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CE481

CourseContents
Introduction Vehicleandhumancharacteristics Engineeringcomponents Dataanditssignificance Trafficsafetyaudits Problemidentificationandselectionof countermeasures Deploymentandevaluationofcountermeasures Trafficsafetyinplanningstage
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TrafficSafety y
Class2&3
Vinod Vasudevan, ,Ph.D., ,P.E. DepartmentofCivilEngineering IITKanpur
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GeneralTerminology
Crashes(NOTaccidents) Factorsofcrash(NOTcauses) Occupants(NOTdriversorpassengers) Crashworthiness(airbags,collapsible structuresneartheroadways,collapsible steeringcolumns,reducingrisksofpostcrash fi ) fire, ) Crashprevention(improvingstoppingsight distance,betterbraking,drivertraining,...) Crashrates

TheGameofRates
PerCapitaEmissionsofCO2 (Tons/Capita)
Iran Korea,South UnitedKingdom Canada Germany Japan India Russia UnitedStates China
0 5 10 15 20 25

Data source: UCSUSA.org

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DecadalPopulationGrowthofIndia

TotalEmissionsofCO2 (MillionMetric Tons)


Iran Korea,South UnitedKingdom Canada

17.6%

Germany Japan India Russia UnitedStates China 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

(Source: Census, 2011)

CrashesareRareEvents
Poissondistributionistypicallyusedtomodel
ProbabilityP(n)thatadriverwillhavepreciselyn crashesduringN years
Pn ( N ) n e N n!

ThreeTypesofKnowledge
Notbasedonobservationaldata
Pedestrianslooking gbeforecrossing ghavelesser chanceofgettinginvolvedinacrash

Hintedatbyobservationaldata
Dataavailable,butdonotsupportclearcut quantitativefindings Experiencewiththeresearch method,literature,arethebesttoolstoaddress these

Foragivenrate of0 0.1 1(onecrashevery10 years),onecanestimateprobabilityofdrivers involvinginn numberofcrashesinN years


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Quantifiedbyobservationaldata
Firmestlevelofknowledge
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MajorRiskFactors
Factorsinfluencingexposuretorisk
Economic,demographic,landuseplanning,mixofhigh speedtrafficandVRUs,..

FactorsInfluencingExposuretoRisk
Growthin#vehicles
Withoutproperplanning Onlyafewproportionownpersonalvehicles,butallare payingfortheinfrastructurefacility Noproperfacilityforpedestriansorbicyclists

Factorsinfluencingcrashinvolvement
Excessivespeed,alcoholinvolvement,fatigue,braking system,roaddesign,visibilityissues,

Motorizedtwowheelers
Usedasafamilyvehicle Highrisksforheadoffamily

Factorsinfluencingcrashseverity
Tolerancefactors,excessivespeed,restraintusage,useof helmets,dangerousroadsideobjects,

Nonmotorizedtraffic
Withoutproperfacilities Insufficientattentiontotheirneeds
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Factorsinfluencingpostcrashoutcome
DelayinEMS,presenceoffireaftercrash,presenceof alcoholordrugs,lackofprehospitalcare

Lackofintegratedlandusepolicies

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FactorsInfluencingExposuretoRisk
Demographicfactors
Different Diff t i issuesf fordiff different tcountries ti Youngpeopleatriskatsomeandseniorcitizensat someothers

FactorsInfluencingCrashInvolvement
Speed
Highspeed,highstoppingdistance,higherimpact Anaverage g increaseofspeed p by y1km/h / associated witha3%higherriskoncrashinjury Variesbyroaduser

Transport,landuse,androadnetworkplanning
Profoundeffectonp publichealthandcrashes Example:Lowincomepeople:shouldtheybeinside city(eg.Slums)oroutsidethecity

Alcoholpresenceinfatallyinjureddrivers
20%involvementinhighincomecountries 33 69%involvementinlowincomecountries

Driverfatigue Distracteddrivers Roadrelatedfactors


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FactorsInfluencingCrashSeverity
Speed Lackofinvehiclecrashprotection
Several S lstandard d dsystemsi ind developed l dcountries i arenotevenavailableindevelopingcountries Ejectionfromvehicles

