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ANALYSIS AND OPTIMISATION OF GEAR TOOTH PROFILE

SHIVANG S. JANI
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Vishvakarma Mahavidyalaya, V.V.Nagar, Anand, Gujarat, India

Abstract- Gears are one of the most critical components in mechanical power transmission systems. Even though tooth profile of the gear is made of involute and cycloid curve, involute curved gear is generally used by the easiness of the fabrication and assembly. Teeth of helical gear have commonly involute profile. The circle from which the involute is derived is called the base circle. The pitch circle diameter of gear has a relation with module of helical gear and number of teeth. Similarly, other dimensions of helical gear have direct or indirect relation with module, number of teeth and pressure angle. In other words, parameters like module, number of teeth and pressure angle, helix angle, addendum and dedendum decide the shape and size of a helical gear. The bending and surface strength of the gear tooth are considered to be one of the main contributors for the failure of the gear in a gear set. Thus, analysis of stresses has become popular as an area of research on gears to minimize or to reduce the failures and for optimal design of gears.In this paper to estimate the bending stress and contact stresses along the line of path of contact of gear tooth, three-dimensional solid models for different number of teeth were generated in Pro/Engineer that is a powerful and modern solid modeling software and the numerical solution is done using ANSYS workbench 12.1, which is a finite element analysis software. Optimisation can be done for the given gear tooth profile by varying the given suitable gear parameter, thus reducing the stresses and increasing bending strength with the reduction in weight in accordance to given reference involute gear tooth profile. Keywords- Involute,helicalgear,stresses, optimisation,finite element analysis.

I. INTRODUCTION The attainment of a non-fluctuating velocity ratio is dependent on the profile of the teeth. Friction and wear between two gears is also dependent on the tooth profile. There are a great many tooth profiles that will give a constant velocity ratio, and in many cases, given an arbitrary tooth shape, it is possible to develop a tooth profile for the mating gear that will give a constant velocity ratio. Helical gears are currently being used increasingly as a power transmitting gear owing to their relatively smooth and silent operation, large load carrying capacity and higher operating speed. Designing highly loaded helical gears for power transmission systems that are good in strength and low level in noise necessitate suitable analysis methods that can easily be put into practice and also give useful information on contact and bending stresses [1]. Vijayaragan and Ganesan [2] presented a static analysis of composite helical gears system using three dimensional finite element methods to study the displacements and stresses at various points on a helical gear tooth. Rao and Muthuveerappan [3] explained about the geometry of helical gears by simple mathematical equations, the load distribution for various positions of the contact line and the stress analysis of helical gears using the three dimensional finite element methods. Cheng and Tsay [4] investigate the contact and the bending stresses of helical gear set with localized bearing contact by means of finite element analysis (FEA). Face width and helix angle are important geometrical parameters in determining the state of stresses during the design of gears. Nagesh Alemu [5] conducted a parametric study by varying the face width and helix angle to study their effect on the bending stress of helical gear. Ali Raad Hassan [6] has considered a pair of spur gear teeth and contact stress has been analyzed in different contact positions of matting gears during rotation. Hedlund and Lehtovaara [7] presented a study, focuses mainly on the modeling of helical gear contact with tooth deflection. II. GEAR TERMINOLOGY Pitch circle diameter: The pitch circle diameter is the diameter of pitch circle. Normally, the size of the gear is usually specified by pitch circle diameter. Addendum: The Addendum is the radial distance between the pitch and addendum circles. Addendum indicates the height of tooth above the pitch circle. Dedendum: The dedendum is the radial distance between pitch and the dedendum circles. Dedendum indicates the depth of the tooth below the pitch circle Module: It is the ratio of pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth. Pressure angle: It is the angle that the line of action makes with the common tangent to the pitch circles. Number of teeth: Indicates the number of teeth on the gear. Helix angle: It is a constant angle made by helices with the axis of rotation

International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering (IJMPE) ISSN No.: 2315-4489, Vol-2, Iss-1, 2013 13

Analysis and Optimisation of Gear Tooth Profile

IV. CAD MODELING OF HELICAL GEAR USING PRO/E 5.0 3D Wheel Model:-

Figure 3 : Wheel model

3D Pinion Model:
Figure 1 Gear terminology

III. INVOLUTE GEAR TOOTH PROFILE

Figure 4 : Pinion model

3D Wheel and Pinion Assembly of Helical Gear:-

Figure 2 Involute gear tooth profile

Involute is the path generated by the end of a thread as it unwinds from a reel. In order to understand what is involute, imagine a reel with thread wound in the clockwise direction as in Fig.2. Tie a knot at the end of the thread. In the initial position, the thread is at B with knot on the reel at C . Keeping the reel stationary, pull the thread and unwind it to position B .The knot now moves from C to C . If the thread is unwound to position B the knot moves to C position. In repeated unwinding, the knot thread occupies position B , B while the knot moves to C ,C positions. Connect these points C to C by a smooth curve, the profile obtained is nothing but an involute.

