of agricultural production and design a brochure about its health and safety rules for children for students at field practice for farm workers for agricultural employers You may need to use text, graphics and / or pictures. To be able to design the brochure, you will need to understand the general obligations the Health and Safety Act places on employers and employees. These are as follows: Obligations placed on (a) employers : to ensure the safety of their employees at work, by maintaining a safe plant, safe premises, and safe systems of work; (b) employees : to take reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves while at work; (c) on self-employed persons, to carry on their business in such a way to ensure so far as is reasonably practicable that they do not put at risk their own health and safety; (d) on employers, self-employed and employees: not to put at risk the health and safety of third parties. B. Go back to exercise A from Table talk. Explain the reason behind each warning. Example: Ensure that no one is underneath the tree while work is in progress, because / or else a piece of equipment or a branch might fall and injure the person standing below. Language work A. Finish the following sentences. On a farm, children should............................, but they mustn't........................... employers should........................, but they mustn't........................... employees should........................, but they mustn't..........................

B. Roleplay A Health and Safety Inspector is visiting a farm and finds several faults. Act out the discussion between the farmer and the Health Inspector. C. Fill in the blanks with the words at the end of the exercise: If a soil lacks nutrients its ..... is low. Most crops planted in such soil will produce a low ....... . This soil condition may be caused by planting the 3 5

same crop over and over, which is called ...... . One way to correct this condition is to use a cropping system, or ........ . The complete series in which crops are planted is called a ....... . yield, monocroping, fertility, competitive crops, rotation D. Replace the underlined words and word combinations by synonyms: 1. Livestock production plays an important part in advanced agriculture. 2. The crops have been remarkable this year. 3. Special attention is paid to ensuring sufficient quantities of high-yield seeds. 4. Afforestation has to be stepped up. E. Give words derived from of the following verbs: to increase, to manage, to plant, to produce. F. Fill in the blanks with nouns: Pattern: a ...... of cards; a pack of cards a ......... of boots a ......... of fish a ......... of sheep a ......... of trousers a ......... of cattle a ......... of swine a ......... of birds a ......... of people G. Replace the following word-groups by one word of the same meaning: a person working on a farm; a person driving a car; a person working in a library; sixty minutes; the building in which you work; a construction to stop the flow of water and form a lake or pond; a device to remove debris from irrigation water. H. Enlarge upon: 1. Ways and means of developing Romanian agriculture. 2. The importance of agriculture for Romanian economy. using the following additional vocabulary: agrarian economy - economie agrar grain-growing economy - economie cerealier fertilizer industry - industria ngrmintelor seedling [si:dli ] - rsad, puiet fertile soil - sol fertil sterile soil - sol sterp wooded area - suprafa mpdurit to come into bearing - a ncepe s rodeasc weed [wi:d] - buruian to weed - a plivi to go down to weeds - a fi acoperit de buruieni weed killers - ierbicide pesticides [pestisids] - pesticide waterlogged soil - teren mocirlos manure [m nju ] - gunoi de grajd, ngrmant natural to step up a ridica,

spori

3 6

IRRIGATION
Test your grammar

A. Complete the following sentences with the ing form of the verb or with the infinitive: a) He is good at b) I find it difficult c) They enjoy d) Hes interested in e) I cant stand f) I like g) Id like h) I cant afford i) Hes thinking of j) They are looking forward to k) She always forgets B. Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary: In ......... England, ......... Wales, ....... Scotland and Northern Ireland, English is ....... language predominantly spoken. In ...... Wales, however, Welsh - a form of British Celtic is the first language of ........ majority of the population. English is spoken throughout ......... Channel Islands and in most of ......... Western countries. Irrigation is an ancient agricultural practice that was used 7.000 years ago in Mesopotamia. Other ancient notable irrigation systems were located in Egypt, China, Mexico and Peru. The objectives of irrigation include prevention of reduced yields in years of low rainfalls, higher yields, in years with average rainfalls and increased double cropping. Today, about 11 per cent of the worlds cropland is irrigated. Some of the worlds densest populations are supported by producing crops on irrigated land, as in the United Arab Republic (Egypt), where 100 per cent of the cropland is irrigated. Nearly two thirds of the worlds population lives in diet deficient countries, having less than half of the worlds arable land. Most of the irrigation water is surface water resulting from rain and melting snow. Water from melting snow and rainfall is collected in reservoirs and released as needed for irrigation. Rivers serve as avenues for the transportation of water.

Language work 3 7

A. Study the additional vocabulary below and use it in a composition on one of the following topics: 1. The objectives of irrigation. 2. Methods of distributing water. 3. The importance of irrigation. canal [k nl] - canal water table - nivelul stratului acvifer freatic lack of moisture - lips de umezeal water-logged soil - sol saturat cu ap well-drained soil - sol bine drenat undrained soil - pmant nedrenat surface drainage desecare, drenaj de suprafa furrow irrigation - irigatie prin brazde drip irrigation - irigatie prin picurare B. Translate into Romanian: The system well construct is fairly simple. Well have to build dikes, a few cross-dikes, and waste ditches. Each farmer will have a headgate to let water on to his land. The head or stream of water, will be measured by a water meter. Irrigation water is measured in acre-inches, which is enough water to cover one acre one inch deep. C. Supply adjectives corresponding to the following nouns: technique science climate importance economy agriculture specialist diversity industry technology