FactorsAffectingPostCrashInjury Outcome
Actionsatthesceneofaccidents AccesstoEMS Helpprovidedbyrescuers Medicalcarepriortoreachinghospital Facilityathospital

Nonuseofcrashhelmetsbytwowheeler Nonuseofseatbelts Roadsideobjects

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AnalyticalFrameworkforRiskFactors
Roadtrafficcrashesresultfromacombinationof factorsrelatedtothecomponentsofthesystem
Roads Users Vehicles Environment Wayofinteraction

PurposeofAnalysisofRiskFactors
Helpunderstandingcauses
Basedonseverity immediate,intermediate,orlongtermstructural causes

Identifyinterventions
Reducerisksassociated Canbeimmediate,intermediate,orlongterm

Somecontributetotheoccurrenceofcrashes Someaggravateeffectsofcrashes Someareindirect Someareimmediate,intermediate,orlongterm


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RiskAssessment
AnalyticalframeworkforRiskfactors
Publichealthapproach Haddonmatrixapproach Systemsapproach SystematicEngineeringapproach

SystematicEngineeringApproach
Combinesvariousapproachesatvarious stages Why Wh do d weneed dsystematic t ti approach? h?
Repeatability Transferability Identifyingbestpractices Identifying y gefficientcountermeasures

Challenges
Reference: WHO, Road Traffic Injury Prevention Training Manual
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Requiresadditionalfundsandmanpower Couldconsumeadditionaltime
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Components
Problem identification Analysis of factors Prioritization Selection of countermeasure Deployment of countermeasures Evaluation

ProblemIdentification
Thefirstandthemostimportantstep Coulduseallexistinginformationandavailable data(bothofficialandunofficial) Couldusesimplespreadsheetsorsimilar programsforinitialanalysis Example:
Highproportionofmidblockpedestriancrashesin anarea Increaseinproportionoftrafficfatalitieswithout wearingseatbeltsduringnighttime
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AnalysisofFactors
Analyzesallavailableinformationindetail Detailedpolicecrashreport(ifavailable)are id l ideal CoulduseanalysistoolssuchasGIS Couldalsouseresultsoftrafficsafetyaudits Identifiesmajorcausesofproblemsbylocation Example: l
Highspeedsofvehiclesandhugeproportionof elderlypedestriansareinvolvedincrashes Highproportionoftrafficfatalitiesalsoinclude alcoholinvolvement

SitePrioritization
Lackoffundstoaddressallsafetyconcerns Efficientutilizationoflimitedresources Maximumbenefits Couldusemathematicalandstatistical analyzes Example:
Top20sitesaccountfor80percentofpedestrian crashes Areasnearbarsaccountforover75percentof 22 fatalities

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SelectionofCountermeasures
Basedonproblemanalysis Needstostudysitesindetail Couldvaryfromsitetosite Couldincludeengineering,education,and enforcement,oracombinationofany Example:
Trafficcalmingmeasuresandhighvisible pedestriancrossings Educationcampaignsandstrictenforcement aimedanddrinkanddrive

CountermeasureDeployment
Couldbeverytricky Might g facehuge g opposition, pp ,ifnotdeployed p y withoutproperplanning Somecouldbedeployedinstages Example:
Deployhighvisibilitycrosswalkfirst,dependingon thedriverbehaviordeploytrafficcalmingmeasures Starteducationcampaignsfor23weeks,thenstart enforcementcampaignsforthenexttwoweeks
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EvaluationofCountermeasures
Evaluatingeffectiveness Usesmathematicalandstatisticalanalyzes Couldbeusedforeconomicfeasibilityfor largescaledeployment Examples:
Beforeandafterstudies Controlsitemethods

InstitutionalCapacity
Developingtrafficsafetypolicyinvolvewide rangeofparticipants
Govt.andlegislative bodies:(transport,public health,education,justice ,finance) Users/Citizens Industry Police/Law enforcement
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Media

RoadInjury Prevention Policy

Professionals NGOs,special interestgroups


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InstitutionalArrangements: GovernmentResponsibilities
Regulations/policiesmadecentrally
Eg.WashingtonDCfortheUSandBrusselsforEU

RoleofGovernment
Inmostcases,trafficsafetyhandledbytransport ministry
Othersshareresponsibilities(justice,health,finance,..)

