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# B49CF2

HERIOT-WATT UNIVERSITY
School of Engineering & Physical Sciences
_______________________

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
_______________________

PROCESS MODELLING AND CONTROL
Course Code: B49CF2

??day xx
th
May 2012 ??:00-??:00

Location: James Watt Centre 2??

Information:

Answer THREE out of the following five questions.

Candidates are expected to make reasonable assumptions
where necessary

Where a distribution of marks within a question is shown, this should not be taken
to be definitive but is for guidance only
Contd
2

Question 1.

a) Determine the transfer functions for the following differential equations. Do not attempt to
solve the functions.
i. 5 ) ( 7 ) ( 2
) (
= + t x t y
dt
t dy

[2 marks]
ii. 2 ) ( 10 ) ( 4
) (
3
) (
8
2
2
+ = + + t x t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
[2 marks]

iii. 2 ) ( ) (
) (
3
) (
5
) (
2
2
3
3
= + + t x t y
dt
t dy
dt
t y d
dt
t y d
[3 marks]

b) Determine for the following transfer functions whether their response is stable or
unstable, monotonic or oscillatory:

i.
1 2
4
) (
) (
+
=
s s X
s Y
[2 marks]
ii.
2 4 2
5
) (
) (
2
+ +
=
s s s X
s Y
[3 marks]

c) Reduce the block diagram shown in Figure 1.1 to a single block. Clearly show each
intermediate step taken. [7 marks]

Figure 1.1. A block diagram of a control system.

Contd
Y
sp
(s)
G
c1
(s)
Y(s)
H
1
(s)
G
c2
(s)
H
2
(s)
G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
K
m
(s) G
3
(s)
3

Question 1 continued

d) Figure 1.2 shows an evaporator unit in which a proportion of a volatile solvent is removed
from a stream in order to increase the product concentration. The system has three
controllers. A pressure controller controls the pressure in the vessel, and a level
controller the liquid level in the vessel. In addition to this, the concentration of the (non-
volatile) product in the liquid flow is measured; this signal is used to control the steam
flow into the system.

i) Determine for the three valves whether they are fail-close of fail-open. Explain
why you have come to the choice fail open or fail close for each valve.

[3 marks]

ii) Determine whether the controllers are direct acting or reverse acting. Again,
explain why you have come to a particular choice for each valve.
[3 marks]

Figure 1.2. An evaporator unit

Contd
T
Condensate
LT
LC
Liquid product
PC
PT
Solvent
Feed
Steam
AT
AC
4

Question 2.
Figure 2.1. A blending system.
A blending system is show in Figure 2.1. A feed with a constant flow rate w
1
but a variable
composition (= mass fraction) x
1
(t) is mixed with a variable stream w
2
(t) with constant
composition x
2
. The inlet flow rate w
2
(t) can be manipulated to obtain a stream w(t) out of the
system with constant composition x. The reactor volume is constant (V = 5 m
3
).
At steady state operating conditions are as follows:
= 1 w

650 kg/min = 1 x 0.2
= 2 w 350 kg/min = 2 x 0.6 = x 0.34
Fluid density is constant (= 1000 kg / m
3
)
A block diagram of the feedback control system used to control the composition at the outlet is
shown in Figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2. Block diagram for the control of a blending system
Contd
X
set
(s)
G
c
(s)
X(s)
H(s)
G
p
(s)
G
v
(s)
G
1
(s)
X
1
(s)
K
m

(mA)
X(s)
E(s)
X
set
(s)
(mA)
(-)
(Kg/min)
(mA)
W(s)
(mA)
(-)
(-)
M(s)
w
1

w (t)
x
1
(t)
AT
V
w
2
(t) x
2

AC I/P
T
x(t)
5

Question 2 continued
a) Perform a balance over the fluids flows coming in and out of the blender.
[2 marks]

b) Perform a mass balance over the component that is being blended.
[3 marks]

c) Eliminate w(t) from the equation obtained in b) . The equation you get should contain a
non-linear term w
2
(t)x(t). Linearise this term.
[4 marks]

d) Express the differential equation obtained in c) in deviation variables, and perform a
Laplace Transform on it.
[4 marks]

e) Obtain the transfer functions X(s)/W
2
(s) and X(s)/X
1
(s). Determine the numerical values
of the different parameters in the transfer functions.
[6 marks]

f) Determine the transfer functions describing the behaviour of the control valve and the
sensor/transmitter system that measures the exit composition given that:

- The behaviour of the control valve can be described by a first order transfer function with
a time constant of 0.1 min. The I/P transducer has a very fast linear response. A full
scale change from 4 to 20 mA gives an output change from 3 to 15 psi. A 1.2 psi change
in the signal to the control valve gives a change in w
2
of 300 kg/min.

