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Marketing Mix Product : A product is seen as an item that satisfies what a consumer demands.

s. It is a tangible good or an intangible service Price: The amount a customer pays for the product. The price is very important as it determines the company's profit and hence, survival. Adjusting the price has a profound impact on the marketing strategy, and depending on the price elasticity of the product, often it will affect the demand and sales as well. The marketer should set a price that complements the other elements of the marketing mix Promotion: All of the methods of communication that a marketer may use to provide information to different parties about the product. Promotion comprises elements such as: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. Place (Distribution): refers to providing the product at a place which is convenient for consumers to access. Various strategies such as intensive distribution, selective distribution, exclusive distribution and franchising can be used by the marketer to complement the other aspects of the marketing mix.

Promotion Promotion is one of the market mix elements, and a term used frequently in marketing. The specification of five promotional mix or promotional plan. These elements are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and publicity.[1] A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the five subcategories, and how much money to budget for each. A promotional plan can have a wide range of objectives, including: sales increases, new product acceptance, creation of brand equity, positioning, competitive retaliations, or creation of a corporate image. Fundamentally, however there are three basic objectives of promotion. These are:[2] To present information to consumers as well as others. To increase demand. To differentiate a product.

There are different ways to promote a product in different areas of media. Promoters use internet advertisement, special events, endorsements, and newspapers to advertise their product. Many times with the purchase of a product there is an incentive like discounts, free items, or a contest. This is to increase the sales of a given product.

Promotional Mix Advertising - Presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Examples: Print ads, radio, television, billboard, direct mail, brochures and catalogs, signs, instore displays, posters, motion pictures, Web pages, banner ads, and emails. Personal selling - A process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation. Examples: Sales

presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing. Can be face-to-face selling or via telephone. Sales promotion - Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a predetermined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples: Coupons, sweepstakes, contests, product samples, rebates, tieins, self-liquidating premiums, trade shows, trade-ins, and exhibitions. Public relations - Paid intimate stimulation of supply for a product, service, or business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the media. Examples: Newspaper and magazine articles/reports, TVs and radio presentations, charitable contributions, speeches, issue advertising, and seminars. Direct Marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques such as mobile messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising.

1. Personal Selling: Basically personal selling is one-to-one communication between seller and prospective purchaser. It generates direct contact with prospects and customers. It is one of the most expensive forms of promotion. Examples: personal meetings, telemarketing, e-mails, and correspondence

2. Advertising: Advertising is a form of non-personal promotion. It is when companies pay to promote ideas, goods, or services in a variety of media outlets. It can be found everywhere. With advertising, a company engages in a one-way communication to the prospect or customer. Examples: magazines, newspapers, television, websites, city buses, etc.

3. Direct Marketing: Direct marketing is a type of advertising directed to a targeted group of prospects and customers rather than to a mass audience. Two forms of direct marketing are printed by mail, or direct by e-mail. The goals of direct marketing are to generate sales or leads for sales representatives to pursue. Direct marketing allows a business to engage in one-way communication with is customers about product announcements, special promotions, bulletins, customer inquiries, and order confirmations. Examples: direct mail, e-mail

4. Sales Promotion: Sales promotion basically represents all marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising, and public relations. Sales promotions are used to stimulate purchasing and sales and the objectives are to increase sales, inform potential customers about new products, and create a positive business or corporate image. Examples: coupons, product samples, point-of-purchase displays

5. Public Relations: Public relations activities enable an organization to influence a target audience. Most of the time, public relation campaigns try to create a favorable image for a company, its products, or its policies. Companies give news releases to announce newsworthy developments about a company's products or services, distribution channels, facilities, operations, partners, revenues and earnings, employees, and events. Publicity is one tactic that public relations professionals use. This means bringing newsworthy information to the public. Examples: a campaign to encourage businesses to donate computers to schools, donating to hospitals, donating to a cause.

IMC The first definition for integrated marketing communication came from the American Association of Advertising Agencies (also 4A's) in 1989, defining IMC as "an approach to achieving the objectives of a marketing campaign through a well-coordinated use of different promotional methods that are intended to reinforce each other. Components of IMC
Organizational culture The organization's vision and mission Attitudes and behaviors of employees & partners Communication within the company Advertising Broadcasting/mass advertising: broadcasts, print, internet advertising, radio, television commercials Outdoor advertising: billboards, street furniture, stadiums, rest areas, subway advertising, taxis, transit Online advertising: mobile advertising, email ads, banner ads, search engine result pages, blogs, newsletters, online classified ads, media ads Direct marketing: direct mail, telemarketing, catalogs, shopping channels, internet sales, emails, text messaging, websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, outdoor advertising, telemarketing, coupons, direct mail, direct selling, grassroots/community marketing, mobile

Four P's Price, pricing plans, bundled offerings Product (product design, accessibility, usability) Promotion Place (point of purchase, in-store/shopper experience)

Online/internet marketing E-commerce Search engine optimization (SEO) Search engine marketing (SEM) Mobile Marketing Email marketing Content marketing Social Media ( Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google +, Foursquare, Pinterest, Youtube, Wikipedia, Instagram)

Sales & customer service Sales materials (sell sheets, brochures, presentations) Installation, customer help, returns & repairs, billing

Public Relations Special events, interviews, conference speeches, industry awards, press conferences, testimonials, news releases, publicity stunts, community involvement, charity involvement & events

Promotions Contests, coupons, product samples (freebies), premiums, prizes, rebates, special events

Trade shows Booths, product demonstrations

Corporate philanthropy Donations, volunteering, charitable actions

When these diverse aspects of business and marketing are weaved together properly an effective campaign can be achieved. Effective campaigns are demonstrated on the Integrated Brands showcase which recognizes brands that are innovative, strategic and successfully growing their sales. By effectively leveraging each communication channel greater impact can be achieved together than achieved individually.