D. Ask questions to each underlined word or phrase: 1. The slaughter house we are going to visit was built last year. 2. Romanian wine has been awarded gold and silver medals at different international wine contests. 3. The delivery of fresh vegetables is ensured by numerous refrigerated vans. 4. The overall improvement in productivity was achieved by use of fertilizers. E. Give synonyms : orchard; to till the land; hothouse; crop; flood protection; whatever F. Give antonyms : rational, inferior, light industry, post-war, insignificant, specialised production G. Add well to the following words and use them in sentences of your own: -deserved; -balanced; -handled; -known; -meant; -founded. Idioms 1. to be/feel under the weather - to feel unwell, depressed. e.g. John was out celebrating last night, so he is feeling a bit under the weather this morning. 2. to make heavy weather of something - to take excessive pains over a relatively simple task, to exaggerate its difficulties. 3 8

e.g. He made terribly heavy weather of mending the puncture; it only took a few minutes when he finally did it. 3. to change like a weather-cock to be for ever changing ones mind, to be easily influenced. e.g. You cant rely on him; he changes like a weather-cock. 4. to be as right as rain - to be perfectly well again; the phrase implies that the speaker has been ill, or met with some accident, from which he has completely recovered. e.g. Ann has got over her flu. She is a right as rain now. 5. a rainy day - bad times when it is difficult to make a living. e.g. Here is $ 50 for a rainy day. If things go wrong, it may come in handy. 6. come rain or shine - whatever happens. e.g. Come rain or shine, she always goes to a concert on Sunday. 7. a drop in the ocean - only a tiny fraction of what is needed. e.g. They need $10000 for their trip; I m afraid the $300 the university has offered them is only drop in the ocean. 8. every cloud has a silver lining - however unfortunate ones circumstances, there is always some consolation to be found. e.g. John has lost his job, which is a great blow to him, but his redundancy payment is very substantial. Every cloud has a silver lining. 9. to cast a cloud over something - to spoil a happy situation. e.g. The news that several competitors had been taking drugs cast a cloud over the event. 10. on Cloud Nine very happy, joyful. e.g. Since her engagement with Peter, Jane has been on Cloud Nine. 11. to be on cloud nine - (informal) to be very happy about something. e.g. Adam was on cloud nine after the birth of his son. 12. to have ones head in the clouds - to be out of touch with reality e.g. Its no good asking him what to do. He has his head in the clouds. Proverbs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In fair weather prepare for foul. After black clouds, clear weather. He is wise that is ware in time. He sets the fox to keep his geese. You have given the wolf the weather to keep.

3 9

MECHANIZATION
Test your grammar

A. Join a regret in A with a wish in B: A B a) Its Monday it had. morning. b) Ive overslept. there was. c) My alarm didnt go I could. off. d) I drank too much it wasnt. last night. e) I feel sick. I had. I f) There isnt any I hadnt. wish coffee. g) My flatmate will I didnt. play his music very loudly. h) I havent spoken to he him. wouldnt. i) I cant go back to bed B. Complete the following wishes: a) I wish I lived b) If only I such a quick-tempered person. c) If I at George the other day, we friends. d) I wish faster. e) I wish longer holidays. f) If only animals g) I languages. But if I hadnt studied agriculture, I John. C. What are the facts behind each of the wishes and regrets? Example: He lives in a cold climate, probably in England.

One of the most significant developments in Romanian agriculture has been the rapid mechanization of many farm operations. Thus, most all field operations such as seed bed preparation, sowing and harvesting are now mechanized. The composition of inputs used in agricultural production has changed greatly, as fixed assets, farm machinery, buildings and the like, more than tripled. Tractors, combines and other farm machines have made it possible for high-quality operations to be performed in vegetable growing, fruit-tree growing, viticulture and fodder gathering. The judicious use of agricultural 40

machines and tractors, ensure the mechanization of all operations in plant and animal production sectors, the performance of high-quality operations to be perfomed in vegetable growing, fruit-tree growing, viticulture and fodder gathering. The judicious use of agricultural machines and tractors, ensure the mechanization of all operations in plant and animal production sectors, the performance of high-quality farm operations in optimum periods. Capital investments have played an important role in increasing agricultural output and productivity. Important investments have been allotted to ensure the material and technical basis of agriculture, the mechanization of wheat, maize, potato and sugar-beet cultivation, the extension of mechanization in the production and preparation of fodder, in vegetable growing, vine and fruit-tree growing, in operations on slope land. Table talk A. Enlarge upon: 1. The role of farm machines in the mechanization of agriculture. 2. The performance of high-quality farm operations. 3. The part played by investments in increasing agricultural output and productivity. using the vocabulary below: mechanization [mek naizei n] - mecanizare seed-bed preparation - pregtirea rsadnielor fixed assets - fonduri fixe farm machines - maini agricole viticulture [vitik lt ] - viticultur input [input] - alimentare output [aut put] - producie, randament, capacitate to allot [ lot] - a aloca slope [sl up] - pant chemicalization [kemik laizei n] - chimizare low grades - soiuri calitativ inferioare high grades - soiuri calitativ superioare cropping system - asolament cropping power - productivitate, producie la hectar Language work A. Make sentences with the following words: mechanic, mechanical, mechanically, mechanism, mechanistic, mechanize B. Explain the following word combinations: seed-bed preparation; fixed assets; fruit-tree growing; farm machines; highquality operations; vegetable growing; slope land C. Fill in with prepositions: 1. Capital investments have played an important role ......... increasing agricultural output. 41

