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RECRUITING AND SELECTION PROCESS

Project submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF B S!"ESS A#M!"!STRAT!O" DECLARATION


I hereby declare, to the best of my knowledge and belief, that this project report titled, RECRUITING AND SELECTION PROCESS submitted by me to the department of Business Administration, Osmania University on 2008 is a bonafide work undertaken by me it is not submitted to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree diploma / certificate or published any time before

Date : P a!e:

ABSTRACT
!he human resources are the most important assets of an organi"ation !he success or failure of an organi"ation is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working there in #ithout positive and creative contributions from people, organi"ations cannot progress and prosper In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organi"ation, therefore, they need to recruit people with re$uisite skills, $ualifications and e%perience #hile doing so, they have to keep the present as well as the future re$uirements of the organi"ation in mind I! &ecruitment is recruitment of I! 'rofessionals for various I! (kill sets like (oftware )evelopers, )atabase *dministrators, (ystem and +etworking ,ngg etc at various levels i e junior middle and senior positions -iring a professional by first understanding the e%act skill set and then matching it with the various applicants resumes and then short listing and screening the best fit out of the lot is what is re$uired understanding of all the I! technology is must and other determining factors like education background certifications skills and domain type of industry work e%perience etc for hiring or recruiting a right professional .ethodology used to collect data is both primary data/0uestionnaire,

interviews1 and secondary data/data from books ,journals, websites1 !he companies follows a standard policy to recruit employees !he e%isting recruitment policy is ade$uate to recruit various types of personnel but modern methods of recruitment and selection should be adopted to be more effective !he present recruitment policy is fle%ible enough as it has undergone several changes from time to time to suit the re$uirements of the management In the companies, both internal 2 e%ternal sources of recruitment are used

AC"NO#LEDGE$ENT

It is my proud privilege to e%press my deep gratitude and indeptness to all those who enabled me to complete my project

I would like to e%press my sincere gratitude and thanks to our beloved 3333 for his constant encouragement and invaluable suggestions throughout the course

.y sincere gratitude to 333 for their valuable and constant interest regarding the progress of the project work throughout the period of study and who guided me e$ually in completing the project work

I am e%tremely grateful to my family, friends and all my well wishers, who have given me immense support in completing the project successfully

CONTENTS

C%a&ter List o( (i'ures

Tit e a 4low chart of recruitment process b 'rocess of selection c )ata analysis figures

Pa'e 22 25 66780 5

/91 /21

Introdu!tion A)out t%e study a &esearch :bjective b &esearch .ethodology c +eed for study d =imitations of study 92 9; 9< 96 98

/;1 /<1

Introdu!tion to Re!ruitment * se e!tion &ro!ess Data Ana ysis a 0uestionnaire b *nalysis

68 68 60 66 82

/61 /81 /51

Summary * !on! usion +indin's Bi) io'ra&%y

C%a&ter , INTRODUCTION
!he human resources are the most important assets of an organi"ation !he success or failure of an organi"ation is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working there in #ithout positive and creative contributions from people, organi"ations cannot progress and prosper In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organi"ation, therefore, they need to recruit people with re$uisite skills, $ualifications and e%perience #hile doing so, they have to keep the present as well as the future re$uirements of the organi"ation in mind

&ecruitment is distinct from ,mployment and (election :nce the re$uired number and kind of human resources are determined, the management has to find the places where the re$uired human resources are/will be available and also find the means of attracting them towards the organi"ation before selecting suitable candidates for jobs *ll this process is generally known as recruitment (ome people use the term >&ecruitment? for employment !hese two are not one and the same &ecruitment is only one of the steps in the entire employment process (ome others use the term recruitment for selection !hese are not the same either !echnically speaking, the function of recruitment precedes the selection function and it includes only finding, developing the sources of prospective employees and attracting them to apply for jobs in an organi"ation, whereas the selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate to the job out of the candidates attracted /i e , recruited1 4ormal definition of recruitment would give clear cut idea about the function of recruitment I! &ecruitment is recruitment of I! 'rofessionals for various I! (kill sets like (oftware )evelopers, )atabase *dministrators, (ystem and +etworking ,ngg etc at various levels i e junior middle and senior positions

-iring a professional by first understanding the e%act skill set and then matching it with the various applicants resumes and then short listing and screening the best fit out of the lot is what is re$uired understanding of all the I! technology is must and other determining factors like education background certifications skills and domain type of industry work e%perience etc for hiring or recruiting a right professional DE+INITION &ecruitment is defined as, >a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the re$uirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in ade$uate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce ? ,dwin @ 4lippo defined recruitment as >the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organi"ation ? &ecruitment is a Alinking functionB7joining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs It is a Ajoining processB in that it tries to bring together job seekers and employer with a view to encourage the former to apply for a job with the latter

In order to attract people for the jobs, the organi"ation must communicate the position in such a way that job seekers respond !o be cost effective, the recruitment process should attract $ualified applicants and provide enough information for un$ualified persons to self7 select themselves out !hus, the recruitment process begins when new recruits are sought

and ends when their applications are submitted !he result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected

SELECTION Introdu!tion !he si"e of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of other factors influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of the company !hrough the process of recruitment the company tries to locate prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels &ecruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection De(inition !o select mean to choose (election is the process of picking individuals who have relevant $ualifications to fill jobs in an organi"ation !he basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of $ualified candidates PURPOSES AND I$PORTANCE !he general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially $ualified job candidates (pecifically, the purposes are toC )etermine the present and future re$uirements of the organi"ation in conjunction with its personnel7planning and job7analysis activities Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost -elp increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibly, under $ualified or over$ualified job applicants -elp reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected, will leave the organi"ation only after a short period of time @egin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates

Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company )evelop an organi"ational culture that attracts competent people to the company (earch or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the companyBs values )evise methodologies for assessing psychological traits (earch for talent globally and not just within the company )esign entry pay that competes on $uality but not on $uantum *nticipate and find people for positions that do not e%ist yet Increase organi"ational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term ,valuate the effectiveness of various recruiting techni$ues and sources for all types of job applicants

&ecruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company, and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it * well7planned and well7managed recruiting effort will result in high7$uality applicants, whereas, a hapha"ard and piecemeal effort will result in mediocre ones -igh7$uality employees cannot be selected when better candidates do not know of job openings, are not interested in working for the company and do not apply !he recruitment process should inform $ualified individuals about employment opportunities, create a positive image of the company, provide enough information about the jobs so that applicants can make comparisons with their $ualifications and interests, and generate enthusiasm among the best candidates so that they will apply for the vacant positions !he negative conse$uences of a poor recruitment process speak volumes about its role in an organi"ation !he failure to generate an ade$uate number of reasonably $ualified applicants can prove costly in several ways It can greatly complicate the selection process and may

result in lowering of selection standards !he poor $uality of selection means e%tra cost on training and supervision 4urthermore, when recruitment fails to meet the organi"ational needs for talent, a typical response is to raise entry7level pay scales !his can distort traditional wage and salary relationships in the organi"ation, resulting in avoidable conse$uences !hus, the effectiveness of a recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources that must be e%pended on other -& activities and their ultimate success !he purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the re$uirements of the job in an organi"ation best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired !o meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, $ualifications, skills, e%perience, etc the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates !he most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process -ow well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and $uality of employeeBs work *ny mismatched in this regard can cost an organi"ation a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration -e may even circulate Ahot newsB and juicy bits of negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run ,ffective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the AfitB between people the job !he overall aim of the recruitment and selection process is to obtain the number and $uality of employees that are re$uired in order for the business to achieve its objectives

ABOUT T-E STUD.


