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# Thermodynamics (Course number: 22006) Tutorial 4 (First Law of Thermodynamics for closed and o en system) 1. What is a throttling process?

? Give two examples of such process and represent them in h-s plot. Show that, in throttling process the enthalpy remains constant. 2. rove that, for an ideal gas ! -!" # \$u%&. Where the sym'ols have their usual meaning. (. Give the physical meaning of internal energy and show that it is a property. ). What is the difference 'etween a *o++le and ,iffuser? -. Give the physical meaning of enthalpy and show that, for a constant pressure process, the change in enthalpy is e.ual to net heat transfer. /. rove that, for an ideal gas undergoing reversi'le adia'atic process "0 # ! 1. Show that, the expression of heat addition to a system undergoing polytropic process is given 'y 23 # 440-n5%4n-15562W 7. rove that, for any process undergoing a closed cycle, the difference 'etween the differentials of heat and wor8 is an exact differential. 9. What is a && 1? 1. :he temperature of (.- 8g of gas in a rigid container is increased from 2- ;! to )- ;! during heating. :he net heat transfer during the process is (7 8<. :he specific heat ratio and molar mass of the gas are 1.)2 and 27 respectively. !alculate the change in =nternal energy and wor8 done for the gas, assuming it to 'e ideal. 2. >.- 8g of air is expanded reversi'ly and adia'atically from >.) &pa, -21 ? to 7> 8 a, and then compressed at constant pressure to the original volume. S8etch the process in -" diagram, and compute the heat and wor8 transfer for the whole path. (. @ rigid insulated tan8 of capacity 1 m ( is divided into two compartments. :he compartment of volume >.>- m( contains water at 11> ;!, 1 &pa. :he second compartment is evacuated. :he partition separating the compartments is punctured and water fills the whole tan8. ,etermine the final temperature and pressure of water in the tan8. ). @ certain mass of air of volume 12- cc at temperature (- ;! and pressure 1 'ar a'solute is compressed 'y the law "1.(- # ! to a pressure of 7.- 'ar. :hen 2>>> < of heat is added at constant pressure. Aurther, hot air is expanded 'y the law " 1.(- # ! to a pressure of 2 'ar. Ainally, heat is reBected at constant volume till the initial condition has reached. ,etermine the value of :, and " at the end of each process. \$epresent the entire process in -" diagram, and determine the net wor8 done for the process. /. @ system containing >.2 m( of air at a pressure of ) 'ar and 1/> ;! expands isoentropically to a pressure of 1.>/ 'ar and then heated at constant pressure till the enthalpy increases 'y /- 8<. !alculate the wor8 done. *ow, the entire process is replaced 'y a single reversi'le polytropic process producing the same amount of wor8 'etween the initial and final state. So determine the index of expansion in this case. :a8e ! # 1.>>- 8<%8g ?

1. >.)) 8g of air at 17> ;! expands adia'atically to three times its original volume, and during the process, there is a fall in temperature to 1- ;!. =f the wor8 done during the process is -2.- 8<%8g, then calculate the values of ! and !". 7. :he properties of a certain fluid are related as u # 19/ C >.119 t, where u is the specific internal energy 8<%8g, v # >.271 4t C21(5 where t is in ;!, is in 8 a, and v is in m(%8g. Aor this fluid, find the values of ! and !". 9. @ 1.- 8g of mass undergoes a .uasistatic expansion process following # a C '", where a and ' are constants, is in 8 a and " is in m (. :he initial and final pressures are 1>>> 8 a and 2>> 8 a respectively, and the corresponding volumes are >.2 m( and 1.2 m(. :he specific internal energy of the gas is given 'y the relation u # 1.- pv D 7- 8<%8g, where p is in 8 a, v is in m (%8g. !alculate the net heat transfer and the maximum internal energy of the gas attained during the expansion. 1>. :he heat capacity at constant pressure of a certain system is a function of temperature only and is expressed as ! # 21>9( C )1.71%4tC1>>5 <%;!, where t is in ;!. :he system is now heated 'y maintaining it at 1 atm pressure until its volume increases from 2>>> cm ( to 2)>> cm( and during this process, its temperature increase from > ;! to 1>> ;!. Aind the magnitude of heat interaction and increase in internal energy of the system. 11. @ gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle with ( processes. rocess 1-2 is constant pressure with #1.) 'ar, "#>.>27 m(, W # 1>.- 8<. rocess 2-( is compression with "#!, E (# E2. rocess (-1 is constant volume with E1-E( # -2/.) 8<. S8etch the cycle in -" diagram and determine the net wor8 done and heat transfer for the process 1-2. @lso prove that 23#2W. 12. @ir flows steadily at the rate of >.) 8g%s through an air compressor, entering at / m%s with a pressure of 1 'ar, v of >.7- m (%8g and leaves at ).- m%s, /.9 'ar and >.1/ m(%8g. :he internal energy of air leaving is 77 8<%8g greater than of entering. !ooling water in a Bac8et surrounding the cylinder a'sor's the heat from the air at the rate of -9 W. ,etermine the power re.uired to drive the compressor and the inlet and outlet cross section area. 1(. @ir at 1>- m%s and 1.2- 8g%m ( enters a gas tur'ine of inlet area >.>- m 2. :he air stream exists from the gas tur'ine at 1(- m%s and >./1 8g%m (. ,uring the flow process, the air loses 21 8<%8g of heat and its specific enthalpy comes down 'y 1)- 8<%8g. ,etermine 4i5 :he mass flow rate of the air through the tur'ine 4ii5 :ur'ine exit area 4iii5 :he power developed 'y the tur'ine 1). @ small expander has >.>- 8g%s steam entering at 1>>> 8 a, 2-> ;! and leaves at 2-> 8 a, 9>F .uality. :he power output of the shaft is -- 8W. ,etermine the rate of heat transfer 'y neglecting the 8inetic energies. 1-. Steam at >.7 & a, 2-> ;! and flows at the rate of 1 8g%s passes into a pipe carrying wet steam at >.7 &pa, >.9- dry. @fter adia'atic mixing, the flow rate is 2.( 8g%s. ,etermine the condition of steam after mixing. :he mixture is then expanded in frictionless no++le isoentropically to a pressure of >.) &pa. ,etermine the .uality of steam leaving the no++le. 1/. Gi.uid water at 1 & a, 2> ;! is mixed with steam at 1 & a and 1>>F .uality to produce hot water at 12> ;!. =f the mixing occurs in a steady flow process inside an insulating 'ox, then determine the .uantity of steam re.uired if the inlet water flows at 2> ;! is 1.2 8g. 11. @ de-superheater is an e.uipment where super heated steam is converted into saturation steam

'y cooling it with spray water. Steam enters to it at 1.- 'ar, 12- ;! and leaves as saturated steam at 1.- 'ar. Spray water enters at (> ;! and sprayed into the steam to cool it to the saturate vapor state. :he mass flow rate of super heated steam is ->>> 8g%hr. @ssuming that, the de-superheater is insulated and the change in ?H and H are neglected. ,etermine the mass flow rate of spray water and saturated steam. 17. @ tur'o compressor delivers 2.(( m (%s at >.21/ &pa, )( ;! which is heated at the same pressure to )(> ;!, and finally expands in a tur'ine which delivers 17/> 8W. ,uring the expansion there is a heat transfer of >.>9 &<%s to the surrounding. ,etermine the tur'ine exhaust temperature if changes in ?H and H are neglected. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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