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Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology

Lynn Meskell Columbia University

I September 11, and have continued to do so in New York City. The World Monuments Watch moved quickly to feature Ground Zero in its October 2001 issue as a place of heritage, requiring both salvage and commemoratioti. The site was supra-positioned, listed as site 101 in their register of 100 endangered sites around the globe. Ihc lingering physical marks of violence coupled with the mass grave site have reconfigured its value as a newly constituted tourist site, eticouraging us to reflect on the economic and symbolic dimensions of heritage making. The president and the chairman of tfie World Monuments Watch declared that "weapons of mass destruction are tiot always aimed at battleships or military installations, but at the cultural icons that bind and inspire communities around the world." underscoring the significance ot the WTC's historic import and potent symbolic capital. They describe how "our landmarksthe Mostar Bridge, the Bamiyan Buddhas in Atghanistan. and the World Trade Centerhave become prized targets for terrorists because they are what defines the cultures, ideals, and achievements of the people who created them, who use them, who live with them" (Perry and Burnham 2001:3). Quite understandably, the authors have made a personal connection between their own expertise in the her557

i l a g i ' h e l d . i n d I h r r v r i i K o l S ( - | ) K ' n i h ( ^ i " I I yd l i i r y , i i s o t e v r . i l l i o w I h e i n . i t r n . i h l v n l ( f i L i i n s\[v\ i-, r i i s h M i i c d i n o u r n w i i u i l t u r e a n d h o w r l o n n n . i r i l I h e k m ;4ii<ig(' o t h e n ( a g e h a s l i r ( n i n e l ) i ' \ | ) i | c t l i r p u t t M U v o f I h e VVK s i l i \ i l w o u l d \)c i l i r c i u i r i ' s .1 <.orTi[)leU' i r c o r i l i g -

u i i t h i r i k . i l ) l ( ^ t o pi"(^set"Vf I h r s i l e <is li i r i n . i i n s

n r a l i u n i n ( l u d i n i ; a p i i r o p i i j l e i n r n i o r i , i l i / . i l i o n . i n I h i s t"e;.^ar(l i l is .1 ^ a l i e i i l e x i r n p l e o t w l i j l I w o u l d l r t " m " i i c g j i i v c h r i " i l , i g r ' " <i ( o n f l i d u . i l -^ite i h a l h i - ( o m c s [ l i r i i ' i j o s i l o r v o l n e g a t i v e m e m o r y i n I h r ( o i l e d i v e i m a g i n a r y . A s j siLr o t mem

o r v , n r g a l i v c h r r i t a g e o ( ( u p u ' s a d u a l i"otr' il ( , H I b e tnc)l.")ili/ed l o i j j o s i l i v e d i il<u I n p u r i i o s r s (V.g. A u s d i w i t / , I l i r o s h j m . i , D i s t n d Six; o r a i I c r n a l i v e l y b e e r a s e d it su( II p l a i r s ( a n n o t b e ( i i l i u r a l l y i r h , i i ) i l i l a k ' ( t a n ( t I l i u s r e s i s l i n ( n t | ) ( j t " i i { i o n i n l o l l i r i K i l i o n c i t I m a g m a IV : r . g N a / i a n d S n v i t i s l a t i i e s . u i d <iti h i l r d u i ( \ i i V l o i u i i n r n I s j r r i t m e n i n n i f s t h a i m a v serve h o i h as r e m i n d e r s o i Hie pasl a n d tiartiingers o l t t i r tutui"e il n w e r i t i i a l I'lrri: While s r r m i n g l y iitu onl rovet

s i a t , " h e i i i , r ^ e ' o u i i [ ) i i ' s <i | ) o s i l i v e a n ( t ( i i l l U M l t v r t e v a t r d p o s i t i o n w i t t i i n i n a i i v <iittiires, vet \ v r s l u i u i d rr( o g n i / e ttiai n o l a l l iiidiVKluals, g r o u p s l u n a t i o n s sti<ire I l i u s r v i e w s , n r t i a v e l\]o l u x u r y o t a t t l u e i u e t o i n d u l g e t h e s r desires.

M o r e d v r t , vvr u i u n t i i a t t v t m t d ih,it i i e r i l a g e , s p ( H i i i ( a l l y "\voi"t(l t K M i t , i g e , " i n u s l M i H e s s a r i l y l i r <i g o o d i h m g a i u l t h u s t i n d it d i l l i d lit l o ( o m p i e h e i u l g r o u p s w h o s i i p p n r t ( o i i i i t e i d . n n i s , v v t i r l h r r l o i t h e r e a s o n s o t <i l e t i g i o u s , m o r j t , e i o noniK 01 p o t i t i i a l n a t u r e t x p t o m i g h o w ( t i l l u i a t d i f f i ' t e i u e is a i ( n n i m o d a t i ^ d

01 e l i d e d w i t h i n t h e I . T i i g n a g e , u i d p i a t i i c r o i a r d i a e o l o g i c a l h e n l a g r i o r n i s t h e l o ( us o t t t i i s p a p e r , t a k i n g t h r s r t w o v o l a i i i e l a n ( l s ( a p e s tis m v s t . u i i n g f ) o i n i , t a f g i i r i h a l t h e B a m i y a n V a t l e v <inft i o w e r M a i i h a t l a n a t e s a l i e n l ni,ii"kei"s t h a i ( o m f i e l u s f o u ^ f l r d u|)oii i h e o i x l i n a i v u i n s t H K i i o i i , n i d ( o i i v e n t i o r i s sur r o u n d i n g h e r i t a g e , a t h o m e .uMl r t s r w t i e i e .

The World Trade Center as Heritage

In N r w Y o r k Ciiy o n t J r c e m h r r ; t , 2 0 0 t , t t i r V V a i e r i o r d < r y s l a i h<iit f i r o p p e d i n b v t h ee v r n l s o i .\\^^i I n n r s S(]uar(* l o h e r a l d t h e Ncv\ Year. I l i e i a l t y m a r k e d

S e p t e m h r t " t t. t h e b.ill w a s ins( r i h e d w i t l i t h r n a m e s o( t f i o s e w h o d i e d

s o n u M i f l i i e ( o u n i r i e s w t i o tost ( l i I / e n s i n i h r a i t a ( k s . I h e m e m o r i a l i / a i i o n o f t h e r i ( M i l i h r o u g f i r n a l e n a t u i l t u r e h a s I x n i i n i i ' a h a l l m a r k o t |)ost S e f i f e m l i e r 1 I ( u l i u i e . f't.K r - n i a t \ i u g i n N e w Y o r k i i a s s i m i l a r l y i n t e n s i f i e d , t i o i n t e m p o r a r y nienu)i"ials, i o tiiousaiuls o l tourists v i e w i n g the d e v a s t a f i u n . to tiie p l a n n i n g anct i m | ) i e n i e n i , i t r o n o f n e w h u i t d i n g s . m d s t a t u e s . S o m e h < i v e r x | ) r r i e i K e d t h e m a i e r i a l i / a t i o n a s t i i ' l p l u i i n t h e h e a l i n g ( i K x e s s , w l i i t r o l h r i s s e e it a s ( o m m o d i f i e d o u t g r o w t h typiuil ot lounst v o y r i i r i s n i . '