RESEARC- OB/ECTI0ES Syno&sis: .ain objective of this project is to find out the recruitment and selection process , how the candidates are recruited ,on what basis is the selection process depends and what are the skill set re$uired to do particular job i e getting the >&ight person for the &ight job at the &ight time? *ny organi"ation attempts to select the applicant whose $ualification is most closely related to those re$uired for successful performance of the major duties and responsibilities of the position

4inding out the methodology used in the recruitment 2 selection process i e *ssessment of clientBs needs, advertisements, e%ecutive search etc

*nd also finding out the internal recruitment process i e

!he e%isting employees

with in the organi"ation are selected rather than employing some one from outside because e%isting employees have greater opportunity to advance their careers in the organi"ation 4inding out the e%amination pattern for first level of screening the candidates 2 to what (tandards of paper is set

RESEARC- $ET-ODOLOG.

RESEARC- DESIGN !he research design used for the study of recruitment procedure is descriptive in nature AREA O+ STUD. !his is done with the primary objective of ascertaining the recruitment process in I! sector SA$PLING !he sample includes all the -& recruiters of different organi"ations of I! companies !he respondents are basically -& recruiters for whom a $uestionnaire has been prepared (ample si"e is 60 !he sampling techni$ue that has been used is simple and random basis $ET-OD O+ ANAL.SIS (tatistical tools like charts, graphs and tables were used to represent and interpret the data DATA COLLECTION $ET-ODS )ata collection is a process of obtaining valuable and reliable information for the purpose of research !he data was collected mainly by the following methodsC ,1 PRI$AR. DATA a1 2uestionnaire: and selection

0uestionnaire method is one of the common methods where a $uestionnaire is submitted across people and they are asked to fill it with his /her opinions !he $uestionnaire consists of both open ended and closed type of $uestions 0uestionnaire has been prepared which has got filled up by the -& recruiters of companies e g /#I'&:, D:E+IF*+!, I@., (:+*!* (:4!#*&,, (*'7=*@(1 this has followed by short interview by -& manager is taken to gather additional information )1 Intervie3s: Interviews were conducted to collect the opinions of the senior managers regarding the recruitment process * short interview is taken with -& manager to gather information 41 SECONDAR. DATA *vailability of secondary data in the form of journals, manuals and books on recruitment were used as secondary data

NEED +OR STUD.

,very organi"ation re$uires certain number of people to fulfill the purpose of its e%istence In the present day scenario, the organi"ations having competent employees can only survive In order to have efficient people, utmost care should be taken in the recruitment process

Gobs play an important role in every organi"ation -uman resources are responsible and accountable for the work assigned to them #ith so many new companies coming up, -& department plays an important in every firm

&ecruitment itself is $uite a tricky and complicated process * good planning should be made so that it attracts right kind of persons from which the best can be selected proper recruitment can be done only through efficient and skilled managers If the management is not good enough with regard to recruitment process, then it cannot be a successful company

LI$ITATIONS O+ STUD.

9 2 ;

'roject duration is limited to <6 days only (ome of the respondents could not spared much time to answer the $uestionnaire because of lack of their valuable time Domplete information has not revealed by the companies for administrative reasons

C-APTER,

RECRUIT$ENT &ecruitment is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment !hus, recruitment and selection process is concerned with the identification of possible sources of human resource supply and tapping those sources RECRUIT$ENT POLIC. &ecruitment policy of any organi"ation is derived from the personnel policy of the same organi"ation In other words the former is a part of the latter -owever, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the governmentBs reservation policy, policy regarding sons of soil, etc , personnel policies of other organi"ations regarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections, women, etc &ecruitment policy should commit itself to the organi"ationBs personnel policy like enriching the organi"ationBs human resources or servicing the community by absorbing the retrenched or laid7off employees or casual/temporary employees or dependents of present/former employees, etc !he following factors should be taken into consideration in formulating recruitment policy !hey areC7 I.'*D! :4 ',&(:++,= ':=IDI,( :+ &,D&UI!.,+! ':=IDI,( &ecruitment policies are mostly drawn from personnel policies of the organi"ation *ccording to )ale Hoder and 'aul ) (tandohar, general personnel policies provide a wide variety of guidelines to be spelt out in recruitment policy *fter formulation of the

recruitment policies, the management has to decide whether to centrali"e or decentrali"e the recruitment function

CENTRALISED 05s DECENTRALISED RECRUIT$ENT &ecruitment practices vary from one organi"ation to another (ome organi"ations like commercial banks resort to centrali"ed recruitment while some organi"ations like the Indian &ailway resort to decentrali"ed recruitment practices 'ersonnel department at the central office performs all the functions of recruitment in case of centrali"ed recruitment and personnel departments at unit level/"onal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or "one $ERITS O+ CENTRALISED RECRUIT$ENT *verage cost of recruitment per candidate/unit should be relatively less due to economies of scale It would have more e%pertise available to it It can ensure broad uniformity among human resources of various units/"ones in respect of education, skill, knowledge, talent, etc It would generally be above malpractices, abuse of powers, favoritism, bias, etc It would facilitate interchangeability of staff among various units/"ones It enables the line managers of various units and "ones to concentrate on their operational activities by relieving them from the recruiting functions It enables the organi"ation to have centrali"ed selection procedure, promotional and transfer procedure, etc

It ensures the most effective and suitable placement to candidates It enables centrali"ed training programmes which further brings uniformity and minimi"es average cost of staff

$ERITS O+ DECENTRALISED RECRUIT$ENT !he unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places wherein normally gets the suitable candidates *s such the cost of recruitment would be relatively less !he unit gets most suitable candidates as it is well aware of the re$uirements of the job regarding culture, traditional, family background aspects, local factors, social factors, etc Units can recruit candidates as and when they are re$uired without any delay !he units would enjoy freedom in finding out, developing the sources, in selecting and employing the techni$ues to stimulate the candidates !he unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information, control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment !he unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over the employees it recruits rather than on employees selected by the central recruitment agency @oth the systems of recruitment would suffer from their own demerits -ence, the management has to weigh both the merits and demerits of each system before making a final decision about centrali"ing or decentrali"ing the recruitment *lternatively management may decentrali"e the recruitment of certain categories of employees preferably middle and

top level managerial personnel and centrali"e the recruitment of other categories of employeeBs preferably lower level positions in view of the nature of the jobs and suitability of those systems for those categories of positions !he management has to find out and develop the sources of recruitment after deciding upon centrali"ing or decentrali"ing the recruitment function

!he &ecruitment and selection process consist of si% stagesC Sta'e , : A'ree to va!an!y to )e (i ed Understand the job Sta'e 4 : /o) ana ysis (ort out the knowledge, skills and aptitudes needed to do the job Sta'e 6 : Attra!tin' a (ie d o( !andidates )eciding where suitable applicants can be found and persuading them to apply Sta'e 7 : Sortin' !andidates .ethods of finding out if candidates have re$uired knowledge, skills, aptitudes Sta'e 8 : Se e!tion intervie3s .ake actual choice Sta'e 9 : +ina y to or'ani:ation Introducing the new recruit to organi"ation, ensuring he /she will start with enthusiastic attitude and settle down $uickly It is important to appreciate that recruitment is a continuous process because of C (taff departures/e g retirements,sackings,resignations1

Dhanges in business re$uirements /e g new products,markets,e%panded operations1

Dhanges in business location /a relocation often triggers the need for substantial recruitment1

'romotions

+ACTORS A++ECTING RECRUIT$ENT !he following are the 2 important factors affecting &ecruitmentC7 91 I+!,&+*= 4*D!:&( &ecruiting policy !emporary and part7time employees &ecruitment of local citi"ens DompanyBs si"e Dost of recruitment DompanyBs growth and e%pansion

21

,3!,&+*= 4*D!:&( (upply and )emand factors Unemployment &ate =abour7market conditions 'olitical and legal considerations

