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PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Digitized

by

Digitized

by

Pictures

of

Old

Rome.

By
Author of

FRANCES
"The

ELLIOT,
of
an

Diary

Idle

Woman

in Italy."

NEW

EDITION.

LONDON

CHAPMAN

AND

HALL,

193, PICCADILLY.

Digitizedby

LONDON

BRADBURY,

EVANS.

AND

CO.,

PRINTBRR,

WHITEFRIARS.

NOTE.

^HESE
Rome,

Pictures where
now

were

written
were

and

published
with

in

they

received
some

favour.

They

are

reprinted,with
{it may
be

modifications,

additions, and

hoped) improvements, for

English

readers, FRANCES ELLIOT.

Deanery,

Bristol.

Digitizedby

Digitized

by

CONTENTS.

PAGB

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO

'

ROMAN

INTERIORS
. . .

.21
. .

THE

PALATINE,

THE

REPUBLIC,

AND

AUGUSTUS
.
" "

59

THE

PALATINE

AND

THE

EMPIRE

87

PERSONAL

APPEARANCE

OF

THE

CiESARS
. . .

I3I

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS

I47

CAMPUS

MARTIUS

UNDER

JULIUS

CiESAR
. . . .

172

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS

I95

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS

217

THE

CiELIAN

HILL

237

SAN

GREGORIO

255

THE

CATACOMBS

275

ST.

PETER'S

296

Digitized by

Digitized by

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO.

THE
in the

Piazza of Rome.

del

Popolo

realizes
out

all

our

poetic

visions

It opens browned

with

such

magnificence,
centuries

mysterious

Obelisk

by unnumbered
and dark the groves hill shaded of

centre,

flashing
towers

fountains Pincian

around,
Gardens.

while
How

above,

the that and

"

majestically
ilex

hill rises broken rich

aloft

"

by

cypress

and

woods,

by

sumptuous

porticos,
statues, of
a

descending

terraces,
;
a

balustrades, graceful
such
as

stately trophies
poet

scene

the

imagination
dream and
!

might
!

call

forth

in

delicious

day

Beautiful with

Pincian

crowned
love thee

with

leafy

groves,
on

wreathed

flowers,
eye

well, for
Rome

thy
!

classic

outline

my

first rested Those twin

on

entering

cSurches,
the

too,

that such

salute

the

traveller and

as

he

traverses

Piazza, with

gracious

appro-

ed Digitized by

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

priate welcome, I greet ye,


those

as

ye first greeted me. fair space j and

And that

the splendid bordering palaces the

the Babuino, triple vista,


seem

CarsOy the Ripdta^ which


drawn

to

cleave
to

the the

city in long
solemn

lines, leading
and times,

away

the mind

ruins of far-off with


ye

beckoning the stranger


oh ! take second What and from
a

onwards

such

fascination ;
to
me
a

me

for greeting,

became

home. spiritual rise before


me
as

mighty shadows
of the

I invoke

the

shadows
What

past, standing beside

the

fountains!
came

endless

recollections !
from the

Through
of fight the

that gate
Pons

fresh Constantine,

MUvius^
helmet

which

fixed

the

destinies of

his Christianity,
Labarum As

wreathed

with

laurel,the sacred

bearing the
that

carried mysterious S)anbol,

before him.

S3rmbol

passed the Roman


vast

gate, the pagan


to
was

altars trembled, the


the demons

templesshook

their
at

for foundations,

knew had

that their fall

hand, and

that

Christianity

conquered !
in the far-offtime, when grapes, and from the the savage Gauls

And

tempted

by

the luscious

the blue skies of like


swarms

came Italy,

rushing down
from it
was

north

of

locusts
'

the Etruscan here

mountains,over
on

the broad the

Campagna,
the

they passed

to

Forum, where

senators, clothed in their

immovable purpletogas, sitting

Digitized by

PIAZZA

DEL

POFOLO.

before
to

the
as

stately temples in gods !

their cunde

seemed chairs,

them The

Emperor
from the

Galba, too, entered


where Milvian bridge, his lam-els in blood. his

Rome
a

this way had

coming

massacre

already drowned

Galba

passed
Gaulish of the

triumphantly along,attended by
Legions, little dreaming,the
fearful death the of him awaiting
ere

Spanish and
old
man,
were

indolent
a

few
aureum

days

past in
the lake

Forum, beside

the tnilltarium

near

Curtius,where

t'hepraetorian guards,corruptedby
this
unarmed and feeble

Otho, cruelly massacred Emperor.


Vitellius also, coming out
Milvian
on
a

of Gaul

advanced

from

the

bridge through

the

Flaminian the
senate

Gate, mounted
and
new

white

charger,while

the

people
He

pressedon
was

before to make

way

for the

Caesar.

followed

by

his troops, a

of procession stately
and rich

many

whose nations,

glittering arms,

called apparel, the

forth the admiration walked the

of the multitude. the camp,

Beside

eagles
turions cen-

of prefects

the tribunes and

arrayed in white,presentinga Tacitus, worthy of triumph


miserable from the
was
a

spectacle, says
that brilliant
to

better emperor. after


a

But

fated

few
was

months,

end

in

death.

Vespasian

approachingrapidly
was

East, and

battle after battle

lost
B

by
2

the

Digitized by

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

Vitellians. At
under the walls

length when
of

Vespasian
beside

had

encamped bridge,
obscure

Rome,

the Milvian
an

Vitellius, forsaken, took utterly


chamber of the

refuge in
the

imperialpalace,on
was

but Palatine, amidst the

quickly discovered,he
scoffs and in the

dragged along
towards

insults of the where he


a

rabble few

the very stone Galba


to
"

Forum

months

before

had

perished. There

was

told to

look around Galba.


"F
was

behold

his fallen statues,and

to remember

And been
on

yet,"
your
to

repliedthe miserable
! sovereign
"

old

man,

have hurried

No

matter,
of
seem

he
tne

the there

Gemoniae, the

chamel
It

malefactors,and
as

dispatched.
had way. The Piazza of the towards banks.
space
was

would

if

some

evil Rome

genius
this

attended

every

Emperor

that

entered

of

open

ground

now

occupied by
the vast

the

comprised within formerly


Martius; the grassy

expanse

Campus
the

plainsundulating
bathed its verdant diately imme-

whose river, of the

yellowwaters

Part

Piazza,or

at least the

ground

that adjoining
was

surrounded in funereal

the

Augustan

leum, mauso-

laid

out

gardens,planted
walks and

with

sombre
ficent

groves, intersected

by

broad and

magniflung
with

terraces,over

which

cypress

ilex woods
were sown

down

deep

shadows.

These

woods

Digitized by

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO.

white Here
were

monuments

peeping through
sepulchreof
the

the dark

branches.
here

stood

the

and great Sylla, and and

also situated the tombs

of the freedmen assembled

clients

of the
as

Emperors,

even

in death the

watching,
rested the

it were,

around

statelytomb
beautiful has
! city

where

imperialdust

Fair and

been, in all ages,

this vestibule to the eternal That and


It

obelisk, too, standingin the

centre

of the

Piazza,
!

how. surmountingthe fountains, stands

rich in memories
is formed of

nearly

100

feet

high,and
in three

red

and althoughbroken granite,


on gl)rphics

the hieroplaces,

its sides

are

stilllegible. Erected
ancl the
who Susirei,
to

by

one

of in

two

brothers before Sun


at

Maudouci
Rhamses

reigned
the

Egypt
of the

Second,
On

adorn

temple

the Heliopolis Rome

of

scripture, Augustus
of

it to transported

after the batde the

Actium,which,
and patra, CleoThis

followed

as

it

was

by

death

of

Antony
of
was

ensured
monument graceful

the

entire conquest
of
a

Egypt

land despoiled but


as

firsterected the

in the

Circus

Maximus^
had

early as
its

reign

of

it Valentinian,

fallen from

pedestal,and

lay

buried in the earth.

Sixtus V., that

patriotic Pope, who,


he is said fixed
on

having onct

found
to

the

keys of

St

Peter, which
his eyes
once

ever figuratively

have
so

sought,with

the

ground,held

them

when vigorously

his own,

Digitizedby

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

removed

it in the sixteenth

century
to
one

to

its present site,


cross.

the Pagan consecrating obelisk tells its


own

emblem On "The

tjie

The and

tale.

side, in

worn

ancient

is engraven, letters,

son Emperor Csesar,

of the divine Caesar

twelve Augustus, sovereign Pontiff, times

times

Emperor, eleven

Consul, fourteen

times this

Tribune, having conquered Egypt, consecrated


to

gift

the Sun."

On

the other side is

inscribed, Sixtus 'V.,


"

excavated, transported sovereignPontiff,


this consecrated obelisk, sacrilegiously in the great
to

and

restored
to

by Augustus

the Sun

Circus,where

it

and lay in ruins, the


to

dedicated it
of his

the

cross

triumphantin
in allusion of the

fourth the

year

Then, pontificate."
to

church

dedicated beside

the

Madonna

People, standing
"

the Flaminian

gate, follow these words,


rise before bore the the of

fied Sancti-

and whose

gloriousI

sanctuary of Her,

virginbosom
the

Sun

righteousness, (sol

under justitise) That church it


were

of Augustus." reign
to

dedicated

"Mary
walls

of of

the

People,"
which Pincian the

built
rise

as

into the very

Rome,
the

behind frowningly

it overshadowed
so

by

woods, with its fagade looking out


must Piazza, not

on smilingly

be

forgotten.
stands that

On

the

spot where

church,once

lonely

between shrubbery lying

the luxuriant groves

embosom-

Digitizedby

PIAZZA

DEL

FOFOLO.

ing

the

Augustan monument,
the Domitian

and

the Coliis

Hortulorum^
the ruins of

(belongingto
Nero's When tomb.

rose family,)

the execration

of the

people,and
to
a

the

danger

of of

instant
the

death, had

aroused of his

Nero

consciousness

desperatestate

he looked affairs, he looked

around, says
He

for assistance, but Tacitus, away of his

in vain.

put

lute,and wandered' through the desolate halls


all him
was

his

palace, but

solitary already had


"

his

courtiers forsaken

to welcome

Galba.

Conscience of

began
his his

to exercise her

and rights, and his

Nero, the murderer


now wife,

his mother, brother,

contemplated
Furies

crimes
him

with
as

horror; the

avenging

already

claimed
broken which

their own,

horrible dreams

disordered his
of

slumbers, and
he had
so

that

ominous

verse

CEdipus,
the

often him

repeated when
like
a

actingon
"

publicstage, haunted
and father, presages my

curse.

My wife, my
Portents and

mother, doom
not

me

dead." Lares

were

wanting.
of the voice

The

fell from

their

the gates pedestals, of


on

Augustan Mausoleum
was

opened calling

themselves,and
his
name.

heard that he

from
tore

within
up

It

was

in vain

the letters details of the

which

were

the presented to him, containing that insurrection, his


own

the Gallic

he

to proposed singing

lute in the Forum

in order misfortunes,

to excite

Digitizedby

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

the

sympathy
A

of the

Senate, by
terrible
or fight,

the
war

sound
was

of his divine the inevitable,

voice.

deadly
Nero

and

effeminate

must

he

must

die,yet

he

is

incapableof arming
event.

himself

againsteither courageously
he frivolity which he

With
over an

characteristic

employs
has

his

leisure he
"

hydraulicorgan
Oods

invented,

promises
the

the

magnificent games played

if he

lives,

organ

shall be then

for the first time, he


on

himself will afterwards he


must

perform

to

ttieirhonour
the
to

the

and flute, When and


says,

will dance leave


Rome

in

Ballet of Tumus."
encounter

the

enemy,

arrives
**

in the himself

revolted unarmed

provinces,"he
to the

he will,'*

show word

rebels
;

without

speaking

he will sit down

and

weep

their hearts will be


in his

touched,the Legions will sing hymns


all will be melodrama
But ! forgotten
to
**

honour,
become

and
a

The

whole

world

had

this infatuated comedian.

Galba

advances, provinceafter province declare


is he approaching the imperial city, hears is

in his favour ; he
at

hand.

When he

Nero is

this, he

starts

from

the
two

couch

where

to reposing, flings
summons

the

ground
with

favourite

crystal cups, gives

Locusta
to

her

poisons, and
A

himself

over

cowardly despair. through his


him his brain.

thousand will

different the

projects rush

He

flyto

East, and

carryingwith

Lyre,

Digitizedby

lo

PICTURES

OF

OLD
4

ROME,

fastened

over

his face.
are

As

he

and

his attendants

pass

along, they

assailed
at
men

with
?
'*

questions."What
one.
"

do

they say

of Nero

Rome seek

says

Look," cries

another, " those


at starting
a

Nero."

The the

Emperor'shorse,
road, caused
a

dead

body lying in
his

the

handkerchief
.

to fall from

face,when

veteran

soldier,
This

who

was

and passing,recognises,

salutes him. hurries

misadventure
and when

increases Nero's
arrived
enters
near

fears ; he

forward,
from his

the

villa dismounts
a

horse, and
with
as

the thorns.

grounds by
His

covered side-path, feet


are

briars and

unsandled
to

torn

he passes.

Phaon

advises him open


a

conceal

himself in
passage

until sand-pit,

he could

subterraneous

into the house


refuses.
"

; but

Nero, perhaps dreadmg treachery, he,


**

For,"
Then

says

that would
up
some

be

buryingmyself
in the

alive."
his

he

scooped
a

dirtywater
Is this then

in hand, exclaiming, for Nero ?


"

doleful

voice, "

only drink
An

opening being made


chamb#,
who throw had and

in the

wall,he

creeps into

wretched the fain


man

the master

of the Golden countless old

House,

squandered
upon
an

millions,was
on
a

to

himself covered

mattress,

miserable
asked for and

bed,

with

dirty counterpane.
from disgust
to

He black

food, but
foul water

turns

with

the His

bread

presented

hiin.

friends.

Digitizedby

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO.

ii

disgustedat
blow
to

his

pusillanimity, urge
the
: struggle

him

by

one

bold

end under for of

he

assents,
A
to

but

still
was

lingers
to

various his grave,


were

pretences.
wood
to
was

trench be

be

dug

collected,
was

fragments
be

marble

be

laid,water
his

to

the brought for performing

last duties to

remains,

each

minutia
when

was

recollected to eke out his last moments. all had forth two them been

FinaUy, wish, he
and
moment

prepared accordingto
their
"The

his

draws

examines daggers,
to

points,
fatal

then

returns

the

scabbard.
"

has not

yet come," said he


celebrate my

sing

choly the melan-

dirge and
looks and in

last usual

obsequies." He
brutal selfishness

around, and, with his


of disregard human

life, (" the rulingpassion strong why


will not
"

death,")exclaims,"Why,
teach
me

some

one

kill himself, and


up,

how

to die ?

Then
"

starting
! this is

in

tone

of wild

despair he added,
in

Nero
no

infamy, you
cowardice
These of

Hnger

disgrace; this
calls for

is

time

for

; the moment

manly

fortitude." the sound

words

.were

no

sooner

uttered,than heard; the

approachinghorses
the Senate with

was

officer

charged
proaches. apa

by

the seizes

order his

for

his

execution
and deals

Nero feeble blow.

dagger,

Epaphroditus,his secretary, came


inflicted
a

to his

and assistance,

mortal

wound.

