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Chapter 6 Cernol Chemical Zimbabwe Introduction This practical report was prepared after a plant tour visit which the authors attended on the 01/11/12 at the Cernol Chemical Zimbabwe. The purpose of the site visit was mainly to carry out survey on the environmental aspects on the plant. Different environmental aspects were covered and there are highlighted in this report. This report basically covers the company profile Company!s operations waste management system and details the environmental impacts assessment of the plant. Company profile Cernol was established in "arch 1#$0 as a subsidiary of Chemical %ervices a company based in %outh &frica. The company 'nown as Cernol Chemicals (Zimbabwe) (*rivate) +imited in December 1#,0 and prior to that its name had been changed from Chemical %ervices to Chemserve in -ctober 1#./. The company was locali0ed in 1#,2 after a management buyout from Chemical %ervices %outh &frica. %"" ac1uired the entire issued capital of Cernol in 2uly 2002 from the management. The company has a manufacturing plant in 3arare and distribution centers in 4ulawayo and "utare. The company is engaged in the manufacture importation and distribution of various chemical products used in the water and metal treatment industries dairy hospital and healthcare commercial and industrial laundry food and beverage hospitality mining and heavy industrial manufacturing industries. Operations The company is engaged in four different operations as outlined below56 *roduction 7ngineering 8uality assurance and control *roduct research and development

*roduction Cernol is involved in the manufacturing and distribution of various chemicals direct from source for various sectors of the economy including food and beverage mining personal care and candle manufacturing industries. 9nder food and beverages the company produces both al'aline and acidic li1uid and powdered detergents for C:* and manual vessel cleaning as well as bottle washing additives and li1uid and gel type conveyor lubricants. :t also manufactures a very wide range of saniti0ers and disinfectants for e1uipment hands and fogging.

:n mining and heavy industrial manufacturing Cernol manufactures chemicals utili0ed in the heavy industry for cleaning protecting stainless steel surfaces and removing of rust and scale form ferrous surfaces. These are "agnus waterless 3and cleaner "agnus #2 *; CTC <* Chloracid #/ &lichena and %olvene 222. :t also manufactures a "agnus toilet deodori0er and all purposes oil for use in lathes that is Chmespec solub oil. Cernol manufactures chemicals for cleaning and disinfecting 'itchen utensils toilets cold rooms pantries floors and walls this is under hospital = house'eeping. &lso the company manufactures chemicals used in water treatment diary transport and many other sectors. &t the plant there is the production side were all the manufacturing of products are carried and this side is divided into three ma>or areas the raw material receiving bay the processing bay and the warehouse. The production manager oversees the department. 7ngineering The department is sometimes called the wor'shop the department involves the maintenance of the machinery used at the plant and it is also its mandate to attended to all brea' down. 8uality assurance and control The primary responsibilities of the 8uality &ssurance Department are to assure that the delivered product meets wor'manship standards imposed for standard or hi6reliability products and/or special customer re1uirements. This is accomplished through a program of process controls and gate inspections designed so that all devices are properly tested and sampled prior to shipment. ;eal time feedbac' concerning control/inspection data 'eeps all relevant personnel fully informed on the 1uality level of product going through final test operations. *roduct research and development The wor' of research and development involves developing new products and improving current ones through various forms of research. ?ew products and improvements to current products are needed to meet the re1uirements of customers ta'ing into consideration changes in consumer demand seasonal sales changes and the availability of new materials and technology. The mar'eting department collects information about changes in consumer demand and the re1uirements of customers. The research and development department must also be aware of new materials technology and products that affect the customer!s re1uirements and possibly the future of their customers! needs. Waste generation &ll the processes involved in the production of chemical products bring about the release of different types of waste into the environment. There are three main types of waste which are produced at cernol chemical Zimbabwe@ these are solid waste li1uid waste and gaseous waste. %olid Aaste

%olid waste is generated mainly from the pac'ages which are used at the plant. The main pac'aging material which is used at the plant is plastic containers sacs and plastics bag. &lso there are other form of solid waste which is produced this includes scrap metal from the e1uipment fabrication and papers from the administration department. +i1uid waste This waste is generate from the processing of chemicals since all the process are mainly wet processes and all the waste stream from the process are discharged into the environment. Baseous waste &t cernol chemicals there is little gaseous waste production. The only gaseous waste produced is produced from the boilers. Environmental assessment The adverse environmental relating to Cernol chemical company with reference to the Zimbabwean regulations identified are as follows56 &ir *ollution Aater pollution ?oise pollution

The mitigating measures put in place for the above environmental impacts at the plant are as follows5 &ir *ollution "itigation "easures :n the effort to prevent air pollution the cernol chemical company has mainly concentrated in the production of its products through the wet process which do not brings about ma>or 1uantities of gases being released into the atmosphere. The e1uipment! used at the plant has fume hoods which prevent dust raw materials from escaping to the environment. The boilers used only release steam to the environment which is not harmful. Aater Contamination "itigation "easure &ll the li1uid waste produced at the plant is discharged to the municipal sewer lines but before being discharged there is a mini effluent treatment tan' which treats the effluent to re1uired levels before being discharged to the sewer line. The company also engages the research department in coming up with substitution of raw materials which reduce toCic waste. "itigation "easure against ?oise "itigation measure to reduce noise around the vicinity of the site is geared towards ensuring that surrounding and people wor'ing in offices around the site are not adversely affected by noise

due to the activities at the construction sites. The following measures are deemed to mitigate the impact of noise to the surrounding environment. Ditting proper mufflers to vehicles and production e1uipment to minimi0e noise pollution. %ensiti0ation and discussion with residential and office wor'ers around the sites about the wor'ing hours and the impact of noise. The use of hearing protection gears by wor'ers when eCposed to noise levels above ,E d4(&)

Legislative of Zimbabwe which govern Cernol Company Cernol chemical is a company which is registered in Zimbabwe and it abides to the rules and regulations of environmental protection. There are two pieces of legislation which governs cernol chemical in their operations namely56 The 9rban Councils act (chapter 2#51E) The 7nvironmental "anagement &ct (chapter 2052.)

The statutory instrument . subsection E$ states that it is an offence for any individual or organi0ation to dispose toCic substance to the environment hence the cernol chemical operates in accordance to this regulation. &lso there is a section in the urban council act which regulates the disposal of waste to sewer lines such that the council conducts compliance audits once a month on the company to assess the 1uality of waste which being produced. Recommendations The company should further loo' into regulation of other waste parameter than p3 only. There should try also regulate the 4-D C-D nutrients in the waste they produce The Council and 7"& should enforce the rules and regulation of protection of the environment serious at the company *roper ventilation of the production area is re1uired

Conclusion Drom an environmental point of view the cernol chemical company is striving to protect the environment in all its operations although they need to improve on one or two aspects for the nation at large to achieve the millennium development goals especially goal number . which ensures environmental sustainability. The company is currently facing lower production capacity and there haven!t fully recovered from the economy melt down which was eCperienced a few years ago.