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Chapter 12 Aggregate Planning

Aggregate planning: Why aggregate planning: Decide on the combination of output rates, employment levels and on-hand inventories. Objectives is to minimize cost, or maintain a desirable level of customer service or minimize or!force fluctuations. Inputs to aggregate planning: "ffective a##re#ate plannin# re$uires #ood information. 1. %he available resources over the plannin# horizon must be !no n. 2. %hen a forecast of e&pected must be available. '. (inally, planners must ta!e into account any policies re#ardin# chan#es in employment levels. Basic strategies for meeting uneven demand: )mon# the decision options the mana#er can consider for achievin# a balance of demand and capacity in a##re#ate plannin# are* 1. +aintain a level or!force 2. +aintain a steady output rate '. +atch demand period by period ,. -se a combination of decision variables A general procedure for aggregate planning consists of the following steps: .tep1* Determine demand for each period .tep 2* Determine capacities for each period /e#. re#ular time, overtime0 .tep '* 1dentify company or departmental policies /e#. maintain a safety stoc! of 23 of demand0 .tep ,* Determine unit costs for re#ular time, overtime, inventory etc .tep 2* Develop alternative plans and compute the costs for each .tep 4* .elect the one that best satisfies objectives. Other ise, return to .tep 2. Techni ues for aggregate planning: %echni$ues available to help ith the tas! of a##re#ate plannin# fall into one of the follo in# t o cate#ories* /i0 %rial-and-error methods and /ii0 +athematical methods 1n practice trial and error methods are more fre$uently used. Trial!and!error methods: 1

DBH12 %rial-and-error methods consist of developin# simple tables or #raphs that enables planners to visually compare projected demand re$uirements ith e&istin# capacity. )lternatives are usually evaluated in terms of their overall costs. %he main disadvanta#e of such techni$ues is that they do not result in the optimal a##re#ate plan. %he problems in these methods are based on the follo in# assumptions* 1. %he re#ular output capacity is the same in all periods. 5o allo ance is made for holidays, different numbers of or!days in different months etc. %hese assumptions simplify computations. 2. 6ost is a linear function composed of unit costs and number of units. '. 7lans are feasible ,. )ll costs associated ith a decision option can be represented by unit costs. 2. 6ost fi#ures can be estimated and are constant for the plannin# horizon 4. 1nventories and outputs occur at a uniform rate throu#hout each period. %he problems in these methods are based on the follo in# relations* Determinin# the number of or!ers* 5o. of or!ers in a period 8 5o. of or!ers in a period 9 5o. of or!ers in a period 5o. of or!ers in a period

)n or#anization does not hire and lay off simultaneously. .o, at least one of the last t o terms ill be zero. Determinin# the amount of inventory at the end of a #iven period* 1nventory at the end of a period 8 1nventory at the end of the previous period 7roduction at 9 the current period )mount used to satisfy demand in the current period

"etermining the average inventory for a period:

Beginning inventory + End inventory 2

"etermining the cost of a particular plan for a given period: 6ost for a period 8 Output cost /:, O;, .60 9 Hire<lay off cost 9 1nventory cost 9 Bac!-order cost

Appropriate cost calculation: %ype of cost #utput: :e#ular Overtime .ubcontract $ire%lay off: Ho to calculate :e#ular cost per unit = >uantity of re#ular output Overtime cost per unit = overtime >uantity .ubcontract cost per unit = subcontract >uantity 2

DBH12 Hire ?ay off 1nventory Bac!-order 6ost per hire = 5o. hired 6ost per lay off = 5o. laid off 6arryin# cost per unit = avera#e inventory Bac!-order cost per unit = 5o. of bac!-order units

Bac&!order or 'ac&log: %his is the ay by hich an or#anization can shift demands from one period to other periods. (u'contracting: %his is the process by hich an or#anization can ac$uire temporary capacity. )*ample 1: 7lanners for a company that ma!es several models of s!ateboards are to prepare the a##re#ate plan that ill cover si& periods. %hey have assembled the follo in# information* 7eriod (orecast Costs: 8 B 2 per s!ateboard 8 B ' per s!ateboard 8 B 4 per s!ateboard 8 B 1 per s!ateboard per period on avera#e inventory. Bac!-orders 8 B 2 per s!ateboard per period C %hey ant to evaluate a plan that calls for a steady of re#ular time output, mainly usin# the inventory to absorb the uneven demand but allo in# some bac!lo#. C Overtime and subcontractin# are not used because they ant steady output. C %hey intend to start ith zero inventory on hand in the first period and end inventory is also zero. C )ssume a level output rate of '@@ s!ateboards per period ith re#ular time. %here are 12 or!ers and each can produce 2@ s!ateboards per period. 7repare an a##re#ate plan and determine its costs usin# the precedin# information. .olution* 7eriod (orecast Output :e#ular Overtime .ubcontract Output - (orecast 1nventory Be#innin# "ndin# )vera#e 1 2@@ '@@ 1@@ @ 1@@ 2@ 2 2@@ '@@ 1@@ 1@@ 2@@ 12@ ' '@@ '@@ @ 2@@ 2@@ 2@@ ' , ,@@ '@@ /1@@ 0 2@@ 1@@ 12@ 2 2@@ '@@ /2@@0 1@@ @ 2@ 4 2@@ '@@ 1@@ @ @ @ %otal 1,A@@ 1,A@@ @ :e#ular time Overtime .ubcontract 1nventory 1 2@@ 2 2@@ ' '@@ , ,@@ 2 2@@ 4 2@@ %otal 1,A@@


