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Like D. C. Motors, A. C motors also comprise of stator and rotor both of

which carry windings. The rotor core is laminated and its conductors often
consist of un-insulated copper/aluminum bars in semi-enclosed slots.

In some induction motors, these conductors are short-circuited at the ends

by rings or places. Such a rotor is also known as Cage or short-circuited
rotor. On the other hand, a wound rotor machine employs slip-rings and
normally has equal number of rotor and stator poles.

Principle of Action:

The air gap between the stator and rotor is uniform and made as small as
possible. When current flows in the stator, the stator currents produce flux.
This flux easily crosses the narrow air gap in induce/generate on e.m.f. in
the rotor conductors. The e.m.f. is maximum in regions under the poles
(maximum flux density). Assuming an anticlockwise rotation of the flux as
shown below:

Stator p
Force on
conductor Force on
Rotation of the

The directions of the generated emf, in the rotor conductors is determined
by the right hand rule. These e.m.f., circulate a current which strengthens
the flux density on one side of the rotor conductor. This consequently
exerts a force on the rotor tending to rotate it in the direction of the
rotating flux. This summaries one great advantage three-phase a.c. motors
have over single-phase a.c. motors; they are self-starting and this is due to
the fact that 3 phase flux is rotating (also has a constant value of 1.5 times
the maximum flux per phase).

The higher the speed of the rotating field relative to the rotor winding, the
higher the e.m.f. induced in the latter and vice-versa. Thus, as the rotor
speed increases, the speed of the rotating flux relative to the rotor
conductors decreases and hence the induced e.m.f. decreases.

The speed at which the flux/field rotates is called the Synchronous

speed. As the speed of the rotor increases to its synchronous value, the
rotor conductors would appear to be stationery relative to the rotating flux

Under this situation, no e.m.f/current will be in the rotor conductors and

consequently no torque develops on the rotor. Hence the rotor does not
continue to rotate at synchronous speed. As the rotor speed falls below the
synchronous speed, the current/emf and hence torque increases until the
torque is enough to rotate any connected load and also overcoming the
rotor losses.


The speed of the rotor relative to that of the rotating flux (synchronous
speed) is termed as “Slip”.
Rotor speed/
Where AD = AB-AC, i.e. BC = AD
Rotor speed

Slip D

O A A Torque NM

Thus for torque OA; AB = synchronous speed

AC = Rotor speed
AD = Slip

Slip is expressed as a fraction or as a percentage of the synchronous
Therefore, p.u slip = slip (rpm)/sunchronous speed (rpm) = AD/AB.
= (Synchronous speed – Rotor speed)/Synchronous

Let s = p.u slip, N = synchronous speed and Nr = rotor speed;

By definition, s = (N-Nr)/N or (N-Nr)/N x 100%

At full-load, s is very small and thus induction motors are regarded

practically as a constant speed machine and varying its speed is
economically expensive. This is a disadvantage.

3-Phase Rotating Flux

Consider a 3-phase arrangement of which each phase is assumed to

produce a sinusoidal space distribution of flux with maximum value Фmax

If the phases are A, B and C, then the respective fluxes are  A,  B, and  C
respectively. These three phases are 1200 (electrical degrees) apart; hence
if ωs is the synchronous speed, then,
 A = Фmax sin ωst ,  B, = Фmax sin(ωst - 1200) , and  C = Фmax sin(ωst - 2400)

If the angle θ around the air-gap is taken with its origin on the axis of one
phase say phase A, then for any point at angle θ from the origin, the fluxes
are given by
 Asin θ,  Bsin(θ - 1200) , and  Csin(θ - 2400).

The total flux is given by

ФTotal =  Asin θ +  Bsin(θ - 1200) +  Csin(θ - 2400).
= Фmax sin ωst sin θ + Фmax sin(ωst - 1200) sin(θ - 1200) + Фmax sin(ωst -
2400)sin(θ - 2400)
= Фmax [sin ωst sin θ + sin(ωst - 1200) sin(θ - 1200) + sin(ωst - 2400)sin(θ -

Using the identity 2sinAsinB = cos(A-B) – cos(A+B), where A = f(θ) and B =

ФTotal =½ Фmax [cos(θ - ωst) – cos(θ + ωst) + cos(θ - ωst) – cos(θ + ωst - 2400) + cos(θ - ωst) – cos(θ +
ωst - 4800)]

Generally, cosα + cos(α - 2400) + cos(α - 4800) = 0

ФTotal =3 x ½ Фmax cos(θ - ωst) or 1.5 Фmax cos(θ - ωst)

The above equation shows that the total flux has constant amplitude of 1.5
Фmax, is a sinusoidal function of the phase angle θ and rotates around the
air-gap in synchronism with the supply frequency at a speed ωs.