2. They are interested ...... the part played ...... investments .......... increasing agricultural output. 3. Agricultural education ......... Romania has been organized ....... a national system. 4. One group ...... graduates proceeds directly ..... production units ....... skilled workers, while another group continues ........ agricultural universities. D. Ask questions to each of the following words: 1. Rotation is part of soil management. 2. Hydrogen and oxygen are obtained from water. 3. Sawdust keeps the soil from puddling. 4. They are digging through the hill to make a tunnel. 5. It is difficult to dig the ground when it is frozen. 6. Each flowering plant has leaves. 7. They use barnyard manure because they have animals on their farm. 8. The seedbed is still full of clods. 9. Nitrogen is found in the growing tips, buds and young leaves. 10. Training for specialists has been well organized in our university. E. Make questions from these sentences: 1. My friend is preparing a seed-bed. 2. The composition of inputs used in agricultural production has changed greatly. 3. They went to the farm house by car. 4. Farm machines perform high-quality operations. 5. The operations you spoke about were hard to perform without their allotting a sum of money. F. Give adjectives corresponding to the following nouns: modernisation; mechanization; education; quality; nation; significance; transition; extension; conclusion; chemicalization.

complexity;

G. Choose the right word from those in the brackets: 1. His article is devoted to the latest achievements in science and (technique, technology). 2. They work in a (high, highly) capacity department. 3. The farm (ensure, assure) the (judicious, judicial) use of sowing machines and combines. 4. Light industry production has (late, lately) scored perceptible growths. 5. The vines need a spring (frosty, free of frost). Idioms a. put a screw/the screws on someone - to put pressure on someone, usually with the object of extracting money. In former times, the thumbscrew was a common instrument of torture. By turning a screw, one could increase the pressure on the victim until the pain became unbearable. 42

Hence: to tighten the screw, to give the screw another turn, and to screw someone out of a person. b. have a screw loose (slang) - to be slightly mad, not quite sane. Often used humorously to express incredulity at someone's actions. c. screw up one's courage - make up one's mind to do something courageous or daring, to overcome one's reluctance to act. e.g. Colin screwed up his courage and asked his boss for a rise in his wages. Proverbs d. down tools - to refuse to work, to go on strike. 1. A bad workman quarrels with his tools. 2. Better be first in a village than second at Rome. 3. Care and diligence bring luck. 4. One nail drives out another. 5. Like cures, like.

43

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND FOOD STUFF


In keeping with the demands and tastes of the people, special attention is paid to the quality of I. For each pair match a line in A with a line consumer goods output and to in B. diversifying them. A B Expansion and a) What do you do with this spade? modernisation of food industry What are you doing for a living? are among the important problems Romania has been trying to solve. b)What have you done I cant find them. The food industry is with my tools? capable of processing agricultural What have you been I saw you there. raw materials. Each subbranch doing in the slaughter house? has been endowed with units such as flour mills, vegetable and fruit c) He works in the glass-house. canneries, dairies, breweries and Hes working ten hours a day. big meat-packing and winemaking combines. Production d) Hes having a farm. processes are mostly mechanized He has a bath in the farm and automated; mechanized and lake. pneumatic transport of raw materials and finished products II. Fill in the blanks with articles where are used as well as automated necessary: programme-controlled One of .... foreign guests who visited proportioning of the raw Romania gave ...... following account of his materials. Romanian-made impressions: What impressed me vertical slaughtering flow-lines especially was ..... extent of your country, for cattle and pigs have been ..... great diversity of its natural resources installed in most meat and its beauty. Romania is ...... medium- industrialization combines, and in sized state, not just ..... small country. Its poultry slaughter houses. In a forests, coal, oil, metals and fertile soil growing number of food industry provide ..... solid basis for ...... well-being of enterprises continuous .... people, ...... forests, lakes and mountains. technological flow-lines are used. ...... wonderful seaside resorts on ...... Black Some Romanian Sea coast and ..... enchanting Danube Delta foodstuffs are well known abroad make it ..... land of promise for tourists. It and exported in many countries. has more to offer tourists than many other Wine is being widely exported, countries. Romanian wine having been awarded gold and silver medals at (Adapted from British Romanian different international contests. Bulletin, London) Romania will continue the expansion and modernisation of agricultural produce and foodstuffs with stress laid on higher quality and greater diversity.
Test your grammar

Table talk A. Enlarge upon: 1. Mechanized and automated production processes. 44

2. Expansion and modernisation of food industry. using the following vocabulary: agricultural produce and foodstuffs - produse agroalimentare foodstuff [fu:dst f] - aliment, produs alimentar consumer goods - bunuri de larg consum produce [pr dju:s] - produs, produse expansion [ikspn ( )n] - extindere, dezvoltare food industry - industria alimentar to process [pr uses] - a prelucra raw material - materie prim to endow [indau] - a nzestra, a dota flour [flau ] - fin mill [mil] - moar cannery [kn ri] - fabric de conserve brewery [bru ri] - fabric de bere combine [k mbain] - combinat meat-packing combine - combinat de industrializare a crnii to slaughter [sl :t ] - a sacrifica, a tia (vite) slaughter house - abator continuous flow-line - linie de fabricaie cu flux continuu contest [k ntest] - concurs top-quality products - produse de calitate superioar to gain recognition - a fi cunoscut i apreciat to increase by ... per cent - a crete cu ... la sut caloric value - valoare caloric inland trade - comer interior gin - darac (pentru bumbac)

Language work A. Fill in with prepositions: 1. Food industry enterprises have been endowed ......... continuous flow-lines. 2. Romanian wine has been awarded medals ...... different international wine contests. 3. In keeping ..... the tastes of the people the quality of consumer goods will be improved. 4. Slaughtering flow-lines ...... cattle have been installed in meat industrialization combines. 5. We are interested ...... the modernisation of foodstuffs .........stress laid ....... higher quality. B. Ask questions to each word in the sentences below: 1. Vertical slaughtering flow-lines for pigs have been installed in most meat industrialization combines. 2. The invention of the gin was important to cotton growers. 45