(ocial factors ,conomic factors !echnological factors

+LO# C-ART O+ RECRUIT$ENT* SELECTION PROCESS:

If a firm has a poor image in the market, many of the prospective candidates may not even apply for vacancies advertised by the firm If the job is not attractive, $ualified people may not even apply *ny job that is viewed as boring, ha"ardous, an%iety producing, low7paying, or lacking in promotion potential seldom will attract a $ualified pool of applicants &ecruiting efforts re$uire money (ometimes because of limited resources, organi"ations may not like to carry on the recruiting efforts for long periods of time, this can, ultimately, constrain a recruiterBs effort to attract the best person for the job Eovernment policies often come in the way of recruiting people as per the rules of the company or on the basis of merit/seniority, etc 4or e%ample, reservations to specific groups /such as scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward castes, physically handicapped and disabled persons, e%7 servicemen, etc 1 have to be observed as per constitutional provisions while filling up vacancies in government corporations, departmental undertakings, local bodies, $uasi7 government organi"ations, etc I+)UD,.,+!( :rgani"ational inducements are all the positive features and benefits offered by an organi"ation that serves to attract job applicants to the organi"ation !hree inducements need specific mention here, they areC DompensationC (tarting salaries, fre$uency of pay increases, incentives and fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to potential employees Dareer :pportunitiesC !hese help the present employees to grow personally and professionally and also attract good people to the organi"ation !he feeling that the company takes care of employee career aspirations serves as a powerful inducements to potential employees

Image or &eputationC 4actors that affect an organi"ationBs reputation include its general treatment of employees, the nature and $uality of its products and services and its participation in worthwhile social endeavors

CORPORATE $ISSION, OB/ECTI0ES, STRATEGIES AND TACTICS ;$OST< Dorporations have started linking their .ission, :bjectives, (trategies and !actics /.:(!1 to the functions of recruitment and selection !he economic liberali"ations and conse$uent competition through $uality and services necessitated the companies to search for and attract competent human resources Dorporations focusing on new business development will have to seek entrepreneurial abilities, companies planning to withdraw from diversifications must look for pragmatists and companies chasing growth alliances should employ people comfortable in different cultural backgrounds *bove all, companies must hire for the future, anticipating jobs that may not be in e%istence yet &ecruitment managers must focus for attitudes and approaches that fit the corporate goals and culture

CASE STUD.:= #-IC- IS $ORE I$PORTANT>: IRECRUITING ;OR< RETAINING E J ,lectronics =td is an internationally reputed electronics firm It attracted employees from internationally reputed institutes and industries by offering high salaries, perks, etc It had advertised for the position of an ,lectronics engineer some years back +early 960 candidates working in various electronics firm applied for the job .r (ashidhar, an ,lectronics ,ngineer Eraduate from Indian Institute of !echnology with 6 years of working e%perience in a small electronics firm was selected among those interviewed !he interview board recommended an enhancement in his salary by &s 600 more than his present salary at

his re$uest -e was very happy and was congratulated by his previous employer for his brilliant interview performance and good luck .r (ashidhar joined the company with great enthusiasm and also found his job to be $uite comfortable and challenging one -e found that his colleagues and superiors were friendly and co7operative @ut this didnBt last long *fter one year of his service, he slowly learnt about a number of unpleasant stories about the company, management, the superior7 subordinate relations, rate of employee turnover, etc @ut still he decided to continue with the promise that he made in the interview -e wanted to please and change the attitude of management through his performance, commitment and dedication =ooking at his great contributions and efforts, the management got the impression that he is well settled will remain in the company for a long time *fter sometime they all started taking undue advantage of him and overloaded him with multifarious jobs and thereby ridded over him *s a result, his freedom in deciding and e%ecuting was cut down to si"eK his colleagues started assigning their responsibilities to him Donse$uently, there were imbalances in his family, social and organi"ation life It was $uite surprising to the general manager to see the resignation letter of .r (ashidhar one fine morning !he general manager failed to convince him to withdraw his resignation !he general manager wanted to appoint a committee to go into the matter immediately, but dropped the idea later so that the companyBs image doesnBt get spoiled ANAL.SIS !hus, from this case study it is clear that retaining is much more important than recruiting #hatBs the use and benefits of recruiting $uality employees if they cannot be retained by the organi"ation in a proper manner !he purpose of recruitment is fulfilled when the employees selected from a pool of $ualified applicants are retained in the company by keeping them satisfied in all aspects !hey must be provided with better working

conditions, better pay scales, incentives, recognition, promotion, bonus, fle%ible working hours, etc !hey should treat the employees as co7owners and partners of the company

SOURCES O+ RECRUIT$ENT
!he sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categoriesC internal sources and e%ternal sources @oth have their own merits and demerits =etBs e%amine these Interna Sour!es:= 'ersons who are already working in an organi"ation constitute the Ainternal sourcesB &etrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of deceased employees #henever any vacancy arises, someone from

may also constitute the internal sources

within the organi"ation is upgraded, transferred, promoted or even demoted E?terna Sour!es:= ,%ternal sources lie outside an organi"ation -ere the organi"ation can have the services of C /a1 ,mployees working in other organi"ationsK /b1 Gobs aspirants registered with employment e%changesK /c1 (tudents from reputed educational institutionsK /d1 Dandidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and e%isting employeesK /e1 Dandidates forwarded by search firms and contractorsK /f1 Dandidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organi"ationK and /g1 Unsolicited applications/ walk7ins $erits and Demerits o( @Re!ruitin' &eo& e (rom @#it%inA $erits: 91 ,conomicalC !he cost of recruiting internal candidates is minimal +o e%penses are

incurred on advertising 21 (uitableC !he organi"ation can pick the right candidates having the re$uisite skills !he candidate can choose a right vacancy where their talents can be fully utili"ed ;1 &eliableC !he organi"ation has the knowledge about suitability of a candidate for a

position AJnown devils are better than unknown angelsLB

<1

(atisfyingC * policy of preferring people from within offers regular promotional

avenues for employees It motivates them to work hard and earn promotions !hey will work with loyalty commitment and enthusiasm Demerits: 91 =imited DhoiceC !he organi"ation is forced to select candidates from a limited pool It

may have to sacrifice $uality and settle down for less $ualified candidates 21 InbreedingC It discourages entry for talented people, available outside an organi"ation

,%isting employees may fail to behave in innovative ways and inject necessary dynamism to enterprise activities ;1 InefficiencyC 'romotions based on length of service rather than merit, may prove to be a

blessing for inefficient candidate !hey do not work hard and prove their worth <1 @one of contentionC &ecruitment from within may lead to infighting among employees

aspiring for limited, higher level positions in an organi"ation *s years roll by, the race for premium positions may end up in a bitter race

$ET-ODS O+ RECRUIT$ENT
!he following are the most commonly used methods of recruiting people

INTERNAL $ET-ODS: 91Promotions and Trans(ers : !his is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and promotions * transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one job to another It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities, working conditions, etc , but not necessarily salary 'romotion, on the other hand, involves movement of employee from a lower level position to a higher level position accompanied by /usually1 changes in duties,

responsibilities, status and value

:rgani"ations generally prepare badli lists or a central (uch persons are

pool of persons from which vacancies can be filled for manual jobs

usually passed on to various departments, depending on internal re$uirements If a person remains on such rolls for 2<0 days or more, he gets the status of a permanent employee as per the Industrial )isputes *ct and is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits, including provident fund, gratuity, retrenchment compensation 2 /o) Postin': Gob posting is another way of hiring people from within In this method, the organi"ation publicises job opening on bulletin boards, electronic method and similar outlets :ne of the important advantages of this method is that it offers a chance to highly $ualified applicants working within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company without looking for greener pastures outside ; Em& oyee Re(erra s ,mployee referral means using personal contacts to locate job opportunities It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant !he logic behind employee referral is that >it takes one to know one? ,mployees working in the

organi"ation, in this case, are encouraged to recommend the names of their friends, working in other organi"ations for a possible vacancy in the near future In fact, this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive Information !echnology industry nowadays Dompanies offer rich rewards also to employees whose recommendations are

accepted I after the routine screening and e%amining process is over I and job offers e%tended to the suggested candidates *s a goodwill gestures, companies also consider the names recommended by unions from time to time

