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2 Mass Modeling
The natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure are the primary parameters that affect the response of a structure under dynamic loading. The free vibration problem is solved to extract these values. Since no external forcing function is involved, the natural frequencies and mode shapes are direct functions of the stiffness and mass distribution in the structure. Results of the frequency and mode shape calculations may vary significantly depending upon the mass modeling. This variation, in turn, affects the response spectrum and forced vibration analysis results. Thus, extreme caution should be exercised in mass modeling in a dynamic analysis problem. In STAAD, all masses that are capable of moving should be modeled as loads applied in all possible directions of movement. Even if the loading is known to be only in one direction there is usually mass motion in other directions at some or all joints and these mass directions (applied as loads, in weight units) must be entered to be correct. Joint moments that are entered will be considered to be weight moment of inertias (force-length2 units). Please enter selfweight, joint, and element loadings in global directions with the same sign as much as possible so that the representative masses do not cancel each other. Member/Element loadings may also be used to generate joint translational masses. Member end joint moments that are generated by the member loading (including concentrated moments) are discarded as irrelevant to dynamics. Enter mass moments of inertia, if needed, at the joints as joint moments. STAAD uses a diagonal mass matrix of six lumped mass equations per joint. The selfweight or uniformly loaded member is lumped 50% to each end joint without rotational mass moments of inertia. The other element types are integrated butroughly speakingthe weight is distributed equally amongst the joints of the element. The members/elements of finite element theory are simple mathematical representations of deformation meant to apply over a small region. The finite element analysis (FEA) procedures will converge if you subdivide the elements and rerun; then subdivide the elements that have significantly changed results and rerun; an so on, until the key results are converged to the accuracy needed. An example of a simple beam problem that needs to subdivide physical members to better represent the mass distribution (as well as the dynamic response and the force distribution response along members) is a simple floor beam between two columns will put all of the mass on the column joints. In this example, a vertical ground motion will not bend the beam even if there is a concentrated force (mass) at mid span. Masses that are assigned to slave degrees of freedom (dof) are moved to the master node with a rotatory mass moment of inertia applied at the master. This will be an approximation if the master node is not at the center of gravity (CG, i.e., center of mass) of the slave masses.

In addition, the dynamic results will not reflect the location of a mass within a member (i.e., the masses are lumped at the joints). This means that the motion, of a large mass in the middle of a member relative to the ends of the member, is not considered. This may affect the frequencies and mode shapes. If this is important to the solution, split the member into two. Another effect of moving the masses to the joints is that the resulting shear/moment distribution is based as if the masses were not within the member. If one end of a member is a support, then half of the member mass is lumped at the support and will not move during the dynamic response. Use ENFORCED supports to minimize this limitation. Related Information Response Time History Reference Materials 5.32 Loading Specifications 5.31.6 Reference Load Types - Definition Floor Diaphragm 5.31.4 Definition of Time History Load Application of Time Varying Load for Response History Analysis

5.31.6 Defining Reference Load Types

Large models can include multiple load cases which do not require analysis in their own right and are simply the building blocks for inclusion in primary load cases. Thus Reference Loads may be defined for this purpose. This is similar to a REPEAT LOAD command (See Section 5.32.11), but has the added benefit of not being solved in its own right. This converts a real load case to something similar to a load case definition. A reference load case is solved only when it is later called in a load case. The benefit is that it enables you to define as many load cases as you wish, but instruct the program to actually solve only a limited number of "real" load cases, thus limiting the amount of results to be examined. This feature requires STAAD.Pro 2007 Build 01 or higher. See "Reference Load Cases - Application" for a description of the procedure for specifying the reference load information in active load cases.

General Format

DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE REF DEAD SELFWEIGHT Y -1 JOINT LOAD 4071 4083 4245 4257 FY -4.04 4090 FY -0.64 ELEMENT LOAD 378 TO 379 406 TO 410 422 TO 426 PR GY -1.44 MEMBER LOAD 5006 TO 5229 UNI GY -0.64 PMEMBER LOAD 1 TRAP GY -0.347 -0.254 35.5 42

LOAD R2 LOADTYPE Live TITLE REF LIVE JOINT LOAD 4209 FY -6.63 4071 4083 4245 4257 FY -1.71 LOAD R3 LOADTYPE Snow TITLE REF SNOW JOINT LOAD 4109 FY -8.69 4071 4083 4245 4257 FY -3.29 LOAD R4 LOADTYPE Soil TITLE REF SOIL ELEMENT LOAD 1367 TO 1394 1396 1398 1522 1539 TO 1574 1575 TRAP JT -0.78 -0.78 -0.719167 -0.719167 LOAD R4 LOADTYPE mass TITLE Mass Model SELFWEIGHT X 1 SELFWEIGHT Y 1 SELFWEIGHT Z 1 JOINT LOAD 17 TO 48 FY -2.5 49 TO 64 FY -1.25 END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS

Mass Modeling Using Reference Loads

A reference load case of type MASS can be created which can then be used to define the structure mass used for all dynamic analyses (i.e., seismic, response spectrum, time history, etc.). Some analysis methods require you to create separate weight tables in the form of SELFWEIGHT, MEMBER WEIGHT, JOINT WEIGHT, etc. for each analysis, thus resulting in repetition of the same information. Using a LOADTYPE MASS reduces the repetitive data entry and the need for manually creating a weight table. A mass model using this method is defined once and then used for all dynamic analyses. This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 3) (release 20.07.08) or higher. If the LOADTYPE MASS is missing and no mass is defined in the corresponding seismic or dynamic analysis load cases, the program will report error as mass is missing. If a mass model using reference load type MASS is defined and also a seismic weight table is defined within a dynamic load (i.e., static equivalent seismic load, time history, response spectrum, etc.) command, the program will simply add the seismic weight table with mass model already defined. This will increase the masses of the structure for equivalent seismic static analysis. The program will issue a warning message. Precaution should be taken so that mass model is not defined twice.

Related Information Mass Modeling Reference Materials 5.32 Loading Specifications Floor Diaphragm 5.33 Reference Load Cases - Application 5.31.3 Definition of Wind Load 5.32.12 Generation of Loads 5.31 Definition of Load Systems