When

the

Digitizedby

12

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

centurion
"You
come

entered
too

the late."

room, As

Nero

faintlyexclaims,
he his expired,

he

spoke

ferocious him
man

soul
more

still imaged in his countenance

causing

to look

horrible than
came

ever.

the freedIcelus, his he

of

Galba, who
to

to

his death, suffered verify where he it lay in the grave


was

attendants

bum

the

body

himself had measured


"

out.
"

But

not

interred

here,
in
a

for

"

says

Suetonius, havingwrapped
stuff, embroidered Alexandra,
in the with with
Acte

his remains his

rich

white and

gold,
his

nurses

Eclaga

concubine,
which the is

deposited them
seen

Domitian

monument,

from

the
The

Campus
tomb
was

Martius, under
of

hill of altar of Thaos

Gardens. Luna

porphyry, havingan
by
a

marble

surrounded

balustrade

of

marble." On the

spot where

rested

the
a

ashes

of the

imperial
tree,
of

matricide, grew,
whose thick and

in afler

times,
branches laid

giganticwalnut
became
waste

shady

the haunt
all that

innumerable Rome. The


to

crows,

which

part of

assistance of the
the

cording Virginbeing invoked,ac-

legend,she appeared to Pope


that the of
crows

Pascal

II.,
that

and

him telling
over

were

demons him
to

kept watch
down bum

the ashes

Nero, ordered

cut

the ominous and it,


scatter

to mainato, as it is called) tree, {altera

the ashes

in the

air; then

to erect

on

Digitizedby

PIAZZA

DEL

FOFOLO.

13

that

spot

church

in her

honour. the

The

command is

was

and accomplished, literally invoked mortal The


name.

heavenly mother
rested

now

on

the

spot

where Nero.

once

all that

was

of the infamous church Over


was

raised door

hence by public collection,


is
a

its

the

miraculous
"

image

of the

Tu Virgin, bearingthe inscription,

honorificentia populi
The

nostri," placed here by Gregory


to

IX.

image

is said
on

have

been of
a

invoked successfully terrible

by Gregory
at

XIII. the

occasion

plague

Rome,

in

year

1578.
There is much solemn

beauty in the interior


reverence

of this in the

church, and
crowds
come

the utmost

is observable
at all hours

of the poorer here


to

classes who their

of the

day

offer up

prayers.

Pinturicchio's
the
cuted exe-

and paintings

frescoes,the gracefulsculptures on
statue

tombs, the beautiful

of

Jonah, designed and

by Raphael, the
various
one

fine

painted glass windows, the


make chapels, it altogether in Rome.

monuments,

and

rich

of the most

churches interesting artistically has been


too

Bernini's hand much remains

busy here,as elsewhere,but


and ancient. of

that is venerable

Attached This
was

to the church

is a convent

Augustan Friars.
was

and destroyed when pillaged Clement

Rome

sacked,
army of

of duringthe pontificate

VII., by the

Digitized by

14

PICTURES,
Duke the

OF

OLD

ROME.

Charles

V.

The

of Alva
convent

saved
was

the church

with

Before difficulty.

destroyed Luther
and When here he

inhabited
offered

it

during his

stay in

Rome,

up the host of

for the last time.

Christina

Queen

Sweden, the eccentric daughter of Gustavus


her

Adolphus, made

public entry

into

Rome,

it

was

within these walls the cardinals and


to

magnates

assembled

receive her.
To those unlearned in classical

annals, it may
know

add

fresh interest to the Piazza del

Popolo,to
tells
us

that here
was

Syllawas
in the

interred.

Plutarch

that his tomb formed

Campus Martins
immemorial

of which

this Piazza

and portion,
of Santa

tradition points out


as

the church
remains

Maria dei Miracoli


were

the spot.
as

'

Some the

of his mausoleum of Paul

visible
known

late

as

pontificate
of Theta, of two

III.,and

were

by

the

name

They
towers

were

destroyed to

assist in the

erection

the flanking

Flaminian

Way,

now

incorporated

into the modem from Passing varied

gate of the Porta del Popolo.


the Piazza del

Popolo, and its many


Piazza neighbouring that among

and di

towards associations,

the
to
me

Spagna, it seemed
who few should

strange

sands the thou-

annually traverse
remember
of

that Saxon
was

so settlement,

that here

situated the

brated cele-

Naumachia

to Domitiap, a Lake, according

Digitized by

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO.

15

which Suetonius,

he

caused
naval

to be

excavated
were

surrounded exhibited

by

rows

of seats, where

battles

by

entire fleets, a diversion in which


that
even

he

so

much

delighted,
away

the most

violent rain did not of the combat

drive him

before
The

the conclusion

steps,leadingfrom the Piazza


with

to the church

of the
as

Trinitk,crowded
well known
to all

is artistically grouped beggars,


own

as our stranger-visitors

homes those

; but

few, perhaps,among
under the

the many of
on
a

that mount

steps
or

genialsun
that it was

Roman

winter

day, know,

remember that the

the summit

of the Pincian
were

hill

voluptuous gardens of

Lucullus

situated. of the
public re-

Lucullus, havingbravely foughtthe battles


in Asia returned his
"

to

Rome, where, after celebrating


time in

he passed his triumph,

voluptuouspleasures.
life looks

Indeed,"says garrulousold Plutarch, "his


an

like both

ancient

comedy, where

firstwe

see

great actions,
bauches, defeasts, of frivolous I cannot

and political
races

and military,

afterwards every kind

and by torchlight, For among

amusement

frivolous amusements,

but

reckon

his sumptuous
so,

walks, villas,

and other

baths,and
works of

stillmore

the

statues, and paintings,


at
an

art, which

he

collected

immense
the vast

expense,

idly
he

squandering away
had amassed

upon

them

fortune which

in the wars."

Digitized by

i6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

AVe

are

also

told, by Plutarch, of

his

epicurean
and

banquets. One

day

he met, in the

Forum, Cicero

Pompey, who, seeing him


with him ; Lucullus
"

disengaged, proposed dining


to
come.

assented,and pressedthem

We

will wait

on

you," said Cicero, " providedyou


is

give

us

but nothing
some

what

prepared for yourself."Lucullus


this part of the arrangement ;

made

about difficulty

but the

insisted. others, knowing his extravagant habits, declared that jocosely, he should
not

They

even

be permitted

to

speak

to

his servants, save


was

in their presence. allowed


to

After
one

some

he laughingaltercation,

tell

of his

" That he should sup in the attendants,

hall of

the

at Apollo that evening." Delighted

their manoeuvre,
what

they

all arrived

at together

his

house, when
most
a

could

exceed
of

their

the astonishment,at finding


as

gorgeous
pared prenot

his halls dressed


so

for

and festival, 50,000


was

banquet
would

rich and

that costly, The

drachms

suffice way

to

pay for it !

mystery

in explained

this for

; each

of his halls had

its particular allowance that the

and furniture, so plate, provisions, which lie meant


were

ing hearslaves, the expense

apartment he had
to

knew selected,

incur,what
and

side-boards and
kind of

carpets they
he

to

lay out,

what

entertainment

intended.
In

the

course

of

time, these gardens

of

Lucullus

Digitized by

i8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

Asiaticus, however, knowing he


out
"

must

die,spoke boldly
"

He

was

he said, at indignant," artful and

by falling

the

of intrigues lina
was

an

abandoned
as

woman/'

Messaon

very

indifferent
she

to

his sentiments
had

her his

conduct,but
veins,and
was

when

heard
was

that he

opened

dead, she

delighted.
her purpose, she took possession

Having
of the the

thus

compassed

gardens. Tempted by their exquisite beauty,


abandoned made in herself her
name

Empress profligate
excesses

to

those

monstrous

that have

symbolical
Here the

of
"

all that

is

most

repugnant

woman.

divine

whose Messalina,"

very shoes

were

and kissed, her hours in

honoiu-ed

by

base

passed sycophants,

festivities. The the bacchanalian

season

being autumn,

she

celebrated

festivities of the Brumalia, wine presses


the gmpe flowed of in

groaned,juicepressedfrom
streams, while around
dressed in

copious

the vats, groups wreathed with

Bacchantes,

and tiger-skins

grapes, trod in

frolicmeasures.
her and Some
a

In the midst of the

revellers, Messalina,

hair
a

flowingover

her shoulders in artful in her

negligence,
the

thyrsus waving
one,

hand,

led

dance.
up
a

in the midst of these

climbed orgies,
"

into

tree,and
storm

in mockery, exclaimed,
at gathering
was

that he

saw

ful dread-

Ostia." Ostia. Little his suspecting


dis-

Claudius

at

Digitizedby

PIAZZA

DEL

POPOLO.

19

honour, he

spent his

time

in

reformingthe addingfresh
to drinking

general
letters to

licentiousness of Roman
the
was

manners,

alphabet,and
so

eating and

excess.

He

engrossedby
he had fool He
as

his enthusiasm time


to

for the
at

of morality

the masses, fool ! upon Yet him.

no

look
was

home.
at

Happy

he was, returned

the truth
to

lengthforced

Rome.
court

Messalina, now
save

and disgraced

forsaken she

by
must

all her
see

three
the
a

tendants, at-

declares
on

him,

traverses

city
cart
on

foot,and, findingno
to

better conveyance from the


''

than

used

carry away
sets

rubbish
meet

gardens,mounts
Hear your

it,and
"

forth to
"
"

him.

unhappy
"

wife, cries she


Her

hear the mother drowned

of your children.*'
his

entreaties
his

are

by

reproaches.
who

cissus, Nar-

freedman,her particular enemy,


care

is in the

chariot relent

takes along with Claudius, As

that he shall not

they enter Rome,

their children mother.

approach

to

intercede
them

for their

unhappy

Narcissus
the
to

orders

away.

Vibidia,the

eldest of

vestal
entreat

viigins,
that he is

presents herself before the Emperor,


will not
"

condemn be
to
more

the

Empress unheard;
suitable for her
to

but she mind


was

told,

It would and

fices the sacri-

retire.'' Messalina's

fate

fixed,she

herself and

saw

she had

of pardon, oversteppedthe possibility

that all was

lost.

She

passed

the

whole

night prec
2

Digitizedby

20

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROM^.

ceding
those her

her

death

on

the summit

of the
on

within Pincian,

ill-fatedgardens. Stretched
mother seated beside

the

ground,with
the fatal

her, she
of

awaited
a

sentence.

Lepida,with

the courage
own

Roman
; but

matron,
Messa-

urged her daughterto

fall by her devoid


a

hand

in luxury, was lina, steeped Like

of all moral she and her

courage.

Nero, she asked


around

for

poniard,yet
fair scene,
at

clung

to

lifej she looked her fate ;

at the
a

lamented

then, aiming

feeble blow

throat,she

shrunk and blood

back

At length a affrighted. with


a

tribune

appeared,
her blood
own

dispatched her
ran

singlestroke, so purchased by
the

out

over

the soil

of

Asiaticus !
And in
to

it is

on

this spot that pure


church of the

and

sing lovelygirls
Every visitor
the

the
Rome

solemn

Trinity !"

admires

their

fresh young

voices,when

Ave

Maria

is intoned.

Strange and
name

mysteriousparallel,
stands and
are
as a

the abandoned for

Empress, whose

word watchcent innoto

vice,and that holy sisterhood


Such
contrasts thrilling

those
not
runs

! virgins

be may

found
read
''

out

of

Rome, where
wondrous

literallyhe
"

who

the most

lessons.

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

T -^

this

chapter
laws of walls eartli the

propose domestic

giving

some

account

of

the

social
inhabitants

and old

habits that

prevailing world-Capital
and "To that

among

the whose the

Rome,"

within
of

ample
whole

the

riches, honours,
accumulated. "the fleets the of

learning
see,"

were

says

Aristides,
one

rhetorician,
that the such Not
to

fill her

ports,

would the

imagine
where in

she riches

was

universal and those but of

emporium Babylon,
countries the

of

globe,

Arabia,
that

are

heaped
be will left

up

abundance,

must

bare. suffice

only
contain

her
her

ports,

ocean

itself

not

navies,
here
as

"

commerce,

navigation,
centre

and

agriculture,
What

meet

the

common

of

the

world.

is not

found

within

her

walls,

is unknown." It has ancient in the been times observed the

by

modern
of

historian nation
the

that,

"

In

entire
state

power
was

being
country
other

centered
but the

capital, the
or

the

city,

^rf"sr

field, the

one

the

master,

the

the

slave.

Digitized

by

22

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

Within

the walls of

Rome," he

goes

on

to

remark,
the

"

the

civilized universe

and collected,

the the

more

Republic

extended
became

her the

foreign conquests
mixture rich
man

more

heterogeneous
manners,

of

people, customs,
came

and

The religion.
to

from

the far-off provinces and

the profligate to live, still greater

seek

the favour

protection

of
to

the profligates,

Egyptian philosopher
different

displayhis
to teach

curious the

the priestsof learning, their

nations
to

worship of

Gods,

"

all

pressed
of

Rome, all embracing everlasting Rome, the mother

the universe." To
were

be called

Roman

citizen

was

title which

kings
selves them-

proud
the

to

bear, for the

citizens considered
From

equals of kings.
citizens
are

the very earliest times


a

the

plebs or

as represented

proud, riotous, passing of


what the

combating for unrulyrabble,eternally agrarianlaw,


called and

the

proclaiming loudly about


was

they

which a liberty liberty^


There
were

as stigmatized

license by

their opponents.

innumerable

advantages by

this much-prized Roman attending


no means
a

citizenship ; it was
were

mere

name.

The

plebsurbana

fed with from

com,

and

enjoyed the publicdistribution


ambitious

of money

each

and time-serving

consul,praetor, general,
entertained with magnificent

and Emperor; dictator, games,

they were
bathed

they

in marble

palaces;

the

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS,

23

Campus

Martius

suppliedthem

with
our

noble

field for

exercise and
the
a

to diversion, answering

modem

parks,
"

Circus

and

the Theatre

amused

their idle hours.