Advertising is mass communication/ marketing communication Advertising is a form of mass communication. It involves a process of transmission of information by the manufacturer or a seller of a product or service to modify or stimulate the behavior of the buyer to buy a particular product. The term advertising is derived from the Latin word 'advertence'. It means "to turn people's attention to a specified thing". Advertising can be in any form of presentation such as sign, symbol or illustration in print media, a commercial on radio or television, poster etc. Thus advertising is the communication link between the seller and the buyer. Today, the world is dominated by all kinds of advertisements: economic, commercial and political. Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services to those who need them most to persuade them to act upon or buy them. It gives information, arouses interest and tries to obtain satisfaction of people by selling products to them. One of the basic ingredients

of today's popular culture is consumption and it is the advertising industry that makes mass consumption possible. Advertising is an important element of our culture because it reflects and attempts to change our life styles. The advertising message has to reach a billion people, speaking different languages, practicing many religions and scattered all across India. Advertisers can reach their audiences through television, radio, cinema, print medium, outdoor advertising, sales promotion and the Internet. Advertising, which was an American concept originally has found, its place in a country like India and has created an incredible awareness among the people in the past decade. During preindependence era, Indian advertisements were mostly about clothes, travelling, eating, tea, etc. In the post independence period, the focus of advertisements shifted from luxury goods to consumer goods. In early 20th century the advertising agencies such as Indian Advertising Agency and Calcutta Advertising Agency were started. The Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) was established in 1945, to represent the interests and problems of advertising profession. The AAAI presently has 79 members, which account for about 80 per cent of the advertising expenditure in India. In 1976, the first commercial spot appeared on Television and in 1980, the first advertisement sponsors were allowed. The standard of advertisements has improved a lot and in the modern world it controls our life from morning to evening. It dictates the brand of tea with which we begin our day and the brand of laxative we take before going to bed at night. In everyday life, we find advertising explores new avenues and markets and, finally, reaches those people and places that have remained untouched by its ever-expanding shadows and shades. Advertising is dynamic. As a mass medium it changes with changing markets, changing life styles, changing methods of distribution and changing techniques of communication. It communicates about a wide range of choices and facilitates the selection process. Advertising also helps in the development of the society as it increases consumption, raises the standard of living and improves the quality of life of people. Though advertising has often been criticized, it has always benefitted the society. It contributes substantially to consumer education and knowledge about a product and also creates awareness and builds confidence in consumers. Today there are many industries which spend a heavy amount on advertising. The advertisement and sales promotion expenditure of the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) giant Hindustan Lever soared to a record Rs. 8238.2 million during the year 2001. A quick look at just one industry reveals that the five major automobile brands spent a total of about $4 billion on advertisement in 2002-2003. As far as the medium of advertisement is concerned the print media including newspapers & magazines still remains a favorite with a combined market share of 55 per cent. Television, due to the spurt of numerous cable channels is fast becoming an attractive medium for advertisers. Television garnered 40.5 per cent of the total advertisement spending in India in 2002, up from 39.4 per cent in 2001. The radio is also regaining its popularity due to the spread of FM channels in the metro cities. It has also improved the standard of advertising and so is drawing the attention of many people. Now days' advertising is playing a crucial role not only in India, but all over the world in educating, informing, inspiring and motivating layman on a number of social issues and themes. Advertisements on environment protection, healthy living etc. contribute to the welfare of a nation. In India, advertising is performing a function of developing social conscience. Many advertisements have been prepared for social services like, Clean River, donation of eyes, immunization, family planning, pollution, anti-drug addiction etc... Advertising campaigns can uplift the tone and tenor of the society. Advertising campaigns through mass media are given much

importance as they help masses understand development messages and participate in developmental programs with favorable attitudes. Sometimes big advertising agencies, which are socially aware and concerned produce these advertisements themselves for the government or social organization on a no profit, no loss basis. As technology changes, the advertising medium is also taking new dimensions. With the advent of E-Commerce and the internet, today the Indian advertising is talking about net advertisement (advertising on the net) as the newest medium for the marketers. If satellite channel brought in 50 plus channels to Indian homes, Direct to Home (DTH) broadcast will probably bring in 500 channels, however advertising on the net has an equivalent of 500,000 channels. The internet equivalent of the channel is probably a portal or a search engine. Realizing the importance of this, Reinfusion, one of the top 20 advertising agencies in India started a portal -rediff.com to tap the potential of this new medium. Apart from having a number of advantages, advertising also has some evil impacts. Advertising creates the need for products which are not requited and it affects the human values. Sometimes advertisements are also used to promote things like alcohol, tobacco, cigarette etc. that can be injurious to health. It creates a desire in the people's mind. Thus people become dissatisfied with what they have. They desire for things which are not within their reach. This can lead to a sense of frustration. Advertising affects the young minds to a great extent especially when entertainment is interspersed with commercial messages. Adults may be able to develop a rational resistance to this onslaught, but children may not. For the TV advertiser, children are a very attractive target group to be cultivated. Statistics for 2002 indicate that children constitute nearly 34.75 per cent of the total population and therefore it is imperative that they be an important part of promotions. They have become a pressure group on parents and parents often succumb to children's demands. According to W. Walker (1990), "children are parasite consumers." TV advertising for children is an investment for the future. When they turn into buyers they are already oriented towards buying certain brands and kinds of products. Advertisements are also criticized for portraying woman in derogatory manner which affects the children and society. Vulgarity, violence and sex must be avoided for the promotion of products. Advertising should not be allowed to degrade human values. Advertisements spread awareness about new and innovative products thereby helping in improving the standard of living of people. However, one should be judicious and rational enough to assess the information provided by various advertisements and should not blindly trust them. Though advertising has its negative effects the positive side far out-strips the negative side. The future of Indian advertising is bright if it takes up its social responsibility which will help in the economic development of the country. Source: An article published in annual subscription of Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) in January, 2009

Advertising Definition Advertising is any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, idea or cause by an identified sponsor. Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common

Advertising objectives: Informative, Persuasive, Reminder. Objectives related to PLC Advertising usually has one of three purposes. If a product is in the introductory stage of the product life cycle, advertising will educate people about the new product. Other product advertising emphasizes a brands features and tries to convince the target market to choose it over competing brands. Last, many ads are designed to ensure that people dont forget about a product that is already well established. In summary, marketers use advertising messages to accomplish three primary objectives: to inform, to persuade, and to remind.

