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5. To perform tension test on hot rolled


plain steel bar (ASTM-A615/615-M)
(12-11-08)
PURPOSE
 To study stress strain behavior of the specimen
 To determine different mechanical properties of steel sample (e.g. yield strength, tensile
strength, Modulus of Elasticity, Ductility etc.)
 To check the adequately of the specimen according to ASTM-A615/615-M standards.

APPARATUS
 500 KN Shimadzu Universal Testing  Steel Ruler
Machine  Vernier Caliper
 Batty’s Extensometer (LC =  Weighing Balance and Weights
1/20000”)  Meter Rod
 Spring Divider

RELATED THEORY
Manufacturing of Steel

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Flow Diagram showing the manufacturing of steel

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Hot Rolling

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Material Test and Stress-Strain Diagram


The material strength depends on its ability to sustain a load without undue deformation or
failure. The property is inherent in the material itself and must be determined by the
experiment. One of the most important tests to be performed in the regard is the tension or
compression test/ to do so a standard specimen is made. The test is performed in a universal
testing machine. Shown in figure below is the specimen and test result of Stress-Strain Diagram.

The stress-strain diagram consists of four stages during the whole process i.e. Elastic Yielding
Hardening and Necking stages respectively. From yielding stage some permanent plastic
deformation occurs. About 90% of the engineering problems only concern with the elastic
deformation in structural members and mechanical components. Only 10% of engineering work
concerns plastic and other nonlinear stage (e.g. metal forming).

Components of Stress-Strain Diagram


PROPORTIONAL LIMIT (P.L.)
Maximum stress that may be developed during a simple tension test such that the stress is
linear function of strain. (No proportional limit for brittle materials.)

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ELASTIC LIMIT (E.L.)


Maximum stress that may be developed during a simple tension
test such that there is no permanent set or residual deformation
when the load is entirely removed. Hook’s Law is not valid after E.L.
and the numerical values of P.L. and E.L. are usually identical. But
the curve tends to flatten out causing a greater increment of strain

for corresponding increment of stress. Figure 1 Stress Strain Curve


for Brittle materials
ELASTIC AND PLASTIC RANGES
Region of stress-strain diagram extending from origin to the proportional limit or elastic limit is
called as elastic range. When the material is unloaded within elastic range, it will come back to
its original shape without any permanents plastic deformation. The region extending from P.L.
to point of fracture is called as plastic range.

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E)


It is the ratio of the unit stress to the unit strain and it is
determined as the slope of straight line from zero to
proportional limit from the stress-strain diagram.

The stress strain linear relationship was discovered by


Robert Hook in 1676 and is known as Hook’s Law. It is
mathematically represented by the equation 𝜍 = 𝐸𝜖,
Where E is termied as Modulus of Elasticity or Young’s
Modulus with units of stress, for mild steel, E ~ 200 GPa (29 Figure 2 Stress & Strain Curves for different
X 10^6 Psi) Materials

YIELD POINT (Y.P.) Steel Grade UTS Yield Strength


In KSI In Mpa in Psi
A point on the stress strain curve after which
G 40 70 KSI 300 Mpa 40000 Psi
there is an increase in strain with no significant G 60 90 KSI 420 Mpa 60000 Psi
increase in stress is called as yield point. The G 75 100 KSI 500 Mpa 75000 Psi
phenomenon is called as yielding. The stress

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corresponding to Y.P is known as the yield strength of the material which is represented in Ksi.
Which gives the grade of the steel is also known as Proof Stress.

METHODS OF DETERMINING YIELD STRENGTH


 Halting of machine/drop of beam method
 Offset method
 Lunder line method
 Specific strain method
1. HALTING OF MACHINE METHOD
The stress may actually decrease momentarily resulting in upper and lower yield points. The
yield point during a simple tension test can be observed by Halting of machine.
2. OFFSET METHOD
For the materials that do not gave well defined yield point, yield
strength is determined by offset method. This consists of drawing
a line parallel to the initial tangent of the stress strain diagram at
0.2% (0.002 m/m or in/in) strain.
3. LUDER LINE METHOD Figure 3 Offset method for
determining yield
When the specimen yields, a pattern of fine lines appears on the
polished surface, they roughly interact at right angle to each other
and 45 degrees approximately to the longitudinal axis of the bar. Figure 4 Lunder Lines
4. SPECIFIC STRAIN METHOD
In this method simply 0.5% of the total strain is marked to determine the
corresponding stress, which is yielding stress.