In

word, they were

part and parcelof the great Metropolis

of the

world, and the goods,riches, honours,and triumphs


upon poor her

heaped
The

they shared.
a

had wretches,the plebs rtisticay their brethren in the and

ferent very difin

whilst life;

cityrioted
soul

luxury,they could scarcely keep body by


the
severest

together
others
no arm

toil; they hungered, whilst They


no

the

feasted gratis.
to
were

had

no

vote to

in the

Forum,

defend the

them,

voice
most

plead their wrongs;

they

earliest and
firstholocaust

signalvictims
by
an

of

national

the strife,

offered up their

invading army.
lost his any other

Gracchus

tried

to

better
a

and condition, induce

life in the attempt,


to patriot

fate not
cause.

to likely

espouse

their

So in

they dug, and delved,

while

their brothers

wallowed is

luxury. This

imequal nated origi-

distribution of the law


firom the
as

strikingly apparent,

and

granted to earlyprivileges
Rome,
and

the

Quirites
par
those
and
on

citizens of

subjects of

Romulus

whilst the inhabitants of the ager^ and excellence^ of the


towns neighbouring

borderingthe
but

shore

the adjacentmountains,were
inferior in

Latins,and
to

measurably imallies,

generalestimation

the

genuine

Digitized by

24

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Roman,

to be who, like the founder of his city, aspired

considered

and God-like, something

heaven-descended.
quities of the anti-

It is natural of how these

before considering some that, should curiosity be

Rome,

excited

as

to

proud citizens lived them, what


manners

in their homes, what

laws what the

restrained

them, distinguished
customs

and hourly habits daily

and

Amid prevailed.

mighty
Forums how

ruins which

of

the

Baths, Circuses, Temples, and

stillremain,the
men

arises, naturally question


who
went

did the

and

women,

in and
time

out

of

these marble
were

day by day, pass portals


educated? How
were

their

How How

they

they
circles ?

amused? A

did
on

they live
ancient

in their domestic life may who

few remarks

domestic
those

not

be

or inappropriate, same

to unacceptable,

have

trod the

soil with

these former
In the

masters

of the universe. power


were

of republican the liberty, da)rs early father


was

of

Roman

absolute. new-bom
or

He

could, if he

so

minded, expose his


of the Velabrum where

infants on
upon

the sombre
on

shore

Lake,

the island

the

Tiber,

the shrine of
to

stood. iEsculapius make away


was

The

law indeed

a parent enjoined

with deformed

children.
father's it

At

their birth each If he raised

infant the

placed

at

the

feet

little creature

in his arms,

became straightway

part of the family ; if he turned away,

Digitized by

26

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

their tastes, the

or political,

pecuniary,or

personal

interest of the pater


that
of

tion famiiiasbeing the only consideraconnections.


not meet

these regulated
we history

In all the

annals

Rom^n
of

do

with

one

stance singleinvailing pre-

une

belle passion !

The
was

of divorce facility the

at all

times in Rome
of the

only hope

of these
to
a

ill-used members,
or disgusting

commonwealth.

Joined

odious

spouse

month the following to-day,

might
a

see

her

the hymeneal celebrating On the other

festivitieswith
wife who

favoured

lover.

hand, the

chanced
torn

to be

attached his arms,

to her husband to suit


some

might be

lessly remorse-

from

futile whim, of this kind

family-

of interest, innumerable

state
as

policy.

Instances
of

became
gave

the sternness

manners republican

place
was

to

the luxurious license from his beloved he

of the

Empire, .Tiberius
wed
cement

severed

Agrippina to
to

the
a

whom profligate Julia,

abhorred, in order

familycompact,

and

strengthen, by matrimonial
and

his ties,

adoption by Augustus)
before his

his mother
from

Livia,shortly
her

birth,was
to

torn violently

husband,
From
arose

Tiberius

Nero,

please the fancy of Augustus.


and marriages crimes board facile divorces

this system of forced the


monstrous

domestic bed and

of the later Romans vices of which Love


we

"

those incredible with incredulous

read and

astonishment.

in its pure

Digitized by

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

27

holy

sense,

as

union formed

by

mutual

attachment
j

and

consecrated

was by religion,

almost

unknown
;

domestic

happiness

was

an

untaught mystery regarded as


knew
that

and

and morality

were conjugal fidelity

nesses. contemptibleweakat

The suited her

husband

any

moment,

if it the

schemes, the hand


to

of his wife
; and

might

mix

poison
aware

destined

him destroy
most

the wife

was

fully
on

that, to gain the


ladder of power,

insignificant step
of her

the

golden

the husband

youth,and
cast

the father of her her


It
to
was

would children,
a

without

ceremony nobler
a

to adrift,

obtain

or fairer, richer,

bride.
not

impossiblefor

women,

under

such

system,

become The

depraved. utterly
its obscene
women

Pagan religion, too, with


abominable

mysteries
into the

and

rites, early initiated


of

knowledge
and

of every kind

horror,excited their passions,


of innocent

destroyedeach budding virtue


Laws, habits, manners,

hood. maidenall

religion, amusements,
the Roman

combined

to

degrade and
the

to debase

matron,
her walls

under especially breathed of the the


"

Empire.

Everythingaround
very

same

: the pollutedatitiosphere

houses

even

the pottery,and
were

the with

vases

used for

domestic

purposes

"

ornamented
to
a

frescoes and Vice had

utterly figures repugnant


become
a

virtuous The

mind.

habit and

fashion.

theatres

encoiuraged

Digitized by

28

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROJjdE.
for savage

every grosser

and feeling, favourite

fed the

taste general

the excitement,

of subjects consisting spectacles harden

of all others most the heart flowed aloud


to

suited to corrupt, deprave, and the

In

the circus and

blood amphitheatres called

like water, and for more, and


sat

yet the greedy multitude


there

day

and

nightas

if nailed
scene.

the benches

by

the hideous and

fascination

of the
on

Women,

matrons,

maidens, seated

the

upper
;

exhibitions benches,loudlyapplauded these sanguinary and the the vestal enthroned virgins,
on

the

podium beside
in

exercised Emperor, rarely combatants. multitude


was

their attribute of mercy


a

saving the
from the

If

cry

of

compassion arose
the accumulated

at

the

sightof

corpses, it

for the

animals,not

for the

gladiators.
the less heart-

History records nothing more

shocking than

cruelty displayed in the lives of these Romans,


deemed both
male and

pompous

female, who, in their pride,

all other nations barbarians.


very

Few,
Roman

few

of the the

women

in the
to rise

long

annals

oi

had history around

courage We

to superior
one

the

evil and

example
one

them.

read but of

Cornelia,

whereas Lucretia, the page.


see

and Agrippinas,Messalinas,

Poppaeas crowd
,Now
let
us

how

the
ever

men

were

educated, those
tone to

lords of the

who creation,

give the

general

Digitized by

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

29

manners.
a

You
stem to

may

be

sure

that the pater


sons

famUias
had

vided pro-

education

for those

he
up

scended condeown

accept, in order

to train them

in his

footsteps. Morality, to according


the love

the ancient
was

of reading The
"

word,

was

patriotism ; and
was
a

courage

virtue. Rome of

of country

a worship. religion,

in the

its immaterial

essence

as

the and

common

centre

Empire, the
as

common

home

hearth

of the

citizens, walls,

well

as

in

its actual

development, with
fomms
"

its
a

towers,
which

buildings, streets, and


must everything

was

deityto

be

sacrificed. have been

The but

worship of
a

would Jupiter Capitolinus

shadowy

phantom, if the
spot where
the

Romans

had

not

associated the actual

with it the

Temple stood, as

residence of

Jupiter.
To the

citizens were
"

offered

four

different

means

of

advancement all those

^war,

religion, law, and

eloquence; and
in the education

professions were

united generally every

of every Roman.
was

Almost

citizen distinguished
on

at some

periodof
Few

his lifecalled
a

to command

the
one

legions.
amongst

escaped
innumerable

legal accusation
informers
that

from

the

invested

the

Forum, and
on

must

be able

to defend himself, suitably or,

his part to

an lay a charge against

enemy.

Every
the

generalwas

called

on

to

fulfil religious and duties,

Digitizedby

so

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

office of

was pontiflf

one

of the many

rewards

offered

to

merit distinguished

or

patriotism. Every citizen


the laws of the
answer
on

.was

expectedto
able to of

understand

land,and

to

be

a give, competent

any

knotty point
was

Thus legislation.
so as

every
a

Roman distinguished
a lawyer, an general,

educated
or
a

to

become

orator,
led Cato

as pontiff,

circumstances
was an

might

arise

Cicero

Caesar armies, Julius


was

and eloquentpleader,

both The

statesman

and

philosopher.
formed seemed
was an

cultivation of

eloquence

important
bom with
a

branch natural

of education ; every Roman talent


to

for the

oratory, which
utmost

cultivated and
The

improved
spoke
a

by instruction.
the

citizen
Forum
;

in the

assembly of

people and

in the

favoured generalharanguedhis troops, and occasionally from


to

ambassadors Not

the enemy

with

oration. thundering
an

to be able
was

speak with
be and
a

the studied elocution of Roman. Nero


as

orator,
quence

to scarcely

learnt elo"

from

Seneca;

it is recorded
he
was

something
prepare
of

of Augustus,that despicable

obliged to

his

speeches. The

out-door

lifeof the

people,fond

was enjoying a delicious climate,

passed in the baths,


forums.

the The

the the temples, the tribunes, porticoes, Romans had and


no

home

they

lived

in

as public,

public men,

their education

prepared

them

for this

Digitized by

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

31

career.

and Philosophy,poetry, rhetoric,

were politics,

all listened to, and

discussed in the open

air.
of the great could

The and

Forum the

was

the grand arena naturally


the

ambitious; there
to

fathers conscript
even

harangue

their heart's content;


he
was,
as

sociable unTiberius,

as

liked
a

to

come

down, and

listen to When

the
no

discussions
matter public
a

kind

of sombre

pastime.

of
son

importancewas
was

under will

consideration,
was

they talked,or
wife divorced
the Roman

adopted,a
was

made,

or

The

Forum

the ancient

newspaper,
senators

the Times^ only instead of reading, the multitude rage the

spoke,and
of

listened.
for

This

constant
a

habit kind of
an

this publiclife,
to gravity

haranguinglent
of the

solemn

deportment
of

Romans,

official and

bearingas majestic

men

actinga dignified
wore

part in the great drama


togas, too, with
No
a

of life. of the

They

their ample
was

sort

which sublimity Gauls


were

very

imposing.

wonder

terrified at the
on

men, aspect of these awful looking

seated

their curule
the

chairs, wrapt in their purple togas, outside


of their
to

porticoes

palaces.

It

was

quitenatural

in the barbarians

take them

for Gods. made in all and places,


at

Speeches were
the
not

all times ;

if the dinner did pater familiasharangued his family

please him.

Germanicus

harangued his

attendants

Digitizedby

32

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

before

his

death, Seneca
Thrasea

was

eloquent while
one

seated

in

the fatal bath, and that the of patience

spoke so much,
was

wonders

his friends

not
excess

exhausted.
to

details amusingly the Quintilian rage proper for

which for

this the

talkingwas

carried,and
an

gives rules
was

deportment of

orator.
nor spit,

He
to
as

neither
even
a

to use

his
of

nor handkerchief,

to

cough ;

glass
He is

sugaredwater
not

is condenmed
to
use

unbecoming.
too

also advised his his

his

arms

much,

or

to not

dilate bite

nostrils, or
or lips,

to raise his shoulders

; he must

leave the form

where

he stands.

In

reading
advice

these
to

remarks, one

recalls Hamlet's involuntarily if

the

and wonders players,

Shakspeare had

studied

Quintilian.
The
also
came women

too,
down
to

on

any

interest, subjectof special


to

the Forum the

listen.

Every reader
which

of

Livy remembers

with indignation appearance

Porcius
he

Cato made
on
"

their inveighed against his famous attack


on

there when

female

and luxury^ privileges the

occasion of the
when the matrons
or

proposed repealof
could
not

Oppian law,
either

be

kept at

home

by

advice

shame, but beset


men

every street and


as

pass in the

beseeching the city,


Forum
if each
to

they went

down

into the
that

repeal the law."


maintained

Cato

tells them plainly

husband

his

prerogative, theywould

Digitized by

34

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

always
and

assisted at

the
same

married, actually imperial orgies,


woman,

divorced the
was

twenty different times.


a

Virtue

utterly impossiblein
so on loosely

state

where

the

tie hung marriage

the

parties. contracting
the
"

"Indeed,"
around
even

says

Suetonius, disgusted at

profligacy
not

him

in the

days
does

of the

Empire,

vice does Nor

hide it be

nor itself,

blush. corruption those


not

indeed
most

can

when otherwise,
excesses,
are

indulgingin

the

monstrous
mean

obscure

adventurers, or
men

and

but abjectplebeians,

the greatest

of the

state, consuls,

and philosophers, legislators, in his the

emperors."

Aristippuspublicly taught
"that sensual

school philosophic

enjoyment
even

was

only

true

good,"

doctrine

at which

the luxurious

Greeks

would the

have

blushed, for Epicurus himself


intellectual culture, and
means

advocated

highest
the he

the

as profoundestlearning,

of

enjoying
man was

that

perfectpleasurein
to

which

imagined

bom the

indulge.
and

When

such

habits

prevailedamong taughtamong
of virtue ? The mischief the
a

men,

such

principles ]were
know
"

what philosophers,

could the Romans

learnt

at

the have

theatres, the

amphiat

and theatfes,
It is too

circus, I
field
to

alreadyglanced
here
where

ample
those

discuss

appropriately.
vice

Within

stately buildings

reigned

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

35

supreme,
a

excitement

grew

in the

course

of time

to such

that consuls,senators, and pitch,


arena

emperors, before

descended the

into the

and
set

exhibited

people.
was

Caligulafirst
followed danced
favourite

this and the

fashion,which disgraceful Caracalla;at


last

by

Nero

Heliogabalus
There
were

before

assembled

Senate.

gladiators and

and charioteers,
empresses,

favoiuite
athletes

colours; actors
were

with intrigued
most

and the

often' the

welcome

guests

in the

imperial
of
to

palace. Augustus, when


poets
which and this

in delighting

company
excess

little foresaw philosophers,


of imperial facility three
access

the

would
one

be carried.
Romans

Three
are

days and

nightsat

time,the
The

said to have of these and


.

sat

in the

Amphitheatre.

ment excite-

spectacleswas

something incomprehensible,
on

the money

lavished
"Bread lowest

them, age after


the

age,

utterlyincredible.
from the

and
to

circus'*

was

the cry, and the


same

slave for

Caesar, imperial

insatiable desire

constant
once

novelty and

amusement

prevailed. Pompey
lions in the
arena;

displayed six
one

hundred

and

on

occasion,

the citizens by making Augustus gratified

five hundred

Getulians
Another

against fight twenty elephants.


fertile school
for vice

and

luxury were
Rome

the

public baths, of which

establishments

reckoned
D 2

Digitizedby

36

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

eight hundred
from
came

and

within fifty-six
of

her

walls.

Here,

the earliestdawn in

day

until

the people midnight,


to prepare

never-aiding streams,
the

either

for the after

of fatigue the

to invigorate themselves coming da}^,

warlike slumber and

exercises
of the the

in

the

Campus
the

Martius, for
of the

the

siesta, or

excitement
to

theatre

circus.