Informative Advertising: Informative advertising seeks to develop initial demand for a product. The promotion of any new market entry tends to pursue this objective because marketing success at this stage often depends simply on announcing product availability. Thus, informative advertising is common in the introductory stage of the product life cycle. Persuasive Advertising: Persuasive advertising attempts to increase demand for an existing product. Persuasive advertising is a competitive type of promotion suited to the growth stage and the early part of the maturity stage of the product life cycle. Reminder Advertising: Reminder advertising strives to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the name of a product before the public. It is common in the latter part of the maturity stage and throughout the decline stage of the product life cycle. Informative Advertising: Informative advertising is often used when launching a new product, or for an updated or re-launched product. The objective is to develop initial demand for a good, service, organization, or cause. It is used when a new product is put on the market on when an old product has been re-launched or updated. Informative advertising will tell the consumer and marketplace about the product, explain how it works, provide pricing and product information, and should build awareness for the product as well as the company. The image of the product and the company should be compatible and complementary. There should be enough information to motivate the consumer to take some sort of action. Persuasive Advertising: Marketers use persuasive advertising to increase the demand for an existing good, service, or organization. The idea is persuade a target audience to change brands, buy their product, and develop customer loyalty. After the purchase, the quality of the product will dictate whether or not the customer will remain loyal or return to the previous brand. Persuasive advertising is highly competitive when there are similar products in the marketplace, and products are competing for their share of the market. In this situation, the winning product will differentiate itself from the competition and possess benefits that are superior to, or compete strongly with, the competition. Comparative approaches are common place, either directly or indirectly.

Reminder Advertising: Reminder advertising reinforces previous promotional information. The name of the product, testimonials of past customers, public response, and sales techniques are repeated in the hopes of reminding past customers and garnering new ones. It is used to keep the public interested in, and aware of, a well-established product that is most likely at the end of the product life cycle.

Role of Advertising in marketing mix

1. Advertising and Product: A product is normally a set of physical elements, such as quality, shape, size, colour and other features. The product may be of very high quality .At times, the product is so designed that it requires careful handling and operations. Buyers must be informed and educated on the various aspects of the product. This can be effectively done through advertising. Thus, advertising plays the role of information and education. 2. Advertising and Price: The price is the exchange value of the product. A marketer may bring out a very high quality product with additional features as compared to competitors. In such a case, price would be definitely high. But buyers may not be willing to pay a high price would be definitely high. But buyers may not be willing to pay a high price. Here comes advertising. Advertising can convince buyers regarding the superiority of the brand and thus its value for money. This can be done by associating the product with prestigious people, situations, or events. Alternatively when a firm offers a low price products the job of advertising needs to stress the price advantage by using hard hitting copy. It is not just enough to convince, but it is desirable to persuade the buyer. Thus advertising plays the role of conviction and persuasion. 3. Advertising and Place: Place refers to physical distribution and the stores where the goods are available Marketer should see to it that the goods are available at the convenient place and that too at the right time when the buyers need it. To facilitate effective distribution and expansion of market, advertising is of great significance. Thus advertising do help in effective distribution and market expansion. 4. Advertising and Promotion: Promotion consists of advertising, publicity, personal selling and sales promotion technique. Businessmen today have to face a lot of competition. Every seller needs effective promotion to survive and succeed in this competitive business world. Advertising can play a significant role to put forward the claim of seller, and to counter the claims of competitor. Through effective advertising, sellers can face competition and also help to develop brand image and brand loyalty.

Types of media (Print, electronic, outdoor), Advantages & disadvantages of each type of media Print Media Print media encompasses mass communication through printed material. It includes newspapers, magazines, booklets and brochures, house magazines, periodicals or newsletters, direct mailers, handbills or flyers, billboards, press releases, and books. Newspapers: Newspapers enjoyed the position of the most preferred medium to reach a wider audience until electronic communication emerged on the media scene. In the early days,

newspapers were the only medium that masses at large depended on, for daily news. A newspaper carries all kinds of communication related to a variety of topics like politics, socialism, current affairs, entertainment, finance, stocks, etc. Apart from this, it also includes topics which are in lighter vein like cartoons, crosswords, Sudoku, movie reviews, book reviews, puzzles, crosswords, etc. This captivates the imagination and interests of readers, from all age groups. Newspapers are an important platform of mass communication as they reach every nook and corner of the world where electronic media fails to reach. It plays a pivotal role in providing authentic firsthand information, building opinions, updating the knowledge of the reader, and serves as a good platform for advertisers to promote their products. However, with the emergence of Internet, which updates information every second, and is just a click away, the popularity of newspapers has reduced. Advantages Large readership and a high level of reader involvement Advertisers can target certain people The cost is relatively low Ads are timely Disadvantages Short life Black and white (although many papers are changing to color format)

Magazines: Magazines are another type of popular culture print media. They usually cater to a specific type of audience who are looking for information based on a particular subject. Magazines cover a plethora of topics like current affairs, business, finance, consumers, gadgets, self-help, luxury, lifestyle, beauty, fashion, entertainment, travel, etc. Magazines like TIME and Reader's Digest include information which is all-pervasive. The frequency of magazines can be weekly, fortnightly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or yearly. These magazines are the best forum for advertisers as they have a niche readership. The readers look for a specific type of information, say for example, a camera ad in a Gadget magazine will definitely have a direct brand impact on the reader who wants to buy a camera. Also, the shelf life and brand recall of magazines is far better than newspapers which have a short life span. Advantages Can target audiences Longer life span Print quality is good People keep magazines longer than newspapers Offer a variety of presentation formats Disadvantages Less mass appeal within a geographical area More expensive Deadlines make them less timely