EBTERNAL;DIRECT<$ET-ODS:

9 Cam&us Re!ruitment : It is a method of recruiting by visiting and participating in college campuses and their placement centers -ere the recruiters visit reputed educational institutions such as II!s,

II.s, colleges and universities with a view to pick up job aspirants having re$uisite technical or professional skills Gob seekers are provided information about the jobs and the recruiters, in turn, get a snapshot of job seekers through constant interchange of information with respective institutions * preliminary screening is done within the campus and the short listed students are then subjected to the remainder of the selection process In view of the growing demand for young managers, most reputed organi"ations /such as -industan =ever =td , 'roctor 2 Dable, Ditibank, (tate @ank of India, !ata and @irla group companies1 visit II.s and II!s regularly and even sponsor certain popular campus activities with a view to earn goodwill in the job market *dvantages of this method includeC the placement centre helps locate

applicants and provides resumes to organi"ationsK applicants can be prescreenedK applicants will not have to be lured away from a current job and lower salary e%pectations :n the negative front, campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no work e%perience !he organi"ations will have to offer some kind of training to the applicants, almost immediately after hiring It demands careful advance planning, looking into the placement weeks of various institutions in different parts of the country 4urther, campus recruiting can be costly for organi"ations situated in another city /airfare, boarding and lodging e%penses of recruiters, site visit of applicants if allowed, etc 1 If campus recruitment is used, steps should be taken by human resource department to ensure that recruiters are knowledgeable concerning the jobs that are to be filled and the organi"ations and understand and employ effective interviewing skills

Guide ines (or !am&us re!ruitin': companies using college campuses as recruitment source should consider the following guidelinesC Identify the potential candidates earlyC !he earlier that candidate with top potential can be identified, the more likely the organi"ation will be in a position to attract them ,mploy various means to attract candidatesC !hese may include providing research grantsK consulting opportunities to faculty members, funding university infrastructural re$uirements, internships to students, etc in the long run these will enhance the prestige of the company in the eyes of potential job seekers Use effective recruitment materialC *ttractive brochures, films, computer diskettes, followed by enthusiastic and effective presentations by company officials, correspondence with placement offices in respective campus in a friendly way I will help in booting the company image in the eyes of the applicants !he company must provide detailed information about the

characteristics of entry I level positions, especially those that have had a major positive impact on prior applicantsB decisions to join the company :ffer training to campus interviewsC Its better to devote more time and resources to train on campus interviewers to answer specific job Irelated $uestions of applicants Dome out with a competitive offerC Jeep the key job attributes that influence the decisions of applicants such as promotional avenues, challenging assignments, long term income potential, etc , while talking to candidates

INDIRECT $ET-ODS:= 9 Advertisements:=

!hese include advertisements in newspapersK trade, professional and technical journalsK radio and televisionK etc in recent times, this medium has become just as colorful, lively and imaginative as consumer advertising !he ads generally give a brief outline of the job responsibilities, compensation package, prospects in organi"ations, etc this method is appropriate when /a1 the organi"ation intends to reach a large target group and /b1 the organi"ations wants a fairly good number of talented people I who are geographically spread out !o apply for advertised vacancies letBs briefly e%amine the wide variety of alternatives available to a company 7 as far as ads are concernedC Ne3s&a&er Ads: -ere it is easy to place job ads without much of a lead time It has fle%ibility in terms of information and can conveniently target a specific geographic location :n the negative side, newspaper ads tend to attract only those who are

actively seeking employment at that point of time, while some of the best candidates who are well paid and challenged by their current jobs may not be aware of such openings *s a result, the company may be bombarded with applications from a

large number of candidates who are marginally $ualified for the job I adding to its administrative burden !o maintain secrecy for various reasons /avoiding the rush, sending signals to competitors, cutting down e%penses involved in responding to any individual who applies, etc 1, large companies with a national reputation may also go in for blind7bo% ads in newspapers, especially for filling lower level positions In a blind7bo% ad there is no identification of the advertising organi"ation Gob aspirants are asked to respond to a post office bo% number or to an employment firm that is acting as an agent between the job seekers and the organi"ation Te evision and radio ads: !hese ads are more likely to each individual who are not actively seeking employmentK they are more likely to stand out distinctly, they help the organi"ation to target the audience more selectively and they offer considerable

scope for designing ads creatively

-owever, these ads are e%pensive

*lso,

because the television or radio is simply seen or heard, potential candidates may have a tough time remembering the details, making application difficult

T-IRD PART. $ET-ODS:= 9 Private Em& oyment Sear!% +irms:= *s search firm is a private employment agency that maintains computeri"ed lists of $ualified applicants and supplies these to employers willing to hire people from the list for a fee 4irms like *rthur *nderson, @oble and -ewitt, *@D

consultants, (@ @illimoria, J'.EK 4erguson *ssociates offers speciali"ed employment7 related services to corporate houses for a fee, especially for top and middle level e%ecutive vacancies *! the lower end, a number of search firms operate I providing multifarious

services to both recruiters and the recruitees

2 Em& oyment E?!%an'es:= *s a statutory re$uirement, companies are also e%pected to notify /wherever the ,mployment ,%changes *ct, 9M6M, applies1 their vacancies through the respective ,mployment ,%changes, created all over India for helping unemployed youth, displaced persons, e%7military personnel, physically handicapped, etc *( per the *ct all employers are supposed to notify the vacancies arising in their establishments form time to time I with certain e%emptions I to the prescribed employment e%changes before they are filled !he *ct covers all establishments in public sector and nonagricultural establishments employing 26 or more workers in the private sector -owever, in view of the practical

difficulties involved in implementing the provisions of the *ct /such as filing a $uarterly return in respect of their staff strength, vacancies and shortages, returns showing

occupational distribution of their employees, etc 1 many organi"ations have successfully fought court battles when they were asked to pick up candidates from among those sponsored by the employment e%changes ; Gate -irin' and Contra!tors:= Eate hiring /where job seekers, generally blue collar employees, present themselves at the factory gate and offer their services on a daily basis1, hiring through contractors, recruiting through word7of7mouth publicity are still in use I despite the many possibilities for their misuse I in the small scale sector in India < Unso i!ited A&& i!ants 5 #a C=ins:= Dompanies generally receive unsolicited applications from job seekers at various points of timeK the number of such applications depends on economic conditions, the image of the company and the job seekerBs perception of the types of jobs that might be available etc (uch applications are generally kept in a data bank and

whenever a suitable vacancy arises, the company would intimate the candidates to apply through a formal channel :ne important problem with this method is that job seekers

generally apply to number of organi"ations and when they are actually re$uired by the organi"ations, either they are already employed in other organi"ations or are not simply interested in the position 6 A ternatives to Re!ruitment:= (ince recruitment and selection costs are high /search process, interviewing agency fee, etc 1 firms these days are trying to look at alternatives to recruitment especially when market demand for firmBs products and services is sluggish .oreover, once employees are placed on the payroll, it may be e%tremely difficult to remove them if their performance is marginal (ome of the options in this regard may be listed thusC

81 Eva uation o( A ternative Sour!es : Dompanies have to evaluate the sources of recruiting carefully I looking at cost, time, fle%ibility, $uality and other criteria I before earmarking funds for the recruitment process source !hey cannot afford to fill all their vacancies through a particular