It is wonderful skins would

read have

how
been

they

were

scrubbed; modem
such

ruined
came

by
in

treatment,

and yet they all liked it, the baths in


were soon

such among ruins

that multitudes, the that

reckoned
enormous

proudest palaces
still remain of the With the

Rome. of

The

those

Titus, ficence magni-

Caracalla, and
of these
our

attest Diocletian,

size and

establishments.

such ruins before


account

eyes,
of

we

can

easilybelieve

historians
Grecian

give

the

giganticvestibules
ornamented with

peopled

with

statues, and of the


rarest

forests of

formed pillars radiant


for

marbles, supporting roofs spacious arcades

with

gold
the

and

the painting,

exercise,
cooled with

refreshing groves
the air,

where

splashingfountains
and ornamented for

the heated

halls furnished

oriental
the

luxury, the

temples, the

Odeons and

music,

Exedrae,where

the poets declaimed

philosophers
and of marble.

disputed,every
The Baths

wall

brightwith

frescoes

of Diocletian contained

thousands

private

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

37

apartments, largehalls for swimming, and


adorned library, emperors. What with
can

magnificent
and the

statues

of

gods, heroes,
beautiful,than

be in

more

mosaic
now

pavement

found

the

Baths ?

of

and Caracalla,

preserved

at the Lateran

Palace these

It tells volumes

of the gorgeous In the the

splendourof
waters

structures. palatial

early times,the
Piscina

of the
to

Tiber

collected in
the

sufficed publica,

refresh of the but


as

limbs

of

Some vigorousrepublicans. baths


at

richer it
was

senators
a

might indulge in
and
an

home,

luxury,
of
as

exception. It

is recorded

fact

worthy

mention,that Scipio Africanus,who


somewhat being
a

was

censured

luxurious

by

his

owned contemporaries,

little dark

bath small

of his own,

which, accordingto ancient


the wall
to

usage, had but


no

openings in
The

let in the

air, by

windows.
the

public baths
of the says
were

constructed
came

Agrippafor
to

convenience

people,soon

be

"for who," despised, of the apartment of Numidian did not the

Seneca, "would
not

bathe with if

if the walls

ornamented

stones glittering

or

African the

marble, and

varied
and

ornaments

decorate

and floors,
streams

statues

sustain pillars
not

roof; if abundant

of water

did

fall in

cascades, and bursting

the sun's ra3rs not that the bather

penetrate could
at

windows, so through spacious


the
same

time

enjoy

the

prospect of

the

Digitizedby

38

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

Campagna,
has while Yet left
a

and

of

the

sea?" the

of Seneca's .letter life of his the baths.


out

pictureof lively

bathing

day

at Baia,where living

he

lodged over
not

this

magnificence was
of the
as
were

carried houses.

in

the

interior arrangements
and

Roman many

Spacious
senatorial
them

grandly

decorated modems
commonest
so

of the

palaces,we

should

have

considered How
to

destituteof the

comforts.

the Roman dress without


have
a

dames, who
seems mirrors,

were

vain, managed
What

miracle.

would head

Poppaea
to

given to
modem

have

surveyed

herself from How

foot in have marble

! looVing-glass

Agrippina would
seated down
to
on

rejoiced in

the

dignifiedpose,
she had
come

the
us,

chair,in which
have
were,
seen

could

she

herself reflected ! of

Miserable
even

substitutes there
our

constracted

metal, but
would
a

nineteenththem.

century
Such
a

waiting-women
convenient

have watch

despised
was

luxury as being
the
at

unknown^

quadrantsand
the
course

sun-dials

the
course

only means
of

by

which

Romans

ascertained

time ; these of

useless beingutterly
commoner

night.
the poorer

The low

houses the walls


were

of
were

citizens had

roofs, and

generallybuilt without they


never

windows;
the
street

if there The

any,

opened
from

upon the

principallight proceeded

Digitizedby

ROMAIC

INTERIORS.

39

door, for such windows


with but

as

there

might be, beingcovered


or

transparent marble, talc, cotton,


the feeblest and
most

skins, gave

opaque

light Specimens
for

of the materials used been found


at

by

the ancients and Such have

windows, have
how

Pompeii,
were

sufficiendy prove
stairs too
as

miserably they
so

off.

they had,
the cramp smoke smell of any
us

steep and
then the

narrow,

would

given

us

and from the

the want kitchens

of and

chimneys,and consequent
added braziers, the charcoal have
to

the

dinner
to

preparingon
carry it

without smothered the

apertures
.

off, would
we

outright. Neither dogs, chained


nor

should
celUz

have

admired

fierce

in the

on

either side of the

door,
geese

have in

fancied the

the constant
nor

screechingof

the

kept
about The well
worn

houses,

the

long serpents creeping


cushions
as

among

the embroidered dress


too
was

of the couches.
as can

styleof
be
next

inconvenient
of

conceived. the skin

The
must

heavy toga
have been

rough

wool

extremelyirritating,
of necessity
wore

and

partiyaccounts
The

for the

inevitable

the

baths.

Romans,

Suetonius
in

tells us,

neither

stockings nor
articles of

but drawers,

place of

these

invaluable

of linen called femoralia were dress, strips the and thighs, the other

bound
were

round

called strips
"

tibialia

twisted round

legs. Truly

most

lame

and

Digitizedby

40

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

impotentconclusion
of the earth ! The

"

to the
use

of magnificence

these

kings
the

of

pockets was

unknown,

cincture that bound

the toga

being the only convenience


money
or

they possessedfor keeping their


as we

handkerchief,
Gellius, with the the

learn from
or

the satires of

Juvenal and Aulus

Caps
head
No

hats

were

little used, they either went covered it


an

bare,
matter
a

or

only

with

fold

of
went ;

toga.

how

might

rain when
was

they
unknown

abroad,

such
trust

thing as
the

umbrella

they

must

to

thickness if

of those
a

eternal togas to in consequence,

protect
and
no

them, and

they caught

cold

or injuredtheir sight,

if blindness

ensued, there
a

were

invented spectacles
hire
more
a

in those lead

days,and
him,
as

blind

man

must

littleslave to times. primitive

Homer

did, in still

am

indebted of

to
a

livinghistorian day.

for the

following

graphicsketch
the

Roman

In the

morning, while
a

in bed, paterfamiliasindolently lingers

crowd

of

assemble friends, freedmen,and parasites,

without

in the

vestibule.

When

he

has

risen,perfumed his hair,and


appears, he then desires
converses
a

arranged the
few who
moments

folds of his toga, he with thoss with whom

to

see,

or

have business
on

him, and

descends

into the borne

Forum, either
in
a

foot surrounded

by

his

or clients,

litteron

the shoulders

of his slaves.

Here

variety

Digitizedby

42

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

or

the

bathe ball, or citizens walk four

in the waters

of

the

Tiber, while
prowess, and

the the

older
women

sit

by observingtheir
the the

under

colonnades. neighbouring
are

Towards every the


one

o'clock

baths

open,

and

thither

hastens,the poor and


the rich
"

the
man

middling
to

classes to

public Thermae,
of his

the

voluptuous
bathe, it is
are

recesses

abode splendid

^but all must the

an

absolute Piscina
as

necessity. Within
for
as

baths public the

the

vast

swimming, the tepid and


and perfumes, frictions,

vapour

bath,

well

ointments, all
class for
a

refined and

sumptuous
The

luxuries open
floors
are

to

every

trifling pa)rment.
of

of

mosaic, the PiscincB


in

the ceilingspainted alabaster,

fresco,the walls
are

inlaid with
groves ;

gold

and

ivory;

there

gardens

and

for the philosophers, temples for the priests, porticoes


a,

gymnasium
Exedrae
man

for

an running,libraries,

Odeon the

for

music,and

where home

poets
to

declaim.

After

bath the rich of the

retiuns

enjoy the great meal

day,the

supper.
were

Magnificentas

the other

Forums, the
open spaces lived
are

Thermae,
in the

the

Campus Martius,and
the city,
streets

ancient
as

where

people

described

being excessively narrow,

and filthy,

inconvenient

At

night darkness, black


and
no

as

enshrouded pitch, any

everything ;
for his

Roman,

who

had

regardeither

skin.

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS,

43

pr

his purse, ventured

forth, for robbers


as

abounded
says,

in

every

quarter, going about,

Horace

invoking

the assistance of the Goddess of

Lavema, the protectress


and

midnight deeds
have and

of wrong

violence.
an

The

streets

of Rome

in all ages
to
me

borne

extremelybad
same

tation, repu-

it seems

that this

wicked
the

goddess

has That
we

still many the roads may

ardent and

worshippers in
streets
were

great city.

ill kept, disgustingly circumstances of


all
a

infer from

various

incidental

mentioned
a

by

historians ; the dead


was

body

slave

or

cliild

lying about,
her

nothing at

wonderful Scelerata her

When she
was

Tullia drove
not

coach find

through the
a

Via

to surprised

corpse
to

in her way,
it
as

charioteer

only

drew

her

attention

being the
Rome
to

body
conceal

of her

father; and
in

from Nero, flying

himself

the villa of
at

his

freedman

Phaon,

expressedno
the road

horror

seeinga

dead Gate.
me

body lyingbeside

without the Nomentana


roads reminds

Mentioningthe
chariots
the most of these
"

of the coaches affairs indeed, even To possess considered

and in
one

sad, heavy,tumble-down
luxurious

days of

the

Empire.
at
was all,

abominable

vehicles
was

which privilege, special

accorded
to such

only to

emperors,
as

and patricians, or dictators, and

great ladies

Livia

-A^ppina.

Not

all the solid

gold and

silver wasted

Digitized by

44

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

on

them,

an

extravagance
the

foibidden
about

indeed, or
which
or

at

Jeast
was

moderated, by
so

Oppian law,
make them

Cato

could eloquent, would


a

commodious drawn

agreeable.
or

How

heavy

machine
As

by

oxen

mules
out

suit our
of the

modem

fancies ?

to

horses,they were
to sacrilege

it would question,

have
on

been
state

drive
veying con-

them, they being only used


the consuls
to

for occasions,

for triumphs, and sacrifice, the images of containing all its

for the

drawing the puiple couches gods,


modem the mode in great fine

processions. With
would have

splendour, a
envy
ever

lady

found

little to that

in trod

of life of the

proudest empress

the Palatine.
I have

the pictured
I must

Romans
now

in the
a

Foram, the baths,


lines
so

and of of

at

home;
of the

spare

few

descriptive
a

some

which festivals, Herodian


was

filledup tells us in

huge
the

portion

everydaylife.
Bona Dea

that the the


one

festival of
a

the

celebrated

when spring,

solemn

processionpassed through
of

city.
was

It

was

time
to

general
in

amusement

every

allowed
to

appear

masks,

the

principaldiversion being

and highest so that dignitaries, represent the magistrates

it

was

the to distinguish impossible

maskers

from

the

real senators.
account

Every

reader

of Plutarch

will recall the Dea cele-

he

givesof

the festival of the Bona

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS,

45

brated their

by

the women,

unbound who, during the orgies, with vine like and leaves,
ran

hair,crowned

themselves the house

screaming through
even

maniacs, every

man,

the of

husband
way.

himself, having been


The
new

sent previously

out

the

year

was

opened by
to be

the
son

festival of Janus, believed


of
It
"

by

the Romans ruled

the

their first king Saturn, who


was

in the
on

golden age.

their custom

to salute each

other

this occasion

most

valuable to interchange lovingly,*'


senators

presents, and
in has
as

for

the

and
A

to magistrates

appear

their
come

richest down

robes.
to
us

remnant

of the

saturnalia

in the

modern

carnival.

Then,

now,

and equality were liberty dined

the order of the


on, their slaves

day.

Masters old

with,or
a

waited

in the

good
too

time,and

general freedom
into young the
men

prevailedthat
In

often

degenerated
calian games
many

grossest license.
of noble naked

the

Luperindeed streets,
with

and families, about the

of the
way

ran magistrates,

and, by
leathern

of

struck everyone diversion, On


one

they met,

thongs.
a

occasion, Plutarch
seated
to
so see

tells us, in
a

Caesar, wearing

triumphal robe,
the
was

himself the

golden

chair

upon who

rostrum

sion. diverhis

Antony,
senatorial

consul,

far

forgot
the

as dignity,

to

comply
appear

with naked

general

rule, or

rather

misrule,and

along with

Digitized by

46

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the
to

rest, and
Caesar.

in this

guisetendered

the

crown imperial

most

portionof important
interiors
were

the domestic whose slaves,


as

economy

of

the fate

Roman

the

miserable fresh would

deserves especially
"

our

attention
details

opening a
which
I

vista in
endeavour

these
to

domestic

by

bring the

actual life and

everyday habits
such and

of the Romans

before the stranger. While

arbitrary
utter

laws, unsightlyand
of human among
to

disgusting manners,
life and human

regard dis-

suffering, prevailed
was

the

senatorial and
of the poor

imperialfamilies,what
slaves,that second
and

become

grade

of

created

beings,who,

bought

paid
"

for

by
as

their
un-

masters, became

his absolute

property,

roba^

alienablyhis hope
even

as

his wife, but, unlike


law
to

her, hsivingno

of

exchange, no

protect their morals, or


aud
a

their lives?
manners,

That

black

horrible stain

on

Roman

unfolds slavery,

shocking and

rending heart-

of suffering and despair;it was, perhaps, picture the foulest plague spot of the whole foul system. female

Cicero
slaves.
ever
"

openly Who,"
the

advocates

the

degradation of

cries

"has he, in his oration Pro Ccjelio, Who has


ever

blamed
every

practice?

foibid
must
sexes

it? also

What

century has permittedour


The

own

in." acquiesce

with cnielty

which

both

were

Digitized by

ROMAN

INIERIORS,

47

treated
were

is

to contemplate. distressing

If their master

assassinated
that
every

by

one

of their male
or

number, the law provided


female
an

individual suffer
were

slave under of

his

roof

should

death, for

act

which,

perchance, they

profoundly ignorant

Pedanius

Secundus, prefectof the city, says Tacitus,fell by the


sword Itundred of his in slave.

Every
was

slave

in

the

house, four

number,
but
so

therefore

subject to capital
by compassion

punishment ;
at the

the many

touched populace,

fate of with
"

innocent
The

persons, affair
"

opposed their
debated
to

execution the
senate.

violence.

was

in

Who," it was
so

said,
as

can

hope

live in could

when security,
not

largea

number

four hundred the

protect Pedanius?"

Still, spite of

opinion of expressed ;
innocence
Romans but line

the the

was fathers, great public disapprobation

number, the

age, the

sex,
even

the undoubted the


was

of the
to

greater part, moved


The

obdurate for

compassion.

popular cry
sent

mercy,
to

Nero

he negativedthe appeal, the miserable tortured


to

his

guards

and the streets, Slaves


were

slaves all perished.


r

pleasetheir master's
his

caprice,
midnight

their

sufferings givinga crowning jestto they were

orgies. Sometimes

crucified to gratify a whim.


Caesar, Julius accused of

the clemency of Suetonius gravely qelebrates who


''^

only punished with

death"

slave

Digitized by

48

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

to poison him. attempting

"

Who

were

the
?

accusers

Do

you

then

imaginethat

slave is

man

It is

likely

enough
matters

he has done ? his master

nothing to
orders

deserve

death, but what


and it, his

he commands it,

will is law." That devoted anecdote When


to

slaves

humanely
to

treated
a

were

of capablie is

real and
an

attachment related and

good master,

proved by
Comutu^.

by
Cinna

Plutarch returned

concerning

Marius
a

fr"Jm their banishment

Rome,

horrible
to
was

slaughter took
their
cause.

place

of

those
every
no

citizens disaffected
town neighbouring

Every road,
hired

filled with

assassins ;

of friendship, no obligation deemed slaves of

were rightsof hospitality,

sacred.

In

this

season

of

extreme

perilthe
life was in

Comutus,

aware

that their master's in his


own

danger,concealed
dead it up

him

house"and takinga
among the

body by
a

out

of th'e street

from
own

slain, hung
the

rope, and

put his

gold ring on
corpse

finger.

In this condition

the they displayed

to the executioners

despatched by Marius, who, supposing Comutus


dead, allowed
it had been
no

them

to

bury it with
The and

the

same

forms, as

if

their master.

deceptionwas

cessful, quite suc-

suspicions arose,
time

ing Cornutus, after remainhis slaves into

some

concealed, was

conveyed by

Galatia.