Figure 5 : Helical gear assembly

V. FEA OF GEAR TOOTH USING ANSYS WORKBENCH 12.1 The following steps are used in the solution procedure using ANSYS Workbench 12.1

International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering (IJMPE) ISSN No.: 2315-4489, Vol-2, Iss-1, 2013 14

Analysis and Optimisation of Gear Tooth Profile

1.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

The geometry of the gear to be analyzed is imported to ANSYS Workbench 12.1 from Pro/Engineer 5.0. Material for pinion, wheel should be defined, material properties such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio should be specified.Material strength such as ultimate tensile and yield strength need to be defined. Density of the material is required to be defined. Connection between wheel and pinion need to be defined. Meshing the three-dimensional gear model. The boundary conditions and external loads are applied. The solution is generated based on the previous input parameters. Finally, the solution is viewed in a variety of displays.

(3) Applying boundary condition:The boundary condition such as fixed support and external loads were applied in order to determine the stresses generated on gear tooth which is shown in Fig.8 and Fig.9.

Figure 8 Fixed support provided on wheel

(1) Geometry:The geometry of helical gear was generated in Pro/E and it was imported to ANSYS Workbench 12.1 for carrying out static structural analysis which is shown in Fig.6

Figure 9 : External loads applied on pinion tooth

(2) Meshing:Here wheel and pinion both are meshed to in order to define the number of nodes and elements. Mapped face meshing is done on both wheel and pinion which is shown in Fig.7.

(4) Stresses generation on Pinion tooth:By incorporating the boundary condition and external loads the stresses that are being generated are as follows:(1) Von-mises stress / Equivalent stress (2) Maximum shear stress (3) Frictional stress (1) Von-mises stress / Equivalent stress:Maximum von-mises stress acting on tooth of pinion is 298.29 Mpa, which is shown in Fig.10.

Figure 10 Von-mises stress

Figure 7 Gear meshing

(2) Maximum shear stress:Maximum shear stress acting on pinion tooth is 157.87 Mpa, which is shown in Fig.11and Fig.12.

International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering (IJMPE) ISSN No.: 2315-4489, Vol-2, Iss-1, 2013 15

Analysis and Optimisation of Gear Tooth Profile

(6) Total deformation:Total deformation of pinion tooth will be 0.0208 mm , which is shown in Fig.15 and Fig.16.

Figure 11 Maximum shear stress

Figure 15 Total deformation

Figure 12 Maximum shear stress-Enlarged view

(3) Frictional stress:Maximum frictional stress generated on pinion tooth is 175.44 Mpa, which is shown in Fig.13.
Figure 16 Total deformation-Enlarged view

(7) Sliding distance:Maximum sliding distance on pinion tooth during contact between two gear teeth will be 0.00018164 mm, which is shown in Fig.17.

Figure 13 Frictional stress

(5) Pressure:Maximum pressure generated on pinion tooth will be 259.07 Mpa, which is shown in Fig.14.

Figure 17 Sliding distance

VI. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this paper the main aim is to determine von-mises and frictional stresses acting on gear tooth along the line of path of contact and for that 10 different points have been defined along the face width of pinion tooth.On all this 10 points stresses values have been

Figure 14 Pressure

International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering (IJMPE) ISSN No.: 2315-4489, Vol-2, Iss-1, 2013 16