Print Media's Advantages: Content Quality Amid growing competition from online websites and other electronic media, analysts argue that print media holds an edge through its content quality, which a professional editorial staff can produce. Newspapers have emphasized this feature in their digital subscription offerings, with a certain level of success. For example, Audit Bureau of Circulation figures showed that "The New York Times" boosted overall circulation by 73 percent from Monday through Friday--and 50 percent on Sunday--over March 2011, when it first launched digital subscriptions, according to "Politico." Print Media's Disadvantages: Shrinking Audiences By any measure, traditional print media's audience is shrinking. As content becomes increasingly digitized--and free--readers are turning away from print publications. Peaking at just over $60 billion in 1950, total print media revenues fell to $20 billion by 2011, according to an analysis posted on The Verge website. Sharper declines occurred in 2008 and 2009, with revenues decreasing by 17.7 and 28.6 percent, respectively. The trend has forced print media outlets to make major budget cuts as they struggle to remain relevant for smaller audiences. Booklets and Brochures: Booklets and brochures are a part of the promotional literature of a product, or an organization. There are two types of booklets and brochures. Pre-buying promotion: Usually in malls and stores, promotional literature is distributed free to all (with discount offers, or other schemes which seem profitable). For example, a free booklet about cosmetics will include information about the products, latest trends, contents, the benefits of using them, the available range, or colors, discount coupons, etc. This, will most likely, have a positive impact on your decision-making. Post-buying promotion: These booklets and brochures are usually given with a product for better customer experience and easy usage, post purchasing. You must have observed when you buy any new item, it is usually accompanied with a small booklet giving details about the benefits of using the product, usage directions, cleaning and storage instructions. The guidelines are usually followed by a series of 'how to' images which facilitate easy information about the product. These booklets may also include 'Other offerings' section. Organizations also have their own profiles in the form of brochures which they give to their stakeholders to create a favorable image. It highlights the information about the company, its capacity and capability, services and solutions offered, milestone achievements, sustainability, innovation, awards, etc. In this case people "do judge the book by its cover", and hence, these booklets and brochures are designed in an attractive format using colors and photos. House Magazines, Periodicals or Newsletters: Most of the organizations today have learned that it is important to communicate with all the stakeholders in order to be successful. Hence, the customers, shareholders, investors, solicitors, and employees are updated about the activities of the organization from time to time. Many organizations today invent various platforms like house magazines, periodicals, or newsletters to keep the stakeholders posted about the news related to the company. Usually the house magazines include data about a company's achievements, employee engagement activities, and information about the offerings. A periodical or newsletter, is more or less, designed on similar lines but its size is restricted to a few pages only. Mostly, it includes similar information but in a very short format. Their frequency ranges from weekly to yearly. It has an encouraging impact on the stakeholders because of the 'feel-good factor'. They believe that the company cares to communicate with them, and this also increases their confidence about the prospects of the company. Back to Index

Direct Mailers: Direct mailers are small pamphlets, which are devices for direct advertising and marketing. Usually they arrive at our doorstep through the postal mails. Direct mails are a relatively cheaper option of marketing as bulk advertising is cost-effective through post. Most of them include colorful advertisements, discount and gift coupons, preapproved credit card offers, automobile, realtor, and political promotion. Direct mailing system is best suited for B2B business. People have a tendency to remember what they see in the advertisement, and recall it while making a purchase, or a voting decision. Also, the attractive offers on a commercial direct mailer prompt many to make a positive buying decision. Back to Index Handbills or Flyers: Handbills or flyers is a form of communication which is printed on a small paper. It is easy to carry, colorful, attractive, and legible to read. They are handed out to all the passers-by. These are useful mainly for restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, political campaigns, delis, concerts, rallies, political campaigns, etc. People are more prompted to throw it away without reading. Hence, many a time this fails to be an effective medium of mass communication. Billboards: Billboards or hoardings are huge advertisements that are put up at a height in strategic locations to fetch more attention. They usually attract the targeted audience by their bold colors, attention-grabbing headlines, creativity, designs, special effects, etc. Initially, billboards started by hand painting huge boards, and eventually graduated to putting up printed sheets. Later came a trend for incorporating neon signs, videos, and graphic (which are part of electronic communication) cut-outs which extend out from the boards, 3D rubber, or plastic balloon objects, etc. Such billboards are called bulletins. They command the best customer exposure. Communication in these types of billboards should be in minimum words. The images should speak louder than the words. They are a successful medium of communication as they are good at captivating and retaining customer attention. Press Releases: A press release is an important device of communication because it takes the relevant communication directly to the press. Whenever government, organizations, NGOs, retail outlets, design houses, celebrities, etc. have a newsworthy announcement to make, they draft a press note which is then sent to the members of the press in the form of a hard copy, fax, mail, or CD. A press release is also distributed in a press conference. A press release answers all the "W type" questions like what, who, where, how, and when, in its content. A quote of the spokesperson is also added to give it credibility. This is issued on the letterhead of the organization. It begins with a headline and dateline, and closes with the media contact for the organization. Most of the matter in a press release gets picked up by journalists, hence it should be worded wisely and strategically.

Books: Last but not the least, books are a significant medium of mass communication as they have a large reader base. The expressions and opinions of the writer are taken to the readers in the form of a compiled book. Back to Index The printed form of communication was popular earlier. However, with the advent of electronic media, print media has taken a backseat. Although, it is said that the electronic, or new age media have replaced the print media, there exists a majority of audience who prefer the print media for various communication purposes. However, it is true that, print media harms the environmental balance with its requirement for paper and chemical ink. Also, disposing off redundant print material is a problem. Most of the people today have television sets, radios, and Internet access

which are sustainable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective forms of communication. Moreover, print is a one way communication, while electronic media allows interaction. Outdoor Media Outdoor advertising works well for promoting your product in specific geographic areas. While billboards, bus benches, and transit advertising can be very effective for the small-business owner, any successful outdoor campaign begins with your own location's signage. Your outdoor sign is often the first thing a potential customer sees. Your sign should be sufficiently bright and conspicuous to attract attention (without being garish) and sufficiently informative to let prospective customers know what's sold there. Ride around town and observe which signs catch your eye. Note which ones don't. Then think of the impression each sign gives you. Remember that you never get a second chance to make a first impression, so give this important marketing tool your best efforts. If you're involved in a business that has a fleet of vehicles conducting deliveries or providing a service, your company's name, logo, and phone number should be clearly visible on the vehicles. It's free advertising that allows you to increase your exposure in your market. Billboards are most effective when located close to the business advertised. Because of their high cost, they're usually used to reach a very large audience, as in political campaigns. They're likely to be too expensive for most small firms, and some communities have strict ordinances governing the placement of billboards. In Vermont, for example, they're prohibited. Bus-bench advertising is an excellent medium because it's highly visible, like a billboard. Essentially, bus-bench advertisers have a huge audience, held captive at red lights or in slowmoving traffic. An account executive of a Los Angeles-based bus bench manufacturing company said that an advertisement on one bus bench at a busy Los Angeles intersection would be seen by 35,000 to 50,000 people per day. Usually, the advertising consists of simple two-color artwork with your company's name, brief copy describing the product or service, address and phone number. Rates and terms vary depending on the city you're in. Call your city's mass transit department or local bus company to find out who rents advertising space on their bus-stop benches. Some outdoor advertising companies also handle this type of advertising. Transit advertising on buses and taxicabs reaches lots of people, especially commuters. Your ad is highly visible, and market research on transit advertising shows that it's very effective. Billboards: Billboards or hoardings are huge advertisements that are put up at a height in strategic locations to fetch more attention. They usually attract the targeted audience by their bold colors, attention-grabbing headlines, creativity, designs, special effects, etc. Initially, billboards started by hand painting huge boards, and eventually graduated to putting up printed sheets. Later came a trend for incorporating neon signs, videos, and graphic (which are part of electronic communication) cut-outs which extend out from the boards, 3D rubber, or plastic balloon objects, etc. Such billboards are called bulletins. They command the best customer exposure. Communication in these types of billboards should be in minimum words. The images should