Digitized by

Jo

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

fragmentsare said
and

to remain

within the of SS. Cosmo


a

temple of
e

Castor
A

Pollux,now
slave

the church

Damiano. what

temple, a

martet,and

church,
"

strange

metamorphoses
those from The

the old walls of Rome had

witness I

Here,

who speculators the

bought human
it to

flesh wholesale

retailed republic,
after
a

private individuals.
was sure

day

triumph,the enclosure

to

be

crowded around

to excess.

Along the facadeof

the

temple,and
were

the

neighbouringcoloimades, scaffolds
and boys, girls, with
a

erected,filled with nien, women,


most

dren, chil-

of

them

naked,

and

litde ticket

fastened round up and

their necks. before each

An

auctioneer

promenaded
of sight
"

down

and scaffold,

in the

the

assembled
this and from

on people expatiated

the live stock

fellow,

and voluble, auctioneer, vulgar,

brutal in his

manners

language.
the life. in
"

Horace Good

himself

has

painted the
the
man

scene

cries people,"
am

dising merchanall

/'I humanity,

not
no

rich, but, for


debts.

that, I
these
I I

am

in

no

hurry to

sell
to you

I have
at
a

Observe

lots ! I offer them

priceso moderate, that


as

defy you
would

to

find slaves elsewhere

cheap.
a

Indeed

not, I could

not, make

such

sacrifice for any


of the world.

other but you


"

illustrious Romans,
at this young
"

masters

Look

now

boy,"he continues,pointing
he splendidly

to

youth.

Look

how

is

shaped

from

Digitized by

ROMAN

INTERIORS,

51

head and
as

to

foot.

I will

his probity, guarantee his frugality,

docility.He clay in
the hands

flies to

obey

the

he sign, slightest
He
at

is

of his master. will

also understands table if you he raps have him

littleGreek, and music."


Then

sing to

you

no

approaching the boy,


"

smartlyon
the
how
never

the cheeks.

Do

wards you,"says he, turningto-

bystanders,
Never
was

"

do

you

hear

how

that sounds ?

? it rings

such fine firm

illness will flesh,

touch
a

him.

Citizens, Romans,
is yours

I offer this

youth

to

you

real

bargain. He
"

for

eighthundred

sesterces, it is nothing
The
man
"

bagattella!'
then passes
on

of

ready words
be

to

another,a

child.

Come
your

be alert, alive, my these

littlefellow," cries
"

he,

"

show

to agility

gentlemen,

the masters

of the world, the exordium


and

which equalsof kings." Upon hearing child starts up,

the poor

jumps,

and

springs,

all gambols about, casting

the while

leers fascinating the


"

at the

crowd, like
The

ballet-dancer
press round

poisedon
and
stare.

tipsof

his

toes.

crowd

claims See," ex-

the how merry

auctioneer," how
!

nimble
A

he

is ! how

! light

how

sweet

little

angel truly. But


the
sembly, as-

'* towards citizens, says he, turningemphatically

"

this is all very


some

well,non

c'h tnaky I have

shown the
em-

you

here

tolerable if you

specimens,fair samples of
will
come

commodity, but

with

me

to

my

Digitized by

52

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

porium,you
I
on

will
"

see

goods

of another

kind of stuff there, slaves here

promiseyou
the

quiteanother
not

style. These

are scaffolding

all my

stock in trade ; all that

I possess

most

rare,

and beautiful, are delicate,

kept

in

the inner boxes.


me

Come

within, good

citizens.

Follow

; come

in,I pray you/'


scene was

This drama
us

the only the prelude,


woes-

first act

in the
Let

of the future

of these miserable
to

slaves.

follow the poor

wretches

their

house, purchaser's
On the crossing left
are

the better to threshold


we

their condition. appreciate


enter

the vestibule ;

and right
to

two

niches,in
other house will
a

one

lies a mastiff chained

the

wall,in the

also chained, the janitoror porter. If the slave, be

sold,he will be sold with it ; if it be burnt he


it Further slaves.
on are

perishwith

the
are

sweepers,

or

the scopariiy mosaic


sponge;

domestic

Some with
a

sweeping
rag,
or

the
a

floors of
some or

the Atrium
a

purple
the the

with

lightbrush

dust

statues

of

bronze,
others and the
are

marble, placed between

colonnades;
of the

rubbing

the

marble glistening

pillars

until they shine like glass walls, ; been


so

even

Domitian there

would without have

have

and satisfied,

could

have

walked he

for fear,

great is their assassin

that brilliancy

might
to

perceived any

approachingfrom behind

strike him.

Digitized by

ROMAN

INTERIORS,

53

Some

slaves look

after the others

sideboards

and of

hold the housethe

presses, and registers The the kitchen

while
the
swarms

have of

charge

family

images
with

their master^s
coquus

ancestors.

slaves; the
to

prepares

dishes,labouring by his skill


has

awake such

his master's

jaded appetite. He

achieved

wonders, that
can

that he slave, by his patient ingenuity,

cook

pig

boiled

on

one

side,and roasted

on

the

other; the pastrycook,


all the and spices
wares, and

mixes pistordulciarius^ cunningly

perfumes
for

of Arabia

and

of

India

in his sweet

fear

in his zeal,a drop of moisture should that, the rich paste, he


to
wears
a

fall

from is
a

his skin upon

veil. There

separate slave
and fruit,
to

look after the the delicious the

and milk,the apples, of drinks,


are

the

mix
as

which
so

the fond.

ancient,as
Another there
woe,
taste

well

modem,

Romans

slave

drives away

the flies from


"

the
woe,

and dishes,
seven

is also the taster,obsonator


on

and

times

his

unlucky pate,

if he

mistakes

his master's

or

palate ;
on

the loss of life may

be the least

penalty

inflicted When many

him. has

the repast,which

given employment

to

so

hands, is
it is to

at

last

whose prepared, the inviiatores^ the loudlyproclaini


to

duty
names

announce

the company,
are

of the guests who

that

day

repos.e

on

their

master's

couches, while

the

waiters, inferiores^ bring the

Digitizedby

54

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

dishes
taste

into the Sala,and


and

the

strudores

range

them and

with his

symmetry

on

the board. in the


or

The

master

guests have
themselves
rose

appeared
on

meantime,

and

stretching
with

the and

gold
down,

ivorycouches,
and

strewed

leaves

covered
to

with
of

splendid
all

Alexandrian
luxuries the

tapestry, prepare
them.

partake
Between

the

displayedbefore

the

courses,

pocUlatores present Falemian


in

or

Chio

wine, sparkling
at

high

jewelledcups
other

and

while golden goblets,


and
or

their

heels follow in the

slaves of

bearingfresh

tepid water,
silver. Near

vessels precious

gold sculptiu-ed
the
row

couches

on

which

company

lie

luxuriously-

stretched, are
for their

ranged a
and

of young

slaves,remarkable
their attire ; their turbans. Each

beauty
arms

the

elegance of they wear


branch of

legs and

are

bare, and
holds
a

has his office ;


to

one

myrtle, flowering
fan

chase

away

the flies ;

some

sprinkle perfumes,or
those who
are

the air ; others and

watch carefully
as

intoxicated,
desire
to

assist them,

well

as

other guests who

eat

again, by conducting them


vomitorium.
we are

into

an

adjacent room,
manners

the

For
to

these minute the pen

traits of Roman

indebted

of the satirical and Martial,

the stoical When


are

of Philippics

Seneca. her

nightspreadsround

inky mantle,the slaves

in

candelabra, and thousands high activity; glittering

Digitizedby

ROMAN

INTERIORS.

55

of torches hands music


repose,

blaze

borne by throughthe perfumed halls,

the

of the

delicious symphoniesof exquisite inferiores;


the
senses,

entrance

alreadylapped
and and the

in luxurious wine.

by
of

the

plenteous repast
slaves the
enter

potent

Troops
borrowed

young

perform dances,
than those of

rather from

rites of Venus of

Diana;
and those

they singhymns
of

the praise extolling

power To and

goodness

their masters, dances

the poor
a

slaves ! cruel

voluptuous

succeeds

more

the gladiators are exciting exhibition; prepare half and

introduced, they
amidst

their limbs,they draw

their

and daggers,

emptied glasses, garlands, torches, expiring withering


broken

dishes,beside the soft couches


company swords recline, flows the
a

on

which

the

inebriated
are

are

blows crossed,
the

exchanged, blood
of the

in

plenteous streams,

groans

dying,and
form

laughterand applause of

the

to living uniting

hideous chorus.
the

From the

the

triclinium to

bath", from

the baths

to

the farm, the fields, gardens,the villa, troops


start too
can

of
too

slaves mean,

from

every
too

comer.

There

is

nothing
to

low,

for humiliating any


In
new

them

perform.
masters
same
:

If will be

you

invent you. the

their degradation, ages of

thank

all

slavery is
Rome,
or

the

it in

early annals
same

in the

teenth ninecruel

century, the

crushing pride and

Digitizedby

S6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

despotbm
the
A

in the

oppressor,

the

same

servile

in spirit

oppressed.
curious tomb
"

was

discovered
of

at

Rome

bearing this

: inscription

The
care

bones

Aurelia,the slave of Livia,


little dog/*
to be

she wlio took

of her

Another

tomb,
of

bearingan inscription, purports


some

commemorative
same

female

slaves

belongingto
had

the

Livia,consort locks, a imperial

of

Augustus, who

charge

of the

truly noble
and
If
was as

occupation, esteemed
monumental
a

equally honourable
as

worthy of

record

that of Aurelia.

Augustus was
a

Livia assuredly simple citizen, plain,

genuineempress. superbmatron
with of Rome such would
not

The

condescend
a

to

exchange words
of the

as canaglia

her slaves ;

sign
"

of her finger, was liand, the pointing

sufficient

commands

which, if mistaken
iron lash

or

misunderstood

by the
him of

unhappy slave,an
the

quicklyadvertised

unlucky mistake.
the

Cato boasts slave.

Censor, otherwise
he caused

just and

moral
a

man,

of the blows "Be and

to

be inflicted on

tardy
your tarch Plu-

economical," says they


are

he:
old

"sell

both

horse

slave when

and and A

useless,"

his inveighs against

meanness

in using cruelty

his slaves

"

like beasts
ever

of burden." take
care

good

man,

in his and

ought opinion,

to

of his infirm

dogs

Digitizedby

S8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

It is a sad and withdraw the

weaiy

task to unfold

these

horrors these

"

^to

veil hanging before glittering

superb

and palaces,

the misery,the degrathe foulness, dation display It is


gazes
an

within.
the reader next
on

labour ungracious the ruined

; but

when if,

on

pile of

the

Palatine,

the

liroken fragments of
on

Rome's and

once

glorious

or temples,

the massive

arches

cyclopeanblocks
quainted ac-

of Caracalla's with of those

Baths, he
the inner

shall feel that he is better

the daily passing details life, of the

incredible
I
am

day by day incidents


this

ancient
have

Romans,
been

and satisfied,

chapter will

not

written in vain.

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE,
AND AUGUSTUS.

THE

REPUBLIC,

T -^

HAVE of Rome's

again

and

again

visited

the the

mysterious
Palatine. of those
cavernous

home
I have

imperial splendour,
dreams under Within
at

spun

many

day

the the

shadow

almost

unintelligible
that
I

ruins.

deep

cesses re-

yawn

hideously
I have

every

step, I
At

have

read,

have

thought,
me

pondered.
up the ruined

length

fancy

possessed
over

to

build thousand diademed


seat

walls, and, passing


the Palatine
as

almost

two

years, with

picture palaces

it

then The

appeared,
ancient

and

temples. city,
was

of he

Evander's

Arcadian

the first

Pallanteum,
inhabited
Here also he of

where the -^neas

received somewhat entertained

Hercules,
fabulous

the

seven

hills of

Rome. from

was

when,

coming
did
not

Latium,
his

visited

the
to

good
his

old

king,
for

who

deny against

only

son,

Pallas,

prayers

assistance

Tumus

and

his Rutulian
in

bands.

Evander, following

conversation
of the

with

his

guest,
Palatine.

gives
"

the

account

origin

of the

These

Digitized by

6o

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

said he, groves,*'


and and knew
to
use
a

"the of
men

native sprung had

fauns from

and

nymphs

sessed, pos-

race

the roots
nor

of trees

stubborn

oaks, who
to

neither laws
nor

refinement,

neither their
and

yoke

the steer

to

nor gatherwealth,

with acquisitions

moderation;
sort

but

the
"

branches

hunting
"

rough
From

of the

sustenance

supplied
Saturn

them

with
He

food. formed

ethereal
race,

sky
disciplined un-

first came. and

into

a society

dispersedamong
laws. Under his

the

high mountains,
the

and

introduced

reign was

golden

age which Next

they celebrated."
Romulus,
the

came

god-descended
to

founder

of

Rome, who, with his brother,washed


Palatine
stones

the foot of the

by

the

current

of

the its
was

Tiber, raised the first

of the infant
a

cityon
Then

summit, surrounding it
the first crime
mitted com-

with

wall that

of defence. stained the

virginsoil
brow

with

blood,

when

Romulus,

standingon
about

the the
own

of the

Palatine, relled quarthe

with Remus
slew him the mount

of disposition hand. On

wall,and

there with his


Romulus

the

of acclivity

erected

his little cabin of reeds and and

wood; its front,accordingto Vitruvius


turned towards the

Dionysius,
where Beside

the spot Aventine,overlooking


was

the Circus Maximus the

afterwards

constructed.

hut, the grotto of the Lupercal opened in the hill's

Digitizedby

PALATINE,
side

REPUBLIC,

6f* AUGUSTUS.

6i

rocky
Pan

"

sanctuary of

where antiquity, extraordinary

and

Faunus, and the sylvan deities of the primeval


that clothed down
to

woods Further

the

seven

hills, were
due time
was

worshipped.
erected in
a

the

hill,in

temple
memory Tatius State. The

JupiterStator (he
vow,

that arrests famous

in fight),

of Romulus' and the Sabine

his during

battle with

hosts,so nearlyfatal to the infant

five first kingsof Rome

fixed their habitation recorded specially

on

the

Palatine; TuUus
house he
went

Hostilius is
called
on Velia,

as

his inhabiting
From But

the crest of the hilL

hence after
a

forth to

the Sabines. fightagainst

while, whether
the

it

were

that Tullus
was

had

neglectedthe worship of
the
wars

gods whilst he signsof

busy in

or

no,

certain it is that the


a

divine wrath

became
when

for manifest, Tullus

dreadfiil plague broke


"

out, and
and

of Jupiter, supremely good inquired

to stay it by great," sent

his

favour, the god


so lightning,

was

angry, and

for

answer

his forked
were

that Tullus and the fabulous

his house

Veiia

burnt to

ashes.

(Such is

account.)
Ancus

Martius, grandson to Numa,


lived

the

peacefulKing

of Rome, the Via the Lares.

three-and-twenty years
afterwards

in his house the

facing

Sacra,where

stood

sanctuary of

Digitized by

62

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

The
was on

abode

of the firstTarquin, the Etruscan


near hill,

Lucumo,

the other side of the Here he dwelt with

lus. the hut of Romu-

his Medea-wife the

Tanaquil,in
sons

great power
Martius who hired
was

and

until prosperity,

of Ancus
quil, Tana-

certain assassins to

kill

him, when

great and heroic in mind, seeingwhat


out

had

went befallen,

and

harangued

the

people
had

assembled

below, in the Forum


them he
was

which

her husband

built, telling
the

not

dead,but only stunned


TuUius

by

blow, and

that he had

Servius appointed
be well. So

to rule in his name,

until he should
state

Servius went

down

in
a

royal
while

from

the Palatine into the the

Forum, and after


as

the

peopleknew

and acceptedhim truth,

their ruler.

