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CHAPTER 8: LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT: REGULATION AND CONTROL

LEARNING INTENTION
- To understand what homeostasis means and the mechanisms involved. - To understand the difference between a negative feedback system and a positive one.

SUCCESS CRITERIA - Be able to state the meaning of homeostasis.


- Complete worksheets on positive and negative feedback. - Complete worksheet on control of body temperature.

Maintaining A Balance

Homeostasis

What is homeostasis?
The maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment Works to maintain the bodys temperature, blood glucose and blood water levels It does this via the actions of homeostatic mechanisms

Homeostatic mechanisms
The nervous system and endocrine system (hormones) are responsible for monitoring and responding to changes in the body Thermostat in hypothalamus detects changes in the bodys temperature and coordinates a response

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dJ8WXpsUXYQ

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vB7tSHqR1eY

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RLnlXNlfdk

The principle of feedback


When the body detects a disturbance (e.g. core temperature increases), it send a signal or information to a control centre This control centre reads the information and coordinates a particular response to either cancel out or support the disturbance Mechanisms like these are referred to as feedback mechanisms

Feedback mechanisms
A feedback mechanism has a stimulus (e.g. decreased body temperature) which is detected by a receptor, a coordinating centre and a part of the organism which carries out the response (effector)
Effectors are usually muscles or glands

Negative feedback
Occurs when the response by the effector cancels out the original stimulus Changes the internal conditions back to their optimal level E.g. if the bodys temperature goes below 37 degrees, negative feedback mechanisms will operate to bring it back up to the optimal level

Negative feedback
Receptor detects change from optimal level
Low body temperature (stimulus)

Cancels out original stimulus (increases temperature)

Shivering Goose bumps

Information sent to coordinating centre

Vasoconstriction Effector releases response

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CLv3SkF_Eag
Complete worksheets on negative and positive feedback.

LEARNING INTENTION To understand nerve control in complex multicellular organisms. SUCCESS CRITERIA - Be able to explain the difference between the: - central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. - sensory neurones and motor neurones. - Complete Ch.8 textbook questions 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. - Complete worksheet on nerves and senses.

The Nervous System

Detecting Changing Conditions


In order to survive, organisms need to be able to detect and respond to changes in their internal and external environment Two systems in the body monitor and respond to these changes the nervous system and the endocrine system

The Nervous System


Divided into two sections: Central Nervous System (CNS) the brain and the spinal cord. Processes, stores and coordinates information Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) everything outside of the CNS. Connects the CNS with the limbs and organs

http://www.5min.com/Video/Learn-about-the-Nervous-System-117564320

Peripheral Nervous System


The PNS is made up of two different systems: 1. Somatic Nervous System coordinates voluntary body movements (e.g. running) 2. Autonomic Nervous System controls functions that we have no control over (e.g. heart rate)

Information Pathways
Information is carried around the nervous system by nerve impulses Two types of pathways carry these impulses 1. Sensory Neurones carry information FROM the source of simulation TO the CNS 2. Motor Neurones carry information FROM the CNS TO the effectors

Neurones
Motor Neurone

Sensory Neurone

Neurones
Basic units of the nervous system The axon of the neurone is surrounded by a myelin sheath This myelin sheath assists with the movement of electrical impulses along the axon
http://biosingularity.wordpress.com/2007/05/07/neurons-and-how-they-work-animation/

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNgGKSNiNw

Receptors
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Changes in the environment are detected by our receptors There are five different types of receptors Chemoreceptors: detect smell and taste Mechanoreceptors: detect pressure, touch, tension, sound vibrations and body balance Photoreceptors: stimulated by light Thermoreceptors: stimulated by heat and cold Pain receptors: free nerve endings in the skin

THE REFLEX ARC A PERIPHERAL NERVE PATHWAY


Brain

Sensory neuron Affector neuron


Stimulus

Interneuron
Cross section through spinal chord

Pain Receptor

Motor neuron Effector neuron

Effector tissue (muscles or glands) respond to signal.

NERVE CELLS (NEURONS)


The cell body contains the nucleus that controls cell activity.

Axon carries information from the cell body to the synapse to be passed on to other neurones.
Dendrites receive signals from other neurons

Synapse is the region between an axon of one neuron and a dendrite of another neuron Each cubic mm of cerebral cortex contains roughly one billion synapses.

NERVE PATHWAYS
OUR COMMUNICATION SUPER HIGHWAY
S Y N A P S E S Y N A P S E

Electrical signal

Chemical signal

Electrical signal

Chemical signal

Electrical signal

Dendrite

SIGNAL DIRECTION

Axon

The neurone before a synapse is called the pre-synaptic neurone. synapse is called the post-synaptic neurone.

The neurone after a

NEUROTRANSMITTERS DELIVER THE MESSAGE


Neurotransmitters stored in vesicles at end of axon Synapse Receptors

Dendrite of synaptic neuron

post -

Electrical impulse

2.Neurotransmitterscr oss the synapse

Electrical impulse

Axon of pre-synaptic neurone

1.Neurotransmittersreleased from axon of presynaptic neuron.

3.Neurotransmitters- bind to receptors on dendrites of postsynaptic neuron.

Discuss textbook question: 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7


Complete worksheet on nerves and senses.

LEARNING INTENTION
To understand that the brain receives messages from the senses, interprets them and then coordinates a message to the effectors.

SUCCESS CRITERIA
Complete textbook questions 10, 11 and 14 Complete worksheet on control of body temperature.

Brain Power

The Brain
Interprets the message (impulse) it receives from the senses and coordinates a message back to the effectors Does this by deciding on which pathway an impulse will take along the neurones Any one neurone in the brain can be connected to 25,000 others, so there are many paths a single impulse can take

Through learning and repetition we form particular pathways in our brain, meaning we often dont have to think about how to do a task in order to do it

Areas of the Brain


Different areas of the brain have different functions They receive information from certain receptors in the body

Left and Right Hemispheres


Human brain is divided into two halves known as hemispheres People are sometimes described as being left brained or right brained

http://www.icaniq.com/articles/left-or-right-brain

Discuss textbook questions 10, 11 and 14 Watch:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vlp_NHuC0rw

Complete worksheet - Control of Body Temperature. Hand in when completed.

LEARNING INTENTION
To understand how the endocrine system works in complex multicellular organisms.

SUCCESS CRITERIA
- Be able to explain the difference between the nervous system and endocrine system. - Complete textbook questions 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25. - Label the specific organs of the endocrine system in humans. - Complete True/False questions about the Endocrine system.

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


Responses that take time to occur and are longer lasting are governed by the endocrine system. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the blood stream. The hormones travel through the circulatory system until they reach the target tissue, which has the appropriate receptor for that hormone.

Page 251 of textbook Label and paste Diagram in book.

See table on Page 252 of textbook

Complete worksheet: Glands at work using page 252 of textbook

COMPARISON BETWEEN NERVOUS AND HORMONAL SYSTEMS


Comparison factor Nervous System Endocrine System

Communication Speed

Electrical Impulses

Hormones in the blood

Very rapid (up to 200m per Much slower than the nervous system as second) hormones have to travel through the circulatory system Short term and reversible Longer lasting effects

Duration

Specificity

Very specific in targeting More general in targeting tissues or organs neuron, muscle or gland in body Animals only Plants and animals

Types of organisms

Methods of transmission

Conducted along neurons Transported by the circulatory and lymphatic systems

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-S_vQZDH9hY

True or false questions about hormones. Numbers 1-18 in book. Leave room for T or F.

Discuss textbook questions 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 24 and 25.