3. The nucleus of the pollen grain passes through the pollen tube into the ovary. 4. Romanian wine is exported in many countries. 5. The production of tinned peas is effected by means of continuous flow-lines. C. Give nouns corresponding to the following verbs and use them in sentences: to solve; to establish; to eliminate; to require; to discover; to occur; to promote; to expand; to acknowledge. D. Fill in the blanks with indefinite pronouns: something, anything, nothing, everything. 1. Bats and moles can see ......... . 2. Is there ................ interesting on T.V. ? 3. There is .......... to be worried about. 4. I dont know what to do with this child; ....... moves him. 5. Is there ......... I can do for you ? 6. Can you tell me ........ about this animal ? 7. Our grandparents knew ....... about outer space flights. 8. Give me ....... to put on. I feel cold. 9. People who dont want to spend money want to get . for . 10. I dont know ......... about the person whose name youve just mentioned. Idioms a. back to the salt mines - back to work, humorous expression to express going back to unpleasant work e.g. Well, lunch is over so let`s go back to the salt mines for the afternoon. b. bad egg - a bad person, bum e.g. That man is a bad egg so you should try and avoid him if you can. c. big cheese - an important person, a leader e.g. He is a big cheese in his company so you should be very nice to him. d. butter up - flatter someone to try to get their favor or friendship e.g. He spends most of his free time trying to butter up his boss so that he won`t have to work so hard. e. egg on - urge someone on e.g. Many people at the soccer game were egged on by the drunken fans. Proverbs 46

1. 2. 3. 4.

You must eat another yard of pudding first. He that eats least, eats most. Of a pigs tail, you can never make a good shaft. After cheese, comes nothing.

47

III. SUPPLEMENTARY READINGS

48

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PLANT


Why should we be interested in the working parts of a plant leaf, you may well ask. When we realize that every ounce of sugar, every ounce of starch in the world was made in such a little factory as this, that every pound of rubber, cotton and linen, silk and wool in the world came from it, directly or indirectly, that all of our foods of animal origin like milk and butter, eggs and poultry, cheese, beef, pork and mutton come indirectly from this little factory and that all of our spices and all of our beverages came directly from it, and that every stick of timber we use in our houses or burn for fuel was made in it, we begin to see how important this little leaf-factory is. Yet, this isnt all, by any means, that we get from this little factory. It would take too long to make a complete list. Let us add one more. Every pound of coal that we dig from the earth was made in that green leaf-factory of plants that lived millions of years ago. In the midst of June this little factory is in full operation, it is working every hour, day and night. Blue sky, bright sunshine, warm air, and green leaves - these with moisture in the soil, are required for the work of our little leaf-factories. The raw materials that are brought to them are soil, water and carbon dioxide gas. The first comes from the root of the plant by way of tubes. The other is taken into the leaf from the air, through tiny openings in its under surface. Marvellous things happen to these substances when they reach the working cells in the leaf. These cells are filled with cell sap in which float minute, sponge-like bodies that contain a green fluid called chlorophyll. This chlorophyll gives the leaf its colour, and without it the leaf could make none of these wonderful things we have been talking about. But the chlorophyll itself is helpless without sunlight. Sunlight is the energizing force for its factory. Certain minerals brought up to leaf from the soil stimulate the chlorophyll to work, notably iron. In the presence of sunlight and a slight trace of iron in the cell sap then, let us see what this marvellous chemical, chlorophyll, is able to do with the raw materials that are brought to it. First, the carbon dioxide and water are broken up into their component parts and then are reassembled into new combinations with entirely new and different properties from those of the old ones. The carbon from the carbon dioxide gas is united with the hydrogen and oxygen in the water to form sugar. When this happens there is a quantity of oxygen left over, and this escapes into the air as a gas through the little openings in the surface of the leaf. This newly made sugar then flows to all parts of the plant, even to the roots, through another set of tubes that we find in the vein of the leaf and in the stem. This sugar feeds the growing parts of the plant, such as the new leaf and flower buds, and it feeds the growing tips of the roots. When the growing season is over this sugar is stored for use next year in a few plants such as the sugar beet and the sugar cane, but in the most plants the sugar is changed to starch and stored in that form to last over winter. Then when growing time comes again, this starch is changed into sugar so that it can feed the buds more rapidly. In the white potato practically all the food is stored starch. In the sweet potato and in practically all of our seeds, like wheat, corn oats, and in the nuts, like peanuts and hazel nuts, not only starch, but some sugar and much oil are also stored for use next spring. The seeds of the cotton plant and of soy bean 49