But

at the decline of the

the lowlyroofs which republic, their successors, Titus of men, the

had

contented

the

earlykings and
Consuls

and firstdictators, sufficed not in Asiatic


to

and Camillus,
wants

Manlius,
nursed

the luxurious gratify these humble the

luxury. So
of

abodes

fellbefore the

mansions stately
Marc Catiline,
a

Gracchi, of Cicero, Claudius, Augustus,who


each owned

Antony, and
summit

house

on

the

of the

whose Palatine,
seat

gloomy

brow, ominouslyoverhangingthe
the

of national

liberty
"

Comitium, and
shadow

the

Forum, symbolized significantly


cast
on

the dark

their growingambition

the liberties

of the

Quirites.

Digitized by

PALATINE,
The in

REPUBLIC,

d-

AUGUSTUS.

63
Uved here

are Gracchi,in particular,

said to have

princely luxury. Here


and friends, made
set

the renowned

Cornelia received

her

for posterity speeches ; and here,


were

too, those twelve

children

bom

of whom

she

was

so

proud.

After

with all her much all,Cornelia,


to

vaunted

virtue,seems

have

possessedan

inordinate share of
her
sons

vanity;
Caius
for

she

was

always urging on
career political

Tiberius and
so

in that

which

ended

tragically
be

both, in order that her maternal


the tide of
"

feelings might

gratified by
of that of her

Mother of

of the

Gracchi,"instead

"Mother-in-law

Scipio having Scipio,"

married

daughter.
was
a

Tiberius Gracchus

most

amiable
such that No
an

a rare character,

specimen of
character because the
no

humane the

Roman,
ancienta
him.

unaccountable

among
one

he

got

murdered the air of


a

understood

wonder How
"

Palatine

did not

agree with him. Plutarch says,


was

could

man

whose habits

as language,
"

and chaste,**

his the The


to

who frugal,''

loved the
to

and passed plebeians, his bed?

agrarianlaw, expect
usual make

die

quiedy in

charge was
himself
'*

brought againsthim
and king, the
one

that he wanted
a

ill-disposed person,
the
a

''next
swear

neighbour
that poor

on

had Palatine,

to audacity

Tiberius

kept by
use

him he

royal diadem
was

and second

purple robe,for his

when

king.

Digitized by

64

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

senator,
further
out

seeingthe

noble

patriotbearded,
"

gave

him

kick,saying dastardly
when lights

that the other citizens put home


at unseasonable

their

they returned

hours, but that Tiberius


torches." made the when refused and
over

paraded his people carrying


serious

These

were

accusations
for his

truly,and safety ;
but

the friends of Tiberius affair assumed the


to
a

quake
and

most

grave

appalling aspect,

sacred

chickens,although soundly shaken,


one

eat, and when


out

raised actually
then in

its left wing

stretched for

its

leg. Tiberius
and

gave

himself

and lost,
two

trembled
ravens

quaked

good earnest,
as

as specially

fought over

his head

he

was

goingdown
It
was

to the Forum.

written that Tiberius

should

die like

Caesar,

surrounded
The

by

the

Sen^e, in spiteof these warnings.


the

conspirators plucked him by

robe, as
gave him

they did
a

Caesar,others crowded
Poor
was

round, and each

stab.

Tiberius ! he

was

worthy of
he died

better

but fate,

Rome

unworthy of him, so
Then
came

his brother
one

Caius,vehement
end of the
rostrum

and
to

sioned, impas-

running from
when
to

the other
gown
was

he addressed

the
more

and throwing off his people,

the gesticulate
so

freely. So violent indeed


an

Caius,and
that to

givento

unmusical

scream

when

ing, speak-

these guard against

vocal excesses,

he ordered

Digitized by

66

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

he by enemies,
to the extreme

made
"

vow

if he

to raise a shrine escaped,


"

deity who peril.

ruled

the hour

in that moment

of

the shuffling, Cicero, shrewd, hawk-eyed lawyer,

"

the

gentleman
annals,by

of

the
a

long robe," par


coward in his
own

excellence in Roman

turns

and

bully, many
the the abode

faced,and

suited as various,
of the the

or interest,

complexion
Palatine, on
of Lucius
was

times,lived in
spot
once

vast

splendouron
the

very

occupied by

Crassus.

estate AlthoughCicero's patrimonial

small,
he the

by his marriage with


became house the master of
"

the

haughty

shrew
so

Terentia
"

largerevenues,

giving up
betook

in the

city

he

he formerlyoccupied,

self him-

to the
**

in order,as he aristocratic Palatine,

declared,
so

that those clientswho

sought him mightnot


and
one

have

far

to

go."

specious reason,
a

that to in

this

day

would
an

authorise

statesman distinguished

selecting
"//

because extravagantlyexpensive situation,

is

in the A

way^
did the great
orator

house magnificent

inhabit with
other
seen

the rich

adorned,among widow, his Xantippe-wife,


marble the firstlarge
a

with novelties,
Rome. He

columns

ever

in

held

levee every

"moming,being soughtno
Crassus
was

less for his

eloquence, than
Cicero

for his

wealth,or

Pompey

for his power.

courted, too, because

Digitized by

PALATINE,
he

REPUBLIC,

d^' AUGUSTUS,

67

was

useful,as

the of

time

served,to all,being little by political

troubled

by

pangs

occasioned conscience,
went

inconsistency.Thus Pompey
came

the world
court

in

and earlytimes,
orator
new

to

pay his

to to

the i la mode look

dwelling on

the

Palatine,and
at the

also at the which

columns, and wonder


lived.

in magnificence

Cicero

Catiline

was

Cicero's

near

neighbour,for he, rich,


to at

and powerful, had

ambitious,not
house, too,
was

be the

behind
"

the

fashion,

his Palatine
a

West

end'' of the

town,

that vicinity

to have like, by-the-by,

proved
covered dis-

fatal to

when Cicero, for, his

Catiline found
meant to

that he had

and conspiracy,

him arraign

before
and

the

Senate, he

desired
across

his
and
"

accomplices, Martius
assassinate
*'

Cethegus, to step
under other

his

noisyneighbour,
the

the pretext of

saluting him, alongwith


every

worshipperscollected
But

morning
was a

in his Vesti-

biihim.

Cicero

(who

at heart

great coward,
the

spiteof
refused
at the

all his them

smelt eloquent blusterings) So

plot,and
he

admittance.
the

indeed, was frightened,


which he
was

thoughtof
would the

danger to
even

stillexposed,

that he convoked

not

go

down
were

into the

Forum, but

Senate

(who

gradually becoming
of the

servile and
to Caesars),

for the advent obedient,in preparation deliberate


on

the

means

of

the destroying

Digitizedby

68

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

within conspiracy, stood


on

the

Temple

of

JupiterStator,which

the Palatine.
not

I have
names

done

yet with
None

my

ancient

^^red book'' of

and be

addresses.

of the

mighty patricians
Marcus

must

but especially not forgotten,


"

Emilius

Scaurus,who
house
sums

est owned, too, says Pliny, perhaps the grandhe


was

of all." When in

^dile

he spent such vast


to

of money

exhibiting games
a

the

people,that

among

other trifles he erected with and paintings, hundreds


up

ornamented temporary theatre,

with of

three

thousand of which

marble
were

statues, besides
afterwards
set

all pillars,
on

in his house
must

the been

Palatine,to his
a

He great glorification. that Scaurus, to the


same

have

cunningman,
at

pleasethe people and


Milo and Publius

himself gratify

time.

the Clodius,

lover of years,
pleasant un-

Caesar's wife

Pompeia,

lived

here, too, for many

quitenear

without neighbours,

having, in fact,any
them the

set at last, bickerings.But politics,

sorely Appian

by

the ears, and


not

one meeting,

unlucky day,on
-the (near

Way,

far from

Bovillae

Osteria

going to
came

their attendants Albano, called Frattocchie),

to

blows, and
Clodius
a

then

the

masters

joining in,
fell. So and
much

Milo for

dealt
near

blow, and
the

Clodius

neighbours on
Milo and

Cicero Palatine,

and Catiline,

Clodius.

Digitized by

PALATINE,
Now owners,

REPUBLIC,
houses

"S^"AUGUSTUS,

69
their of few the load

the Roman
were

as themselves,

well

as

quite a studyin

those

days,by

reason

their words

and size, splendour, of

and decoration,

deserve

as especially description,

referringto
under the

whose Palatine,

rocky
the

sides

groaned

placed

on

it

by

competitionof Rome's
the

republican
a

citizens. open

Between called

the street and

fagadewas
to

large
cortile

space

Vestibulum, similar
Roman such
on

the

preceding many
site of

ancient

churches, built
as

on

the

palatialhouses,
San Alessio

Santa

Cecilia,San

and Gregorio,

the
was

Aventine,a styleof
afterwards it was
a

Tacitus building,

tells us,' that


In

generally
necessary clients

introduced

by Nero.

Cicero's house

appendage, in

order to prevent those troublesome

(who
from

came

every

morning

to offer him

their
In

salutations)
midst
of

in actually standing

the
a

street statue

the

the Vestibulum

usuallystood

of The

bronze, representing entrance-door, nails, heavy gilt


Rome

the master of double such and


as

of the mansion.

panels,covered
may stillbe*
seen

with brass and in modem

palacesat

Florence,led into the Prothyrum,a passage


from the outer
were

ing conduct-

to the

inner entrance,

"

on

either side
of

of which the
as

the
an

or CellcBy lodgesof

the porter and

dog, often
in the
case

member important

of the

establishment,

of

Ulysses.

The

porter,a miserable slave.

Digitized by

70

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

tied like the


bribed
or

dog by

chain,was

biped
never.

that He

mighi be
knew the

the quadruped deceived, the

lover from
or

husband, whether
the
one

in the and

case

of Terentia at, on
the

of

Penelope ;

he hated

barked

other he fawned. The


a

oppositeend
with
an

of the

Prothyrum

communicated

by statelythe the

door

interior area, marble

surmounted columns.

by
This

portico, supported by
Atrium.
The

was

colonnaded the open


space

porticowas
in the centre midst
was

called the the

Cavcedium, and
vium. A

ImpluCom-

marble

basin

in

the

pluvium,so
down from

called because the roofs of the

it received

the rain washed

arcades,all very surrounding damp painfully


been in
summer

elegant doubtless, but classically


cold.
to

and

it Very delightful under the

must

have

walk

deep

shade the

of the marble fountains that

porticoes splashed

and

listen to the

of gurgling
to

in the

Compluvium,
the

contemplatethe
the

brilliant frescoes
statues

on painted

and walls,

Grecian

of bronze

and

at the time of the marble, brought to Rome, perhaps,

conquest of Syracuseor Macedonia, the works


of Praxiteles
or

perchance rejoiced
alabaster
a

and Phidias,

to

have

one's heart the

by

the

gold,the
; all very

stucco, the

mosaic,and
in summer,

around

charming
the

I say, when

purple cloth

covered

Impluvium, warding off

the

Digitized by

PALATINE,
sun's rays; which
even

REPUBLIC,

6-

AUGUSTUS,

71

pouring down
now

in

the

same

fervid

streams

make

the

cabbages and

the" beans
But

swell

in larger cold and when

the Palatine very

gardens than
those

elsewhere.

cold,

must dreary,

halls have been, spacious

the winter wind

howled

aisles. throughthe pillared


cave

Cold, indeed,as the sacred

of

Jove Trophoniusat

Labadia, whither

those

votaries who
-^olus and

sought the

oracle

descended, conducted
all the winds Three
centre
was

by

Boreas, unchaining

of heaven

in their

path.
from the Atrium.
In the

halls opened spacious the The

the Tablinum, containing


two

archives of the dedicated

family.
to

and others,right

were left,

the

AlcSyor sculptured images of


statue

their ancestors, each

and portrait
names,
case

in standing

separate
or

with niche,

the the
.

titles, honours,and great


may

littleactions, as
on

be, of
the

the individual engraven of remainingportions festive

the base.

Around the

the

Atrium, were
pillars
couches,
with

or Tricliniae,

halls, where, under


guests

garlandedwith laurel,the
strewed
fresh cups. various with
rose

lay

on

soft

leaves, their brows

wreathed in
as

flowers, quaffingsparklingFalemian
These
seasons

jewelled
suit the

Tricliniae were
:

disposedso

to

the

summer

halls faced the


autumn

north,those

occupiedin
winter the

the
west

and spring
was

the east,while for the


the
mezza

preferred. For

stagione

Digitizedby

72

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the couches for winter

were

incrusted with silver and

tortoise-shell;

gold and ivorywere

while for summer selected,

woods, jointedand precious


as preferred

sprinkledwit
and the

were silver,

coolest ; the cushions in

of coverings

silk

or

purple embroidered accordingto


the
means

or gold,pearls,

precious
When
one

stones,

of the

owner.

remembers the

the delicate coloured


rose

marbles

that

supported
or

glittering roof,soft

colour, delicate amber,


brilliant mosaic

the transparent alabaster, the from

pavements,

candelabra,the purpleand
the and ceiling,

gold draperies suspended


folds around the

in heavy falling

the floweryfestoons wreathing the pillars, the colunuis,


vases

of

flowers,the

the gushing fountains, firom the in pigmies

delicious

perfumes, "Sabean
must

odours
are

spicy shore," we
our

allow that

we

but

notions,when
the

compared with
the the

the

of magnificence full-grown

Ciceros,
were

Mamurras,

the who

Valerians, the Syllas. These


understood how
to

gentlemen

while live,

we,

poor

wretches, by

the revolution of

have only centuries,

learnt how

to labour !

Within

the

spacious wings of
the

the Atrium

were

also the Pistrina

the Carceres, and kitchens, where This the bread formed


to
was

Equilia;

the

of the slaves. made, and the lodgings the

the

publicportion of
the clients,
^^

mansion, acces-

sible

friends and

show-rooms^^ in fact.

Digitized by

74

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

of the
or

used buUding,

as

private promenade

for exercise

contemplation.
Such
were

the

abodes

"

but ^magnificent

cold

and world

comfortless

"

^inwhich of

the magnates idleness.

of the Roman

passed

their hours such


a

But

Cicero, although
not

possessedof

mansion, could stately


"

less neverthe"

always enjoy
but
For
was

it

^thanks to
a

the

haughty Terentia
from
a

glad

to

beg
the

bed

and

dinner

friend.

on instance,

occasion

of the celebration of the

rites of the Bona


m,

Dea, Terentia
the
men,

invited the Vestal

virgins

and

turned

her husband, out^ especially awkward stories of


men

although historyrelates

let in scandal

"by

accident," in

woman's under

attire.

Such

happened not, however,


was

Cicero's roof,for Terentia


possess
a

too

outrageous

to virago to

lover.

