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Chapter 1 - Introduction Research Writing is a purposive, systematic and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, organizing, presenting and

interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention, for the discovery of truth, or for the expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and improvement of the quality of human life. The Scientific Method of Research Research is systematic. It follows the scientific method of research which includes the following sequential steps: (Treece and Treece, Jr., p.47) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Determining the problem Forming a hypothesis Doing the library research Designing the study Developing the instruments for collecting data Collecting the data Analyzing the data Determining implications and conclusions from the findings, and Making recommendations for further research

The first two steps will be included in Chapter 1, The Problem and Its Setting; the third step will be in chapter 2, Related Literature and Studies; the fourth, fifth and sixth steps will be discussed in chapter 3, Methods of research and Procedures; the seventh step will be presented in Chapter 4, Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data; and the last two steps placed in Chapter 5, Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.

Chapter

Steps in Scientific Method of Research

Research Title

1. Determining the problem 2. Forming a hypothesis 3. Doing the library research 4. Designing the study 5. Developing the instruments for collecting data 6. Collecting the data 7. Analyzing the data 8. Determining implications and conclusions from the findings, and 9. Making recommendations for further research

The Problem and Its Setting

2 3

Related Literature and Studies Methods of research and Procedures

4 5

Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Data Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.

Chapter 2 The Research Problem According to Dewey, a problem is (1) any significant, perplexing and challenging situation, real or artificial, the solution of which requires reflective thinking; (2) a perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry (Good, p. 414). Elements of a Research Problem There are certain elements that a problem must possess before it becomes a research problem ready for investigation: 1. Aim or purpose of the problem for investigation Why is there an investigation? 2. The subject matter or topic to be investigated What is to be investigated? 3. The place or locale where the research is to be conducted Where is the study to be conducted? 4. The period of time of the study during which the data are to be gathered When is the study to be carried out? 5. Population or universe from whom the data are to be collected Who are the respondents? Example of a research problem: To determine the status of teaching science in the high school of province A during the school year 1989-1990.

1. Aim or purpose To determine the status of 2. Subject matter or topic The teaching of science

3. Place or lo0cale In the high school of Province A 4. Period of time During the school year 1989 1990 5. Population The respondents are implied to be either the teachers or the pupils or both In brief and concise form: THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF PROVINCE A The population, the science teachers and students as well as the period of the study, 1989 1990, are omitted when writing the brief and concise form, but they have to be mentioned in the scope and delimitation of the study. Statement of the problem Generally, there should be a general statement of the problem and then this should be broken up into as many sub problems or specific questions as necessary. Example ...This study was conducted to investigate all aspects of the teaching of science in the high schools of Province A during the school year 1989 1990 as perceived by the science teachers and students. Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. How qualified are the teachers handling science in the high schools of Province A? 2. How effective are the methods and strategies used by the teachers in teaching science? 3. How adequate are the instructional as well as the non-instructional facilities for the teaching of science? 4. How adequate are the forms of supervisory assistance extended to the teachers relative to the teaching of science? 5. Is there any significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers and those of the students concerning the different aspects in the teaching of science? 6. What problems are being encountered by the teachers of science? 7. What suggestions are offered by the teachers and students to improve the teaching of science? 8. What are the implications of the findings to the teaching of science? Hypotheses A hypothesis is a tentative conclusion or answer to a specific question raised at the beginning of the investigation. It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific question. There are two forms of hypotheses. One is the operational form and the other is the null form. The operational form is stated in the affirmative while the null form is stated in the negative. The operational form states that there is a difference between two phenomena, while the null form states that there is no difference between the two phenomena. In other words, the null form expresses equally between two phenomena. This is more commonly used.

Parts of Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Setting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduction Statement of the problem General and specific problems Significance of the study Scope and delimitation Definition of terms

Chapter 3 Related Literature and Studies Related Literature Related literature is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. For instance, if the study deals with drug addiction, literature to be reviewed or surveyed should be composed of materials that deal with drug addiction. These materials are usually printed and found in books, encyclopaedia, professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and other publications. The materials are classified as local, if printed in the Philippines, and foreign, is printed in other lands. Related studies Related studies are studies, inquiries, or investigations already conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, theses, and dissertations. They may be classified as local, if the inquiry is conducted in the Philippines, and foreign, if the inquiry is conducted in foreign lands. Importance, purposes, and functions of Related Literature and Studies A review of related literature and studies is very important because such reviewed literature and studies serve as a foundation of the study. This is because related literature and studies guide the researcher in pursuing his research venture. Reviewed literature and studies guide the researcher in the following ways: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Searching for or selecting a better research problem or topic. Understand his topic for research better. No duplication of other studies. Locate more sources of related information. Make better research design. Make a comparison between the findings with the other findings of other researchers on similar studies in view of formulating generalization or principles which are the contributions of the study to the fund of knowledge.

Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies 1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible.

2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased. 3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study. 4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them valid and reliable. 5. Reviewed materials must not be too few or too many. Sources of Related Literature and Studies 1. Books, encyclopaedia, almanacs, and other similar references 2. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and other publications. 3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters, and diaries. 4. Unpublished theses and dissertations. 5. The Constitution, and laws and the statutes of the land. 6. Bulletins, circulars, and orders emanating from the government offices and departments, especially from the Office of the President of the Philippines and the Department of Education. 7. Reports from seminars, educational or otherwise. 8. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc. from the government and other entities. Chapter 4 Historical Research Historical research or historical method of research is a process of selecting the area or topic to write the history about, collecting data about events that occurred in the area or about the topic, collating the data, sifting the authentic from non-authentic, and then making an interpretative narrative about or critical inquiry into the whole truth of the events. Historical research describes what occurred in the past and then makes a critical inquiry into the truth of what occurred. Historical research must be interpretative, that is, it describes the present situation in terms of past events. Example: Why are we using English as a medium of instruction in our school today? The reason is that the Americans imposed English as a medium of instruction in our schools when they colonized the Philippines and the practice persisted up to this day. Chapter 5 Descriptive Research Descriptive research is a purposive process of gathering, analyzing, classifying, and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs, processes, trends, and cause-effect relationships, and then making adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical methods. Characteristics of descriptive Research Descriptive Research has the following characteristics: 1. Descriptive research ascertains prevailing conditions of facts in a group or case under study.

2. It gives either a qualitative or quantitative, or both, descriptions of the general characteristics of the group or case under study. 3. What caused the prevailing conditions is not emphasized. 4. Study of the conditions at different periods of time may be made and the change or progress that took place between the periods may be noted or evaluated for any value it gives. 5. Comparisons of the characteristics of two groups or cases may be made to determine their similarities and differences. 6. The variables or conditions studies in descriptive research are not usually controlled. 7. Descriptive studies, except in case studies, are generally cross-sectional, that is, it studies the different sections belonging to the same group. 8. Studies on prevailing conditions may or can be repeated for purposes of verification and comparison.

Value, Importance, and Advantages of Descriptive research Among the value, importance, and advantages of descriptive method of research are the following: 1. It contributes much to the formulation of principles and generalizations in behavioural sciences. Techniques under the descriptive Method of Research There are three techniques under the descriptive method of research: 1) The survey, 2) the case study, and 3) content analysis. Survey Survey, otherwise known as normative survey, is a fact-finding study with adequate and accurate interpretation. It is used to collect demographic data about peoples behaviour, practices, intentions, beliefs, attitudes, opinions, judgements, interests, perceptions, and the like and then such data are analyzed, organized, and interpreted. Types of survey technique or approach 1. Total population survey The entire population is involved in the survey. 2. Sample survey Only a sample or portion of the population is involved in the survey. 3. Social survey The investigator researches on the attitudes and behaviours of different groups of people.

4. School survey This is used to gather data for and about schools and to assess educational achievement and education itself. 5. Public opinion survey This is used to gauge the reactions of people towards certain candidate in an election. 6. Poll survey This is a survey in which the respondents are asked if they are voting for a certain candidate in an election. 7. Market survey This is aimed at finding out what kinds of people purchase which products, and how packaging, advertising, and displaying affect buying, prices, and so on. 8. Evaluation survey The researcher looks back to see what has been accomplished and, with a critical eye, evaluates the results whether they are satisfactory or not, with the end in view of making improvements. 9. Comparative survey The results from two different groups, techniques, or procedures are compared. 10. Short-term survey Data are collected over a period of weeks, months, or even years but the period should be less than five years. 11. Long-term survey Any survey conducted for more than five years. 12. Longitudinal survey This is almost the same as the long-term survey. 13. Cross-sectional survey Several groups in various stages of envolvement are studied simultaneously. 14. Job analysis survey This provides information on the general duties and responsibilities of workers, their education, training, experience, salaries, types of knowledge and skills, and others that help administrators or managers in setting up training programs and recruitment policies. 15. Community survey This provides information on the various aspects of the community: health, employment, housing, education, economic, resources, family, and so on. 16. Correlational survey This is the study that shows the relationship between two or more variables. Case study Case study is an extensive and intensive investigation of a unit represented, whether the unit is an individual, a family, a social group, an institution, or a community, the aim of which is to identify causal factors to some abnormality or deficiency and to find and recommend a solution, a treatment, or developmental procedures.

___________ Calderon, J. and Expectacion C. Gonzales (2012). Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Manila: National Book Store.