I>\IN M! Ski

Closer to home there w^is an out(ry jg.nrist the blatant profiteering of .i Georgia company marketing commemorative medals out oi recycled steel Irom the WTC site. Selling for $M) on the web. the jewelry bolh represent the twin lowers on the exterior and is p>irt ol the W T C by its very fabric.-' f heir c le.irly cap italist incentive was touched in claims to historic authenticity, asking "who wants d piece of bistury": whereas relatives of the victims were outraged that some are "making money out ol our loss." 1 he very fabric ol the destroyed WTC towers will bean ever-present reminder ol the attacks. In December 20UI large swathes of sfeel from the- lowers were hauled off to be recycled into appropriate memorial structures: "\ ragments of tbe ternfying but graceful facades ol the towers, which remained standing like some Gothic cathedral amid tlie ruins, had to be saved" (Lipton and Glan/ 2002: 16). The structures will not he remembered in fbeir present state but in an ac^sthetic and c ulturally acceptable design. Discussion over the potential form of the memorial and Ihe projected use of space itself started almost immediately following tbe attacks. We are witnessing tbe dc^sire for grounded materiality at a staggerini; rapidity, to apprehend fbe objects and physical signs of a newfound heriiage ui real and tangible ways. This familiar desire iur material commemoration and the physical marking of fhe event, is juxtaposed against the realization Ihat theatlacks (and the subsequent war on Afghanistan} have been experienced througb virtual means. The events of September 11 have inaugurated a resuryence of the real, and of the violence of the real, supplanted within a supposedly virtual universe (Baudillard 2001). The moments ol impact when the hijacked planes hit the towers were televised repeatedly, a fdiitasmatic screen apparition turned re ality. It was the ultimate tantasy. albeit nightmare fantasy, foretold in H. G. Wells novel War in the Air {\908). loria's New York poeiry. penned in 192'}, and in innumerable Hollywood disaster movies (Zi/ek 2001: 17). "The Attack on America" and its sequels, "America Fights Back" and "America Freaks Out" have continued to unspool as a succession ot celluloid hallucinations ear h ol which can be rented from the corner video shop: Jhe S/r^tjc, Independence Dav. Executive Decision, Outbreak, and so on" (Oavis 2001). Bul even in fhc MatriK
with \ts desert of the real, lamously recaptured by Zi/ek, the iwin towers ol the WTC survived civilization's destruction.' The American puhlic has been thrust hack dm] torth between these two poles: the endless virtuality of the media coverage w i t h its endless reprcjducibility and the aura ot the real, material and spatial realities Ihat have lollowed f r o m the attacks. As a conseciuence of the virlual material tension. Ground Zero has been mythologi/ed in what Blake has rc^-ferred to as the "seis-





M A S I I klN(.. IN A R ( I I A I Ol CKiY

mic shift of the spatiality of American patriotism" (Soja and Blake 2002:157). As part of a patriotic resurgence we have witnessed an increasing desire for materiality, for historical marking and heritage creation and consumption. We can be sure that another landmark will be added to the list, a yet untitled museum dedicated to the disaster, for which the selection of objecfs is already underway. A team of architects, museum experts and city officials have been sifting and gathering artefacts and architectural pieces from Ground Zero for some time. They are compiling the "raw materials" for potential display as part of a museum collection and memorial, "fhe attempt is to create an archive that is already attracting interest from dozens of museums and artists, from the Smithsonian Institution to a museum in France to a sculptor in Greensboro North Carolina" (Lipton and Grian? 2002:1). Yet the fetishization of the site and the objects within it has been left unchecked, they are simply "artefacts of anguish". There is something inherently disturbing about the incipient musealization of Ground Zero, about the desire to instantly represent it, capture its aura, commodify it, and publicly perform it again and again, simply because we can. "The artifacts, as the collectors call them, will be invaluable, if only as a tactile, three-dimensional expression of the unspeakable scale of the disaster...they serve as an ad hoc museum, though one unlike any museum that has existed before" (Lipton and Glanz 2002:16)'' In December 2001, the Coalition for the Rebuilding of Lower Manhattan released a pamphlet and reconfigured map of fhe area, simply entitled Above Ground Zero. It mirrors the site's transformations; a walking trail is delineated, viewing platforms are marked, ghost buildings are delineated by dotted lines, and temporary memorials are mapped onto the site with the iconic symbol of the teddy bear. Yet fhe map is not static, it has a built-in periodicity. The map makers indicate which buildings were struck by other buildings, and where debris is being hauled from cranes to barges on the Hudson river. This endless reproducability of the event in two and now three dimensions, inflected with an equally vehement desire for authenticity and material expression, has become the hallmark ot our relationship with the recent past in Lower Manhattan, Yet one has the sneaking suspicion that already this negative heritage will become at best a global commodity fetish or, at worst, a nightmarish theme park. Coupled with the presidential mandate to buy, travel, visit, dine out, go to the theatre and generally consume, some are encouraging us to voyeuristically participate in the constitution uf a new tourist enclave. A Pennsylvania company planned to charge S2000 (U.S.) for an exclusive weekend package with extensive tours of the site. As one grieving family member remarked, "it is a bur560


iai ground...a cemetery, where the men an6 women we loved are buried." Others have likened it to "a freak show" where visitors gaze in the hope of seeing bodies retrieved (Murphy 2002), complaining that the site constitutes an open grave that does not have to be publicly viewed in its present state, but could rather wait till all operations were completed and a memorial erected. The new musealization (Huyssen 199^:14) down town iterates the deathlike qualities of heritage, made famous hy Benjamin and Adorno. Museum and mausolea have more than a semantic overlap, l:)oth entomb dead visions. So how do we responsibly tour, much less capitalize upon, such a recent and devastating nightmare come true? Surely this is fhe real unimaginable.

The Bamiyan Buddhas: Politics and Negative Heritage in Afghanistan

With political intent, the president and the chairman of Ihe World MonLiments Watch (Perry and Burnham 2001) situate the destruction in New York City next to that of the Taliban erasure of the Bamiyan Buddhas, suggesting an overt parallelism in both the perpetrators and causalities. Discourse surrounding destruction of the statues is linked to that of the WTC towers themselves, iterating a discursive culture of barbarity and cultural iconoclasni- Both were undeniably political acts with devastating results of diffc^ring extremes. As arc:haeoic)gists we might pause to consider the Bamiyan destruction since this does fall within our purview and we are obliged to think through the entangled and uncomfortable issues this episode presents. Here I want to explore the polymorphous interventions of negative heritage, since it can he mobilized in strategies of remembering or forgetting. For the Taliban, the Buddhist statues represented a site of negative memory, one that necessitated jettisoning from the nation's construction of contemporary identity, and the act of erasure was a political statement about religious difference and international exclusion. For many others today that site of erasure in turn represents negative heritage, a permanent scar that reminds certain constituencies of intolerance, symbolic violence, loss and the "barbarity" of the Taliban regime. Decried as "cultural terrorism," the iconic destruction of the Bamiyan Buddhas is inexorably the major episode that defined the Taliban's relationship with the past. They were destroyed using strategically placed dynamite as onlookers photographed the detonations. While a full discussion of the mediating circumstances lies beyond the scope of this paper, I attempt to hriefly chart the diverse and sometimes contradictory agendas oi both the Taliban and the internation561