!o facilitate the decision making process in this regard, companies rely on the

followingC 5 Time a&se data: !hey show the time lag between the dates of re$uisition for manpower supply from a department to the actual date of filling the vacancies in that department 4or e%ample, a companyBs past e%perience may indicate that the average number of days from application to interview is 90, from interview to offer is 5, from offer to acceptance is 90 and from acceptance to report for work is 96 !herefore, if the company starts the

recruitment and selection process now it would re$uire <2 days before the new employee joins its ranks *rmed with this information, the length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment can be ascertained I before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the recruitment objectives of the company

8 .ie d ratios: !hese ratios indicate the number of leads / contacts needed to generate a given number of hires at a point at time 4or e%ample, if a company needs 90 management trainees in the ne%t si% months, it has to monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for this purpose :n the basis of past e%perience, to continue the same e%ample, the company finds that to hire 90 trainees, it has to e%tend 20 offers If the interview7to7offer is ;C2, then ;0 Interviews must be conducted If the invitees to interview ratios are <C; then, as many as <0 candidates must be invited =astly, if

contacts or leads needed to identify suitable trainees to invite are in 6C9 ratio, then 200 contacts are made M Surveys and studies: (urveys may also be conducted to find out the suitability of a particular source for certain positions 4or e%ample, as pointed out previously, employee referral has emerged as popular way of hiring people in the Information !echnology industry in recent times in India Dorrelation studies could also be carried out to find out the relationship between different organi"ational positions @efore finally identifying the

sources of recruitment, the human resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate !he cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the

number of candidates hired


Modern day recruitment practices include implementation of : 1. Six Sigma 2. HR score card 3. Career planning 4. Recreational activities 5. Training 6. HRIS

&ecruitment IInterna re!ruitment !his refers to the filling of job vacancies from within the business Iwhere e%isting employees are selected rather than employing some one from outside * business might decide that it already has the right people with the right skills to do the job, particularly if its training and development programme has been effective -o3 is it done> Internal vacancies are usually advertised within business via a variety of mediaC 7staff notice boards

7intranets 7In7house maga"ines/newsletters /for e%ample, ,map major publishing business1 have a weekly staff maga"ine devoted solely to advertising jobs within the organi"ation 7(taff meetings *dvantages of internal recruitmentC Eives e%isting employees greater opportunity to advance their careers in the business .ay help to retain staff who might otherwise leave &e$uires a short induction training period ,mployer should know more about the internal candidateBs abilities Usually $uicker and less e%pensive than recruiting from outside

)isadvantages of internal recruitmentC =imits the number of potential applicants for a job ,%ternal candidates might be better suited /$ualified for the job *nother vacancy will be created that has to be filled ,%isting staff may feel they have the automatic right to be promoted, whether or not they are competent @usiness may become resistant to changeC by recruiting from outside, new perspectives attitudes are brought in &ecruitment7E?terna Re!ruitment !his refers to the filling of job vacancies from outside the business /contract with internal recruitment1 .ost businesses engage in e%ternal recruitment fairly fre$uently, particularly those that are growing strongly, or that operate in industries with high staff turn over -o3 is it done >

!here are several ways of looking for staff outside the businessC Em& oyment5re!ruitment a'en!ies: !hese businesses speciali"e in recruitment and selection !hey often speciali"e in recruitment for specific sectors/e g finance travel, secretarial1 !hey usually provide a shortlist of candidates based on the people registered with the agency they also supply temporary or interim employees !he main advantages with using an agency are the specialist skills they bring and the speed with which they normally provide candidates !hey also reduce the administrative burden of recruitment !he cost is the high agency fees charged often up to ;0N of the first year wages of anyone employed -ead%unters5Re!ruitment !onsu tan!ies: >Up market? recruitment agents who provide a more speciali"ed approach to the

recruitment of key employees and /or senior management !hey tend to >approach? individuals with a good reputation rather than rely on long lists of registered applicants I often using privileged industry contacts to draw up a short list !he cost of using a headhunter or recruitment consultant is high

/o) !enters: Eovernment runs agency7good for identifying local candidates for relatively straightforward jobs !he job center service is free to employers and is most useful for advertising semi skilled, clerical and manual jobs Government (unded trainin' s!%emes: !here is a variety of government funded schemes that provide potential recruits, including the new deal and modern apprenticeships !he advantage of these schemes is that

government funding lowers the cost of employment and the business can get to know the employee before committing for the longterm -ow ever, relatively few employment re$uirements are covered by these schemes Advertisin': 'robably the most common method *dvertising allows the employer to reach a wider audience !he choice of advertising media /e g national newspaper, internet, specialist maga"ine etc1 depends on the recruitment for the advert to reach a particular audience and crucially, the advertising budget Advanta'es o( e?terna re!ruitment: !hese are mainly the opposite of the disadvantages of internal recruitment !he main one being that a wider audience can be reached which increases the chance that the business will be able to recruit the skills it needs T-E PROCESS O+ SELECTION (election is usually a series of hurdles or steps ,ach one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the ne%t one !he time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary from one organi"ation to another and indeed, from job to job within the same organi"ation !he se$uence of steps may also vary from job to job and organi"ation to organi"ation 4or e%ample some organi"ations may give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews and reference checks (imilarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people

(i': &ro!ess o( se e!tion Re!e&tion: * company is known by the people it employs In order to attract people with talents, skills and e%perience a company has to create a favourable impression on the applicantsB right from the stage of reception #hoever meets the applicant initially should be tactful and able to e%tend help in a friendly and courteous way ,mployment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly If no jobs are available at that point of time, the applicant may be asked to call back the personnel department after some time

S!reenin' Intervie3: * preliminary interview is generally planned by large organisations to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection * junior e%ecutive from the 'ersonnel )epartment may elicit responses from the applicants

on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a job such as age, education, e%perience, pay e%pectations, aptitude, location, choice etc this Acourtesy interviewB as it is often called helps the department screen out obvious misfits If the department finds the candidate suitable, a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit A&& i!ation B anC: *pplication blank or form is one of the most common methods used to collect information on the various aspects of the applicantsB academic, social, demographic, work related background and references It is a brief history sheet of employeeBs background, usually containing the following thingsC O O O O O O 'ersonal data /address, se%, telephone number1 .arital data ,ducational data ,mployment ,%perience ,%tra7curricular activities &eferences and &ecommendations

Usefulness of *pplication @lank or 4orm *pplication blank is highly useful selection tool, in that way it serves three important purposesC 9 2 ; It introduces the candidate to the company in a formal way It helps the company to have a cross7comparison of the applicantsK It can serve as a basis to initiate a dialogue in the interview

Se e!tion Testin': In this section letB e%amine the selection test or the employment test that attempts to asses intelligence, abilities, personality trait, performance simulation tests including work

sampling and the tests administered at assessment centers7 followed by a discussion about the polygraph test, graphology and integrity test * test is a standardi"ed, objective measure of a personBs behavior, performance or attitude It is standardi"ed because the way the tests is carried out, the environment in which the test is administered and the way the individual scores are calculated7 are uniformly applied It is objective in that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way giving very little room for individual bias and interpretation :ver the years employment tests have not only gained importance but also a certain amount of inevitability in employment decisions (ince they try to objectively determine how well an applicant meets the job re$uirement, most companies do not hesitate to invest their time and money in selection testing in a big way (ome of the commonly used employment tests areC O O O O O 91 Intelligence tests *ptitude tests 'ersonality tests *chievement tests .iscellaneous tests such as graphology, polygraphy and honesty tests Inte i'en!e Tests: !hese are mental ability tests !hey measure the incumbentBs