- The response of the sensor/transmitter is very fast. It has a zero of 0 and span of 0.5
(mass fraction), for a fullscale range of the output from 4 to 20mA.
[6 marks]

Contd

6

Question 3.
See Figure 3.1. A reactor of constant volume V is filled with a catalyst which converts a chemical
A. Without catalyst there is no conversion. The reactor can be assumed to be well-mixed. The
reaction rate of the conversion is described by r = kc
A
, where r is the reaction rate per unit
volume, k the reaction rate constant, and c
A
the concentration of A in the reactor.

Information given:
k = 0.04 min
-1

V = 5 m
3

F = 0.05 m
3
/min
= 1 min
a) Perform a component balance over the reactor for compound A.
[5 marks]

b) Express the equation derived in a) in deviation variables. Use this to derive the transfer
function expressing the relation between the concentration of compound A in the reactor
and the concentration of compound A at the inlet.
[7 marks]

c) Derive the values of the gain K and time constant .
[2 marks]

d) The sensor measuring the concentration of A at the outlet is placed in the pipework at a
distance from the reactor, leading to a time delay of 1 minute. Use the real translation
theorem
| | ) ( ) exp( (
0 0
s F st t t f =
To adapt the transfer function derived in b) to take account of the time delay.
[2 marks]

Contd
F
c
A
(t)
c
Ain
(t)
AT

V
7

Question 3 continued
e) The input concentration is subject to a step increase in its value of from 100 to 200
kg/m
3
. Derive an equation describing the output concentration as a function of time.
[6 marks]

f) Make a sketch of the input and output concentration (as measured by the sensor) as a
function of time. [3 marks}

Contd

8

Question 4
A chemical is converted in a process by a catalyst. Previous experiments have shown that the
reaction is exothermic, and that there is a linear relationship between the concentration of the
chemical at the input and the temperature at the output.
Figure 4.1 shows the response of the output temperature in response to a step change in the
concentration of the chemical at the input of 5 g/L.

The process can be described by a second order transfer function of the type
( ) 1 2 ) (
) (
2 2
+ ,t + t
=
s s
K
s X
s Y

a) Determine from Figure 4.1 the values of the process gain K.
[2 marks]
b) Determine from Figure 4.1 the period of the oscillation T and the frequency of the
oscillation .
[3 marks]
c) Show that the overshoot B/A can be described by:

|
|
.
|

\
|
,
t,
=
) 1 (
exp
2
A
B
(4.1)
[5 marks]

d) Determine the value of the damping ration . [3 marks]

e) Determine the value of the characteristic time [3 marks]

f) How long will it takes for the process to settle within 99% of its final value?
[3 marks]

g) At temperatures over 200
o
C the catalyst sinters, which renders it inactive. At an input
concentration of 100 g/L the temperature of the process is 170
o
C. The input
concentration is suddenly increased from 100 to 120 g/L. Will the catalyst sinter?
[6 marks]

9

Figure 4.1 Temperature at the output after a step in the input concentration of 5 g/L.

TIME t
A
(Minutes)
B
55
2 0 4 6
8
10
50
T(t)
(
o
C)
10

Question 5.
A compound A is fed into a stirred tank reactor where it is converted into B. A mixture of A and B
leaves the reactor. The reaction is exothermic. The reaction rate r of the conversion of a
compound A is described by a first order reaction:

The value of k can be assumed here to be independent of the temperature.
a) The flow of reactant into the reactor and the flow of coolant are kept constant by a
separate system with flow sensors and control valves. Determine whether the valves
used are fail-open or fail-close.
[2 marks]

b) Set up an unsteady state mass balance for compound A.
[4 marks]

c) Express this equation in deviation variables, and determine the transfer function relating
the output concentration to the input concentration of compound A.
[6 marks]

d) Sketch the expected change in the concentration of A at the output after a step change
in the concentration of A at the input
[2 marks]

The rate of heat transfer from the reactant to the coolant is described by:

In which T
c
is the temperature of the coolant; the temperature of the coolant can be considered
constant.
The energy stored as heat in a fluid volume V of temperature T is:

The energy released by the heat of reaction per gram of compound A is

Losses to the surroundings can be ignored.

e) Perform an energy balance over the reactor.
[5 marks]

f) Determine the transfer function describing the relation between the temperature in the
reactor, the concentration of compound A at the input, and the temperature of the inlet
stream.
[6 marks]