ilv, uwtVA ti'( I'lit M'p(jrls th,il r | ) i t ( n n i / r Ihc ( o n i h * l i n g [ i d l i t i t s Mir r(iuruliri!4 licnl.i.i^c <iii(i i i i l U i r j l i l i l t f t r r K ! ' . Kci (>j;nilii)n of < iillLir.il ( l i l l c t f t K c lli.irs 111)1 en I.III D i i i ' n t . i l i s l I I D I U M I S tli.il fvlickilc 1 J S U M I I M K irii<;s h,ivr Uiilcd Id ( o n s l i l u k ' ,1 (ivil siK i r l v ( l u r i i c r !*)9'l/ i)i Ih.it priniilivc n i D d r t n i l n ' s " l.ick [(tr i ill l u i r d pnoi"ili(*s i.)l I h n i i Mill A i n r t K . i n ( nuiiU'i"[)Lit"ls, siiTiply Ih.il (crl.Tin i^roiip'^ i i i j y M.ivc d i t t c r c i i l t i ' l . i t i d i i s h i p s w i i h I I K ' H d i l l r t f ! i l ( o n s l ' i i i i r n l p.isK Oil I c h i i u r v 2(i, 20(11 the i,-ililj,in k \ i d c i M i i l l . i h M o h d i n n i c d ( l i n . i r issued ,in r t i i d Ui^il t h e sMLui-'s 'should l)iM"irs[iiiyi'd so lij.it tlii'V ' H I M K U w o r s l i i p i K ' d n o w or in I h c l i i l u i r " DNI S( O ,jiid I h r iiili'rn.'iUon.il ( o i n r n i i n i l v l u i d toiii^lu o i l .ill r,u"licr" I h r i M l of d c s t r u i l i o f i m I'J't ". Mis d c d s i u i i lo r c s d o d I h r ciiliri

j;4n-(^mciil ( x u i r r r d tn i . i n d r n i w i l h i . i l i l i . i n l( tt(s' o p p o s i l i o n to i h r dispLiv oi | j ( r - i s l , i n n ( iigui"''s m i h r ls,ilini i m i M n i n i . i n d ni.iv i i , i \ r b i ' c n s p i i n r d hy ,i vis il hv l i j l i . i n r i i i d { i l i i s l s . A p t o p o i i i ' i i i of l ) i r I I I I I . K O I I S I T V J I I V C VV.ihh.'ibi line o i Sunni isl.nn. M i l l kill O i n a i ii.\d picvioiisiv issued a d i . \ fcv to |j(oU'( t Ihc n . i l i o n s ( U I I U M I i i f ' i i L i j i C si.it;|4(-s|ing tfi.il n n i f i n r . i i c x p k i n . i l i o n s l.)dsrd sini;Lll<irlv u p o n r r l i j i i o n or p o l i l i c s ( , i n n o l suf (u < 01 i i e i s i itc ( o l k U c r . i l i j i l o i s , i n v o l v i n g n i i l i l.iry o[")i.'i,ilions, i i i l c i i L i i poll ( u s , ind itiU'in.ifion<ii r o k i l i o i i s h i p s i,("Kiirii)oni 2{)i} I: 10 r x p k i i t ) w f i v i i r r i f . i ^ c \v,r> h c k l host.ii^r. VVV u n n o t o v c i i o o k l l u ' f.i(.l I h d l H..iinivaii proVKUC is h o n i r l o t h e Aifih.iii Slinie M i i s l i i n i i i i n o i i l v .]\i(\. l i i r c i lly I j c i o i c I h r ( ' d i f l , i o n f n i i ol Ihis t m s t . i b l c f i ' i ' j o n v . K i l k i l c d h i i v v c r n I h c K i l i h . i n , i n d U i c i r o p p o s i l i o r i A n o l h c i dcU't niinin,t; k u lor" vv.is < cf t.iiiiiv j n i m o s i t v over I h c l . i l i h . i n ' s i n . i h i l i l y l o . u i i i r v c i n l n n . i l i o n . i i M.'( o g n i l i o i r liic suhs('{iurnl

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Ihcy n i . u i c li i n i p o s s i h i c ior i i i c n i In

till.' i i . u t i i y j n i i u d d h . i s ior I h c VVorici Hc!it,i;^e i isl o! | ) i o i e ( led siics. I \]V i k ' s t i i u i i o n l o i n If HI .i n o c i j l p(ini in n.ttion.il , i n d i n l e n i . i l i o n . i i vet i c l i t ; i o n , n i d poliiK s , i i c not c.isiiv ( i t s c n l a n j ^ k ' d , d a m horn !.M)(\ I I 11 ,iry,ucs f h j l " i c l u r n i n , ^ o r r c d i K i i K ' , t i i r H u d d i i . i s tn iiicir o r r ^ m n i i c i i g i o u s f n n i l i o n againsi ,ill c v i f i c n t c In U i r u m l i . n vi 1 1 ,il i i K i i ! oi l i i c o w n c i a n d c \ c r i ising u p i i i i U K ' I I I I h c m o s t c i d -

. i n i o n n l c d to a [ i i o v o i a t i v c a t l i i n u U u i n al so\(.'U'i;^nly,

not (]illy u p o n l i i c tci r i t o i s .tiitl t hi- p e o p l e huf u|)on I h c v a i u e s , " Some intern . i l i o t i a l ( o m m e n t a i o i s saw these st.itnes as |)(iit oi l i v i n g i i u t k i i i i s l i r a d i t i o n , w i i i i e i n a n v saw t h e n * s i m p i y as s!atu m.irkecs u l t i i e p.isV i t i a ! h a d i)<issed m10 tfie n'airii of a r l e i . K l n a l iiislor\ " 1 hesc v j n o n s assertions u n d e i s i o r e lii(> i o n ilic t i i a i n a l u r e I'i i i c r i L i g e in n i u l l i l e i i g i o n s , t i a n s n . i t i o r i a l ( o n t e x i s . A m i w h i l e t l N I S( O IS m a k i n g , IK/VV a t l e n i p t s Ui iC(.ogni/e ^ u i t u u i l A\U\ r c h g n u i s viivvtsiW, liiesc (io noi cxt<-'iid lo c x l r c n i c hciiels i n v o K n i g iiiol<itt\. 'Xi ( o K i i n g to a l a h i i a n



envoy, the destruction was underljken <is a "reaction ol rage after d foreign delegation offered money to preserve the ancient works at .i time when a million Afghans fdced starvation," The Metropolitan Mtisctim of Art in New York had previously offered to buy the st.itucs. Wluit was clearly an icunoclastic gesture might havr also been considered a vita! intt'rnationcil move to draw attention to the nation's plight, whik? sinuiltaneously reinforcing its religious specificities. That most countries, orgatnzations atid individuals cannot condone this .ution is a given, my point here is to demonstrate the volatility of negative heritage, anci its mobilizations, in specific politic.il climates. Just as there has been a new rhetcjrit of heritage aroutid the site of Lower Manhatt.in, there has been an almost deafening (ry over the "antiquities" toll in the devastated and war-ravaged Aighatnstan, While many of these reported incidents are not new, they have suddenly been foregrounded as a result ot Operation Lnduring Freedom, American [politics, and more cynically, by the U,S,-backed desire for the IJNICAL pipeline that would potentially traverse the country. Archaeologists have recently been Interviewed about the loss of antiquities and archaeological sites in Atghanistan and, given our profession, perhaps it is not surprising that many speak exclusively about the cultural toll of the war. One archaeologist stated that the American boiiibing would not do as much damage as the Taliban had done themselves, while another commented that archaeologists "would need to include a new line in the their grant proposals for a "herd of goats" to walk first through suspicious terrain" (Cook 2001:2), Archaeologists are not generally known for their political acuity. In the widespread c:overage of reported looting (museums and archaeological sites), little mention is made of the loreign intervention and warmongering that have framed the current situation. One Afghani interviewee encapsulated the problem very simply: "What can we do? We are hungry. We have no food in our homes. We have to dig up these things and sell theni,. We don't worry about our history. We jusl think ol our hunger" And while Afghanistan's provisional government claims a cessation of looting, others report that digging has continued, A local police chief retorted quite rightly that in the midst of such devastation archaeology seems like a small matter: "The government is very busy and has more important things to deal with, like kidnappings and killings." There are uncomfortable repercussions from the outcry against Afghanistan and other developing countries over the |:)rotection of their own heritage, Fur example, many counties have yet to sign the 1^54 Hague Convention, including Afghanistan, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan, Tfie convention states that "damage to cultural property belonging to any people