contain large amounts of oil along with starch, and these seeds are sources of thousands of tons of valuable oil every year. This oil is made in the wonderful leaf-factory and stored in the ripening seeds. Then next year if these seeds are allowed to germinate the oil will be changed back again to sugar, for it is in this form that the young plant is best able to use its food. But sugars, starches and oils are not the only foods made in the leaffactory that animals and people must have. The kind of food needed above all others to build animal tissue - is proteide or nitrogenous foods. Nitrogen comes to the leaf-factories of all green plants from certain minerals in the soil called nitrates. Chlorophyll is the only thing in the world that can take nitrates from the soil and change them into rich proteide foods that we and all animals need so much. Some seeds like beans and peas and wheat are rich in proteins. The milk, eggs and flesh of all animals contain them, but these animals could not make them in their own bodies. They must get them from plants. We must look to the little green leaf-factory for all of our foods, fabrics, rubber, plant oils, timber and coal, and the multitude of by-products that we can make from these things, like rayon, dyes and others; but we must not forget the other very necessary substances that are produced there in exceedingly small quantities. Some of these are drugs like quinine, a very bitter but a most valuable medicine that is made in the leaves of a certain kind of tree found in Peru. Another drug is one that the oculist uses when he examines your eyes. This is called bella donna and comes from the leaves of plants which belong to the plant group called the nightshade family. Another one is nicotine, a drug which is made in the leaves of the tabacco plant. This is one of the habitforming drugs, like caffeine, that is made in the leaves of the coffee plant, the tea plant, and the kola plant. Delicate, aromatic oils are made in the leaves of many plants, not to be used as food by the young plant, but for other purposes. We have already learned that many plants make nectar and perfume and store them in their flowers so as to attract honey bees to them. Others like the pepper plants, the cinnamon and nutmeg trees, make spicy oils in their leaves and store in their flowers or roots or bark or fruits to keep insects from eating them. We have learned to use them to season our foods, because we think they make them taste better. But more important than any of these spices or perfumes or drugs are the vitamins that are made in the leaf-factories of green plants. They occur in most of our fresh fruits and vegetables, but some are destroyed by cooking. These vitamins seem to be produced in the leaf in very small quantities, but they seem to be essential for the health of all animal life, including man. They are stored in juicy fruits, like tomatoes, apples and oranges, in leafy vegetables, like spinach, lettuce, cabbage and celery, and in many seeds like wheat, oat and rice. These seeds should not be polished, but the whole seed should be eaten, for the vitamins, like the proteins, are stored mainly on the surface of the seed. When this surface is taken off little but starch is left, and this, though valuable is not nearly as necessary for health, as are the proteins and vitamins. So we should eat whole wheat bread and unpolished rice if we wish to get the best of the food values from these seeds. In the leaf-factory deadly poisons are also made. We know too well the poison oil that is made in the leaf of the poison ivy, and people who suffer from hayfever find the pollen of certain plants contain a substance which is poison for them. A poisonous drug called 50

strychnine is another of these. Isnt it strange how a plant can make and store poisons in its leaves, and yet its fruit may be perfectly good food. All of the members of the white potato or night shade family make poison in their leaves. Bella donna and strychnine are among those. These are made in the leaves of the deadly night-shade plant. Our tomato plant belongs to the white potato or nightshade family, too. Its leaves, like the potato plant, make a poison, which keeps larger animals from eating them. Perhaps the most poisonous plant substance known is made in the leaves of the castor oil plant. This poison, ricine, is known to be more than 300 times as poisonous as the venom of a rattlesnake, yet the oil taken from the seed of this plant is harmless. Besides the nitrates, other minerals from the soil are required by the leaf-factory, and these exist in such small quantities in the soil water that immense quantities of this must be gathered by the roots and brought up through the stem to the leaves. It is estimated that an ordinary elm tree on a summers day will take up from the soil no less than seven tons of water. Nearly all of this, passes off from the leaves into the air as water vapour. Tree leaves protect us from the suns heat, but constant evaporation of water from the leaf surfaces further cools the air in the forest. Every inch of green leaf is an exceedingly busy place, if we only had microscopic eyes to observe its wonderful activity.

The Flower and the Fruit


A flower is a specialized shoot the appearance of which is necessary to the ultimate production of seeds. The root, stem and leaf are distinctly vegetative organs; their primary functions are concerned with the nutritions and growth of the plant. The organs of flower, on the other hand, are associated directly or indirectly with the process of reproduction of bringing into existence new plants and thus ensuring the continuity of the race. Flower parts. A typical flower consists of five whorls or parts, symmetrically arranged with reference to one another and borne at the summit of a more or less broadened stem tip, the receptacle. The floral parts are always arranged in the same order. The outermost whorl, constituting the calyx, is made up of individual sepals. Ordinarily these are small, green, leaf-like parts of the bud. The next whorl, occurring just inside the calyx is the corolla, composed of individual petals. Most commonly the petals are large and conspicuous, being either white or some other color than green. Inside the corolla are two whorls of stamens. A stamen is generally a club shaped organ consisting of a stalk, or filament, supporting a terminal anther. The anther produces numerous minute pollen grains that are liberated when ripe. In the center of the flower is the pistil, generally composed of a whorl of united carpels. Typically the pistil consists of a lower bulbous ovary and a slender stalk-like style arising from it. The style may be long or short and is often branched, either partially or completely. A specialized portion of the style, the stigma or stigmatic surface, is receptive to pollen, usually being roughened or sticky. Where the style is unbranched, most commonly its tip forms the stigma, this being then somewhere enlarged. Where the style is branched, the stigmatic surface nearly always extends along the inner side of each division. The ovary is a hollow organ enclosing one or more ovules. These are incipient seeds but develop only after a complicated process takes place, later to be described, in which pollen grains cooperate. 51

A floral diagram shows the symmetrical arrangement of the parts of the flower with reference to one another. It is apparent that the members of each succeeding whorl alternate with those of the whorl just outside; this is a feature of almost all flowers. When only one whorl of stamens is present a very common condition, it is possible to tell whether they belong to the outer or inner set by noting their position with reference to the petals. Although most flowers bear both stamens and pistil, some plants have two kinds of flowers, one lacking stamens and the other a pistil. Such flowers are said to be imperfect. The two kinds of flowers may be borne on the same plant, as in the corn, squash and castor bean, or on separate plants as in the willow, box elder and hemp. The former constitutes a monoecious condition, the latter a dioecious one. It is apparent that, in plants with imperfect flowers, only the pistillate flowers can develop fruits and seeds, provided, of course, that pollen is transferred to them from the staminate flowers. In dioecious plants, pollination is favored when the two kinds grow close together.