For a general case of a p-pole pair machine supplied at f Hz, the speed Ns
known as the synchronous speed will be given by Ns = 60f/p revolutions
per minute.
Rotor Constants

a) Rotor emf:

When an induction motor is stationery, the stator and rotor windings

form an equivalent transformer.

If Es = stator e.m.f. and ER = the rotor e.m.f., then

ER = (Nr/ Ns)x Es = nEs where n = equivalent rotor-stator turns ratio.

When motor runs, the induced e.m.f in the rotor becomes less, since the
relative movement between the rotor conductors and the rotating field
is low. The induced e.m.f is proportional to this movement and hence
proportional to slip, s.

When motor is rotating: Rotor emf per phase = Er = sER = nsEs.

b) Rotor frequency

The rotor emf is induced by an alternating flux and the rate at which
this flux cuts (passes) the conductors is the slip speed, (N s – N). Thus
the frequency of the rotor emf is:
fr = (Ns – N) x P/60 = [(Ns – N)/Ns] x (Nsp)/60
But (Ns – N)/Ns = s and (Nsp)/60 = f

Hence fr = s.f

c) Rotor Resistance

The resistance of the rotor winding is independent of the frequency and the
slip. Thus ignoring the temperature effect, the rotor resistance per phase
remains unchanged.

d) Rotor reactance

Rotor reactance depends on the frequency of the rotor current.

At standstill, the reactance per phase X = 2π fL
When running, reactance per phase Xr = 2π fr L

But fr = s.f
Hence Xr = 2π x sf L = s x 2π f L; or Xr = s.X

e) Rotor Impedance
Rotor impedance per phase = Zr = [R2 + (sX)2]½
Since at stand still, s = 1, then the respective impedance (Standstill
impedance) is
Z = [R2 + X2]½

f) Rotor Current
The rotor current per phase at stand still (I) and when running at slip(s) (I r)
are given by:
I = ER/Z = n.Es/[R2 + X2]½ and Ir = Er/Zr = n.sEs/[R2 + (sX)2]½

Relationship between the Rotor I2R Loss and the Rotor Slip

The following figure shows the flow of power supplied to the motor stator to
the rotor shaft

Input power to stator


Power transferred to the Rotor Stator core I2R loss in the stator
via the magnetic field of air gap loss winding

Total mechanical power developed Core loss in the I2R loss in the Rotor
by the Rotor rotor core. windings

Useful mechanical power Windage Frictional

obtained from the Rotor losses losses

Let T = torque in NM on the rotor by rotating flux;

n = synchronous speed in rps
The power transferred from the stator to rotor = 2πnT Watts.
If nr = rotor speed in rps, the total mechanical power developed by the rotor
is 2πnrT Watts.

Assuming the rotor core losses are negligible and 0,
Then the total I R loss in the rotor ≈ (Power transferred from stator to rotor)

– (total mechanical power developed by the rotor).

∴ I2R loss = 2πT (n-nr) Watts

∴ Total rotor I2R loss = 2πT (n-nr) = n-nr = slip s.

Input power to rotor 2πnT n

Or Rotor I2R loss = s x Input power to rotor


Example 1
A 3-ph 50 Hz induction motor has 4 poles and runs at a speed of 1440 rpm
when the torque developed by the rotor is 70NM. Calculate
a) the total input to the rotor in kW;
b) the rotor I2R loss in watts.

f = 50 Hz, p = 2 (4 poles), N = 1440 rpm and T = 70NM
By definition, Ns =60f/p = (60 x 50)/2 = 1500 rpm
Therefore, slip s = (Ns – N)/Ns = (1500 – 1440) ÷ 1500 = 0.04 pu

Mechanical power at the rotor = 2πNrT/60 = (2π x 1440 x 70) ÷ 60 =

10560 Watts
Let Pi = input power to the rotor,
Pi - Pmechanical = I2R = s x Pi Hence, Pi = Pm /(1-s) = 10560 ÷ (1- 0.04) =

Rotor copper loss = I2R = s x Pi

= 0.04 x 11000 = 440 Watts.

Example 2
Determine the efficiency and output kW of a 3-ph, 400V induction motor
running light on load with a slip of 0.04 and taking a current of 50A at a p.f
of 0.86. When running light at 400V, the motor has an input current of 15A
and power taken is 2000W of which 650W represents the frictional,
windage and rotor core losses. The resistance per phase of the stator
windings (delta connected) is 0.5Ω.

At no load: s = 0.04, V = 400V and Ir = 50A at p.f of 0.86
Running light: Iin = 15A, Pin = 2000W, V = 400V
Losses: 650W, R = 0.5Ω/ph

Stator input power = √3 VL IL cosφ
= √3 x 400 x 50 x 0.86
= 29791 (≈ 30000)Watts.

