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Name: Delicano, Joko A.

Course & Sec : BSCOE / E50

Define Heat:


+eposition also refers to change from gas to solid. (he of sublimation is deposition.

the phase opposite




Heat (denoted by the symbol Q), may be, defined in an analogous way to work as follows : Heat is something which appears at the boundary when a system changes its state due to a difference in temperature between the system and its surrounding.

Date : #e$ruar% &' &0()

Entropy (he thermodynamic term for uantifying freedom , and it is gi)en the symbol S. ,ike freedom, the entropy of a system increases with the temperature and with )olume. (he effect of )olume is more easily seem in terms of concentration, especially in the case of mi*tures. -or a certain number of atoms or molecules, an increase in )olume results in a decrease in concentration. (herefore, the entropy of a system increases as the concentrations of the components decrease. (he part of entropy which is determined by energetic freedom is called thermal entropy, and the part that is determined by concentration is called configurational entropy. (he units of entropy are the same as those of heat capacity and of the gas law constant. (he product of entropy (or a change in entropy) and the absolute temperature has the same units as energy (or a change in energy).

Heat, like work, is a transient uantity which only appears at the boundary while a change is taking place within the system.

Sensible heat of water (hf) !

"t is defined as the

uantity of heat absorbed

by # kg of water when it is heated from $%& (free'ing point) to boiling point. "t is also called total heat (or enthalpy) of water or liquid heat invariably. "t is reckoned from $%& where sensible heat is taken as 'ero. (his type of heat is denoted by letter h f and its )alue can be directly read from the steam tables Latent heat or hidden heat (hfg)-

"t is the amount of heat re uired to con)ert water at a gi)en temperature and pressure into steam at the same temperature and pressure. "t is e*pressed by the symbol h fg and its )alue is a)ailable from steam tables. (he )alue of latent heat is not constant and )aries according to pressure )ariation.

Sublimation is the transition from the solid phase to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate li uid phase. (his endothermic phase transition occurs at temperatures and pressures below the triple point.

Deposition "s the settling of particles or sediment onto a surface. (he particles may originate from a )apor, solution, suspension, or mi*ture.


"n engineering problem, for any fluid which is used as working fluid, the si* basic thermo2 dynamic properties re uired are : p (pressure)# (temperature)# $ ($olume)# u (internal energy)# h (enthalpy) and s (entropy)% (hese properties must be known at different pressure for analy'ing the thermodynamic cycles used for work producing de)ices. (he )alues of these properties are deter2 mined theoretically or e*perimentally and are tabulated in the form of tables which are known as 3team (ables. (he properties of wet steam are then computed from such tabulated data. (abulated )alues are also a)ailable for superheated steam. "t may be noted that steam has only one saturation temperature at each pressure

otal heat or enthalpy of wet steam (h) ! "t is defined as the uantity of heat re uired to con)ert # kg of water at $%& into wet steam at constant pressure. "t is the sum of total heat of water and the latent heat and this sum is also called enthalpy.

"n other words, h . hf / *hfg ... "f steam is dry and saturated, then * . # and hg . hf / hfg. "nternal Energy ! "t is defined as the actual energy stored in the steam. 0s per pre)ious articles, the total heat of steam is sum of sensible heat, internal latent heat and the e*ternal work of e)aporation. 1ork of e)aporation is not stored in the steam as it is utili'ed in doing e*ternal work. Hence the internal energy of steam could be found by subtracting work of e)aporation from the total heat.