\ M ) ^'\^i

r means dciiTi.igc to ihc culLur.il heritage oi alt m j i i k i n d , since cvich pcopir nuikc's Ms own contribution to the culture of the world" lUNTSCO 2000: i). Ilie (.(jkl VV,ir dcst.iljili/ed l l u ' iJ.S. ,ind firit.iins commitntent lo [^reserving lieril.igt^ in thc^ (Otilext lit war, ,iiul (ertain countries were Linwilling [o pNice liniilciliotis un the nie.ms of vv.irt.uc. Siiu v the Balkan crisis there has hecn active proscc ulion of ollc^iisos against ctiltural propcTty hy an inleriiation.il trihunal in the- ll.igur, spccificdily Ihc desiruction of the Mostar Bridge .md Dtibrovnik iProti, (\c Li h)ri"c, and I cviri 200 1:1 >;. f'firased in terms of war (rimes, this h.is sri ,1 precrdctU ioi" lulLire actiiins, prrhaps potetititiily even those stich as the hoinhing ut Algh.niistafi. Speaking speciIii,illy about Afghanistan, (olin RcMilrow lias sl.U(xl th.il "the i i m r is rifjc lor,in inleniatiuii.il convention lo m,ikc' the do sljuiticin ot itiltural .irtciacls <i crime .igainsl fuimanity" (Rone 2001;. Ihe loss nt h c i i l j g i - c<ui c\isily he ilecriecl .is A crime t h j l elfects rruiltiple genrratiuns, etasnig iiil1ur.il metnorv anci severing links with the! past th.it are integral to lotgiiig .ind m.iint,lining modern identities. Y d it is dangerous to f)i.icc coinniensur.ilr value on people and thmgs .inci to couch these acts in .i kingu^^igt' reserved loi genocide, sinre (iiey do nol inhahjt Ihe same order of existence. I herr are other contrjdic.tKitis lor .irclideologists lo l.icc, such as the recent (JNI;S( 0 recuynition ut cullural diversity Within the discourse uf glohai heritage thi.'ri' IS lit Ik' ruum lor s[)erilK cultur.il, |)C)litical ur religious pusiliuiis tluit diverge 1rum Western, seciil.irist vievvf)uints. World hc'ritage is but une tacet ui tlie m()V(~ tovv.uds gluhalis.itiun -.iiid while .i shared world heritage is desired by terUiin (uunrries. il is tioi j universal presuinpliun. The strategies Ihruugh which such ,1 lunsfrucl vvuuki he .i( hievixi .ire alsu Ir.icfious. As of 2O(JI, v.irious cuiintries \tu ludin^ lirit.iin, (jermady, SwiL^ierland, and lapaii have tailed [o raliW Ilie 107(1 UNI SCO (unvcntiun tu ptevcnl the iiuernational trade in stolen art and aniiciuilies. Since the I'JSOs then.' have been separate irUer-Ameritan and i itroiir.ui curiventums m cipcuUuiti. C>iven Ihese inequities, how (an specific naliiins -iiici insriUttions take Ihe initialive tu legislate for others.' I am nut sug.gesting we teliiRiUisli the ciesiie to preserve internatiunal heritage, simply Ihat w r ackiuiwieciv^e ihe iiypoerisv oi specitif or^aniziitions and inshluhons, cspe(lallv tlir iiieci!,!, in iheir uiitciies to nil plenum it (ertain gkibal policies and thai we recugni/e the cumplexiMes ul (-mhr.iciiig real cultural diversity on thejironnd.

Moieovei, ihere are iAilt.Lir.il poiilics of a more transparent nature. First, on Oituiii't I I , 2001, huiiclri'ds o\ iight-vving Mitidu rnilitanls storiried the Ta]

Mahal .md defaied the while rn.irbk' walls with graffiti, althuugh it w.is bare Iv covc'ied !n Uie Western niedi.i i,(>ha/aleh 2(102). Ihe religious nature of tliese liestrut live acUuns iI.e. anti Musii111; had lu be elided in the fa<e ul polilical rie564


cessity. Second, Saudi Arabia has recently iicfn chcirgt^d with "cultural massacre" by the Turks over the demolition of an Ottoman fort in Mecca (al Ajyad Castle). The 220-year-old castlf, which was demolished despite protests and reassurances from the Saudis, was built on a hill overlooking the Grand Mosque by the ruling Ottomans in order to protect the city and its Muslim shrines from invaders. The Turks believe that the Saudis are trying to erase any memory of the Ottoman empire, while the Saudis claim that more space is needed to accommodate the increasing numbers of pilgrims who visit the holy shrines. The Turkish cultural minister has already made the obvitjus claim, likening the Saudi government to tbe Taliban and tbeir destruction at Baniiyan. Yet the Saudi Arabian situation is formulated upon ethic cultural difference rather tban religious, since both are Islamic contexts. Tbis incident has received little coverage and, since Saudi Arabia is an important American ally and oil provider, it is unlikely to cause many ripples. To date neither the U.S. or UNESCO has intervened for a number of reasons: politics, timing, and cultural vaiue. Tbis incident provides a sobering example of tbe political dimensionality of heritage, and wbat constitutes worth saving.^' Destruction of a specifically "monumental" past was at issue in the Barniyan valley. Yet the past is destroyed in every excavation performed; it is a central understanding of the discipline that archaeology is a destructive process. Professionals also make choices about wbat is saved and wbat \s not; "salvage archaeology" is premised on tbe recognition that not everything can be maintained or preserved. Innumerable sites are also destroyed for economic reasons, mostly for the purposes of development, and decisions are made on a daily basis about what constitutes historical significance and what falls short. Conservation is a critical act and a means of extending and cementing cultural identities and historical narratives overtime througb the instantiation of cultural heritage (Matero 2000:5). Similarly, the very concept of destruction is a culturally situated one. For example, the implementation (if the ICAHM (barter in Thailand ensures tbe integrity of existing pbysical fabric of religious shrines (stupas), whereas Tbai practice acknowledges the inevitability of decay, mirrored in tbe Buddha's final lesson on impermanence (Byrne 1995). Furthermore, the practice of removing antiquities, preserving them and even museum containment may be considered destructive by indigenous groups: Native American and Aboriginal communities would be tbe most obvious examples. Wbat bappens wben tbe directive to conserve results in d cultural construal of loss? If heritage must be problematized tbrough the lens of cultural difference, tben the related antithetical concepts of conservation and destruction also have to be rethought.

