Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 6

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

LAB - 1
Getting Started with ATHENA under DeckBuild
Objectives:
To get familiarized with the SILVACO TCAD - ATHENA Interface and to perform the initial steps required to run the forthcoming labs for this class.

Lab conventions:
In order to make labs as simple and clear as possible, the instructor uses the following conventions: In the respective exercise all the steps are provided. Once you have completed a task, you will simply be told to do it, with maybe a little reminder of how it was done. You should leave the tools up and running as you move from exercise to exercise. The exercises usually build on each other. On the other hand, you can close the tools after a lab (full block of exercise). If you are specifically told to close a tool or application between exercises you should do so. If ever have any problem or questions about a lab, feel free to ask your instructor for help.

ATHENA Overview:
ATHENA is a simulator that provides general capabilities for numerical, physically-based, two- dimensional simulation of semiconductor processing. This tool performs structure initialization and manipulation, and provides basic deposition and etch facilities. ATHENA is normally used in conjunction with the VWF (Virtual Wafer Fab) INTERACTIVE TOOLS. These tools include DECKBUILD, TONYPLOT, DEVEDIT, MASKVIEWS and Optimizer. DECKBUILD provides an interactive run time environment. TONYPLOT supplies scientific visualization capabilities. DEVEDIT is an interactive tool for structure and mesh specification and refinement, and MASKVIEWS is an IC Layout Editor. The OPTIMIZER supports black box optimization across multiple simulators. For more information about VWF INTERACTIVE TOOLS, see the VWF INTERACTIVE TOOLS USERS MiUA1 VOLUMES 1 and 2. ATHENA is also frequently used in conjunction with the ATLAS device simulator. ATHENA predicts the physical structures that result from processing. These physical structures are used as input by ATLAS, which then predicts the electrical characteristics

1
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

associated with specified bias conditions. Using ATHENA and ATLAS makes it easy to determine the impact of process parameters on device characteristics. ATHENA can also be used as one of the core simulators within VIRTUAL WAFER FAB (VWF). VWF makes it convenient to perform highly automated simulation-based experimentation. VWF is used in a way that closely resembles experimental research and development procedures. Therefore, it links simulation closely to technology development, resulting in greatly increased benefits from simulation use. The Value of Physically-Based Simulation: Physically-based process simulators predict the structures that result from specified process sequences. This is done by solving systems of equations that describe the physics and chemistry of semiconductor processes. Physically-based simulation provides three major advantages: it is predictive, it provides insight, and it captures theoretical knowledge in a way that makes this knowledge available to non-experts. Physically-based simulation is different from empirical modeling. The goal of empirical modeling is to obtain analytic formulae that approximate existing data with accuracy and minimum complexity. Empirical models provide efficient approximation and interpolation. Empirical models, however, doesnt provide insight, predictive capabilities, or capture theoretical knowledge. Physically-based simulation is an alternative to experiments as a source of data. Empirical modeling can provide compact representations of data from either source. Physically-based simulation has become very important for two reasons. One, its almost always much quicker and cheaper than performing experiments. Two, it provides information that is difficult or impossible to measure. Physically-based process simulation tools users must specify the problem to be simulated. ATHENA users specify the problem by defining the following: The initial geometry of the structure to be simulated. The sequence of process steps (e.g., implantation, etching, diffusion, exposure) that are to be simulated. The physical models to be used.

Running ATHENA under DECKBUILD:


1. Log onto your Linux machine. Open a terminal console window. Input the following commands sequentially to start ATHENA under DECKBUILD in interactive mode, source set_env.sh deckbuild -an&

2
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

After a short delay, the Main Deckbuild Window will appear. The lower text window of this window will contain the ATHENA logo and version number, a list of available modules, and a command prompt. ATHENA is now ready to run.

Creating a Device Structure Using ATHENA:


Procedure Overview: ATHENA is designed as a process simulation framework. The framework includes simulator independent operations and simulator specific functions that simulate different process steps (e.g., implant, RIE, or photoresist exposure). This section describes ATHENA input/output and the following basic operations for creating an input file: Developing a good simulation grid Performing conformal deposition Performing geometric etches Structure manipulation Saving and loading structure information Interfacing with device simulators Using different VWF INTERACTIVE TOOLS (Note: Every input file for ATHENA must start with go athena as first statement.) Defining Initial Rectangular Grid: In the main window menu bar find the Commands Mesh Define buttons using right mouse button, the ATHENA Mesh Define Menu will appear as shown ahead. (Note: Using left mouse button for selection will select the first option listed in that menu). Now, you can specie the initial rectangular grid. The correct specification of a grid is critical in process simulation. The number of nodes in the grid Np has a direct influence on simulation accuracy and time. A finer grid should exist in the regions of interest. Therefore, to maintain the simulation time within reasonable bounds, the fine grid should not be allowed to spill over into unnecessary regions. The maximum number of grid nodes is 20,000 for ATHENA simulations, but most practical simulations use far fewer nodes than this limit. To create a simple uniform grid in a rectangular 1 m by 1 m simulation area, select Direction: X, click on the Location field and enter a value of 0.0. Then, click on the 3
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