Floral Development
A longitudinal section through a very young flower bud reveals that the floral parts originate as lateral outgrowths from a central axis in much the same way that leaves arise from a vegetative stem tip. Generally the sepals appear first, then the petals, the stamens, and finally the carpels. At first, each part consists of a small rounded elevation of meristematic tissue but, as development proceeds, each kind of floral organs becomes differentiated in its own way. Sometimes, the typical order of appearance of the floral parts becomes modified. For example, in the sheperds purse the petals appear last. In a flower bud the apical meristem becomes directly transformed into carpels and so does not continue to grow, while in a vegetative bud the stem tip remains meristematic and gives rise to an indefinite number of leaf primordial. For this reason a flower may be regarded as a shoot of limited growth. Another distinction between floral and vegetative buds is that lateral meristems do not arise in the axils of the floral parts, as they do in the axils of foliage leaves. Flower clusters. Like vegetative shoots, all flowers arise as buds and similarly may be either terminal or lateral, that is, a flower bud may arise at the apex of a stem or in the axil of a leaf. Although the leaves that bear flowers in their axils may be well developed, more commonly they are reduced to scales. These are designated as bracts. Flowers may be solitary or in clusters. A cluster of flowers is an inflorescence. Of these, there are two kinds, determinate and indeterminate. Where a terminal flower and axillary flowers are borne in the same cluster, the formation of the terminal flower checks the growth of the stem, so that the oldest flowers are at the top or in the center of the cluster. Such an inflorescence is determinate. Where all the flowers are axillary, the growth of the stem is not checked, and the oldest flowers are at the base or on the outside of the cluster. This results in an indeterminate inflorescence. Of the many special kinds of inflorescences, the cyme is the representative determinate type, while the common indeterminate ones are the spike, catkin, 52

raceme, panicle, corymb, umbel and head. Where many small flowers are closely crowded into a very compact inflorescence, their bracts may form an involucre. In a few clusters bracts are entirely lacking. Useful flowers. Flowers are universally esteemed for their ornamental value, thousands of species being cultivated for this purpose alone.Many have an attractive fragance and are used in making perfumes. Attar of roses is an essential oil derived from several European species of roses. It is a valuable and highly prized perfume that is usually mixed with inferior oils. Other flowers used in making perfumes include lavender, violet, jasmine, carnation, rosemary, hyacinth, heliotrope, lily-of-the-valley, orange, mignonette, jonquil, tuberose and many others. Cheap perfumes are made synthetically. Few flowers are used directly as food by man. Cauliflowers consist of a head of abortive flowers, broccoli of a cluster of flower buds. In broccoli the flower stalks contain most of the food. The globe artichoke is an unopened floral head somewhat resembling that of a thistle. The edible portions comprise the involucral bracts and the receptacle. Honey, made by bees from the nectar that they gather from flowers, is a nutritious human food. Flowers especially valuable as sources of nectar for bees include alfalfa, white clover, buckwheat, orange and sage. Saffron is a yellow dye used to color and flavor foods and medicinal preparations. It is obtained from the dried stigmas of the saffron crocus. The flowers of chamomile and hops are used in medicine, but the principal use of hops is in the brewing industry. Pyrethrum powder is an insecticide obtained from the flowers of several species of chrysanthemus. Cloves, a valuable spice and source of clove oil, consists of the unopened flower buds of the clove tree. Useful fruits. The list of edible fruits is a long one. Compared to tropical fruits, those of temperate regions have, in general, only slight nutritive value, their vitamins, mineral salts, and organic acids. Common fruits of temperate regions, including those used as vegetables, are the currant, gooseberry, apple, pear, quince, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, strawberry, raspberry, string bean, grape, cranberry, blueberry, huckleberry, tomato, eggplant, bell pepper, pumpkin, squash, melon, cucumber, and watermelon. Common tropical fruits, including those used as vegetables, are the date, pineapple, banana, plantain, breadfruit, fig, cherimoya, custard apple, avocado, loquat, tamaring, orange, lemon, line, grapefruit, mango, litchi, jujube, mangosteen, granadilla, papaya, pomegranate, guava, sapodilla, persimmon, olive, and chayotte. Both black and white pepper, widely used condiments, are obtained from the dried unripe fruits of the pepper vine (Piper nigrum). Red pepper comes from the fruits of capsicum. It is used for flavoring foods and in medicine. All spice, or pimento, also used in culinary flavoring, is made from the unripe fruits of the allspice tree. Other fruits used for flavoring purposes include anise, caraway, coriander, dill and fennel. These fruits are so small that they are generally called seeds. Vanilla, a favorite flavoring material, is obtained from the fruits of a tropical climbing orchid. An inferior product, much more widely used is made synthetically from clove oil. The fruits and seeds of the African oil palm furnish an oil that is used in making soap and candles. Olive oil, obtained from the fruits of the olive, is an important human food. Inferior grades are used in making soap. Opium is the dried juice of the 53

capsules of the opium poppy. Morphine, a powerful drug, is one of its derivatives.