speak louder than the words. They are a successful medium of communication as they are good at captivating and retaining customer attention Outdoor Advertising Standardized signs are available to local, regional, or national advertisers. Purchased from outdoor advertising companies in standard sizes Are placed in highly traveled roads, and freeways where there is high visibility. Posters pre-printed sheets put up like wallpaper on outdoor billboards. Painted bulletins painted billboards that are changed about every six months. Spectaculars use lights or moving parts and are in high traffic areas.

Outdoor Advertising Advantages Highly visible and relatively inexpensive 24-hour a day message and located to reach specific target markets Disadvantages Becoming more restricted increasingly regulated Limited viewing time Transit Advertising Advantages Reaches a wide captive audience Economical Defined market Disadvantages Not available in smaller towns and cities Subject to defacement Electronic Media Electronic media is the kind of media which requires the user to utilize an electric connection to access it. It is also known as 'Broadcast Media'. It includes television, radio, and new-age media like Internet, computers, telephones, etc. Television: Television appeals both the auditory and visual senses, and hence is an important communication device as it beholds the attention of the audience. For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news, or even the soap operas. Television has become an advertising hub where advertisers are ready to spend huge amounts for an ad of few seconds, especially for programs with high viewership. An apt example would be, Super Bowl Season. It offers various programs to appeal the masses of different age groups. It is a popular means of communication which provides both information and entertainment. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the electronic gadgets. Radio: Radio has a significant reach. A considerable number of Americans tune into radio every week while on their way to work. Advertising on the radio with catchy jingles and phrases is a tried and tested means of communication. Radio lost its popularity with the boom of television. But till day, radio remains one of the favorite means of electronic communication. Moreover, it is an interactive means of communication with all the dial-in programs which give the listeners an opportunity to feature on radio.

With the advent of Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the old school mass media, but also has a widespread range. Mobile phones, computers, and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, podcasts, eforums, e-books, blogging, Internet TV, and many others which are booming today. Internet has also started social networking sites which have redefined mass communication all together. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have made communication to the masses all the more entertaining, interesting, and easier! Mobile Phones: Mobile phones have become a boon to mankind. It has made communication possible at any time, and from anywhere. Nowadays, a smart device like a mobile phone is not only used for interaction, but also for other technical utilities like operating pumps from remote locations, etc. You can also get alerts of your monetary transactions on a mobile phone. About a decade ago, who would have thought of having Internet on mobiles? Today, we can stay in touch with the whole world via Internet on our mobile phones. Computers: With the invention of computers the impossible has become possible. We virtually get information about everything from pin to piano with the help of computers. It has added speed and multimedia to the information which was earlier available only in the print format. Also, anyone can voice their opinions through computers. Computers have added a new breakthrough in the mass media by combining human intelligence with the cutting edge technology. Back to Index Internet: This is the most important device of the new age media. The discovery of Internet can be called the biggest invention in mass media. In earlier days, news used to reach people only with the morning newspaper. But today, live updates reach us simultaneously as the events unfold. For example, the royal wedding of Kate Middleton and Prince William was watched live on the Internet by millions of people around the world. Internet has inspired interaction and connectivity through its social networking medium. It has become one of the core means of mass communication. We cannot think of leading our lives without it. Let us see how Internet impacts mass communication through the following mediums. Emails: Emails or electronic mails have drastically reduced the time it took for drafting and sending letters, or mails. Electronic mails have also facilitated lesser usage of paper. Websites: Internet has a plethora of websites dedicated to various people, companies, brands, causes, activities, etc. The most significant utility of these websites is for providing information, search engines, downloads through libraries, and interaction through the social networking sites. Because of these websites, carrying out e-commerce transactions has also become easy. Podcasts: Podcasts are mediums of mass communication that include short video or audio files. They can be seen and heard on mobiles, computers, and portable media instruments. They are engaging devices of communication. eForums: eForums are bulletin boards on websites where people start threads on topics. These are usually hosted on a website. These forums are open platforms to discuss a range of topics right from which wall color is appropriate for a baby girl's room to the research on the God particle. People give their opinions and share their experiences on various topics. eBooks: There are a number of websites which have hosted eBooks and online libraries. The main benefit of having eBooks is that you don't have to carry bulky books. You can read them on your

eBook readers, mobiles, computer screens, or other devices. You can even adjust the font size to suit your requirements. Blogging: A blog is a space on the Internet where a single person or a group of people record their information, opinions, photos, videos, etc. It is an interesting and free platform to talk about any topic. Interaction happens in the form of comments or feedback. Internet TV: It is also known as online TV. It usually has an archive of programs. You have to choose the program, you wish to view from the list. You can either view the programs directly from the host server, or download the content on your computer. It is an effective means of communication. Facebook: It is the most popular social networking website. Facebook has several applications which people utilize. It is the best platform to meet old friends, or make new ones. Advertisers also like this forum for communicating about their products. Twitter: It is also a famous social networking website. Twitter is a microblogging site which allows interaction and feedback of different people. There was a time when it was very popular among celebrities and individuals. Today, the governments of various nations have understood the importance of "tweeting" information to the public, and regularly share information through Twitter. YouTube: It is a website which uploads content in a video format. It houses a range of interesting videos that appeal to people of all generations. From films to educational videos, you will find everything on YouTube. Back to Index Visual media like photography is also a crucial medium since it communicates via visual representations. Public speaking, and event organizing can also be considered as forms of mass media. Though print media is still popular, it is not environmentally viable. More and more people are shifting to e-newspapers, eBooks, e-brochures, etc. Internet has completely transformed the traditional ideas of communication. Mass communication, over a period of years, has depicted an evolving trend, and with the advancements in technology, it will continue to do so in future too. All you have to do is keep yourself abreast with the latest innovation in mass communication! Electronic Media's Advantages: Immediacy Electronic media's chief advantage is its immediacy, as autocratic Middle Eastern rulers learned too late during the "Arab Spring" of 2010. Reports from satellite networks like Al Jazeera made it impossible for authoritarian regimes in Egypt and Tunisia to silence the truth, author-journalist Lawrence Pintak stated in a speech covered by Washington State University's student newspaper "The Columbian." Using mediums beyond government control, like social media networks, the younger, technically literate opposition was able to plot strategy and coordinate mass protests. Electronic Media's Disadvantages: Superficiality The relentless stimulation of electronic media has inspired studies to determine how it affects learning. In an article for "Psychology Today," David Walsh cites a British study that found frequent Internet users only needed two seconds to decide on visiting a particular Web site. The most popular sites featured highly relevant search terms, suggesting that our brains can evaluate information at faster and faster speeds, Walsh says. However, developing these rapid fire processing skills may leave fewer resources for comprehension and retention.

