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Urban Defined as places of intense social interaction and exchange between strangers Generally have a dense agglomeration(concentration) of people

ple and activities Key characteristics are density, proximity and diversity

Urbanization Population shifting towards the urban areas De-urbanization is the opposite (rural areas have a population growth)

Metropolitanization Metropolitan(larger urban areas) growing faster than the smaller urban areas

Suburbanization Suburban area population increase

Principle Methods used to measure urban places: 1) 2) 3) 4) Population Economic Base Administrative Functional

Note: Basic goods = City forming (agriculture, manufacturing) Non-Basic goods = city serving (government services) Urban Geography Is about, Understanding the distribution of towns and cities Accounting for the similarities and differences between them Main themes : o System of cities distribution of cities & towns o City as a system internal structure of a system

In Urban Geography we, Recognize and describe the following of the urban area o Pattern, processes o Internal structure Examine how people understand/react to these observed patterns/processes Seek for how these patterns/processes originated

Approaches to Urban Geography: Environmentalism Relationship between people and their environment o Site and situational studies o Urban morphology o Focuses on production, form and design of urban areas Positivism Human behavior is influenced by scientific/universal laws and therefore this produces observable patterns of urban activity o 2 main approaches Ecological Human behavior is based on ecological principles. The most powerful groups get the most advantageous place in a given space Example : Burgess Concentric Zone Model

The idea behind this model is that the city grows outward from a central area in a series of rings. The size of the rings may vary, but the order always remains the same. This model suggests that the social structure extends outwards from the central business district, meaning that the lower classes live closer to the city center, while the upper classes live farther from the city center because they can afford the commute. Also, as you get further away from the city density decreases. The rent tends to increase as you get further away from the CBD and residents are more likely to rent near the center. As you get further away from the CBD it is more likely that you will find condominiums. However, this model has its weaknesses. It does not take

into account any physical barriers and it does not take into account gentrificationwhich may occur in these cities.

Neo-Classical Driving force is rationality (or rather, the economic rationality of humans). Cost-minimization or benefits maximization.

Behavioral and Humanistic o The difference Behavioral Focused on decision making, on human behaviour, but seeks generalizations(for a model-like way) Humanistic Deeply subjective and complex relations exist between individuals and groups Structuralism Importance of social, economic and political structures in society. o Derived from the work of Karl Marx o Criticized due to the classes too limiting Postmodernism Emphasizes that multiple perspectives help understand the urban area better than having 1 perspective have the say. o Visible impact seen in Chicago, Toronto and Berlin o Criticized since there can be endless interpretations for a city

Scale of Analysis of urban geography Neighbourhood City Region National City System World system of Cities

The Origin and Growth of Cities Why did non-agricultural settlements arise? Why did they get so geographically concentrated?

Why do some of the urban settlements grow to become larger than other urban settlements? REASON: Agglomeration Economies economic benefits due to the concentration of activities in the given space 2 types of Agglomeration Economies Localization - Closer to similar firms - Advantages are : benefit of labor pooling, development of industries, relative ease of communication and exchange of supplies, laborers and innovative ideas Urbanization Locating in an urban environment (Infrastructure, Information, Economies of scale)

NOTE : Agglomeration Diseconomies


The term 'diseconomies of agglomeration' refers to the opposite case. Additional competition drives down pricing power. For example, spatially concentrated growth in automobile-oriented fields may create problems of crowding and traffic congestion. It is this tension between economies and diseconomies that allows cities to grow while keeping them from becoming too large.

2 concepts important to understand the development of cities 1) Social Surplus Production of more basic (city forming) goods than needed for subsistence 2) Agglomeration Concentration of activities/people/networks of relationships in space A surplus trade and specialization B Reasons for a social surplus New technology Environmental change Changes in social organization

Early Urban Development Largest city was Rome Urbanism spread from Greece Planned Greece cities had a gridlock pattern Roman cities had the pattern too, in addition to, Square/rectangular town perimeter 2 main cross-streets E-W N-S Decamanus Cardo

Middle period Urban Development Slowly growing European cities due to decrease in spatial interaction Commerce expanded function of city Mercantilism Cities became industrial centres Industrial and Post-Industrial Urbanization Cities became places of population concentration Cities became more specialized North American Urbanization 4 phases to the urban development over time Stage 1: Frontier merchanitilism Stage 2: Early industrial capitalism (internal structures of cities changed) Stage 3: National Industrial Capitalism (Central business district in highest cost area) Stage 4: Mature Industrial Capitalism (Megalopolis emergence) Main megalopoliss: BosWash San San (San Diego to San Francisco) & ChiPitts (Chicago to Pittsburgh)

THE URBAN SYSTEM

A set of geographically bounded cities that have common attributes and also interact with each other more than other cities outside of the system No city exists alone Connections with other cities due to: Dependency, competition, Transportation

Types of Urban Systems 1) Geographical Scale a. International b. National c. Regional