Cicero

left this domestic

addition

his friend Fortune


as Cicero,

Julius Caesar,
with
I
a

who, it seems,
eye
out

looked

after Dame So

keener

than

Dame

Pompeia. by
his

turned said,
a

of doors

of wife, accepts the hospitality


to rage, and

the friend, leaving


to

women

scream,

and

rush

and
torn

fro

along

the

hair with streaming halls, stately any of impertinent jealousy

and

garments, without

Clodiuses
The down

beingadmitted.
of which his

house

Cicero

was

so

proud, was
same

pulled

during

banishment

by

that

meddling

Digitized by

PALATINE,

REPUBLIC,

6-

AUGUSTUS.

75

demagogue

Clodius, who
more

caused

the

site

to

be

secrated, con-

in order But

to keep effectually

out

the proprietor.

on Cicero,

his return and

from

exile, furiously
that

opposed
the the
every

this

measure,

stoutly demanded
to

ground
assembled

should

be restored the

him.

He

addressed burden of
me

on pontiffs

occasion,the

period being, "My


my

house, my
with
a

house, give

back notion his

house," mixed

up

little raillery at the for the

of Clodius' sudden

enthusiasm

gods, after
the sacred

impiousconduct,in regard to notoriously


Dea. had
a

rites of the Bona Valerius

Publicola

handsome

house, too,

on

the

built on Palatine,

the foundations
the
at

of the abode

of TuUus

Hostihus,
doubtless

which wroth

but Jupiter, lightning destroyed, man's

any

daring to

build

on

the the
not

ground
minds

consecrated of the

by

his sacred

stirred fire,

up

who Quirites,

declared
was

they
to

would

suffer it to

remain,so

Publicola

forced

pull down
build where, else-

his

new

walls to in the

please "the

people," and

below. valley pass


on

But let all of

us

to

the

imperial distancing palace,


home and abode

others,the sedes

rotnani

the imperii^ when

deified Caesar,that uprose


I have

the

of generations

which
his

spoken had
dead

passed away,
and turned

when
to

Cicero and
the

colleagueswere

and clay,

Digitized by

76

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Romans

had

the forgotten

very

name

of freedom.

The

palacewhere
slept and

and Claudius Caligula, Augustus,Tiberius,


on

dined, stood

the

highest summit

of the

and Palatine, opposite,

overlookingthe Forum, reached


Victoria^over
in its and

by
and

goodly
.above

marble

staircase, per clivum

the grotto of the the

Lupercal, opening
Romulus

rocky flanks;
Remus,
the
at

traditionary refuge of
mouth
grew

whose

the

Ruminal

on fig-tree,

present
It

site of the
was
a

old

doubled-up
same

church view

of

San

Tanto.

noble

prospect that

from

the

palace of

the

Caesars, facingthe Forum


on

on

one

side and
never

the great Circus boasted


a

the other ; the whole


scene.

universe

fairer the

Augustus, indeed, when


to

he

first inhabited

affected Palatine, "Prince of the

be

modest, and

himself only calling


world humble It
as

Senate," ruled the


the while in
a

it

were

all by stealth,living

abode.

always appeared
for
a

to

me

that and

Augustus

was

never

intended
emperor

great man,
was
a

that his This


two

coming

to

be

of the world
was

mistake.

extraordinary
circumstances ;

consummation because first,

brought about by

Julius Caesar

his uncle

happened
his
to

to

be the
as

assassinated; and, secondly, because


usurer,
or

father be called

banker
more

(ashe

came

afterwards the

sounding

left genteel,)

little town

of Velletri

Digitizedby

PALATINE,

REPUBLIC,

6-

AUGUSTUS.

77

and

removed

to

Rome,

an

act

considered

at

the

time
to

quitepresumptuous by
taunt

the
"

Roman

who people, had

used

Augustus,and
with

say,

that his mother

covered
a

him

to her being the daughter of flour," alluding

Velletri miller.

But from

this

little

impediment

did

not

prevent her
and Palatine, and Marius

son

lordingit

most

on imperially

the

shedding Roman
had done before

blood him.

as

as freely Sylla

In

one

day

three

hundred

senators

perished by
this

his command.
seem

So littledid for the


he

tremblingyouth pale,
was

adapted

brilliant rdle he of his uncle's


was actually

selected

to

when that, play,


was

heard

murder, and
afraid ! It

that he
was a

named

he his heir,

new

thingfor by
a

JuHus
who

Caesar's victorious
not

to legions
an

be headed

youth having

could

make

them who

oration

without in
a

and preparedit by heart, still this silent

alwaystravelled
trembled and

litter ;

boy,

who his
was

turned

pale^
Sextus

managed

to

conquer all. He

enemies, Antony,
wise

Pompeius, and against even


them
on

enough also

to be

proof
tried

seductions,though Cleopatra's
when freely
much

she

him therein

Antony
than

was

beaten^ showing
But

himself
then
son

wiser

his great uncle.

his uncle had had neither.

wit and However

and imagination,

the banker's other


torn

he did what order in

the

could with

not

he established accomplish,

Rome,

Digitized by

78

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the result of years intestine factions, made his


name

of civil

wars.

He the
not

both after
nor

loved
a

and

feared, reformed
he could of

public
reform
two

manners

fashion, though
a

his own,

put

stop
and

to

the

disorders

the

his daughter Julias,

granddaughter,otherwise
the roads of bandits and
not

than

by banishment; swept
fell upon actually
to make

who assassins,
to rob

people in
slaves !

those times He
was

them, but
cold
a

them

one

of

those make

unimpassionedcharacters
act

that live

by rule,
or

plan and

up

to

without it,

allowingheart
like him
are

to imagination

interfere. In fact, men


such
!
was

not

troubled

with
a

inconvenient

they supernumeraries,

only have

head

Augustus Altogether,
"

just the
have he been
was

man

for the times

would ^brilliant qualities

de

trop. He
to

had be he

plentyof plain sound


master

sense,

determined

in

quiet way,
though he

and
was

also to
not

so enjoy himself,

ruled Rome
on

called emperor,
was

and It

lived
was

the

Palatine, though brought home

his house
new

small.
"

there he

his

wife

Livia, Ulysses
he tore from

in

called her, whom as petticoats" Caligula husband various after he had other divorced

her

and Scribonia,

committed

littlefaux spares
not

fas, duly recorded


Caesar imperial

by

friend

who Suetonius,

in his bed-

and-board

vices.

Digitizedby

PALATINE,

REPUBLIC,

"Sr- AUGUSTUS.

79

On

the Palatine
"

were

celebrated

those

bacchanalian
the guests,

meals called of attired


as

the twelve and

when divinities,"

gods

as goddesses (Augustusfiguring

imitated Apollo),

the circle of
a

high Olympus.
Rome

Pleasant

little re-unions

at truly,

time when and


a

in languished

while so that, famine,

the Plebs

the

starved, Quirites
the

with and pointing laughed, people

shrugto

Palatine,

said, The
"

gods had
of

eaten

up
at

all the com."

The

house

Augustus

this time

was

neither

markable re-

for its

magnificencenor

for its size.

"The
of

"were corridors," says Suetonius,

low, and

instead

marble

Alban

stone

lined the walls," an

affectation of of

and primitive simplicity

full republicanplainness, of the


astute
common

wisdom,
sense
seem,

and

highlyindicative

which

led Augustus to invariably

be rather than

to

Rome

was

nominallystill a
the

republic j

laws

were

passed by the Senate;


was

people ruled; Augustus


he
never

not
a

king
"

Heaven

forbid! He
was

dreamed
a

of
nor

such
a

thing, not
was

he.
a

neither be

tyrant
him

he dictator,

citizen. Far

it fi-om
not

to

play the
the

fool like value


was

JuHus Caesar,, who,


a

ing understand-

of

name,

hankered

after the title of different entreated


was

king, and
wary

assassinated.

Quite

the
to

Augustus, for when

the Senate

him

Digitized by

So

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

he accept that dignity,


excuse

on

his knees

implored them
a

to

him, and
was

not

to

press upon
to
"

him

title which would


"

he
be

declared
even

odious utterly
"

him.

He

not

called lord ;

He

liked Caius

(so he said)

to

be

dressed ad-

by

his name,
a

Julius Octavius

Augustus,

being nothing but


humble
man,
to

plain Roman
was

a citizen, simple,

whom

confided the

the

charge

of

the Republic.*'At arranging years this

of expiration

every ten
leased re-

comedy

was

renewed, he, praying to be


and
"

from

the burden

care

of

with affairs, public

earnestness. affecting

" that it was Indeed," he said,

alone out

of the love and he


ever

respect he bore the Senate


had
was

and

the
such in

that Republic,

encumbered

himself with
farce

This responsibilities."
manner. masterly

the playing really


not

Yet

it was

quiteconsistent
the
to

with

those loud

of humility, to accept professions murder


as

office of have

to grand pontiff,

the many

senators, and clients and

his vestibule
as

beset he

with
were

lowers fol-

though
The

that whose

nameless

thing,an
was

Emperor.
was failing,

poor

man,

health
and
a

always

overdone literally
was

with honour off to

and glory,

when

he

went indisposed,
a

friend's house If he

to enjoy (Maecenases,)

little peace.

Augustus,in
would the have

had fact,

lived in the
the

Shakesperian age
"

agreed in

sentiment, poet's

uneasy

rests

head

Digitized by

82

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

worshipped in
another have letter

the

person

of

Anteros, not
:
"

Eros

In

Augustus

writes

My
most
we

dear

Tiberius, we
we

passed the festival of Minerva


so

agreeably ; kept
the

played every day, and


warm

that often,
I

table

; I lost 2,000

sesterces,but
it to the

might

have

gained
so,

50,000,

only I

returned
my then

players. It
the
to

is best

they will
old
man

celebrate
!
"

to liberality

skies."

Amiable
"

And how

he

goes

on

tell his

dear

Tiberius bread

meagre

is his

" in his carriage fare, eating

and

dates;"

and

again, "that
ate
an

standing in
ounce

the

porticoof
with
some

his Palatine dried


own

he palace,
A
man

of bread
vinced con-

raisins."

must
can

be really

of his worth the

who immortality

think such details


one

chronicling. They
of the box

remind of

in their suggestive the mould of


at

minuteness
the beautiful

and paint,

bosom

left in the

burning la.va-rock
of

Pompeii. Strangepeeps
ages, that open hide
"

these into the mists

bygone

for

an

instant and
ever.

reveal the secrets

they

then close have

again for
been

It must

quite patheticto really


of

behold
a

passing along

the

splendid streets
on

Rome,
a

pale

man ordinar)r-looking

foot,simplyattired in
wife the and crowd

worsted
see

cloak

knit

by

his

own

daughter; to
:

him been

elbowed

and

pushed by

it must

have

I say, quiteedifying,

to see

and this,

then to be told

Jhat

Digitized by

PALATINE,

REPUBLIC,

6-

AUGUSTfJS.
And where

%'^

that

man

was

the

great Augustus !

might

this humble
to vote

citizen be
a

going? Perhaps to
to the

the Comitium

for

or friend,

tribunal
a

to

be

surety for

client,or
was

perchance to
to marry ; but

visit

senator

whose may be

daughter
sure, bent
to

about
some

always, you
Who

on

citizen duty. strictly


so

could He

believe him

be

king, seeinghim
at

simple?
it
was

acted his really

part well, but


when asked
a

times

troublesome, especially

common

soldier, deceived
to

by

his "I

hypocrisy,
have
no

him, Augustus,

be

his witness.
"

time," answered
one
"

the citizen

Emperor,

I will send

some

else.'* you

"Caesar," replied the


wanted
me,

obstinate
one

veteran,

when

never

sent

in my

place.
the

fought myself."
was

For

the

sake

of appearances

Imperator

obliged to

go,

it feeling

inconvenient

nevertheless.
Deified

Augustus had

bright piercing eye,

and

desired to be

thought to
"

carry in his countenance like


was

thing some-

divine,

look

Jove

to

threaten

and

mand," com-

but this god-man

afraid of his

being in
which

the dark

alone,had
with
a

uglyspots all 6ver

body

he scrubbed
or

brush, could illbear the


at

excesses

of heat

cold,

trembled

thunder

and

lightning, always takingrefuge


vaults of the

duringa

storm

in the cellars and the whole

Palatine ;
was

wasgiiscomposed for

day

if his left shoe

Digitizedby

84

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

put

on

his
was

foot,and objectedto right


no

start

on

journey

if there
But

dew

on

the grass ! affect


an

althoughAugustus might
Livia equality,

imperialkind
it like
on
a

of

and libeity

queened
baths

real

Empress.
which

She hod

her sumptuous

the Palatine

still remain, the faded the

colours

of the frescoes She

yet

to clinging

damp

subterranean after her

walls.

also had other

her

slave Aiurelia to look

littledog, and

slaves to trim and


are

dress her
on

which royal head, (all


was

culars partibeing

engraven
an

which their tombstones)


indeed citizen
!

very like

Empress

Augustus, humble

though
in^the

he was,

in delighted of the

spendingthe public money


not forgetting to city, erect

embellishment
Porticoes close for
to

several

himself,
his
own

the

grandest of

which

stood naturally

house, beingcalled the Palatine


to

and Portico,

dedicated

Apollo.
Another titlewas
was

voted
a,

to

Augustus which
"

he

said

"

but than

then he
all the
to

such

hypocrite
first he

that he

prized more

rest. at

At

refused

this title when


multitude the kind

offered crowned

him

Antium, by the assembled


the theatre.

with

in laurel,

But, when
any

Senate,without acclamation, or
of fuss diplomatic Messala and
as

or discussion,

noise,spoke by
man,

the

voice of
the

Valerius

one

and

said, "May

Digitized by

PALATINE,
be

REPUBLIC, happy,
Caesar

""

AUGUSTUS.

85
and

presage

Augustus, for people


"

thee

thy

house, the
'

fathers and of

the

salute

thee

mously, unani-

Father

thy Country.*
my

Augustus shed tears,


script accomplished,Conto ask

and

"All replied,

desires
now

are

Fathers,and
the celestial your of

I have

nothing more
last

of

gods,but, that
sentiments

until my
same

days they will


me/' This

preserve is
a

the

towards

touch

republican pathos very impressive.


was

That The

Augustus

immensely popular is
him,
nor

certain.

people,who

neither understood
of him.

his subtle

projectsfor
him abode

the subversion

liberty, apd only elbowed


When this
same

in the streets,adored of which


or

humble

I have

spoken, without
on

either the

pictures,
Palatine,
whole

statues,
was

marbles, that he inhabited

burnt, veterans,

decemvirs, tribunes, the


towards them such Such
were

contributed people indeed, voluntarily


But games,

its reconstruction.

then

Augustus gave

splendid
actors,
heard
were

they

could

not

help loving him.


monsters,
never

and buffoons, philosophers,


or seen

before.
to

Africa,Asia, and

the whole

west

ransacked

the popularcraving for satisfy

amusement.

wild beasts, feet long,rhinoceroses, Boa-constrictors, fifty and wild


were

horses,were
to
amuse

exhibited

; even arena,

the young

nobles with the

forced

descend
the

into the
commons.

along
were

knights,to

These

brave

Digitizedby

S6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

times for the


man

plebs;

no

wonder

they loved

that

silent

in the woollen

cloak,who
No
statue

created all these when erected

delights
from

for their diversion.


an

wonder
was

he recovered
to

that illness, him. could

the

physician
the the

that cured

To do

build
to

up his house

was

indeed

least

they

show

their

gratitude;but

unwittingpeople did
and the and sights,

more,

for in return

for the games, that

the

actors,
"

they

surrendered

national

! jewel of great price ^their liberty

Digitizedby

THE
THE

PALATINE.
EMPIRE.