Stator losses = I2R = 502 x 0.5 = 1250 Watts/ph

Frictional and other losses = 650Watts
Power input to the rotor = 2000 – 650 = 1350 W
∴ Rotor I2R loss = s x Pinput to rotor
= 0.04 x 1350 = 54W
Total loss = 54 + 650 + (1250 x 3) = 4454W

Efficiency, η, = Pout/Pin = 1 – (Total losses/Pin) = 1- (4454/30000) = 0.852

pu or 85.2%

Power output = Power input – Total losses

= 29800 – 4454 = 25.34 kW

Example 3
A 3-ph 50 Hz, 6-pole induction motor has a slip of 0.04pu when the output
is 20kW. The frictional loss is 250W. Calculate:
a) the rotor speed;
b) the rotor I2R loss

f = 50Hz, Pout = 20000W, frictional loss = 250W, p = 3 (6 poles) and s =
Let N = synchronous speed and Nr = rotor speed
Thus, N = 60f/p = 60x50/3 = 1000 rpm.
From (N – Nr)/N = slip s; then,
Rotor speed Nr = N(1-s)
= 1000(1-0.04) = 960 rpm.

Let P = power input into the rotor

Pm = mechanical power output and frictional loss,
Then, Rotor copper loss = I2R = P - Pm
But also, I2R = sP
Thus P = Pm /(1-s) = (20000 + 250) ÷ (1 – 0.04) = 21093.75 W
Therefore, the rotor copper loss = s x P = 0.04 x 21093.75 = 844W.

Torque of Induction Motors

Let k = number of rotor phases;
Er = rotor e.m.f;
Ir = rotor current; and
Фr = phase difference between Er and Ir.

The power generated in the rotor = k x Er x Ir cosФr Watts.
But cosФr = R/[R2 + (sXo)2]½, Er = sEo and Ir =sEo/[R2 + (sXo)2]½
Thus the power generated in the rotor = (k x s2 Eo2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2]
All this power is dissipated as I2R loss in the rotor windings.
Since power input to the rotor = 2πnT Watts,then,
I2R loss = s x 2πnT
Thus s x 2πnT = (k x s2 Eo2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2]
Or T = (k/2πn) x (sEo2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2] = C. (sEo2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2] since n
k are constants for any supply.
Also, Eo ∝ Ф,

Thus T ∝ (sEo2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2] ∝ (s Ф 2x R)/[R2 + (sXo)2]

Variation of Torque with Slip

For a given supply voltage, Ф and Eo remain constant.
So, Torque ∝ (sR)/[R2 + (sXo)2] where Xo is always > R of rotor windings.
For illustration, take values of R = 1Ω and Xo = 8Ω and calculate the value
(sR)/[R2 + (sXo)2] for various values of slip ,s, between 1 (standstill) and 0
(synchronous speed).

Afterwards take other set of values of R = 2, 3, 4, ……., 8Ω and Xo = 8Ω for

various values of s.

Analysis of Torque ∝ (sR)/[R2 + (sXo)2]

For small values of s, R2 >>> (sXo)2
Thus, Torque ∝ (sR)/[R2] ∝ s/R or T ∝ s, since R is constant. This is a linear
relationship and approximates to a straight line.

When s is high i.e. approaching 1pu, (sXo)2 >>> R2

Thus, Torque ∝ (sR)/[(sXo)2] ∝ R/sXo or T ∝ 1/s since R and Xo are all
This gives an inverse relationship.

Torque-Slip curves for an Induction Motor


R = 8; Xo = 8

R = 4; Xo = 8

R = 2; Xo = 8

R = 8; Xo = 8
s=1 slip

Example 4
In a certain 8pole, 50Hz induction machine, the rotor resistance per phase
is 0.04Ω and the maximum torque occurs at a speed of 645rpm. Assuming
the flux is constant at all loads, determine the percentage of the maximum
(i) at starting;
(ii) when the slip is 3%.

Poles = 8; and so p = 4, f = 50Hz R = 0.4/Ωph Tmax is when speed =

Ns = (50 x 60)/4 = 750rpm

Hence when running at 645rpm, slip ,s, = (750 – 645)/750 = 0.14

Using T = (k.s.Eo2 R) ÷ [R2 + (sX)2],

Tmax = (k1 x 0.14 x 0.04) ÷ (2 x 0.042) where k1 = k. Eo2, and R = (sX)

= 1.75k1 NM

Using R = sXo, then Xo = R/s = 0.4/014 = 0.286Ω

(i) At starting, s = 1 and so Tstarting = (k1 x 0.04 x 1) ÷ [0.042 + 0.2862] =

0.48k1 NM

Percentage of maximum torque at starting = Tstarting/Tmax

= 0.48k1/1.75k1 = 0.274 or

(ii) When slip s = 3% = 0.03pu,

Then T = (k1 x 0.03 x0.04) ÷ [0.042 + (0.03 x 0.286)2] = 0.717k1 NM

Percentage of maximum torque at s = 3% = (0.717k1/1.75k1) =