Past Mastering
B(}lh the World Iracle (enter .uui the H<u)iiyan v.illey ;^ive us fi.uise tn ask .111 uii |)k\isanl (iLiestion. Whal 1-. Id b r (fonc vvith iliss<in,inl herit,i;-;i', hi'iilage thai does iiol ( o n f o t i n lo prevailing norms or siles 111.si <ire miierenllv dislurbing,' Arcli.ieologists ,ind ollu^i (nllur.il arbiters tn.ikc rle< isions ,iboui er.isuir, Ihe liirins ot bislorv dial ,ire di'sigii.itefi as uiiw()rlhv or uiidesitalilr. All iK^gotialions witii (ontlu tual lientage ulliiti,itclv ciilail J (rri-nn [j.ist niaslcrinv;. A s<ilifnt cx.imtlle of ne.qativi' iKTitage, as pi,wed out over Ihe jont; term, i.iri be sren with (ert.iin slr.inds ot ie<enl i.-uropciii iiistory. 1 urope has witnessed a Ion;.; fiislory ot war .tiid ))fi"Sci u11011 hetvvi'en iialions, ( kisses, laa's and reh gions that h.is left ils own legat irs, whu h ineviLtblv (ontratticl ()ul<ilivr nol ions ol iinily ,iiul thus preseiii a i ic.u 1 lMlleng<' !o ,iiiv deploymeiii ot (he |),ist lo promote inlc'gr.iti(jn. In t h r 19;^) (.onvciilion ior l i i r Proiec t ion ol AichiUc !ur,ii fHiTitage oi Lurope, (uilurai heritage is lo he (ii'f}loyf'(l ,it t i i r c r prioiili/eii ii'vois. [itrope.in, nation.it <ind region,:i :UNI S( 0 .^l)(ll):7():i inEegralion being lite prime motivation. Negative i i r n t a g i ' wili iindoubiediy i)e iHided in J cieliijcralc^ [}oiic\' oi (oiiective .mtncsi.i, 01 v\ili .litein.itivt.'iy i)e r(^ iniiTpreleci (IK tioiiaii/ed; witii in <i new conimocliiic.it ion ol L(ito[)ean henlagc lAsii worth l')9'") H i; Not evervtiling c<in hc^ s.i\'(>d oi perhaps siiouki hv An oiivuuis rxauijile would bi^ the rfntn.Hils ol a N,i/i |)iist, as svniboiit capital iiiilec led vvilii l i i i ' eftiotioiis 0I guilt, loss and mourning Negative liiTitag^' ii.is lietMi \o piTvasivi' in post war (jermany that a speatic tL-nn, \'fi-i\(ui;^<'nl]ci('^i)cw<iili':i{ii]y,, is used Us ((jnvt'V !he process ol coming lo Icriiis wilii tiic pasi, oi ttiastering il (ixosenlcid 2000). I'osI w.ir Muriicii conirouted its survivois witii an enotntoiis l.isk with fr;i,aKi io iK architc-ctuial k'y,.uv. scunc oysled Im .i s.Kliial pui^j,iny, ami (lena/ili c.ilion, oliicrs for adaptive normaii/alion. Ihrer lonstitunicies cmi'igcd in the decades tlial kiiiowed: modeiiiisl, ir.ul it ion,1 list, and ihose thai s.iw tiic did.x IK potcnUial ol <i < n l i t a l pvesoi-v.ilion" ni l l u ' Na/i p,isl. Moniinii-nt.ilily was in lim.ileiy lied to meniorv. but aiso witli iorgeiting ,ind moving ioiward. P,v preserving the rnonumeiil liie soci.ii oi)lig,ilion to engage 1 1 1 moic aclive re i i u ' n i b f . m i e is pariially rfnuws.-ti, s\s mhiMrnl exteriontv alliHis tlic iiilcrTial ex perience (2000:108), Morc'ovei, Hoiociusl monuments havr lic-eii acc.used ol iopoialry, especiaily .il iiie sites of I'xlerniiii.ition. i ins view iioicis thai inc)nu nicnls l,n:'li",iy tlie nirniDcv, s i i u r n i n n o r v is inlcrnal .HI(.1 siilijectivr ,\\H\ Ihiis 1 1 1 comp.itii^ir with pubin (iispl.iv anci rnuse.ili/atiofi (Huvsscii i')'lS:2r->8)." iiieri- lias iic'en no fixed piiiicv ovei liic ensuing di'cicies towards ( i c i i i n g w i l h Nazi heritage. While ininirrmiN liuiidings and svTiihois w e i r rradic aU'ti al ler tiu' cMci o\ liic wai", in the l')70s some vvcic proles Icci .is pdlcnti.il did.n IK


hrrildgc in the ongoing project of pcniiiue, r<'sultir\g in an inconsistent treatment of Nazi architecture. Probt<'nialically, these sites have also been relnvigorated as neo-Nazi places of pilgrimage and operate as staging grounds for the potential resurgence o1 Nazi ideology, diTtnany still wrestles with the pol.ir positions of cleansing the Na/i past or mobilizing it as a didactic ruin Neld: vcrgangenheitsb(.'waUigung remains .^u ambiguous concept of past m.istering. Ironically and hauntingly parallel to the heightened activities at Ground Zero, Rosenfeld suggests that touring Nazi buildings in uties like Munich may provide the most effective strategy oi eronomic and emotional tidjustment so that tourism may represent the ultimate past mastering.

Past Talk: The Language of Heritage From the outset, heritage has (otuerned itsfHt with issues ol identity, locality, territory, ethnicity, religion and etonomic valu(\ Western constructions of heritage have also been consistently informed by the fabric ol Christianity, despite tbe avowedly secular nature ol contemporary society, and bave yet to find a way ol incorporating Christianity's bistorif enemy, Islam (Grabam et al 200U:2S). Historically, our present concept of heritage crystallized in Curope in syntbronv with tbe origins ol the nation-slate, wbile tbe notion of the past as a resource for tbe present is also cliaracteristic ot the modc-rn era. Intimately connected to tbe Enlightenment, tbe lormation oi national identity relied (KI a coberent national bcritage that could be deployed to fend oft tbe countcT claims ot otber groups and nations.'" Heritage is connected to issues ot ownership and like otber natural, non-renewable resources, is seen as a scarce commodity or firoperty. There are two implications bere worth exploring: tbe first deals witb notions of ownt'rsbip and control, fhe second with ^iu essentialized yision ot tbe past as akin to a natural resource. AtTiong many Native American or Australian Aboriginal groups "tbe past" is not to be bougbt or sold, studied or scientitic.ally tested, displayed orobjeclified in Wctys that Wrsteni participants ini,t;bt see fit or unproblemattc. Tbe past is a teleological category in our case, wfiereas otber groups do not perceive our yersion of tbe past as past al all. Contemporary repainting of Aboriginal rock art sites is a cnsc in point: some may see ihis as tantamount to vandalism, wbereas indigenous people are ap|)n:)priatc>ly conducting tbeir traditional lifeways, living and interacting witb wbat outsiders deem a separate, reified cate gory, the past {Mowaijaddi ct ai 1988:6^)2). Relationships to hrrit^ige suc:h as these cannot be raptured in tbe male-biasoc! language of patrimony or own567