Spacing field and enter a value of 0.10. Then, click on the Insert button and the line parameters will appear in the scrolling list. In the same way, set the Location of a second X line to 1.0 with a spacing of 0.1. You can either set the values by dragging a slider or by entering a number directly. Now, select the Direction: Y and set the lines with the same values as the X direction. You can now add the comments at the Comment line. Before writing the mesh information to the input file you can view the created grid by selecting View button in the Mesh Define window. (Note: ATHENA coordinate system has positive x-axis pointed to the right along the structure surface and positive y-axis pointed down to the depth of the structure.) A uniform grid such as the one shown in Figure above is inefficient for performing complex simulations. Therefore, the grid must be improved. A few example of grid improvement are shown below with specific details in short.

You may now hit the write button at the bottom of Mesh Define window to write the relevant mesh information to the input file of ATHENA. Defining the Initial Substrate: The LINE statements specified by the Mesh Define menu set only the rectangular base for the ATHENA simulation structure. The next step is the initialization of the substrate region with its points, nodes, triangles, background doping, substrate orientation, and

4
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

some additional parameters. To initialize the simulation structure, select Command Menu Mesh Initialize, and the Mesh Initialize Menu will appear as shown ahead. Background doping can be set by clicking on the desired impurity box (e.g., Boron). The background impurity concentration specification will then become active. If the None box is checked, the concentration information will become inactive and will appear grayed out from the rest of the menu. Select the desired concentration: 3.0 using the slider and select Exp: 14 from menu. This will give a background concentration of 3.0x1014 atoms/cm3. You can set background concentration using the By Resistivity specification in Ohm*cm. For this tutorial, check the 2D box in the Dimensionality field. This will run the simulation in a two-dimensional calculation. And keep the Grid scaling factor at 1. Finally at a title to this step in comment field before writing this information to the input file. Now, run ATHENA to obtain the initial structure. Press the Run button on the DECKBUILD control. The following output will appear in the simulator sub window: ATHENA> LINE X LOC=0.00 SPAC=0.10 ATHENA> LINE X LOC=0.3 SPAC=0.02 ATHENA> LINE X LOC=1.0 SPAC=0.1 ATHENA> # ATHENA> LINE Y LOC=0.00 SPAC=0.03 ATHENA> LINE Y LOC=0.2 SPAC=0.02 ATHENA> LINE Y LOC=1.0 SPAC=0.1 ATHENA> 4 INITIAL SILICON STRUCTURE ATHENA> INIT SILICON C.BORON=3.0E14 ORIENTATION=100 TWO.D ATHENA> STRUCT OUTFILE=.history01.str The line STRUCT OUTFILE=.history01.str is automatically produced by DECKBUILD through the history function. This function provides an important service when debugging new files, performing what if simulations, and visualizing the structure at different steps of simulation. This feature will be used throughout the tutorial. Use any of the three methods to visualize the initial structure: 1. Click on the Tools menu button using left mouse button. DECKBUILD will then automatically save a temporary standard structure file and invoke T0NYPL0T with this file.

5
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI

Microelectronic Technology Lab (EE-424L)

M-E-T Lab Manual

2. Click on the Main Control button and the Deckbuild Main Control popup will appear. Then, click on the Plot Current Structure button. DECKBUILD will then automatically save a temporary standard structure file and invoke TONYPL0T with this file. 3. Select (highlight) the name of a structure file (.history01.str in this case) and click on the Tools or Plot Current Structure. DECKBUILD will then start TONYPLOT with the selected structure file. After a short delay, TONYPLOT will appear. It will have only regional and material information. Click on the Plot menu button and the Display (2D Mesh) popup will appear. Select only the two left icons: Mesh and Edges and the Initial Triangular Grid will appear in T0NYPL0T, as shown ahead.

Assignment:
1. Capture the screen-shots of each step performed, arrange them in a nice format (e.g. 2-4 screen-shots /page) and submit with hand written brief comments. 2. Display the missing final 2D plot of the structure created in this lab session with mesh and edges options enabled in the plot menu of TONYPLOT. 3. Submit a copy of Periodic Table for Elements. 4. Also submit the lab report for this lab.

6
Engr. Faraz Qayyum faraz.qayyum@iiu.edu.pk AEL,DEE,FET,IIUI