DBH12 Bac!lo# 6osts :e#ular Overtime .ubcontract Hire<lay off 1nventory Bac!-order %otal @ B4@ @ B2@ B@ B42 @ @ B4@ @ B12 @ B@ BD2 @ @ B4@ @ B2@ @ B@ BA@ @ @ B4@@ B12@ B@ BD2@ 1@@ B4@@ B2@ B2@@ B112 @ @ B4@ @ B@ B@ B4@ @ 1@@ B',4@@

B4@@ B2@@ B,D@@

%herefore the total cost for this plan is B,,D@@. )*ample 2: )fter revie in# the plan developed in e&ample 1, planners have decided to develop alternative plan. %hey have learned that one person is about to retire from the company. :ather than replace that person, they ould li!e to stay ith the smaller or!force and use overtime to ma!e up for the lost output. %he reduced re#ular time output is 2A@ units per period. %he ma&imum amount of overtime output per period is ,@ units. Develop a plan and compare it to the pervious plan. .olution* 7eriod (orecast Output :e#ular Overtime .ubcontract Output - (orecast 1nventory Be#innin# "ndin# )vera#e Bac!lo# 6osts :e#ular Overtime .ubcontract Hire<lay off 1nventory 1 2@@ 2A@ @ A@ @ A@ ,@ @ B24 @ B@ B,@ 2 2@@ 2A@ @ A@ A@ 14@ 12@ @ B24 @ B@ ' '@@ 2A@ ,@ 2@ 14@ 1A@ 1D@ @ B24 @ B12 @ B1D @ B@ BA2 @ , , ,@@ 2A@ ,@ /A@0 1A@ 1@@ 1,@ @ B24@ B12@ B1,@ B@ BA2@ 2 2@@ 2A@ ,@ /1A@0 1@@ @ 2@ A@ B24@ B12@ B2@ B,@@ B11' @ 4 %otal 2@@ 1,A@@ 2A@ @ A@ @ @ @ @ 1,4A@ 12@ @

22@ A@

B24 B','4@ @ B@ B'4@ B@

B12 @ Bac!-order B@ B@ %otal B4@ B4A @ @ %herefore the total cost for this plan is B,,4,@.


B@ B,@@ B24 B,,4,@ @

DBH12 )*ample +: 1n e&ample 1, suppose that the re#ular output rate ill drop to 2E@ units per period due to an e&pected chan#e in production re$uirements. 6osts ill not chan#e. 7repare an a##re#ate plan to compute its total cost for each of the follo in# cases* a. -se overtime at a fi&ed rate of 2@ units per period. 7lan for an endin# inventory of zero for period 4. Bac!lo# cannot e&ceed E@ units per period. b. -se subcontractin# at a ma&imum rate of 2@ units per periodF the usa#e need not be the same in every period. Have an endin# inventory of zero in the last period. )#ain bac!lo# cannot e&ceed E@ units per period. c. 6ompare the t o results. )*ample ,: ) mana#er is attemptin# to put to#ether an a##re#ate plan for the comin# E months. He has obtained a forecast of e&pected demand for the plannin# horizon. %he plan must deal ith hi#hly seasonal demandF demand is relatively hi#h in periods ' and , and a#ain in period A as can be seen in the follo in# table. 7eriod (orecast 1 1E@ 2 2'@ ' 24@ , 2A@ 2 21@ 4 1D@ D 14@ A 24@ E 1A@ %otal 1E,@

%he department no has 2@-full time employees, each of hom can produce 1@ units output per period at a cost of B4 per unit. 1nventory carryin# cost is B2 per unit per period, and bac!lo# cost is B1@ per unit per period. %he mana#er is considerin# a plan that ould involve hirin# t o people to start or!in# in period 1, one on a temporary basis ho ould or! only throu#h period 2. %his ould cost B2@@ in addition to unit production costs. /a0 Ghat is the rationale for this planH /b0 Determine the total cost of the plan includin# production, inventory and bac!-order costs.