Figure 5 Specific Strain Method


0.5%

TENSILE/ULTIMATE STRENGTH

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Maximum or highest ordinate (Stress) on the stress-strain diagram is called as the tensile or
ultimate strength of the sample. It is commonly considered as the maximum strength of the
material.

RAPTURE/FRACTURE/BREAKING STRENGTH
Rapture strength or Breaking strength is the stress at the failure. Rapture strength is always less
than the ultimate strength. For brittle material, the ultimate and rupture strength are almost
the same.

STRAIN HARDENING ZONE


If a ductile material can be stressed considerably beyond the yield point without failure, the
material is said to be “Strain hardened”. It is a zone after yielding when the particles of material
rearrange themselves and start taking load again, so stress starts increasing. This is true for
many structural metals.

NECKING
Localized decrease in cross sectional area of the sample after the ultimate strength is called
Necking. This continues up to rupture/failure.

Figure 6 Necking of steel specimen at failure (cup/cone)

Due to necking (cup and cone formation) the cross sectional area is reduces and hence actual
rupture strength can be obtained by dividing the rupture load with actual rupture area. So, the
point of actual rupture strength will obviously be higher that the rupture strength on the stress
strain diagram because the rupture area is less than the original cross sectional area of sample.

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MODULUS OF RESILIENCE (M.O.R.)


Resilience: the ability of a material to absorb energy in
the elastic range (i.e. without permanent deformation)
is called as resilience.
2
1 1 𝜍𝑃𝑙
𝑈𝑟 = 𝜍𝑃𝑙 𝜖𝑃𝑙 =
2 2 𝐸
Modulus of Resilience is the amount of work done on a
unit volume of material as a simple tensile force is
increased from zero to proportional limit (P.L.). It is
calculated as the area under the stress strain diagram from zero to P.L. (Units: Psi or MPa)

MODULUS OF TOUGHNESS (M.O.T.)


Toughness: the ability of a material to absorb energy in
the plastic range (i.e. permanent deformation) is called
as toughness.

Modulus of Toughness is the amount of work done on a


unit volume of material as s simple tensile force is
increased from zero to failure of the specimen. It is
calculated as the total area under the stress-strain
diagram. (Units: Psi or MPa)

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RESIDUAL STRAIN
When Material is loaded beyond the elstic limit then
after unloading the material does not come back to its
origional position and there is a permanent set in the
specimen, which is called Residual Strain.

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SPECIFIC STRENGTH
Ratio of ultimate/tensile strength to the specific weight (weight per unit volume) is called
specific strength. (Units: Length)

SPECIFIC MODULUS
Ration of Modulus of Elasticity/Young’s Modulus to the specific weight is called as specific
modulus. (Units: Length)

ELASTICITY
The ability of material to regain its original shape and size after the removal of load is known as
elasticity. The elastic strain is reversible change in the dimensions of body.

PLASTICITY
The property of material by virtue of which it retains the shape given to it, is known as
plasticity. Plastic strain is deformation or change in dimensions which is irreversible and
remains in after the load has been removed.

Ductile Materials
Any material that can be subjected to
large strains before it rupture is called a
ductile materials, e.g. mild steel.

Figure 8 Ductile failure of a specimen strained axially

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MEASUREMENT OF DUCTILITY
Ductility is a quantity, subjective property of a material. In general, measurements of ductility
are of interest in three ways:

1. To indicate the extent to which a metal can be deformed without fracture in


metalworking operation such as rolling and extrusion.
2. To indicate to the designer, in a general way, the ability of the metal to flow plastically
before fracture. A high ductility indicates that the material is “forgiving” and likely to
deform locally without fracture should the designer err in the stress calculation or the
prediction of severe loads.
3. To serve as an indicator of changes in impurity level or processing conditions. Ductility
measurements may be specified to assess material quality even though no direct
relationship exists between the ductility measurement and performance in service.

The conventional measures of ductility that are obtained from the tension test are the strain at
fracture (usually called elongation) and the reduction of area at fracture. Both of these
properties are obtained after fracture by putting the specimen back together and taking
measurement of length and cross sectional area.

Because a appreciable fracture of the plastic deformation will be concentrate in the necked
region of the tension specimen, the value of rupture strain (elongation) will depend on the
gauge length over which the measurement was taken. The smaller the gauge length the greater
will be the contribution to the overall elongation from the necked region and the higher will be
the value of rupture strain. Therefore, when reporting values of percentage elongation, the
gauge length L0 always should be given.