ership, nor (,iri they reside vviEhin tho ddrninrinl perspective that v.ilorizes J v<iiue hi(fr<.ir(hi<:,il, dualistit., nights b.ised Ir.imework (VVurren 1999: IS-6), thus (h.illenjiuig rhc<Kle(|ii,KV not only ul our scni.infit (ategorirs, but of our fun damenlal conteplLi.il taxououiies (hdl reflecl Ihe very hallmarks of our dis1in< rive inodertiily. Residues of the pasi exisi in the present as archaic teininders ol a world Lhat was, albeit in inlinile vanabililv rather than niunolithir expressions or reflections, f hose inatenal residues u m n o l be authenti(aliv" re< re.iled and arv thus finite. In the U.S. the iirst steps toward site [jrotet tion larne about witb Roosevelt's 1901 Fore^t Servrce, lolkivved hv the t90i> Anticiuities Act, the natural preceding and shaping any notions oi an arc haeolojiical past, the Anticiuities A(t gave the pres ident discretion to protcxt "liistoric landmarks, historic and prehistoric, struetures" thai were situated on lands owned ur controlled by tbe gcjvernrnent and also to create reserves. This ,KA also r-ecognrzed that significance' is tantarirount to "historical, scenrc and/or suentrlic values^'as mirrored by tbe tirst sites rromiriated (drand (anvon, Death Valley, Joshua Tree etc: McGrrnsc-'y and Davis 1984), Natural rc^sources and places provrdecl the mcxiel tor this [paradigm of non-renewabilrty and .ire similarly marked as sit.-s <inci places tbat entreat pr'otectron and visitatrort," I niploying the same language and crrLerra for irrclusion (i.e. outstanding aestbc^tic and scientific valire, univers.il value, historical import), arcliacxilogical remains are Irterally natur,ili/ed, perh.ips everr percerved as "god grven.'" It rs unlikeiv tbat tbe two afv ideologrcallv or conceptually comparable (although Irving comrnunrtiesare simil.irly tiiargmal loeachi, and the conflation eschews the social corrstfuctiorr and valrie systems inbeient to botb. Su(b compounding serves to present tbe lole of arcbaeologists as good conservationists or ec.ologists (literally saving tbe planet;. I focus on tbe construct ot global world heritage, siric.e rts discursrve formulatitjn Ir.is assumed an overwhelnunglv positive mantle in recent decades. However, global world beritage (ould be perceived by some as an c^xtensron of thecolorual projcYt, Irayelinglo, knowing and nia|)ping lerrrtoric-s outside one's own national boundaries. Ibe language of tbe UNtSCO conventions reiriforc:es Western notions ol value and niihl\. wbrle Ihe mv/ifTs/i/p and mainlenanceol tfie past IS sullused with tbe concepts suriounding/?ra/;(T(>', A close reading of tbe language ol beritage, spc'c ifically tbe tINFSCO (onventions embody older paradigms ol cuitnral bistorv and traditional a\\ bistorual yalue svstems instead of tbe more recent alrgruiient ol .ircbaeologv wi)fi social anthropology and tbe social sciences.'' tbc^ convention clearly recognizes that not all property can be listed, ratber only tbosc> selec t few tbat arc outstanding from an "international



viewpoint," Furtber it states thai the committee can aclwith 'full independence in evaluating tbe intrinsic merit of property, without regard to other consideration" (tJNESCO 2000:26), hirst ot all, this operates within tbe language of presumed objectivity, a bangover from tbe era of positivism, and second, it erases the centrality of cultural issues whetber, social, political or religious. Other sections of the convention make overtures to "local people" that might be construed as cultural pluralism: "participation of local people in tbe nomination process is essential to make tbem feel a shared responsibility" (2000:27). However, much of tbis redeeming language is paternalistic, interpolating "locals' and their beritage into predetermined sc:hemes of global world beritage. The notion of a common heritage bas recently been amplified by tbe burgeoning global museum, beritage park and tourist industries. World heritage and world tourism recursively reinforce and enhance eacb cjtber In an ever-growing and influential lobby. Since tbe proliferation of global tourism after WWII, high profile campaigns sucb as the "Save Venice" movement or the UNESCO rescue of Abu Simbel are salient examples of tbis connectivity (Asbwortb 1995:71-2), Furthermore, the very c:oncept ol world heritage is Hawed by the fact that it privileges an idea originating in the West and rc^quires an attitude toward material culture tbat is also distinctly European in origin, Tbe tact tbat world beritage is underpinned by tbe globalization of Western values has ultimately prompted challenges, resistance, and misundiTstandings, t_INESC.O policy (2000:1) analogously attempts to conflate global and local interests: "cultural and natural property demonstrate the importance, lor all the peoples of the world, of safeguarding this unique and irreplaceable [)roperty, to whatever people it may belong...parts of the cultural or natural beritage,ire of outstanding interest and tberetore need to be preserved as part of tbe world heritage of mankind as a whole," I rencb arcbitectural bistorian Franc,oise Cboay. bas reterred to tbis imperialism as the "ecumenical expansion of beritage practices" (Gjmboni 2001.9)- Any real success of world beritage will depend upon tbe degree to whicb the Enligbtenment inspired universalism gets sanctioned as truly uruversal. The language of UNFStt) might seem pervasive and implacable: bowever tbere are dear national alternatives .ilready in operation, I see real potentials for tbe future of heritage as crystallized in tbe language arul expressed sentiment of tbe Australian Burra Charter. The charier rrcei?lers the place oi culture in a living context termed "places of cultural significance," ratber tban as redurtively static objects of outstanding artistic or scientific merit. These places are important because they provide an "inspirational sense of conncrt'ion to comrnunhy and landscape" that are part of lived experience. Place is connected to "tangible ex569

p r c - s i o i i s ot A i i s l r . i l i . m i d e n l i l v . m i l expcr-icMur" w i l h [ i i c . K k n o w l c d ^ e n i r n l I hat f)l<Ke^ ot "c u l i u r . i l s i g n i l i ' a f i c c irflc< i l i i r d i v i ' r s i l y of { o m n i u n i l i c ^ , I lerit.igc^ is Ibcie

b o t h l o b r c,ii"ed f o i . l u d u\cd b\ v a r i o u s g r o n i ' s , il d e e m e d a i ^ p r o p f i a t c . ' '

arc w e l l k i i o w f i t.iscs vvbere p u b l i i inlo[ [ i i . i l i o i i is w i l i i h c l d . siu h .-is I b c l o u i t i o u s of s a c f r d sitc^, >ii!d e n ! i r ( ' tiacis o i ( o u i i l r y s i d e II.A'C b r i ' i i i c i u r i i c d lo Abofij^iiiai I u s l o d i , i i i s s u t l i as U i u i u . (orrrs|ionflin;-;lv, Ilicrc is.i cicar l e c o g n i l i o n ib.it l o i sonie

ck'cisions. .inciudin.^, b u i nof l i m i t r i i l o p o l i l i c i l . rcHi^^ious, spirHu,!l a u d m o r a l belicis, f h i s IS l)("o<i(k'r ! h , i t i v,ilucs .issocuiic-d NVitb d i l f i i r a l s i ' ^ n i f u , i n c e " i;l5urra ( f h i r l c i l'-)9<)i.'' VViiile thts n a h o n a l doc l u n e n l c J i m o l d o u b l e as a e,lobal t i u u c U t e , It c e i i . i i n l y does r-cllcct ,i heif-jlUe-ned -iw.ucness a n d l o i u c n i kir c ultiir.il difk^-eiic-e, l i i r ciear iu( lusioii o l inck.^etuius g r o u p s w i l h w h o m u l t i m a l e dec isiou m a k i n g resides. , i i u i a fcKUson a i n l l i ' l resolution iti.U is n o l c v i d c u l l a the u k l e t LI v c n l i o n s . Moreover, il cx[)lic illy . i d v o i , l i e s ,i m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a i v . l p p r o a t l i , n c o o l i a l i o n , a n d .liins k i i , w h e r e possif)ie, I b r (O'cxistcficc o l f l i l l c r i i i g vi(

1 1 1 f ) . i r t n c r s h i j i w i t h i n d i g e n o u s ( o n i m u n i t i e s j n d lias iio[ b e e n f>|)rn to t b r l\ o l (r-itl( isrn sustained bv t h e U n i t e d SI.lies iscc I iilev _