Electronic Media's Advantages: Immediacy Electronic media's chief advantage is its immediacy, as autocratic Middle Eastern rulers learned too late during the "Arab Spring" of 2010. Reports from satellite networks like Al Jazeera made it impossible for authoritarian regimes in Egypt and Tunisia to silence the truth, author-journalist Lawrence Pintak stated in a speech covered by Washington State University's student newspaper "The Columbian." Using mediums beyond government control, like social media networks, the younger, technically literate opposition was able to plot strategy and coordinate mass protests. Electronic Media's Disadvantages: Superficiality The relentless stimulation of electronic media has inspired studies to determine how it affects learning. In an article for "Psychology Today," David Walsh cites a British study that found frequent Internet users only needed two seconds to decide on visiting a particular Web site. The most popular sites featured highly relevant search terms, suggesting that our brains can evaluate information at faster and faster speeds, Walsh says. However, developing these rapid fire processing skills may leave fewer resources for comprehension and retention. But for all the advantages, there are also a few disadvantages. Turning the volume too high on your radio or television set can lead to noise pollution. Disturbing others while you are having fun isnt such a nice thing to do. Then keeping your eyes constantly glued to the screen can also affect your eyesight. The Internet can be quite dangerous too if you choose to get lost in the huge electronic jungle out there. Its a jungle with wolves prowling, and you as innocent as Red Riding Hood. The wolves may sometimes stop you from reaching grandmas house! So be very careful to not lose your way and not make friends with strangers. Too much use of the electronic media may also expose the users to dangerous radiation which is lethally harmful to the human body. Still it would not be right to bring these extremely useful advances to a halt, as the side effects of these useful developments can be avoided by careful and controlled usage.

Classification of Advertising: Target Advertising (national, local, global, consumer, industrial, trade, professional), service, public service, primary & selective demand, classified (Refer to notes)

Role of Advertising: Advantages & Disadvantages of Advertising (Is advertising a boon or a bane; Effects of Advertising) Advantages: The advertisement informs the consumer about qualities and price of goods and this makes purchasing easy for the consumers. As the prices are already advertised, the consumers cannot be over charged. By regular advertisement, the manufacturer can sell the goods directly to the consumers without depending on middlemen this eliminates the Middleman's charges and profit. It means higher profit to the manufacturer and lower prices to the consumers. It helps in improvement of the quality of the goods. The consumers are attracted by the quality of the products that are advertised. If the consumers are convinced that the quality is the same that is advertised, they continue buying.

It helps the consumer to save time. As the consumer has already been the consumer is not required to spend time in getting the products. It raises the living standard of consumers. It provides knowledge about the new designs of the commodities to consumers and thus consumers consume those commodities and increase their living standard.

Disadvantages Costly Functions: The strong objection and arguments against the advertising is that it is a costly function. It is generally criticized that the cost of advertising to too high and that such high cost is covered by the selling price of the advertising goods. Advertisement is considered as an indirect cost which is added in the distribution expenses. When expenses are to be increased, the selling price of the products will also be enhanced. It is true factor because large advertisers spend thousands of Rupees for advertising in a week. In one study it is found that advertising cost exceeded 6% of sales. It means that consumers will have to pay higher prices of the advertised products. But if the goods were not advertised the cost of advertisement cannot become burden on the consumer. Thus the unbalanced advertising may cause certain goods to cost the consumers more than they should. So it is regarded as an economic waste. Misleading claims: Some advertisers cleverly create a misleading impressions of their goods. They present a very rosy picture of their products, before the consumers with the object of increasing their sales. Encourage monopoly: Advertisement restricts the competition among the products. Big industrialists and manufacturers may exercise their monopolistic control over the market with the help of advertisement technique which is always against the public interest. High prices: It is undoubtedly true that effective advertising increase the sales volume. This increased sale will require more products. Thus the large scale production brings down the cost of goods per unit due to economies in various sectors which reduces the consumes selling prices. But the producers do not lower the prices and the burden of advertising remains on the shoulders of consumers. Disconnection of business: Small firms cannot properly advertise their products due to limited resources. But on the other side entire market is controlled over by great advertisers. It becomes impossible for small firms to continue their business in the business field so small firms disappear form the market. Influences purchasing power: Advertising goods are generally available in the market at high prices which influence the purchasing power of the consumers. So some people use foul means to increase their income for the purpose of meeting their necessities of life. Thus unnecessary advertising creates the corruption in the society. Misuse of advertising: Some beautiful switch lights hoardings, posters and moving pictures are fixed generally in front of some important road for places which have been harmed by the misuse of advertising. Glaring red neon lights have actually been hazards at certain cross roads. Creating unrequited desire: Another objection is that advertising influences the mind of public. It creates the desire and taste for new products which are not actually necessities of life and income of consumers will not let them enjoy. Advertising may thus be regarded as the cause of unrequited desire which may result in unhappiness.