54

FARM EQUIPMENT
Tillage equipment can be divided into two general classes, namely (1) primary tillage equipment and (2) secondary tillage equipment. In the first group various kinds and types of moldbroad, disk and chisel ploughs are included. Secondary tillage equipment includes harrows, packers, cultivators rotary hoes and special tools for surface tillage to conserve moisture and destroy weeds. Planting equipment is considered to be any power-operated device used to place seed or plant parts in or on the soil for propagation and production of food, fibre and feed crops. It includes row-crop planters and broadcast and drill planters. Row-crop planters may be trailing, front tractor-mounted and reartractor mounted. Equipment for placing growing plants or plant parts in the soil is called a transplanter. Cultivators are used to stir the surface of the soil at a shallow depth. The gangs of the cultivator can be equipped with various sweeps and shovels. Sprayers and dusters are used in controlling insect pest and plant diseases. There are hydraulic, hydro-pneumatic and airplane sprayers. Fertilizing equipment includes manure spreaders, granular-fertilizer distributors and equipment for applying liquid fertilizers. Harvesting equipment includes grain, corn, cotton, root, hay and forage machines. Grain harvesting is usually performed by the combined harvesterthresher or combine. There are two types of combines, the pull or tractordrown combine and the self-propelled combine. The main corn harvesting machine is the corn-picker. When this machine removes the husks it is called a picker-husker. Some pickers shell the corn in the field. They are called picker-shellers. Trailing-corn combine is also used in harvesting corn. Root harvesting equipment comprises potato harvesters, sugar beet harvesters and others. Hay harvesting equipment consists of machines necessary in making hay, while forage harvesting equipment consists of machines required for placing green succulent material into silos. The main machines required in making hay are mowers, rakes, presses, crushers and windrowers. Field forage harvesters can be divided into the general types: field chopper-harvesters and field-flail forage harvesters. Finally, crop-processing equipment used to process harvested crops includes stalk-cutter-shredders, shellers, feed grinders, crop dryers and feed mixers. One of the greatest problems of the farm-equipment is the transmission of power. There are several methods of transmitting power: direct drive, belts, sprocket wheels and chain, gears, sgafts and universal joints, flexible shafting and power take-off shafts. The principal component parts of machines are: cam, valve, push rod, bearings, bolts, screws, washers and springs.

55

PLANT PATHOLOGY
WHAT IS THE PATHOGEN? The significance of the word pathogen can be worded out from its two parts. It derives from two Greek words, pathos meaning suffering, and genesis origin. An agency that gives birth to or generates suffering is a pathogen. A pathogen is an irritant. Disease is a process. A pathogen is the irritant that keeps it going. Parasite, the second half of the pathogen-parasite couplet can be discussed under the coexistence problem of pathogen and host. However pathogen and parasite cannot be equated as they often are. WHAT IS PATHOGENESIS? Because a pathogen is an agent that generates suffering the plant pathogenesis is the process of generating suffering. Pathogenesis is the chain of events in the casualty of disease. It includes the action of the pathogen, the susceptibility of the host, and the impact of ancillary factors. That quality, that property, that ability of a pathogen to generate disease is pathogenicity. This is an abstract that carries no implication of how disease is caused. We are unable to find any substantive difference between pathogenism and pathogenicity and we conclude that they are synonyms. THE KINDS OF PATHOGENS The agencies that generate suffering are numerous and they are diverse. One distinguishes animate pathogens and inanimate pathogens. The word pathogen is a more comprehensive term than that however, and its very origin enables it to cover a wider range of things than microorganisms. If a pathogen is an agent that generates suffering it cannot be limited to microbial agents that generate diseases. It is a generic term covering all agencies that generate disease. A. Animate pathogens The animate pathogens are usually microbial, but many diseases are caused by small animals such as nematodes, arachnids, and insects. B. Inanimate pathogens Diseases were discovered for which no living germ could be found. More of these diseases have described. Some were known long before the germ theory. In human medicine we have for example scurvy diabetes and pellagra. In plant pathology we have whiptail of cauliflower and apple scald as examples. The causes of these diseases are inanimate. There may be those which argue that a deficiency of molybdenum is not a pathogen. C. Virus pathogens The viruses are given a class of their own. They were first investigated by non-mycological plant pathologists. By now they have become scientifically very important. Journals of virology have been introduced. Eventually, we may come to have university departments of virology. PROVING PATHOGENICITY The proof of the pathogenicity of a given irritant may be exceedingly difficult. Generally speaking, a disease is identified by its own special symptoms and these are reasonably constant in type and magnitude. This is called the 56

symptom picture or syndrome. The diagnostician infers the nature of the disease from the mature of the symptoms and guesses what pathogen is involved. If he suspects that a parasite is the pathogen he examines the tissue macroscopically or microscopically for bacteria, fungus spores, fruiting bodies, mycella, insects, arachnids, and nematodes. If he suspects that the pathogen is a mineral deficiency or excess, he runs leaf or soil analyses for the suspected element. If the suspected pathogen is invariably associated with the disease or with the symptom picture, he is reasonably sure he is on the track. If possible, he cultures the suspected organism, notes its characteristics in pure culture, and inoculates it onto healthy hosts. Similarly, diseases the to mineral deficiencies and chronic diseases due to exercises of such substances as SO2 and fluorides can be investigated an pathogenicity proved by adding or subtracting the suspected agent. THE COEXISTENCE PROBLEM IN DISEASE Because most diseases derive from animate pathogens, one of the big problems of plant pathology is to understand the nature of the coexistence of the two organisms, host and pathogen. Coexistence for other organisms seems to have essentially all the basic problems of coexistence for people. At least the problems are closely analogous. Living together inevitably involves a certain amount of conflict which varies from the benign to the severe. A. Food procurement problems of the pathogen - The animate pathogen has problems of food procurement. Most animate pathogens have no chlorophyll and hence, they must procure previously elaborated food. They may feed on dead organic matter and kill the host to get it, if they may be so finally adapted to their hosts, that the host hardly knows it is producing food for two. Parasitism is a word bandied about in plant pathology. It becomes a very useful word it is used in the context of food procurement. Parasitism is the ability of the one organism to procure food from another. If he host is damaged, thereby, then we say that the organism has a faculty for pathogenicity. It can generate diseases. B. Grades of commensalism The coexistence of two organisms is commensalism. This means dining together at the same table. The word comes from Latin words com, together and mensa, table. If the commensalism is cooperative and both contribute to the food supply, we have symbiosis. If one partner supplies all the food and the other contributes nothing, we have parasitism. If one produces damage while it feeds we have pathogenism. In the plant kingdom, we can find examples of all grades. The fungus and the algs of a lichen coexist symbiotically. The olium fungus and the so called virus of healthy potatoes coexist with their host parasitically, not pathogenically. Or Spanish moss coexist with a tree as pathogens but not as prasites. Root rot fungi are very close to this situation. They coexist generally as pathogenes but not as parasites. They must kill the host before they can feed on it. Probably most organisms coexist with their hosts as both parasites and pathogens. 57