11

B49CF2 Datasheets Laplace transforms

The Laplace transform of an equation ) (t f is defined as:
| |
}

= =
0
) exp( ) ( ) ( ) ( dt st t f s F t f

Table 1. Laplace transforms of
common functions.
Function ) (t f Laplace
transform
| | ) ( ) ( t f s F =
Dirac function
) (t o
1
Unit step ) (t u
s
1

a
s
a

t
2
1
s

n
t
1
!
+ n
s
n

) exp( at
a s +
1

) exp( at t
( )
2
1
a s +

n
t ) exp( at
( )
1
!
+
+
n
a s
n

) sin( t e
2 2
e
e
+ s

) cos( t e
2 2
e + s
s

) sin( ) exp( t at e
2 2
) ( e
e
+ + a s

) cos( ) exp( t at e
2 2
) ( e + +
+
a s
a s

Table 2. First order system
Transfer
function
) (
1
) ( s X
s
K
s Y
(

+
=
t

Contd..

Table 3. Second order system
Transfer
function
) (
1 2
) (
2 2
s X
s s
K
s Y
(

+ +
=
,t t

Roots
t
, , 1
2
1

= r ;
t
, , 1
2
2
+
= r

Damping
ratio value
Response
1 > , Overdamped= monotonic
and stable
1 = , Critically damped;
monotonic and stable
1 0 s , s Underdamped=oscillatory
and stable
0 = , Undamped=sustained
oscillations
0 1 s , s Unstable; growing
oscillations
1 s , Runaway; monotonic
unstable

Underdamped step response

Period of
oscillation
e t / 2 = T
Rise time = 4 / T
Decay ratio C/B ) ) / ( exp( T t , =
Overshoot B/A ) 2 / ) / ( exp( T t , =
Settling time , t / 5 =

12

B40DD2 Datasheets (continued, 1)

Taylor series
One variable:
....... ) (
! 3
) ( ' ' '
) (
! 2
) ( ' '
) (
! 1
) ( '
) ( ) (
3 2
+ + + + = x x
x f
x x
x f
x x
x f
x f x f
Two or more variables:
....... ) (
) (
) (
) (
,..) , ( ,...) , (
2 2
2
2
1 1
1
1
2 1 2 1
+
c
c
+
c
c
+ = x x
x
x f
x x
x
x f
x x f x x f

Control valve characteristics
A flow of liquid through a control valve is described by the equation:
f
v
v
G
P
C f
A
=

In which f is the flow in US gallons per minute,
v
P A the pressure drop across the
valve (in psi),
f
G the specific gravity of the fluid, i.e. the density of a fluid relative to
that of water.
v
C is the valve coefficient and has units gpm/(psi
1/2
)

The metric equivalent of C
v
is K
v
. It is defined as the volume flow in cubic metres per
hour of water at a pressure drop across the valve of 1 bar.
f
v
v
G
P
K f
A
=
with f in m
3
/h, and
v
P A in bar. K
v
has units m
3
/hr / (bar
1/2
).

Conversion between K
v
and C
v
is straightforward: K
v
= 0.86 C
v

v
can stand for the metric control valve coefficient or the
control valve gain. They have different meanings!

Control valve gain with constant pressure drop
Control valve gain of valve with linear characteristics:
100
max
f
K
v
= in gpm / %CO
For a valve with equal percentage characteristics: f K
v
100
ln o
= (gpm / %CO)

Control valve gain with variable pressure drop
Control valave gain for a valve with linear characteristics:

f
v L
v
v
G
p
C k
C
K
0
2 / 3 2
max
) 1 (
100
1 A
+
= (gpm / %CO)
And for a valve with equal percentage characteristics:
) 1 (
100
ln
2
v L
v
C k
f
K
+
o
= (gpm/ %CO)

Contd..
13

B40DD2 Datasheets (continued, 2)

Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID)

The equation describing the response of a PID controller is:

Transfer function:

Table 4. Tuning formulas for quarter decay ratio response, Ziegler-Nichols
closed-loop or on-line tuning method.

Controller type

Proportional gain Integral time Derivative time
Proportional-only,
P
2
cu
c
K
K =
- -
Proportional-
integral, PI
2 . 2
cu
c
K
K =
2 . 1
u
I
T
= t
-
Proportional-
integral-derivative,
PID*
7 . 1
' cu
c
K
K =
2
' u
I
T
= t
8
' u
D
T
= t

*These PID formulas are for a PID controller with the transfer function
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ ot
+ t
|
|
.
|

\
|
t
+ = =
1
1 1
) (
) (
) (
'
'
'
'
D
D
D
c c
s
K
s E
s M
s G , has a value between 0.05 and 0.2; its value
depends on the controller used, and would normally be given by the manufacturer of
the controller.

END OF PAPER