Promotion of social evil: Some firms present immoral program and features and crime stories in Television and Radio for advertising their products which have a very bad influence upon new generation. So advertising results in creating social evils in the society and wasting of economy. Buying problems: There are numerous similar types of products which are advertised in the market. But producers lay great emphasis on minor differences in the formula or technique of advertised goods. For example there are many brands of advertised Shaving Creams which perform the same function. But is has become impossible for the average buyer to judge with any certainly the quality of the hundreds of articles he buys. Miscellaneous objections (a) Inferior quality of goods are introduced in the market to deceive the consumers. (b) The new firm having limited resources cannot compete with a already established big firms, with the help of advertising. (c) A large firm can divert demand from one product to another with the help of advertisement. (d) Consumer's choice is greatly injured by the advertisement. (e) As advertising is a comparatively new art so certain media of advertisement is ineffective and inefficient than it could be.

DAGMAR (Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results) Approach A marketing approach used to measure the results of an advertising campaign. DAGMAR is an acronym: Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results. The approach involves setting specific, measurable objectives for a campaign to determine if specific objectives were met. Specifically, DAGMAR seeks to communicate a specific message through four steps: Awareness - making the consumer aware that the product or company exists Comprehension - letting the consumer know what the product is used for Conviction - convincing the consumer to purchase the product Action - getting the consumer to actually make the purchase

DAGMAR as an approach was first proposed by Russell Colley in a 1961 report to the Association of National Advertisers. Collay proposed that the real goal of advertising was to communicate, not to sell specifically. By determining if the consumer had sufficient knowledge of a product and its benefits by creating clear, specific objectives that are discussed within an advertisement, advertisers would be able to tell if their selling points made a difference in the consumer's decision-making process.

ASCI (Advertising Standards Council of India) Like other countries around the world, India too has a self-regulatory organization (SRO) for advertising content The Advertising Standards Council of India, ASCI founded in 1985. The three main constituents of advertising industry viz advertisers, advertising agencies and media came together to form this independent NGO. The aim of ASCI is to maintain and enhance the public's confidence in advertising. Their mandate is that all advertising material must be truthful, legal and honest, decent and not objectify women, safe for consumers - especially children and last but not the least, fair to their competitors. Role and function of ASCI : The Role and Functioning of the ASCI & its Consumer Complaints Council (CCC) in dealing with Complaints received from Consumers and Industry, against Ads which are considered as False, Misleading, Indecent, Illegal, leading to Unsafe practices, or Unfair to competition, and consequently in contravention of the ASCI Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising. ASCI is a voluntary self-regulatory council, registered as a not-for-profit Company under section 25 of the Indian Cos. Act. The sponsors of the ASCI, who are its principal members, are firms of considerable repute within Industry in India, and comprise Advertisers, Media, Ad. Agencies and other Professional /Ancillary services connected with advertising practice. The ASCI is not a Government body, nor does it formulate rules for the public or for the relevant industries. The Purpose and the Mission of the ASCI is spelt out clearly in the literature provided. You will appreciate that if an AD is to be reviewed for its likely impact on the sensibilities of individual viewers of TV, or readers of press publications, we require to convey to the Advertiser concerned, the substantial issues raised in the complaint, in the exact context of the specific Ad, as conveyed by the perception of the complainant, and to elicit the appropriate response by way of comments from the Advertiser. Only then will the CCC, of the ASCI, be in a position to deliberate meaningfully on the issues involved, and to arrive at a fair and objective conclusion, which would stand the scrutiny of all concerned with the right to freedom of expression, and the freedom of consumers to choose the products /services made available to them in the market-place. For this we require in each case a clearly readable copy or clipping of the Ad under complaint, with full particulars of name and date of publication, or a printout of an Ad or promotion on a Website or in case of a T.V. Commercial, the channel, date and time or programme of airing, and a description of the contents of the TVC, along with a hard copy of the complete complaint preferably signed by the complainant.

Objectives of ACI To monitor administer and promote standards of advertising practices in India with a view to: Ensuring the truthfulness and honesty of representations and claims made through advertising and safeguarding against misleading advertising. Ensuring that Advertising is not offensive to generally accepted norms and standards of public decency. Safeguarding against the indiscriminate use of advertising for the promotion of products or services which are generally regarded as hazardous to society or to individuals or which are unacceptable to society as a whole. Ensuring that advertisements observe fairness in competition and the canons of generally accepted competitive behavior

Structure of an ad agency (Notes)

Types of ad agencies (Notes) Creativity, Message Strategies (Cognitive, Affective, Conative), Misleading Advertisements (regulations; laws) False advertising or deceptive advertising is the use of false or misleading statements in advertising. As advertising has the potential to persuade people into commercial transactions that they might otherwise avoid, many governments around the world use regulations to control false, deceptive or misleading advertising. "Truth" refers to essentially the same concept, that customers have the right to know what they are buying, and that all necessary information should be on the label. Laws 1. Advertisements must be truthful. All descriptions, claims and comparisons which relate to matters of objectively ascertainable fact should be capable of substantiation. Advertisers and advertising agencies are required to produce such substantiation as and when called upon to do so by The Advertising Standards Council of India. 2. Where advertising claims are expressly stated to be based on or supported by independent research or assessment, the source and date of this should be indicated in the advertisement. 3. Advertisements shall not, without permission from the person, firm or institution under reference, contain any reference to such person, firm or institution which confers an unjustified advantage on the product advertised or tends to bring the person, firm or institution into ridicule or disrepute. If and when required to do so by the Advertising Standards Council of India, the advertiser and the advertising agency shall produce explicit permission from the person, firm or institution to which reference is made in the advertisement.