Closing Thoughts
V i o l e n c e , s . i i u l u m e c ! n i n n o t v .wul ^^H- \-5U\I\\^S VA p \ . u e ^lave i n c s ^ . i p ' i W y c o n s l i l u l e d s i l c s o i hc["il.i;.4c i n I ovvei fvl.mh.il t.ni . n i d m t h e l i . i n i i v - n i v . i l i c y . Ihr'ouj^h I h c s c c x i r c f t i e (^x,unpk's w e <HC i r n p e l l c d Ici i c t i i i n k I h e n i o r c n i u n ( l a n e , l3u\ n o less p o h i i u i l . u i \ i s \ v \ K \ u > n s \>\ \ i i e }).is\ <intl l^iosc specific siies Hiat v i r c c o n s e i [Mtcd ds h c r i t - i g e . A t l c i . i l l , t h e n u i i c r h i l w o r l d is .1 ( u n s l ^ m l rc^innclei o l .III e v e r - p r e s e n l |)<ist j i i d y r ( c c t k i n i dec isions by p.irhc u l . i i i n c l i v i d u a l s d i i d n r ; j , a n i / a U o \ i s r c u c l c i P.UVKVIUM ))\.H CS , I \ v . i U h i b l e , i n i | ) C i r l , i n l , j c s l i i e l n jrid

r n e . i i n n i ^ t u l . H c r i f . i o c itih.il>i(s s p j l i . i l . k ' n i p o r . i l , ( n l l i i r - i l .\\}d r ( o n o n n c cio i n , i i n s , h o w c v e c t h r n o l i o n o i m l t i i r a l ^^ood is o l l c n s v n o n v f n o u s w i t h r ( o i i o i U K s u e ess, U i e k i i v ^ u a n e n l l u U i n a ) \ieiila!.;r is s v i u t i i o n o u s vvitb l h , i l ot t h e n . i l i i r . i l vvofid -.1 [ i o n - r c n ( n v , ] b i c r e s o u i i c I h . i i is t o i j c |)rc-scivc(l l o r l i i c licMi

c h l o i a c o i n n i o n h u i n , i n i l \ ' , i i n i w h o d r h n e s .1 ' 1 o n i i n o n l i e i i i . i g e ' a n d " c o m n i o n h u n n n i l v " m \hv ,ige o l i c c o g n i / e c i c nlliir-al d i t f r r e n c r.' i h c liLHM C f i a i t c f ii,is l i e e n iiscil as .i [ j o s i l i v r c x j i n p i c of o n e i i a i i o n ' s ,iltem[>t t o n c g o l u i l c , j i i d v^jcn ( c i i n i i n i s i i c o n ! n i l o i iic^r[(,iv;c\ in I h e f.icc o i cnl![if<il d i v i ^ s i t y . I h i s css.iv iias levolvcHi a r o u n d ! l i e d e p l o v i n e n l s <irul i n t e r v c n l i o n s of s o i i i c I h . i v r i r u T i c d iie.tialive b c f i l a g c , w i i K h o f ) c r , i l c s b c f w c r n ih<' d u . i i p o i c s


of twnsiormation and erasure, depending un the social and temporal context, liming is key in decisions to erase heriUigc sites, whether Nazi architecture or the Bamiyan Buddhas, where specific, national modernities cannot rehabilitate or accommodate specitit manifestations ol the past. And only time transforms negative or dissonant heritage into the romantic monuments and theme parks of collective nostalgi.i. Anc:ient sites are purified through the march of time and the cultural amnesia that acconi|)anies temporal passing. How can we define or apprehend an arbitrary moment in time that transforms the product ol the past into an object of heritage? Preservation privileges the construct ol historical respec:t rather tlian the needs of the present (Adorno 1981:173), Arthaeologically, an object re-touched or re-worked in antiquity is of interest to sc.tiolars, yet this same process is denounced or actively prevented when it occurs in living contexts. By what mechanism is authenticity compromised? It can only be the arbitrary passing of culturally determincxl time that sanctifies the past as past. Returning to Ground Zero, we have witnessed the rapid afid devastating transformation of the World Trade Center from the penultimate site of virtual capital Into a site of negative heritage, replete with numerous instancc-s ol contemporary and potential musealization. It is timely tliat we thus ask what constitutes appropriate memorialization in this volatile context. What will be remembered and forgotten? How will 1 he didactic, potential of the site and the cultural capital of museums and memorials be balanced against the extreme pressure of economic and political lorces' Numerous groups remain buried at the site: occupants of the WIC, fireman and policemen, migrant workers and the highjac:kers. We are now at an important |unc:ture: the ongoing memorialization of the event can take Ihe shape of current nationalist fervor, highlighting the "axis of evil" and the war against terrorism, or can attempt to mediate between the numerous agendas and interest groLips and mobilize the materials of the very recent past to confront religious, national and cultural difference, and to perform a service in tiie public sphere. Given the disenchantment of a post 9/11 world, the latter calls for a hybrid heritage where multiple meanings and a multicultural agend.i are tacitly embraced from the outset. New York City, the ultimate world city, can make a piiblic and powerful connection between the events of September 11 and thus potetitially further the understanding of cultural difference and intolerance in a global context.


Ihis papei o w e s m n d i t o i b c l i i o L i g h l l u i i n s i g h t s o l r i n i i i a B l a k e . R u . h a i i i hox, F',itt\

( . e i s l e n b h t b , Chad i.,illor(f, M a r l i n 1 k i l l , Ian l i o d d c r . R o s e m a r y | o v ( e , Ian I illev, Claire Lvons, a n d ,N<in R o l h s d i i l d w h o eat h r e a d w i r i o u s d i a f i s , [iroviciecJ c r i t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s a n d b e l p e d dank m a r t v of I h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t b e p a p e i , I h e studcMits u\ i n v i ; r a d u a t e class " R e v e a l i n g I d e n l i t i i ' s " afso | ) r o v i d e d vvoncierful fe<'dbac k o n fiiariv of I b e a r g u m e n t s , S o n u ' v e i \ h e l p l i i i r e l e i e i K c ^ w e r e [ ) i o v i d e d b\ James ( o n i o n Marisa L a / / a r i , a n d ( l a ire S i r i i l h . Boo/er, l i n a l l v , I w a i i l lo ad<,nowledge the bel[i ot m v r e s e a r d i assislants A n n a

k i e m k a i l , A / I / Mesh lea a n d Danief Cue r las w h o h e l p e d w i t b t b e c o l lee l i o n o l m a t e r i a l s

' M a l e n a l signs also serv.- l o l i n k u a l i o n s a n d i r t d i v i d u a l s , m a k i n g e m o t i o n a l a n ( i s t a l e m e n i s A b a t t e r e d Hag, laiseri bv l i r e f i g h t e r s at Ifte WTC site in t h e e.irlv a f t e i n i a t b o l a t i a c k s . w a s sent l o , A l g h a i i i s t a i i i o be f l o w n a l t f i e site o l a I c m p o r a r v l a i i b a n [jrisoners prison Asa m a l e n a l l e l e r e n i f o i I h e e v e n t s of S e p l e r n b e r I I l i n s c n l i e d w i l l i t b e

n a m e s oi t h e v i d i n i s , , it w a s a s v m b o l K act Iliat i n s t a n t i a t e d a n d juslifleci t f i e r e t a l i a t i o n O r i g i n a l o w n e r s h i p o l I h e fla;.^ w a s t f i e i i c a l l e d i n i o q u e s t i o n bv vacfU o w n e r s , Shirlev a n d Spircj, W'ho ( l a i m e d it w a s l a k e n Ircnn Iheir boat tnoor<'d in L o w e r M a n h a t t a n . I h e n , U. V V .;.<)0I "f-oi History Ol Fax H r e a L C l a i m i n g a Sepi. 11 k o r i , ' in Ihc New Yaik Times, pp..'>""!, N e w Y o i k , M a i d I ; In all Ihese m o b i l i / a h o n s , a u t f i e n i it ilv is p a r a m o u n t ' h e m s siij h as shell casings a n d l ) u l i e l s f r o m i u r o ( j e a n b a t l l e l i e l d s i n VVVV t w e r e a K u i r . i l l e d , u u l t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o m a l e i lal c u l t u r e m e n i o r a l ) i l i a bv solciiers aiicJ w i c k ' l y d i s t r i b u l e d . H i e |)MKi'sses of i o m m o d i lie at i o n a n d profit w e r e , h o w e v e r , n o l t h e f i r i n i a r v m o t i v a t i o n ot ( o n i e r n , San rulers, N |, i()()() 1,-iieat War Rei vi l e d , " loiniinl " B o d i e s of M<'tal, Sfiells of M e r i i o r v : "Trenc li A r l " a n d I b c ol MutciKil (.ullurc "i:4 !-t)7.