Analysis and Optimisation of Gear Tooth Profile

determined in ANSYS Workbench 12.1Table below shows stresses values obtained on all 10 points. Table 1:- stresses at various points along the face width of pinion tooth Number of Von-Mises Frictional points stress in MPa stress in MPa 138.44 158.84 1 46.295 71.357 2 47.399 66.972 3 56.796 56.759 4 64.36 71.843 5 77.984 61.631 6 86.239 82.525 7 110.00 91.985 8 119.37 98.378 9 135.66 58.492 10 One of the important aspect in carrying out analysis is its application of boundary condition and external loads. Boundary condition includes type of support that is fixed, frictionless support etc. The reason behind providing this support is to generate the stresses on gear tooth. External loads or torque / moment can be applied along the axis of gear in determining the stresses. Meshing can be considered to be an important parameter in determining accuracy of results. In this paper since pinion is driving member and wheel is considered as a driven member therefore the stresses that will be generated will be on the pinion tooth. Fixed support was provided to the wheel and external loads were imposed on pinion tooth in X, Y and Z direction along with the tangential load. The material for pinion and wheel is steel which is a ductile material. By incorporating boundary condition and externalloads :Maximum von-mises stress acting on tooth of pinion is 298.29 Mpa. Maximum shear stress acting on pinion tooth is 157.87 Mpa. Maximum frictional stress generated on pinion tooth is 175.44 Mpa. Maximum pressure generated on pinion tooth will be 259.07 Mpa. Total deformation of pinion tooth will be 0.0208 mm. Maximum sliding distance on pinion tooth during contact between two gear teeth will be 0.00018164 mm. From the above table it is found that during the beginning of contact and at the end of contact of pinion tooth with that of wheel tooth the von-mises stresses obtained is slightly high which result into the bending of tooth.

While in case of frictional stress it is found from the table that during the initial contact between two bodies frictional stress obtained is slightly high. Upon the gradual engagement of teeth the frictional stress values decrease and increase. On leaving the contact of the tooth by another tooth along face width of pinion frictional stress value decreases. VII. CONCLUSION Analytical method of gear analysis uses a number of assumptions and simplifications and it is intended to determine the maximum stress values. In this paper, numerical approach has used for predicting the static contact and bending stresses of involute helical gear. Here maximum von-mises stress and maximum shear stress acting on the gear tooth was found to be within the given limit preventing failure of gear tooth due to bending. Further maximum frictional stress generated on gear tooth was also found within limit which ultimately prevent gear tooth from surface pitting. The total deformation of gear tooth was also found to be very less and which is acceptable. The maximum pressure generated on gear tooth was found to be under the given limit. The sliding distance was also found to be acceptable. A parametric study for optimisation can be carried out by varying(that is increasing or decreasing) some of the important geometrical gear parameters such as module, face width and helix angle, pressure angle to investigate their effect on the bending stress and contact stress on tooth of helical gears. Based on the result from the contact stress analysis the hardness of the gear tooth profile can be improved to resist pitting failure: a phenomena in which a small particle are removed from the surface of the tooth that is because of the high contact stresses that are present between mating teeth. Another method by which optimisation of gear tooth profile can be achieved could be by the means of profile shifting but it is quite difficult and requires more time. Based on the following study of gear parameters it might be possible to achieve optimisation of gear tooth profile. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This project work has been the most practical and exciting part of my learning experience, which would be an asset for me in my future career.This thesis is the result of work whereby I have been accompanied and supported by many people. It is a pleasant aspect that I have now the opportunity to express my gratitude for all of them. It is a great pleasure for me to express my thanks and heartiest gratitude to all those who have helped me during the development of this project. I would like to take opportunity to thank all of them.

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There is no doubt that in spite of my best efforts, some errors might remain. I will be grateful, if they could communicate to me any errors they discovered. REFERENCES

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Cheng Y. & Tsay C.B., Stress Analysis Of Helical Gear Set With Localised Bearing Contact, Finite Element Analysis And Design,2002, pp.707-723. Negash Alemu,Analysis Of Stresses In Helical Gears By Finite Element Method,2007,pp.48-52. Ali Raad Hassan, Contact Stress Analysis of Spur Gear Teeth Pair, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 58 2009, pp.611-616. Hedlund J. and Lehtovaara A., Modeling of helical gear contact with tooth deflection, Tampere University Of Technology, Machine Design, P.O.Box 589, 33101, Tampere, Finland, Tribology International, Volume 40, issue 4, April 2007, pp.613-619. nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/IITMADRAS/Machine_Design_II /pdf/2_1.pdf.

[5] [6] [1] [2] R.L.Norton, Machine Design: An Integrated Approach, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, 2006. Vijayarangan and Ganesan,A Static Analysis Of Composite Helical Gears Using 3D FEM, Computer & Structures, 1993,pp.253-268. Rao and Muthuveerappan, Finite Element Modeling And Stress Analysis of Helical Gear Teeth, Computers & Structures,1993, pp.1095-1106. [7]

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