4. Advertisements shall neither distort facts nor mislead the consumer by means of implications or omissions. Advertisements shall not contain statements or visual presentation which directly or by implication or by omission or by ambiguity or by exaggeration are likely to mislead the consumer about the product advertised or the advertiser or about any other product or advertiser. 5. Advertisements shall not be so framed as to abuse the trust of consumers or exploit their lack of experience or knowledge. No advertisement shall be permitted to contain any claim so exaggerated as to lead to grave or widespread disappointment in the minds of consumers. For example: (a) Products shall not be described as `free where there is any direct cost to the consumer other than the actual cost of any delivery, freight, or postage. Where such costs are payable by the consumer, a clear statement that this is the case shall be made in the advertisement. (b) Where a claim is made that if one product is purchased another product will be provided `free, the advertiser is required to show, as and when called upon by The Advertising Standards Council of India, that the price paid by the consumer for the product which is offered for purchase with the advertised incentive is no more than the prevalent price of the product without the advertised incentive. (c) Claims which use expressions such as Upto five years guarantee or Prices from as low as Rs.Y are not acceptable if there is a likelihood of the consumer being misled either as to the extent of the availability or as to the applicability of the benefits offered. (d) Special care and restraint has to be exercised in advertisements addressed to those suffering from weakness, any real or perceived inadequacy of any physical attributes such as height or bust development, obesity, illness, impotence, infertility, baldness and the like, to ensure that claims or representations directly or by implication, do not exceed what is considered prudent by generally accepted standards of medical practice and the actual efficacy of the product. (e) Advertisements inviting the public to invest money shall not contain statements which may mislead the consumer in respect of the security offered, rates of return or terms of amortisation; where any of the foregoing elements are contingent upon the continuance of or change in existing conditions, or any other assumptions, such conditions or assumptions must be clearly indicated in the advertisement. (f) Advertisements inviting the public to take part in lotteries or prize competitions permitted under law or which hold out the prospect of gifts shall state clearly all material conditions as to enable the consumer to obtain a true and fair view of their prospects in such activities. Further, such advertisers shall make adequate provisions for the judging of such competitions, announcement of the results and the fair distribution of prizes or gifts according to the advertised terms and conditions within a reasonable period of time. With regard to the announcement of results, it is clarified that the advertisers responsibility under this section of the Code is discharged adequately if the advertiser publicizes the main results in the media used to announce the competition as far as is practicable, and advises the individual winners by post. 6. Obvious untruths or exaggerations intended to amuse or to catch the eye of the consumer are permissible provided that they are clearly to be seen as humorous or hyperbolic and not likely to be understood as making literal or misleading claims for the advertised product. 7. In mass manufacturing and distribution of goods and services it is possible that there may be an occasional, unintentional lapse in the fulfilment of an advertised promise or claim. Such occasional, unintentional lapses may not invalidate the advertisement in terms of this Code. In judging such issues, due regard shall be given to the following:

(a) Whether the claim or promise is capable of fulfillment by a typical specimen of the product advertised. (b) Whether the proportion of product failures is within generally acceptable limits. (c) Whether the advertiser has taken prompt action to make good the deficiency to the consumer.

Competitive Advertising Comparative advertising is an advertisement in which a particular product, or service, specifically mentions a competitor by name for the express purpose of showing why the competitor is inferior to the product naming it. Comparative advertising, also referred to as knocking copy, is loosely defined as advertising where the advertised brand is explicitly compared with one or more competing brands and the comparison is oblivious to the audience. Laws To ensure that Advertisements observe fairness in competition such that the Consumers need to be informed on choice in the Market-Place and the Canons of generally accepted competitive behavior in Business is both served. 1. Advertisements containing comparisons with other manufacturers or suppliers or with other products including those where a competitor is named, are permissible in the interests of vigorous competition and public enlightenment, provided: (a) It is clear what aspects of the advertisers product are being compared with what aspects of the competitors product. (b) The subject matter of comparison is not chosen in such a way as to confer an artificial advantage upon the advertiser or so as to suggest that a better bargain is offered than is truly the case. (c) The comparisons are factual, accurate and capable of substantiation. (d) There is no likelihood of the consumer being misled as a result of the comparison, whether about the product advertised or that with which it is compared. (e) The advertisement does not unfairly denigrate, attack or discredit other products, advertisers or advertisements directly or by implication. 2. Advertisements shall not make unjustifiable use of the name or initials of any other firm, company or institution, nor take unfair advantage of the goodwill attached to the trade mark or symbol of another firm or its product or the goodwill acquired by its advertising campaign. 3. Advertisements shall not be similar to any other advertisers earlier run advertisements in general layout, copy, slogans, visual presentations, music or sound effects, so as to suggest plagiarism. 4. As regards matters covered by sections 2 and 3 above, complaints of plagiarism of advertisements released earlier abroad will lie outside the scope of this Code except in the undermentioned circumstances: (a) The complaint is lodged within 12 months of the first general circulation of the advertisements/campaign complained against. (b) The complainant provides substantiation regarding the claim of prior invention/usage abroad. Chairman,

Surrogate Advertising (regulations; laws) 'Surrogate Advertising is a form of advertising which is used to promote banned products like cigarettes and alcohol, in the disguise of another product. This type of advertising uses a product of a fairly close category ex- club soda, or mineral water in case of alcohol, or products of a completely different category ex- music CD's, playing cards etc to hammer the brand name into the heads of consumers. The banned product (alcohol or cigarettes) may not be projected directly to consumers but rather masked under another product under the same brand name, so that whenever there is mention of that brand, people start associating it with its main product(the alcohol or cigarette). In India there are tons of companies doing that, from Bacardi Blast music CDs, Bagpiper Club Soda to Officers Choice playing cards. The masking product i.e. the music CD's, or mineral water might not even be marketed in real, it is just a strategy used to generate top of the mind recall In India extensive surveys resulted in similar findings which showed that liquor ads had direct influence on Consumers purchase behavior, and no sooner the Cable TV Regulation Act banned liquor and cigarette advertisements, thus India gradually adopted surrogate advertisements. Advertisements for liquor and cigarettes have been banned since 1995. So companies usually either go for brand extension and promote the extended products or promote certain products which might not be available in the market,ex- you might not necessarily find a Bacardi Blast music CD. The excessive pressure of the ban forced companies to focus more on brand building and thus liquor companies started sponsoring and hosting glamorous events, yet many others started distributing t-shirts, caps, key chains, drinking glasses with the brand name displayed on these products. Some commonly seen brands and their advertisements Bagpiper : Club soda Imperial Blue : Music CD's 'Men will be men' Royal Stag : Music CD's , Mega cricket, with the theme 'Make it Large' McDowells No.1 : Soda and Indian cricket with the tagline 'The No.1 Spirit of Leadership' Haywards 5000 : Soda and packaged drinking water Royal Challenge : Golf accessories, music CD's and mineral water. Effectiveness of surrogate advertisements According to the inferences drawn from several surveys and interviews, 42 out of 50 people can understand the actual liquor or tobacco product being advertised. Surrogate advertisements do impact a consumer's buying decision as well It also informs about the leading liquor brands thus promote sales. Current Scenario With government now enforcing ban on surrogate advertisements, companies are turning to event sponsorship, event organising, corporate films and more and more innovative IMC strategies.