learning ability and the ability to understand instructions and make judgments !he basic objective of such test is to pick up employees who are alert and $uick at learning things so that they can be offered ade$uate training to improve their skills for the benefit of the organi"ation !hese tests measure several abilities such as memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, numerical ability, perception etc ,g (tandford7@inet test, @inet 7 (imon test, !he #echsler *dult Intelligence (cale are e%ample of standard intelligence test 2 A&titude Test: *ptitude test measure an individualBs potential to learn certain skills7 clerical, mechanical, mathematical, etc !hese tests indicate whether or not an individual has

the capabilities to learn a given job $uickly and efficiently In order to recruit efficient office staff, aptitude tests are necessary *n aptitude tests is always administered in combination with other tests like intelligence and personality tests as it does not measure on7the7job7 motivation ; Persona ity Test: :f all test re$uired for selection the personality tests have generated a lot of heat and controversy !he definition of personality, methods of measuring personality factors and the relationship between personality factors and actual job criteria has been the subject of much discussion &esearchers have also $uestioned whether applicants answer all the items truthfully or whether they try to respond in a socially desirable manner &egardless of these objections, many people still consider personality as an important component of job success < A!%ievement Tests: !hese are designed to measure what the applicant can do on the job currently, i e , whether the testee actually knows what he or she claims to know * typing test tests shows the typing proficiency, a short hand tests measures the testee ability to take dictation and transcribe, etc (uch proficiency tests are also known as work sampling test #ork sampling is a selection tests wherein the job applicantBs ability to do a small portion of the job is tested !hese tests are of two typesK .otor, involving physical manipulations of things/e g , trade tests for carpenters, electricians, plumbers1 or Perbal, involving problem situation that are primarily language7oriented or people7oriented/e g situational tests for supervisor jobs1 (ince work

samples are miniature replicas of the actual job re$uirements, they are difficult to fake !hey offer concrete evidence of the proficiency of an applicant as against his ability to the job -owever, work sample tests are not cost effective and every candidate has to be tested individually It is not easy to develop work samples for each job .oreover, it is not applicable to all levels of the organi"ation

6 Simu ation TestsC (imulation e%ercise is a tests which duplicate many of the activities and problems an employee faces while at work (uch e%ercises are commonly used while hiring managers at various levels in an organi"ation !o asses the potential of a candidate for managerial positions assessment centers are commonly used 8 Assessment Centre: *n assessment centre is an e%tended work sample It uses procedures that incorporate group and individual e%ercises !hese e%ercises are designed to stimulate the type of work which the candidate will be e%pected to do Initially a small batch of applicants comes to the assessment centre /a separate room1 !heir performance in the situational e%ercise is observed and evaluated by a team of 878 assessors !he assessorsB judgment on each e%ercise are complied and combined to have a summary rating for each candidate being assessed Di((eren!e )et3een #orC Sam& e met%od and Assessment Centre #:&J (*.'=, O O O O O (uitable for routine, repetitive jobs with visible outcomes !akes a few minutes to test the applicant ,valuated by one supervisor Dan be done on location where the applicant performs a small segment of the job Usually completed on one applicant at a time

ASSESS$ENT CENTRE O O O O (uitable for managerial jobs, the outcomes are not behaviorally observable !akes days to conduct various e%ercise ,valuated by a team of trained observers &e$uires a separate facility !he centers are conducted for a variety of task segments/ that may not be the real job1 that may be included in the real job

Usually performed on groups of applicants at the same time

Eva uation o( Assessment Centre Te!%niDue: !he assessment centre techni$ue has a number of advantages !he fle%ibility of form and content, the use of variety of techni$ues, standardi"ed way of interpreting behavior and pooled assessor judgments accounts for its acceptance as a valuable selection tool for managerial jobs It is praised for content validity and wide acceptance in corporate circles @y providing a realistic job preview, the techni$ues helps an candidate make an appropriate career choice !he performance ratings are more objective in nature and could be used for promotions and career development decisions readily -owever, the method is e%pensive to design and administer @lind acceptance of assessment data without considering other information on candidates /past and current performance1 is always not advisable 51 Gra&%o o'y TestC Eraphology involves using a trained evaluator to e%amine the lines, loops, hooks, stokes, curves and flourishes in a personBs handwriting to assess the personBs personality and emotional make7up !he recruiting company, may, for e%ample, ask the applicants to complete the application forms and write about why they want a job !hese samples may be finally sent to graphologist for analysis and the result may be put use while selecting a person !he use of graphology, however, is dependent on the training and e%pertise of the person doing the analysis In the actual practice, $uestions of validity and just plain skepticism have limited in use 8 Po y'ra&% ;Lie=Dete!tor< tests: the polygraph records physical changes in the body as the tests subject answers a series of $uestions It records fluctuations in respiration, blood pressure and perspiration on a moving roll of graph paper !he polygraph operator forms a judgment as to whether the subjectBs response was truthful or deceptive by e%amining the biological movements recorded on the paper Dritic, however, $uestions the appropriateness of the polygraphs in establishing the truth about an applicantBs behavior !he fact is that the

polygraph records the biological reaction in response to stress and does not record lying or even conditions necessarily accompanying lying Is it possible to prove that the responses recorded by the polygraph occur only because a lie has been toldQ #hat about those situations in which a person lies without guilt /pathological liar1 or lies believing the responses to be trueQ !he fact of the matter is that polygraphs are neither reliable nor valid (ince they invade the privacy of those tested, many applicants vehemently oppose the use of polygraph as a selection tool M Inte'rity TestC !hese are designed to measure employeeBs honestly to predict those who are more likely to steal from an employer or otherwise act in a manner unacceptable to the organi"ation !he applicants who take these tests are e%pected to answer several AyesB or AnoB type $uestions such asC Ty&i!a Inte'rity 2uestions -ave you ever told a lieQ O O O )o you report to your boss if you know of another employee stealing from the storeQ )o you carry office stationary back to your home for occasional useQ )o you mark attendance for your colleagues alsoQ

:ften these tests contain $uestions that repeat themselves in some way and the evaluator then e%amines the consistency in responses Dompanies that have used integrity tests have reported success in tracking employees who indulge in AtheftB -owever, these tests ultimately suffer from the same weakness as polygraph and graphology test

!ests as (election !oolC !est are useful selection devices in that they unover $ualifications and talents that canBt be detected otherwise !hey can be used to predict how well one would perform if one

is hired, why one behaves the way one does, what situational factors influence employee productivity, etc !ests also provide unbiased information that can be put to scientific and statistical analysis -owever, tests suffer from si"eable errors of estimate .ost psychological tests also have one common weakness, that is, we canBt use scales which have a know "ero point and e$ual intervals *n intelligence test, for e%ample starts at an arbitrary point, where a person may not be able to answer $uestion properly !his does not mean that the person is totally lacking in intelligence =ikewise, a person who is able to answer all the 90 $uestions correctly cannot be called twice as intelligent as the one who was able to answer only 6 If the test has commenced at some other point, where there easier $uestions, their score might have been different !est also fails to elicit truthful responses from testees !o compound the problem further, test results are interpreted in a subjective was by testers and unless these testers do their homework well, the results may not be reliable Standards (or Se e!tion Tests !o be useful as predictive and diagnostic selection tools, test must satisfy certain basic re$uirementsC O Re ia)i ity: !est scores should not vary widely under repeated conditions If a test is

administered to the same individual repeatedly, he should get appro%imately identical score &eliability is the confidence that an indicator will measure the same thing every time O 0a idity: Palidity is the e%tent to which an instrument measures what it intends to measure In a typing test validity measures a typistBs speed and accuracy !o determine whether it really measures the speed and accuracy of a typist is to demonstrate its validity !he $uestion if determining the validity of a selection test, thus, has a lot to do with later performance on the job