2) Functional a. Production-Based b. Consumer-Oriented c. Specialized-Service How do Urban systems evolve? 1) Classic way a. Social Surplus b. Agglomeration 2) Colonial a. Settlement selected by external territory (eg: Vance) b. Initially serves external power c. Eventually system becomes functionally integrated, dependent, resembles classic system

National Urban Systems Allen Pred - Classified according to interdependence and closure Settlement patterns often reflect urban function Linear Pattern tends to follow roads, railroads (easy access to transport themselves, goods) Clustering Pattern emerges from smaller settlements around a central focal point (a resource) IMPROVES EFFICIENCY! Uniform/Hierarchical pattern megalopolis a chain of metropolitan areas City-Size Distribution Distribution of urban regions by population Has association with: Density of population/activity Land value/house value Traffic Level of social diversity and diversity in services 2 Types of City-Size Distribution 1) Continuous Clear pattern between city size and rank within the urban system 2) Discontinuous Little relationship between city size and rank. (maybe due to improper scaling) Rank-Size Distribution City Size and Rank are directly linked (in reality many cities dont conform to this, although they are close)

Types of City-Size Distributions 1) Perfect Rank-Size Distribution

2) Primate City Distribution

3) Intermediate or Smaller City Dominant Distribution

Uses of Rank-Size Analysis 1) Analysis of Temporal shifts in the urbanization process 2) Comparison of different urban systems 3) Forecasting or planning

CITIES AS CENTRES OF PRODUCTION

In trying to understand the role of cities as centres of production, three questions / issues can be highlighted: Why is there a functional specialization among cities (in terms of manufacturing activity)? Why are larger cities more economically diversified than smaller cities? Why do some cities have concentrations of corporate headquarters while others do not? ANSWER: comes from an understanding of how manufacturing (and services) growth is linked to the growth of cities and the functions performed by them 1) Cities as centres of manufacturing and service delivery One of the most important components of urban growth Classifying Manufacturing places: Components or types of goods: durable, non-durable Value-added: High-value added (technology), low value added(textiles) Stage of the manufacturing process: processing raw material, fabrication, assembly

Manufacturing Location Alfred Webers location Theory least-cost theory of manufacturing location Firms would locate closer to input market (market oriented) Firms dependent on specific materials would locate closer to it (materials oriented) Basically, least cost Model too simple, idealistic!

Why does manufacturing locate in particular areas? Needs to be addressed with reference to a broader change in the global economic system

Manufacturing location change after post-Fordism Production linkages underwent technological and organizational changes This affected the patterns of production linkages in and between urban systems Major changes: emergence of flexible production systems Specialized Industrial Networks Just-In-Time delivery systems R&D and HQ favour large, metropolitan areas (skilled labour, network development) Political changes also affected some changes Vertical Disintegration: After post Fordism, a production process has been broken into several companies, each doing a limited subset of activities required to produce final product. Vertical Disintegration Inter-firm linkages Manual labour (Blue Collar) will be contracted out

Labour Demand and Supply Labour demand arises due to: Globalization Industrial restructuring Technological Change Labour supply as given by: Population growth and dynamics Education and Training Hours of work Labour market Imbalances Labour shortage results in: delays in completing projects Reduced ability to attract investment Labour surplus results in: underemployment Underutilization of skills Involuntary contract/ part-time work

Intra-Urban Employment Decentralization and clustering of activity/employment Decentralization: Major industrial concentrations only appear after major transportation infrastructure Lower-cost bordering (peripheral) sites are more appealing than central more expensive locations Home-work becoming more popular Low-density industrial parks are favoured ALL LEAD TO PEOPLE MOVING AWAY FROM CITY CORE Clustering: Occurs due to intensification of ties between firms Most seen in central city and older suburbs Appeals to ventures that can operate in sub-divided/multi storeyed premises For example media and culture industries in Toronto are suited for this. Also close to the creative workers

Informal Economy Underground/Black market Can distort true market functioning Many forms Global Cities Main sites for capital and investments. Immigrant location. Location of highest-order functions/markets Globalization = highest-order functions concentrate in only a few key cities. (Leads to international integration) Those are GLOBAL CITIES Command and control centres of the world!

Hierarchy of Global Cities 1) First Tier New York, London, Tokyo conc of highest order 2) Second Tier Toronto, Sydney , Chicago, berlin national and regional HQs, high tech manufacturing

Additional notes :
Gentrification is a shift in an urban community toward wealthier residents and/or businesses and [1] increasing property values, sometimes to the detriment of the poorer residents of the community. Gentrification is typically the result of investment in a community by local government, community activists, or business groups, and can often spur economic development, attract business, lower crime rates, and have other benefits to a community. Despite these potential benefits, urban gentrification is perceived to result in population migration, with poorer residents displaced by wealthier newcomers. Often old industrial buildings are converted to residences and shops. New businesses, which can afford increased commercial rent, cater to a more affluent base of consumers further increasing the appeal to higher income migrants and decreasing the accessibility to the poor.