Responsibilitiesneedtobesplitbetween centralandstategovernments FreemarketmechanismswillNOTworkfor providingsafety

Historyshowsthatindependentagencyisrequired
Individualagencieshavetheirownprioritiesandsafety maynotthetopitem(eg.NHAI)

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NationalHighwayTrafficSafety Administration(NHTSA) USA


Establishedin1970 Deliversvehiclesafetystandards(eg.Fivestarrating) Fundsstateandlocalgovt.forsafetyenhancements Helpsdeveloppoliciestodealwithdrunkendrivers,seat beltusages,cellphoneusage,etc. Lessonslearnt:
Safetyistheirpriority Itworks Shouldbeagovt.agency

SwedenRoadSafetyOffice
Establishedin1960 MergedwithSwedishNationalRoad Administrationin1993forefficientmanagement

1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

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ParliamentaryCommittee
Effectiveroadpoliciesariseoutofeffortsof informedandcommittedmembersofparliament
Victoria(Australia)ParliamentaryCommittee 1971
Worldsfirstlegislationofcompulsoryuseoffrontseatbelt Driverandpassengerfatalitiesdecreasedby18%and26% respectivelyby1975

SummaryofGovernmentsRole
Needanindependentagencytakingcareof safetyONLY Needasystematicinstitutionalclimate Needscollaborationandeffective communicationbetweenprofessionals,policy makers,andelectedofficials Legislativebodiesneedtoprovidebothauthority andfundingfortheindependentagency
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NSW(Australia)ParliamentStandingCommittee1980
Fullimplementation p ofrandombreathtesting g Reduced20%oftrafficfatalities

UK ParliamentaryCouncilforTransportSafety
Crosspartycoalitionmembers,professionals,NGOs Enableslegislationtoenforcerestraintusageforfrontseat 31 passengers,usageoftrafficcalmingmeasuresforsafety,

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InvolvementofResearchAgencies
Rationaldecisionmakingdependsonimpartial researchandinformation
Helpstoovercomemisconceptionsandprejudices

InvolvementofIndustry
Industrysharesresponsibility
Indesignanduseofitsproducts Staffandtransportservicesaremajorroadusers

Peoplebehavedifferentlyindifferent countries,states,etc.
Resultsfromothercountriesneedstobeadapted Needtodeveloptheirowneffectiveinterventions

Researchteamneedstobeindependentofthe parentagency
Helpstoavoidpoliticalpressure TypicallyinUniversitiesorotheracademicinstitutions 33

Examples:Insurancecompanies,trucking industry,shippingcompanies InsuranceInstituteofHighwaySafetyintheUS Insuranceagencyfundedorganizationsin Sweden,Finland,Netherlands,..


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InvolvementofNGOs
Publicizescaleofproblem Provideimpartialinformationforpolicy makers Identifyandpromotepubliclyaccepted solutions Challengeineffectivepolicyoptions Formeffectivecoalitionsoforganizations Examples:ArriveSafe,Avahan,
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InvolvementofMedia
Oneofthemostimportantcomponent Caninfluencepublicandpoliticaldecisions Capableofgettingsupport/criticismfrom people
ExamplesfromDelhiBRT

Use U itouradvantage d t

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HowtoAchieveBetterPerformance
Sharedresponsibility
Users,designers,builders,vehiclemanufacturers

Questions/Comments

SwedensVisionZero
Ultimategoalisnofatalitiesofsevereinjuries fromroadcrashes Swedishparliamentvoteditin1997

Netherlands NetherlandsSustainable SustainableSafety Safety


Launchedin1998 Aimstoreduceroadfatalitiesby50%by2010
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