O 2ua i(ied Peo& eC !est re$uire a high level of professional skills in their administration and interpretation 'rofessional technicians are needed for skilled judgmental interpretations of test scores E Pre&aration: * test should be well prepared It should be easy to understand and simple to administer O Suita)i ity: a test must fit the nature of the group on which it is applied * written test comprising difficult words would be fruitless when it is administered on less educated workers O Use(u ness: ,%clusive reliance on any single test should be avoided, since the results in such a case are likely to be critici"ed !o be useful, it is always better to use a battery of test E Standardi:ationC +orms for finali"ing test scores should be established !here must be prescribed methods and procedures for administering the test and for scoring or interpreting it Se e!tion Pra!ti!es: !he following throws light on how the global giants use selection testing as a basis for picking up the right candidates to fill up the vacancies arising internallyC 9 Siemens IndiaC It uses e%tensive psychometric instruments to evaluate short7listed candidates !he company uses occupational personality $uestionnaire to understand the candidateBs personal attributes and occupational testing to measure competencies 2 LG E e!troni!s IndiaC =E ,lectronics uses ; psychometric tests to measure a personBs ability as a team player, to check personality types and to find a personBs responsiveness and assertiveness ; Art%ur Anderson: while evaluating candidates, the company conducts critical behavior interviewing which evaluates the suitability of the candidate for the position, largely based on his past e%perience and credentials

<1 Pe&siCo India: !he Dompany uses India as a global recruitment resource !o select professionals for global careers with it, the company uses a competency7 based interviewing techni$ue that looks at the candidateBs abilities in terms of strategi"ing, lateral thinking, problem solving, managing the environment !his apart, 'epsi insists that to succeed in a global posting, these individuals possess strong functional knowledge and come from a cosmopolitan background Se e!tion Intervie3: Interview is the oral e%amination of candidates for employment !his is the most essential step in the selection process In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through various means to the job re$uirements and to the information obtained through his own observations during the interview Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity I !o si"e up the candidate personallyK !o ask $uestion that are not covered in the testsK !o make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligenceK !o assess subjective aspects of the candidate I facial e%pressions, appearance, nervousness and so forthK !o give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies, etc and promote goodwill towards the company Ty&es o( intervie3s: (everal types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and importance of the position to be filled within an organi"ation In a +:+7)I&,D!IP, I+!,&PI,# the recruiter asks $uestions as they come to mind !here is no specific format to be followed

In a '*!!,&+,) I+!,&PI,#, the employer follows a pre7determined se$uence of $uestions -ere the interviewee is given a special form containing $uestions regarding his technical competence, personality traits, attitudes, motivation, etc In a (!&UD!U&,) :& (I!U*!I:+*= I+!,&PI,#, there are fi%ed job related $uestions that are presented to each applicant In a '*+,= I+!,&PI,# several interviewers $uestion and seek answers from one applicant !he panel members can ask new and incisive $uestions based on their e%pertise and e%perience and elicit deeper and more meaningful e%pertise from candidates Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where the applicantBs confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are put to test !hese are referred to as the (!&,(( I+!,&PI,# !his is basically an interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of, often, rude, annoying or embarrassing $uestions In the final category, there is the *''&*I(*= I+!,&PI,#, where a superior and subordinate sit together after the performance appraisal to discuss the subordinateBs rating and possible remedial actions Ste&s in intervie3 &ro!ess: Interview is an art It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the interviewers Interviewers must be treated properly so as to leave a good impression about the company in their minds -& e%perts have identified certain steps to be followed while conducting interviewsC

Pre&aration: ,stablishing the objective of the interview

&eceiving the candidates application and resume Jeeping tests score ready, along with interview assessment forms (electing the interview method to be followed Dhoosing the panel of e%perts who would interview the candidates Identifying proper room for environment Re!e&tion: !he candidate should be properly received and led into the interview room (tart the interview on time In(ormation E?!%an'e: (tate the purpose of the interview, how the $ualifications are going to be matched with skills needed to handle the job @egin with open ended $uestions where the candidate gets enough freedom to e%press himself 4ocus on the applicantBs education, training, work e%perience, etc 4ind une%plained gaps in applicants past work or college record and elicit facts that are not mentioned in the resume Eva uation: ,valuation is done on basis of answers and justification given by the applicant in the interview P%ysi!a e?amination: *fter the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is re$uired to undergo a physical fitness test * job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical e%amination

$edi!a e?amination:

Dertain jobs re$uire physical $ualities like clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina, tolerance of hard working conditions, clear tone, etc .edical e%amination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these $ualities Re(eren!e !%e!C: :nce the interview and medical e%amination of the candidate is over, the personnel department will engage in checking references Dandidates are re$uired to give the names of 2 or ; references in their application forms !hese references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidateBs academic achievements or from the applicantBs previous employer, who is well versed with the applicantBs job performance and sometimes from the co7workers In case the reference check is from the previous employer, information in the following areas may be obtained !hey are job title, job description, period of employment, pay and allowances, gross emoluments, benefits provided, rate of absence, willingness of previous employer to employ the candidate again, etc 4urther, information regarding candidateBs regularity at work, character, progress, etc can be obtained :ften a telephone call is much $uicker !he method of mail $uery provides detailed information about the candidateBs performance, character and behavior -owever, a personal visit is superior to the mail or telephone methods and is used where it is highly essential to get a detailed, first hand information which can also be secured by observation &eference checks are taken as a matter of routine and treated casually or omitted entirely in many organi"ations @ut a good reference check, when used sincerely, will fetch useful and reliable information to the organi"ation -irin' de!ision: !he line manager has to make the final decision now I whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the re$uired information through different techni$ues discussed earlier !he line manager has to take ade$uate care in taking the final decision because of

economic, behavioral and social implications of the selection decisions * careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection in a particular organi"ation * true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established so as to facilitate good selection decisions *fter taking the final decision, the organi"ation has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates !he organi"ation sends the appointment order to the successful candidates either immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule Intervie3in' $istaCes: 4avors applicants who share his own attitudes +ot be asking right $uestions and hence not getting relevant responses &esort to snap judgments, making a decision as to the applicantBs suitability in the first few minutes of the interview !oo often interviewers form on early impression and spend the balance of interview looking for evidence to support it .ay have been influenced by Acultural noise B !o get the job, the applicants try to get by the interviewer If they reveal wrong things about themselves, they may not get the job, so they try to give the interviewer responses that are socially acceptable, but not very revealing !hese types of responses are known as cultural noise I responses the applicant believes are socially acceptable rather than facts .ay have allowed him to be unduly influenced by associating a particular personality trait with a personBs origin or cultural background and that kind of stereotyping/generali"ing ultimately determining the score of a candidate

4or e%ample, he may feel that candidate from @ihar may find it difficult to read, write and speak ,nglish language and hence not select them at all .ay conclude that a poorly dressed candidate is not intelligent, attractive females are good for public dealings, etc !his is known as A-alo ,ffectB where a single important trait of a candidate affects the judgment of the rather !he halo effect is present if an interviewer allows a candidateBs accomplishments in athletics overshadow other aspects and leads the interviewer to like the applicant because Aathletes make good sales peopleB

-ave been influenced more by unfavorable than favorable information about or from the candidate Unfavorable information is given roughly twice the weight of favorable information *ccording to )obmeyer and )unette, a single negative characteristic may bar an individual from being accepted, while no amount of positive features will guarantee a candidateBs acceptance

-ave been under pressure to hire candidates at short notice -ave been influenced by the behavior of the candidates /how he has answered, his body language1, his or her dress /especially in case of female candidates1 and other physical factors that are not job related

Barriers to e((e!tive se e!tion: !he main objective of selection is to hire people having competence and commitment !his objective is often defeated because of certain barriers !he impediments which check effectiveness of selection are perception, fairness, validity, reliability, and pressure