'in I b e Irhn I I I ! m a n l)eings a i e iiu-re b a l l e i i e s loi t h e new n i e c h . i n r c a l w o r l d o i d e r , a l t h o u g h Ihev ti'-e III a p e r p e t u a l d r e a m slate, delndecf t h r o u g f i v i r t u a l mearis hv a s i m u l a t i o n p r o g r a m called Ihe m a t r i x , Manv ( L i l l u r a l ( o m i i i e n t a t o r s havc> d r . i w n a t t e n t i o n t o tfie |)resenl b l u r r i n g of g e i i i e s ',A c u m [ j a t a b i e e \ a m | i l e w o u l d be i l i e m u s e a l i / a t i o n o l H i r o s f i i m a 'I 111' l i m i n g o l , \ i u l l a b O m a r ' s e d u t w a s IM'V i e n u . ' l Asia ' ' P a k i s l a i i i ai( h a e o l o g i s l A h m e d I Jasan l l a n i , aigueci "tfiev are n o l h e r e t o bc' w o i s f i i f j p e c i I f i e y a i e w o r k s o l art l o o l i n g i n the I.,S a n d o t b e r n a l i o n s s i m i l a i l v r e m a i n s a signrlii.ant t o i u e i n l i t u d i e , K, it w a s issued w h i l e a SPACM d e l e g a t i o n w a s in

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"Cases whi( b evoke Ibe mosl vo( ifcaous o n t ( r i e s over loss ar"e tbose w b n h re|iresc*nt aesllietii sites tbose vvbic h tacitK lit VVeslern c i i t e r i a for atUstu m e r i l a n d (".ultiical n u ' a n i n ^ , W l i i l e not all b e i i t a g e is salvaged, m a i n < n i l u r a l c o m m e n t a t o r s feel m o r e able lo p o i n t t h e finger at d e v e l o p i n g coLinlries such as Afgh.inistan l i l i n g reasons of i g n o r a n c e a n d b a r b a r i s m , w b i l e dovMiplaving religious M'nsitivrlic's, local feelings, economic: ik'iessitv or Ibe irnple m e n i a l ion of o t i i e i systems o l k n o w l e d g e ancj value. ,Archaeoloi^Kal lierilai!,e in these spc (ilif l o i a l e s < a n easilv be tranvfor i i i e d bv p o l i t i c a l mac b i n a t i o r r s : Ibc B u d d b a s w<'re in BiicJdbist d n e "Iemf>les in A f g h a r i i s t a n , " World /\i(i'ucokiy,\ 27.1'dZ ',01 dexfjeiate need ol cor tserv.it ion lor manv years wrth hi lie rone e r n . H i g u d i i . I, a n d t. Rarin^s l')'iS " H a m i v a n ivig.blenns i n d i g n a t i o n l o m e i i t e d w b e n Alghanistarr bei a m e a flasli p o i n l a n d Ibc' Taliban be came d e i n o n i / e d I h r o i i g h o u t the w o i k i reiterating the d r u i s i n tbat arciiaeologv is i m brie a led i!i p u l i t K a l xtinggles and is k n I r o m \ iliie tree



'^Auschwitz receives over 70,00(1 visitors or pilgrims cvich ycir. Coir, L )')')'). Holocaust. N f w York: Routlecific.



'"In England, John Ruskin and Willidtti Morris were (uiilroiitcd with ihc ni.iss destrLutiixi of the p<ist from burgeoning capit.ilisrn and industriiilizjtion. They were .imong the first to promote stew^rdsliip, arguing th<5t one generation had no right lo destroy rcnin.ints of the past since heritage belonged equally to fifture generations {Ganihoni 201)1.7), " A n examination ot the UNESCO Protection ot VViirid ( u i t i i r a i <irul Natiirai Herit<ige Convention and the European Landscape Convention (iciirly reve.il Ihe isomorphic rela tionship between cultural and natural heritage. '-'Article ') ot the convention purports tiirce t jtegories: itioiiuitients, groups of buildings ,iii(i sites. In defining what constitutes "outstatiding value." criteria are listed as "history, art or s( ience" as opposed to living traditions, comniuni(ies etc CriliTia include ",i masterpiece o) human creative genius." "a civilisation." or ",i sigiiiticint stage in luinian history" Ihat tan "meet the test of authenticity." liNESCO. 2000. "Cdrivcnlion Concerning the iVotection ot the World Cultural and Natural Hc-ritage (Paris !(-> November 1972}." US/K()M()S S<ienlific journal-Internationa I Cultural Heritage Conventions 2: l 9 - i 6 . "Here Aboriginal people are the most important sl.ikelioldcrs. Article 1,1.Z. "The Cultural Diversity Code (essentially d\^ ethics code that acciinipanies the Charter) ac knowic^dges that "cultural difference is the responsibility of society as a wlinle; in a pluralist society, value differences exist and contain the potential for cniillict; and ctfucal practice is necessary for the just and effective inanagetnetit of places of diverse cultur.il significance," REFERENCES Adorno, TW, 19SJ1. I'risiv',. Camliridgc^' Massaclnisetls Institute of lechnology Press. Ashworth, G. I'-)^.'). "Heritage, Touristn and Europe: A Lurn[:)ean future for a Euri>pean l\^st^" in Heritage, lourism and Society Edited by [). Iterbert. New York- Mansell Publishing. Baudrillard, J, 2001, "The Spirit of li'rrorisni," in Iv Monde. Paris, Nov 2. Bone. |. 2001. "Afghan Warlord Calls for Statues to be Rebuilt," in The limrs. London.
B r o d i e , N, D o o l e , J a n d Renfrew, C. Editor. 2 0 0 1 Trade in llluitAntiquitm.: tlie Drslnidion of the

World\ Ardiacological Wmto,!.;;:.Cambridge: McDonald Institute tor Arc ha<'oli)gical Research. Burra Charter. 1999 "The Burra Charter: fhe Australian ICOMOS Charter for the Ciiiiservation of Cultural Places of Cultural Significance," http://KOTTios.org/autsralia/burta.html Byrne. D. 1995, "Buddhist Stupa and Ihai Social Practice." World Airiiaeoiof^y 27 2(-.b-281. Chen, D. VV, 2002. "For History or Fax Break, (laitriing a Sept. 1 1 l i o t i . " iiiZ/jf New York Time",, pp, 35. New York, March '>. Cole, L 1999. Selling tht- Itoltxai'it. New York: Koutletige.

Cook, G. 2001. "Found and Lost: Afghanistans Two Decades at War Erasing 1,000 Years of Riches." in The Dallas Morning News, pp, 1-2. E)<i(las. Davis, M. 2001. "The Flatnes of New York." New left Review 12. Gamboni, D. 2001. "World Heritage: Shield or larget^" Ihe Geltv CorTservation Institute Newsletter 1f):5-11. Ghazjieh, P 2002, "Who Owns the Past," inAl-Aiirani Weekly Online. p|). 51 Jatt b l-i'b. (airo.

Gr.ihafii, B, G,J Ashworth, and | L . Tunbridge, 21100. A Geogiaphy of Heritage. Lotidon: Artmld Higuchi, T, and G, Barnes. 199S "Baniiyati: Buddhist Cave TetTTples IIT Afghanistan." Woild Archacolofiy 27:282-302. Huyssen, A, 1995, Twilight Memories Mari^ing Time in a Culture. New York: Routledge.


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