PERCENTAGE ELONGATION
“The change in length per unit original length expressed in percentage”

𝐿𝑂 − 𝐿𝑓
% 𝐸𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑋 100, 𝑤𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐿𝑂 = 𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡𝑕, 𝐿𝑓 = 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡𝑕
𝐿𝑂

PERCENTAGE REDUCTION IN AREA


“Reduction in cross-sectional area per unit original area expressed in percentage”

𝐴𝑂 − 𝐴𝑓
% 𝑅𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑋. 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎 = 𝑋 100, 𝑤𝑕𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐴𝑂 = 𝑂𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎, 𝐴𝑓 = 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎
𝐴𝑂

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Ductile and Brittle Materials


Materials having a relatively larger tensile strain up to the point of rupture or failure are called as ductile
materials, e.g. Structural Steel, Aluminum, etc.

Whereas, the materials having a relatively small tensile strain up to the point of rupture are called as
brittle materials, e.g Cast Iron, Concrete, etc.

Procedure for Experiment


1. Note the shape and size of specimen, measure the length of specimen and weight it to
find the cross sectional area of specimen, firm this area effective diameter of the bar is
found in mm. compare this diameter with nominal size of bar.
2. Mark the gauge length on the specimen throughout the length of the specimen for
determination of % elongation after fracture, i.e. Ductility.
3. Fix the Battey extensometer to measure the elongation up to its region and grip the
specimen in machine jaws. Note the gauge length of extensometer and its least count.
4. Calculate the expected Yield and Ultimate load and decide suitable load increment and
draw a table for recording readings of loads and extensions.
5. Apply the load in desire increment and take readings of extensometer.
6. Remove the Battey extensometer at its limit and record the elongation with a spring
divider and steel ruler up to breaking point.
7. Join the two broken pieces together and measure the approximate diameter at failure
zones for determination of final cross sectional area.
8. Measure the change in lengths for gauge lengths marked throughout the lengths of
specimen for estimation of effect of gauge length on % age elongation (ductility).

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Calculations and Observations


L= 613 mm Marking Length = GL/4 = 50.8 mm = 2”
M= .578 Kg = 578 grams Gauge Length of Extensometer = 50.8 mm
Density: 7.850 g/cm3

In order to calculate diameter, we will use the relation𝜌 = 𝑚/𝑉, where rho is 7.850 g/m3.
𝑚 .578
𝑑= = = 0.01236 𝑚 = 12.36 𝑚𝑚
7.850 𝑋 𝐿 𝑋 𝜋 4 7850 𝑋 .613 𝑋 .7853

Extension = (R – I.R ) X L.C. X 25.4


%age strain = (∆L/L) X 100, where L= Gauge Length
Stress = Load/Area
Length of steel bar = 613 mm
Area of steel bar = m/lρ = 578/(613 X .007850) = 120.11 mm2
Mean Fracture Diameter = 8 mm
Reduced Area = 58.08 mm2
% Reduction in Area = ((120.11-58.08)/120.11)X100 = 51.64%
True Rupture strength = (fracture load/reduced area) = 1076.101 MPa

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Extensometer/
S.N Load Extension %age Stress
Spring Divider Remarks
o (kN) (mm) Strain (MPa)
reading
1 0 1400 0 0 0
2 5 1402 0.00254 0.005 41.62851
3 10 1404 0.00508 0.01 83.25701
4 15 1408 0.01016 0.02 124.8855
5 20 1412 0.01524 0.03 166.514
6 25 1416 0.02032 0.04 208.1425
7 30 1424 0.03048 0.06 249.771
8 35 1432 0.04064 0.08 291.3996
9 40 1438 0.04826 0.095 333.0281 P.L./E.L.
10 43.5 1510 0.1397 0.275 362.168
11 43.7 1515 0.14605 0.2875 363.8332 Y.P.
12 43.7 1600 0.254 0.5 363.8332
13 43.7 1615 0.27305 0.5375 363.8332
14 43.7 1700 0.381 0.75 363.8332
15 43.7 1800 0.508 1 363.8332
16 43.7 1850 0.5715 1.125 363.8332
17 45 1890 0.6223 1.225 374.6566
18 48 2110 0.9017 1.775 399.6337
19 50 2500 1.397 2.75 416.2851
20 52.5 54 4 7.874016 437.0993
21 61 56 6 11.81102 507.8678
22 65 57 7 13.77953 541.1706
23 67.2 62 12 23.62205 559.4871 U.T.S.
24 63.3 67 17 33.46457 527.0169
25 62.5 70 20 39.37008 520.3563 N.R.S

600
Stress Strain Curve

500

400
stress

300

200

100

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
percentage strain

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Deformed
Sr. no G.L Elongation % elongation
Length
L-R
1 50 70 20 40
2 100 126 26 26
3 150 181 31 20.67
4 200 233 33 16.5
R-L
1 50 68 18 36
2 100 126 26 26
3 150 186 36 24
4 200 244 44 22

G.L. ~ %Elog. L to R
50
40
%age Elong.