PERCEPTION: :ur inability to understand others accurately is probably the most fundamental barrier to selecting right candidate (election demands an individual or a group to assess and compare the respective competencies of others, with the aim of choosing the right persons for the jobs @ut our views are highly personali"ed #e all perceive the world differently :ur limited perceptual ability is obviously a stumbling block to the objective and rational selection of people

+AIRNESS: 4airness in selection re$uires that no individual should be discriminated against on the basis of religion, region, race or gender @ut the low number of women and other less privileged sections of society in the middle and senior management positions and open discrimination on the basis of age in job advertisements and in the selection process would suggest that all the efforts to minimi"e ine$uity have not been very effective 0ALIDIT.: Palidity, as e%plained earlier, is a test that helps predict job performance of an incumbent * test that has been validated can differentiate between the employees who can perform well and those who will not -owever, a validated test does not predict job success accurately It can only increase possibility of success RELIABILIT.: * reliable method is one which will produce consistent results when repeated in similar situations =ike a validated test, a reliable test may fall to predict job performance with precision PRESSURE: 'ressure is brought on the selectors by politicians, bureaucrats, relatives, friends, and peers to select particular candidate Dandidates selected because of compulsions are obviously not the right ones *ppointments to public sector undertakings generally take place under such pressure

SU$$AR. * CONCLUSION Summary: !he ideal recruitment effort will attract a large number of $ualified applicants who will take the job if it is offered It should also provide information so that un$ualified applicants can self selected themselves out of the job candidacyKi e a good recruiting program should attract the $ualified and not un$ualified candidates If the right person is selected ,he is valuable asset to the organi"ation and if faulty selection is made the employee will become a liability to the organi"ation !herefore, it deserves great care and concern to formulate and implement recruitment strategies and sourcing process, with a foresight towards higher organi"ational achievement !he sole purpose of the project was to study the sourcing process vis7R7vis to entry level openings and to recommend changes in current process to make sourcing more cost effectiveness Con! usion: 9 !he companies follows a standard policy to recruit employees 2 !he e%isting recruitment policy is ade$uate to recruit various types of personnel but modern methods of recruitment and selection should be adopted to be more effective ; !he present recruitment policy is fle%ible enough as it has undergone several changes from time to time to suit the re$uirements of the management

< In the companies, both internal 2 e%ternal sources of recruitment are used

+INDINGS

9 &ecruitment in I! sector is continuous process 2 *lmost every I! company depends on outsourcing for recruiting candidates ; !echnical knowledge is must, without which candidate is rejected < !he entire process for recruiting a I! professional takes 20 to <0 days 6 I! companies recruit freshers as internship for some period of time of about 27; months 8 *ll the 6 companies /#I'&:, D:E+IF*+!, I@., (:+*!*7(:4!#*&,, (*'7 =*@(1 have almost similar type recruiting and selection process

2UESTIONNAIRE:

RECRUIT$ENT AND SELECTION PROCESS

Name

C 7777777777777777777777777777777

Or'ani:ation Name C777777777777777777777777777777777 Desi'nation Conta!t No E=mai Id C777777777777777777777777777777777 777777777777777777777777777777777 C7777777777777777777777777777777777

9 *ccording to you, which $uality of a person should be given more importance while recruitingQ / 1 91 !echnical knowledge 21 Dommunication skills ;1 ,%perience <1 *ll the above 2 #hy recruitment is needed in your companyQ / 1 91 !urnover of employees 21 &etirement ;1 +ew projects <1 :ther reasons

; -ow often recruitment is being done in your companyQ / 1 91 &egularly 21 .onthly ;1 yearly

< #hat type of selection process do you follow usuallyQ / 1 91 Dampus recruiting 21 #alk7in interviews ;1 !ake help of consultancies <1*dvertising 6 -ow many people being selected out of those interviewedQ / 1 91 )epends on companies re$uirement

21 )epends on candidates abilities ;1 )epends on interviewer 8 )o you prefer freshers or those with work e%perience Q If AyesB whyQ If AnoB whyQ 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777

5 -ow many rounds involved in screening out the candidatesQ / 1 912 21 ; ;1 .ore than ;

8 Is written test compulsory for screening the candidatesQ / 1 91 Hes 21 no

M !o what standard the paper is setQ / 1 91 =ow7level 21 *verage ;1 -igh7level

90 #ill interviewer prepare before interviewing the candidatesQ/ 1 91 Hes 21 no

99 #hat interview techni$ues do you preferQ / 1 91 (ingle man interview 21 'anel interview 92 *re you satisfied with your recruitment policyQ / 1 91 Hes 21 +o

DATA ANAL.SIS 9 *ccording to you, which $uality of a person should be given more importance while recruitingQ / 1 91 !echnical knowledge 21Dommunication skills ;1,%perience <1 *ll the above
!mportant factor while recruiting
80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4

InterpretationC !he data reveals that the companies with in the sample si"e are looking for the candidates whose are technically strong with communication skills are mostly preferable 2 #hy recruitment is needed in your companyQ/ 1 ;1 +ew projects <1 :ther reasons

91 !urnover of employees 21 &etirement

"eed for recruiting


80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4

InterpretationC *ccording to the analysis of obtained data, recruitment is need in the company because of new projects and also due to turnover of employees /attrition of employees1 ; -ow often recruitment is being done in your company Q 91&egularly 21 .onthly ;1Hearly

recruiting fre$uenc%
80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3

InterpretationC !he data reveals that most of the private sectors companies does the recruiting process regularly based on the re$uirement of the company and in public sectors it is yearly and very few companies does in monthly < #hat type of recruiting process do you follow usually Q/ 1 91campus recruiting 21 walk in interviews ;1 take help of consultancies <1advertising

recruiting process follow b% companies


80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3 4

InterpretationC *ccording to the obtained data most of the companies advertises or take help of consultancies !hey prefer campus interviews only when there is need of freshers 6 -ow many people being selected out of those interviewedQ/ 1 91 )epends on companies re$uirement 21 )epends on candidates abilities ;1 )epends on interviewer
selection of candidates
80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3

InterpretationC *ccording to the data collected the selection of the candidates depends on the companies re$uirement and the abilities that they have 8 )o you prefer freshersQ / 1 If >yes? whyQ 777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777 If >+o? whyQ 7777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777777

InterpretationC !he study says that >* growing firm always needs a blend of both e%perienced and freshes? (ome companies asks for freshers while some are not F -ow many rounds involved in screening out the candidatesQ/ 1 912 InterpretationC .ost of the companies say that its all depends companies like *ccenture, sonata7soft ware, sap labs, cogni"ant have ; rounds *nd big companies like #iproK I@. has more than ; rounds 21 ; ;1 more than ;

8 Is written test compulsory for screening the candidates Q 91yes 21 no

written test
100 percentage 80 60 40 20 0 yes no Series1

InterpretationC 80N of the companies say that written test is compulsory and remaining 20N say no M !o what standard the paper is set Q/ 1 91 low7level 21 average ;1 high level

standard of paper
80 percentage 60 40 20 0 1 2 3

InterpretationC .ost of the It companies set the written test paper at average level to select a candidate , very few set at low and high levels

90 #ill interviewer prepare before interviewing the candidatesQ/ 1 91 Hes 21 no

InterpretationC It depends on the interviewer

99 #hat interview techni$ues do you preferQ / 1 91 (ingle man interview 21 'anel interview

Interpretation C !he study reveals that most of the I! companies take the interview in panel atleast two rather than single

92 *re you satisfied with your recruitment policyQ / 1 91 Hes 21 +o

recruitment polic%
100 percentage 80 60 40 20 0 yes no

InterpretationC *lmost all I! companies are satisfied with their recruiting policy which they follow

BIBLIOGRAP-.

'ersonnel 2 -uman &esource .anagement

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&ecruitment, &etention by *lan J Dampbell and =inda ( )i% www Dite-& com