HOW SCIENCE CONTRIBUTES TO


AGRICULTURE
One science may contribute to another science. What sciences may contribute to agriculture? It is an easy subject to study the life of the animals and plants? - It is not easy because animals and plants have a very amazing structure. They are like chemical factories with billions of cells that do the work, not by means of mechanical devices but with chemical reactions. Man has succeeded to develop a vast knowledge through years of observations, experimentation and application of known facts. The science that deals with the study of the living matter both plant and animal is called biology. Biology is such a broad field so that it becomes necessary to divide it into two major areas: zoology and botany. Zoology is that portion of biology which relates to animals as distinguished from that portion - botany - which is concerned with plants, whether in a living or in a fossil state. There are many specialised subdivisions within the area of botany and zoology. The science of anatomy gives us information on the exact form, position size and relationship of the various structures of the body in health. The science dealing with the minute or microscopic structures of tissues and organs that make up the body is called histology or microanatomy. It is not enough to know the structures of the body. We must know how the various parts of the body function and this leads to the branch of sciences called physiology. Physiology, as it is well-known, is concerned with how the human/animal body normally functions, how various body activities work together to maintain the body healthy, it deals with the activities of individual cells as well as with abnormal body functions and activities. There are many various branches that depend upon the study of anatomy and physiology as a basis. For instance: Pathology, the field that deals with the cause of disease and deviation from normal function and structure. Genetics - stresses inheritance and factors involved in heredity. Biochemistry is the study of chemical changes which take place in living organisms. Biophysics is the study of the physical properties of parts of a living body. We must also mention other sciences such as: Geography, the science of the earth and its life, as agriculture depends mainly on weather: Economics, the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of things. All these various fields of study are interrelated and interdependent. The contribution of different sciences to agriculture is great. With their help plant and animal diseases, as well as harmful insects can be controlled. These improvements cause higher and higher yields.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES IN ROMANIA


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ROMANIAN BIOLOGISTS Towards the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century the interest for biological sciences grew ever stronger in our country. A number of young and enthusiastic Romanian biologists came home abroad. Thorough didactic and scientific knowledge characterized them. Mention should be made of names as: Victor Babes, Ion Cantacuzino, Nicolae Leon, Grigore Antipa, Emil Racovita. The organization and the utilization of their investigations were of utmost importance. The results of their work were published both in Romanian and foreign languages. The first centres of zoological investigations were founded. Through their lectures, dissertations, articles and books they spread the idea of evolution. One of the outstanding representatives of Romanian microbiology was Dr. V. Babes (1854-1926). He studied medicine in Budapest and Vienna. After specializing in the domain of bacteriology in Paris, Vienna, Berlin and Munchen V. Babes founded the first bacteriological institute and introduced the discipline of microbiology at the Bucharest Faculty of Medicine. Together with a French scientist he published the first text-book in the world of microbiology that was awarded a prize by the French Academy. His contributions in the field of bacteriology, anatomy, pathology and immunology cannot be overemphasised. He discovered a group of pathogenic agents called babesia that caused various diseases in domestic animals. He discovered 50 new species of microbes and made a minute description of them. V. Babes was one of the first scientists who introduced Darwinism in microbiology. On this basis he established a series of new ideas referring to the influence of the life medium on microbes. Through repeated series of tests V. Babes proves that the same microbe can cause various diseases, it can be harmless or strongly virulent, according to the environment. The development of the disease on the mutual effect between the microbe and the organism attacked. V. Babes was not only a great scientist, but also a great patriot who had a deep love for his people and who permanently tried to improve the health of his people. A similar activity was displayed by Dr. Ion Cantacuzino (1863-1934), an outstanding representative and organiser of scientific research, the founder of the Institute for antitoxic serum vaccine that was named after him. He undertook important investigations on immunity, considered by him as being a common trait of organisms, a protective measure against infections and a result of selection. The basis of teaching and research work in animal physiology was laid by professor Ioan Athanasiu (1866-1926). He was specially interested in digestion, respiration, circulation of the blood and the nervous system. His lectures were based on materialistic principles. The founder of Parasitology in our country was Nicolae Leon (18631931). Owing to these efforts Darwinism was introduced in the curriculum of our secondary schools. His lectures were based on the principles of the theory of evolution with a special emphasis on philogenetic relationship among the species, as well as on the influence of the environmental factors. Grigore Antipa was another important representative of Romanian biology. 59

G. Antipa organized and modernized the Museum of Natural History G. Antipa. It was for the first time in the world that diorama was introduced in museums. Life was thus represented in its specific medium (the prairie, savannah, swamp, marsh, dessert). The precious collections and laboratories of the Museum of Natural History largely contributed to the spreading of biological knowledge. Emil Racovita (1868-1947) the most outstanding Romanian biologist was the founder of a new branch of knowledge biospeology. He studied law, natural history and anthropology. Due to his brilliant mind and excellent results he was asked to join the South Pole expedition with the Belgica in 1897. He spent two years in the world of ice and permanent dangers. Owing to his high moral attitude he became the heart of the whole expedition. He worked very hard and made numerous observations concerning the life of penguins, seals and whales. In 1904 the great biologist began to investigate another domain - the caves. His researches were carried out in different countries of Europe and North America.

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