30
20
10
Gauge Length
0
0 50 100 150 200 250

G.L. ~ %Elog. R to L
40
30
%age Elong.

20
10
0 Gauge Length

0 50 100 150 200 250

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Results
True Rupture strength = (fracture load/reduced area) = 1076.101 MPa

Modulus of Elasticity =
2
1 1 𝜍𝑃𝑙
Modulus of Resilience = 𝑈𝑟 = 𝜍 𝜖
2 𝑃𝑙 𝑃𝑙
=2 𝐸
= ½(333.02*0.04825/50) = 0.1607 MPa

Modulus of Toughness = area of one box = (5/400)*20 = .25, total boxes= 807, total area = 807*.25 =
20.175 Mpa

S.No. Property Specimen Results Standard Values


1. Proportional Limit 333.02 MPa
2. Elastic Limit 333.02 MPa
3. Yield Strength/Proof Stress 362.168 MPa
4. Ultimate Strength 559.4871 MPa
5. Nominal Rupture Strength 520.35 MPa
6. True Rupture Strength 1076.101 MPa
7. %age elongation 40 % 12% min.
8. %age reduction in area 51.64%
9. Modulus of Elasticity 200 GPa
10. Modulus of Resilience 0.1607 MPa
11. Modulus of Toughness 201 MPa
12. Weight/unit length 0.9429 kg/m 0.994 kg/m

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Conclusion and Comments

1. Grade of Steel Specimen

The yield strength of our steel specimen in 363.8332 MPa which is 52769.53 psi. Thus we can
conclude our steel specimen falls in the category of Grade 40 [300]. Steel specimens having
yield strength From 40000 psi to 60000 psi are said to be grade 40 steel. Grade 40 is less brittle
than grade 60 because it has less about of carbon contents which make it comparatively brittle.

2. Discussion over Failure and Fracture

The specimen did not break in a proper cup cone manner. This may be due to impurities
present or due to non-uniformity of the specimen. A cup cone manner of the specimen helps us
to predict the homogeneity if a material. If the material is made of standard proportions then it
will break in perfect manner.

More over mild steel is weaker in shear and strong in tension. So it should be noted here that
the cup cone manner is only for mild steel i.e. a material strong in tension and weaker in shear.
So if we see the breaking or fracture pattern of a cast iron then it would be cleared that cast
iron is weak in tension because it does not fracture in a cup cone manner.

3. Discussion over Weight/Unit Length

The specimen results gives us the value of mass/unit length as 0.8429 kg/m, while the standard
value of it as ASTM-A615/615M 2005, it is 0.994 kg/m. the result gives us value lesser than
standard value. This means that for one meter of length the mass is lesser that that of standard.
So, it shows that the strength of bar will ultimately be lower than the required one as standard
one. Hence it would not be safe to use.

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4. Discussion over Percentage Elongation

The percentage elongation in over case is 40 %, while according to ASTM-A615/615M 2005, it


must be 12%. It means our specimen has elongated more than it should. This shows that it does
not satisfy the standards and more percentage elongation tells us that it is not made up
accurate proportions. Moreover it also tells us that or particular value of load our specimen will
elongate more that the standard value so it is not suited for the valuable structures.

5. Discussion over Percentage Reduction of Area

Percentage reduction of area in specimen is 51% where as in standards it should be less than
that It shows that it has elongate more than it should. This can be due to impurities present in
the material or the non-homogeneity of the material. It has showed larger reduction in area
when the load is applied. From this we can conclude that it can show abnormal behavior in the
structure during any unfavorable circumstances.

6. Discussion over True Rupture and Nominal Rupture Strength

True rapture is always greater than the nominal rupture strength of the specimen. In our case
nominal rupture strength is 520.3536MPa, which is obtained by diving the applied load by the
original area of the steel bar, where as we have in our case true rupture strength is 1076 MPa,
which is obtained by diving applied load by the reduced area i.e. average area of cup and cone.

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