TTOR
-"-

two

years

after the

the

death and in

of

his adopted

father,
habited in-

Augustus,
the

rigid palace

inscrutable

Tiberius

Palatine

retirement,
his
At

ever

ing pretendand wits

an

immediate
but in

departure, settling

equipage
last salt the the

attendants,
"

always procrastinating.
those Roman Greek dark

for

even

days
"

some

Attic
him

sprinkled
nick-name

and
of

flavoured

dulness famous

gave for

Callipedes,
and
to

always

being

in

hurry,
made assumed

yet

never

advancing.
abode

Some

additions
who

were

the

imperial

by

this

wily tyrant,
"

with of his

declined self-denial, and under of the

the

title of

Father
"

Country,"
and and life

specious pretext
"his
set

of of

the

tude magni-

weight
of

Empire,"
and other

love

retirement,
recorded

ease,"
pen of

phrases
to

by
from

the

sarcastic

Tacitus,

affected meanwhile fell from

withdraw

public

business,
every

watching
word that the

with
the

lynx-eyed
unfortunate
to
remove

suspicion,
senators,
in

order,

on

slightest pretext,

Digitized by

88

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

all who power.

opposed

his

stealthy progress

toward

absolute

Yet, it would
and
course

seem

that this

dark Claudius,
he

and
a

penetrable im-

as sanguinary,

became known

after better of

long

of

had dissimulation, domestic knows mother the

once

feelings,

of feelings

and sympathies, but

household

pleasure. Who
the Agrippina,

that the loss of his beloved


not

of his son, may scale the

have

soured

him, and
career? divorced and and
manners

turned When

for evil in command of

his

subsequent
he

by

Augustus

and Agrippina, he

married

whose Julia,

character

he felt was the grief detested,

poignant

sincere.

Meeting Agrippina once


on

by chance, he
love and should

fixed his eyes


sorrow,
never

her with such


care
was

an

of expression that of

that
meet

infinite

taken touch

they

again.

That

one

humanity,that
Tiberius.
as an

one

for the wretched look, pleadseloquently


But

for this

Tiberius trait, single


The

is described the world

mitigated un-

monster.

of history

does

not

present

more

extraordinary political problem, than


of the
Roman
a

the

abject submission
years to the savage

world

during so

manygraded de-

despotismof
hated

miserable

old man,

and by his vices,

for his

Yet, though cruelty.


still complaining), and

it complaining(gently, the Romans

is true, but

submitted, opened their veins

died.

Digitized by

90

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

enigma,
Tiberius

was

fear^ cowardly, abject, miserable


afraid of the freedom the

fear.

was

Senate, with its traditionary


and the

tendencies towards
feared
as Tiberius,

republic ; the
successor

Senate of power both alike of

established legally

deified Augustus,the de
of the

factopossessor
and for
to

of the

vast

commonwealth;
and

the

people

feared
were

Senate

Emperor,
blood
from the

them, both

So tyrannical.

flowed the
more

freelyin

the

streets

Rome,

whether

of republican proscriptions

Syllaor Marius, or
It
terror
was
a

legalbutcheries

rius. of Tibe-

wretched

and period; distrust, suspicion,


most

prevailed everywhere;

of all at court, where his life in


to

the

all-poweiful Emperor passed


of

trembling
a

afraid hesitation,

giving an

audience

foreign

afraid of a ambassador, afraid of interrogating prisoner,

allowingthe provincial governors, appointedby himself,


to

leave

Rome,

lest

they

should

turn

traitors

by

the

wdy. Augustus had


at

least ruled

the world and

with

certain pous pom-

gracious magnanimity. Games,


external ceremonials, had wreathed with flowers

and festivals, internal

peace, and

prosperity,
the citizen

the chains which the


so.

Imperator was
but with

forgingfor

annihilation of
He
came

liberty;
a

Tiberius it was
his
manners

not
were

of

hard,

proud

race,

cold

and

and repulsive,

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE.

91

as hypocrite

he was, games he

he
to

could

never

assume

amiability.
no

He

gave

no

the

people,he

erected

public

monuments,
liv^d all his like The
an

hated

and gladiators
on

and spectacles,
at

whether life,

the

or Palatine,

Capri,

ill-favoured wild old of


man

beast, burrowing in his den.


was

wretched

only happy by
his

shut

up

in the
a

little island

Capri,surrounded
on

with guards,

soldier stationed

every

rock, a fleet of vessels, ready


a

manned,

lyingat anchor, and

regularsystem
enable him

of telegraphic

so arrangedas'to signals,

to summon

at

moment's He
was

the warning,

whole

Praetorian camp and it, his he


own

from

Rome.
at at

he knew detested, the

trembled

the his

senate, the army,

people,at

friends,
his

slaves,and
Two

above several

all at the

very

thought of
were

successor.

heirs apparent

sacrificed

to

his
he

the youthfulAgrippa, and jealousy, seemed

Germanicus,
existence would of of rule
state

and

only
the

to

acquiesce in

the

under Caligula, the

full conviction
own

that he

empire

after

his

barbarous

notions

policy.
The of his who his fears of Tiberius
successor were

for by prophetic,

the hand

he

died

that worthy youth Caligula, and beheld the miurder of

had

stood

by

unmoved

entire race,
the

and father,mother, brothers,

sisters;
in

finding that

old

tyrant, though ill and

bed,

Digitized by

92

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

assisted by Macron, inconveniently, lingered


of the face and Under
grew

the

prefect
his

Praetorian

guards,threw

an

old mattress

over

him. strangled the Augustan Caligula, and into multiplied


a

mansion

on

the

tine, Pala-

All proud palace-citadel.

affectation of

in manners, republican simplicity, vanished

dress,or

had architecture, colonnades the of

long

ago.

Vast

sculptured
now
rounded sur-

costlyLacedaemonian
its

marble

edifice, guarding
The

approaches from
half
a

the

profanum maniac,
the

vuigus.

Emperor,

buffoon, hair

and

entire barbarian, erected


of

temple

near

a golden statue palace, containing

which, himself,

served

by

and collegeof priests, dressed He each had


a

surrounded in

by

ever-

was smoking altars,

day

robes, similar
for

to

those he himself the

wore.

perfect rage
waited* he
must at

acting
for

god.

Succeeding Emperors
to

least

their death honours


at

become

gods, but

enjoy divine
those
mary custonow

once,
"

without

delay. Besides
"

titlesof

most

good,"

most

become great,"

quitecommon,
and

must Caligula

be

with Hercules,

his club

skin,or

Bacchus,

or

Castor,one

of the great twin

brethren.

One with
a

day

he

appeared
Sometimes

as

Venus,
he

another

as

Neptune
the
crown

trident of the rays

walked
as

about

imperialhalls
of

Palatine dressed
fastened round

Apollo,a head,
and

golden

his

Digitized by

THE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE.

93

accompanied by

the Graces

at

other
to

times he

sonated imper-

Mercury, and
of the

skipped along
littlewings

the admiration his feet ;

with courtiers,

danglingabout
as

but best of all he loved His the

to be addressed
was

Latian

Jove.
on
an

strangest freak
a

his horse stabling of


of

Incitatus

in Palatine,

mansion

marble, furnished with

ivorymanger,

coverlets

purple,and

bridles set with


a

also presentedthe animal with jewels. Caligula and issued retinue, his intention of invitations in his name, and
A

palace

ced announ-

making

hihi Consul.

decree the

was

commanding actually published


while the horse

Silence around

palace

slept.

Such

things seem

scarcely

credible.
Yet

the accession

of this Bedlamite bread


"

"

^who,by aid of

strait-waistcoat and

and

water,

might

have

been

brought

to

his

senses

^was

hailed

by

the entire Roman

people with
months
a

such hundred

paroxysms

of frantic

joy,that

in three
were

and

sixty thousand
To such
a

victims

sacrificed in his honour.

degreewas
son

public
beloved

enthusiasm

aroused

in favour of the

of the

Germanicus, that,during a

the plebs temporary illness, the and porticoes about the

passed whole
courts

nightsunder

of the

exclaimingthat they offered palace, wildly

their in

their children,their substance, heads, their lives, the

to expiation

gods, so

that their beloved

Caligula

Digitizedby

94

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

might but
their
As
senses

be in

saved

The

unfortunate

Romans

came

to

time,however.
his

Caligulaextended

palace, he
and
No

fetched
to

from adorn the

Greece

fresh statues,monuments, The


statues

marbles
sooner

his work. beauteous

mad-headed

fool !

had

off their heads, arrived, than, striking


own

he substituted his Within with blood

graven

image

instead !

these sumptuous
and

walls did in
a a

this

man,

drunken

lust,dressed
and bracelets,
of the hill
one

silken
on

ing wearpetticoat,

sleeves and
out

helmet

his

head, look
ing wishcut

from
"

the brow

over

imperialRome,
he

that the
a

cityhad but
"

neck, which

might

off at and he

blow

for his lictors, then, calling freedmen, descend


to

he would centurions, sometimes

the

theatre,where
and

spent three
the

successive

days

nights
of temporary order
to to

without

returningto
he scarcity

palace. During a

time

visited the

in prisonshimself,
to

select

those

captiveswho

were

be
at
"

thro^^
least not

the
want

should that the lions and tigers beasts, for strong food while cried
one
a man

was

living.

Kill tliem

all,"

" Kill them he, looking at the prisoners,

from all, he

bald

head

to

another

!"

On

the Palatine
"

kept

some

of his victims

confined

in iron cages,
"

hideous

within menagerie self each

the courts the

of his

palace, amusing him


inflictedon

day by

sightof

fresh tortures

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE-^THE

EMPIRE.

95

" Strike them them,cryingout the while,

so

that

they may
add,
Even

feel death ; "What

"

then, mutteringto himself,he would


their

matters

hate,if they do but fear me."


he
a

festive repasts during the

diverted

himself

by witnessing

with dexterity
of
some

which

favourite

centurion struck oflf


the

the heads

within prisoners

banquetimperial
atrocious

hall, ting renderingall he


bitter sarcasm, One the cold

did stillmore

by

the

mocking cynicismof
the intense

his words. with craving

of his eccentricitieswas
was

which he

to accomplishwhat possessed

had

hitherto
to

been deemed
each wild dream

impossible to giveform
"

and

substance

that coursed each other his


career imperial

throughhis excited
the

brain. He

began

on by appearing

stage.A god all day^ at night he astonished


who
were

those senators

summoned

to the
a

floating palace by gracefully


the soft

towards

them, attired in
flutes and

and dancing to tunic, The of

of tinkling

castanets. to

ever, senators, howand thing,


run so

got accustomed
their dignity as forgot the

this kind

far

to tuck
:

up their togas and


even

after

Emperor's

chariot

they
sang

descended danced
turns

into the

arena, drove
of deified

and chariots, Caesar. But

and

in imitation

Caligula, by
grew

gladiator,
of these

orator,dancer, and
in vulgar pursuits,

soon charioteer,

weary

which

any

senator
a

might ecHpse him. god.


In

Such

pastimeswere

unworthy of

future the

by Digitized

96
elements

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

were

to

be

conquered,the
at

laws

of nature

regarded. dis-

Bewildered brain
career

his boundless forward

power, in
a

his weak

turned, and

he

rushed
If he

stillwilder
stand

until his death. of the sea;

built a

it must villa, become

in the midst

mountains nations
must

must

plains,
at
a

plainsmountains, and
nod. in
a

be

conquered Baia,to
and

He

must

drive

across

the Gulf of

fro,

dressed chariot, the breeze.

as

for the
To

his glittering tunic circus,

flyingin

increase

bis amusement,
had

at

the temporary bridge which given signal, him shore is

sustained the of

submerged, that

the

Emperor
heart

standing on
at

may

rejoice his wicked


of spectators

the
waves.

sight

thousands the
sea

in perishing
"

the

"Into

with

them," he cries ;

the festival is over, let the

guests die."
not Caligula, content

with

his

temple

and

worship,

under

the

name

of

the image beingdressed Latialis, Jupiter the Romans

in his,clothes, scandalised greatly between and well


the statues
at

by

ing stand-

of the great twin

Castor brothers.
"

Pollux, who,
for Rome."
to

the battle of affected

Regillus, fought so
larity, jocu-

He
secret

also,with hideous
with his

hold

conversations

good friend
in the idoFs the
answer.

and
ear,

brother and

Jupiter Capitolinus, murmuring


own

his presenting

to

receive stormed

Sometimes, indeed,he raved

and

at

Olympian

Digitized by

98
hot

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

essences

many

times

day.

In

imitation

of the

he Cleopatra, "g3rptian

swallowed

pearlsof

inestimable distributed from of

them value,after dissolving


to his

in

vinegar. He
of

guests food
of

and

bread

formed

gold,and

the

summit
among

the the

flung handfuls Julian Basilica, populace. Anon, his


his poverty, asked the from mood

money he

shifted,

announced publicly Year's

his courtiers vestibule of


the passerscaused the

for New the

and, standingin gifts,

solicited presents imperial palace,


!

by

Tired

of this

degradingpastime,he
to

floors of his

halls largest

be

strewed

with

ingotsof
at

gold

and

jewels,upon
the

which

}ie flung himself


he

full Such

in length,rejoicing
scenes

treasure

possessed.

has the Palatine beheld has lively picture been

left by Philo of
to

life imperial

in his
statue

day.

The

Jews had reftised

admit

Caligula's
at

within the

Holy

of

Holies,in

the

Temple

salem. Jeru-

the They imploredPetronius,


to

Roman

governor,
of this

intercede

with the

Emperor

for the revocation

impious demand,
"

and
a

Petronius, touched

by

their

prayers, should Arrived the world in

arrangedthat
wait in
to
on

deputationof plead

the

noblest
own

Jews
cause.

and Caligula

their all the


was

had the deputation Italy, find the from

trouble

in

Emperor.

He

rushing about
gave

Campania

villa to

villa ; at last he

them

Digitized by

THE

PALATINE---THE

EMPIRE.

99

rendezvous

at Rome.

The

Jews

ment stared with astonish-

at the marble

arcades,the Grecian
that paintings,

statues, golden
the

vases, and halls ; the As

gorgeous

adorned

palace

gardens were
traversed
a

the porticoes glorious, magnificent.

they

the

splendid apartments, they

came

suddenlyon
stem

tall, ill-proportioned man,


little hair, and
an a

with small eyes,


beard. of the He
was

brows, very

long
steward

between standing and


was

actor
an

and

palace,
as

dressed

in such

manner extraordinary

to

leave it doubtful what


or

whether particular divinity,


to

male
a

female, he

meant

represent

The
on

Jews, in
the

terrible

fright, prostratedthemselves
and

ground.

"Hail, Emperor trembling voices.

Augustus,"murmured
then,
are

they, with
men,*' cried
God.
men,

"These "who

the
an

turning round, Caligula,


These who
are

adore

unknown

the
to

enemies impiousfellows,

of

gods

and

refuse

worshipme."
we

"

the No, Caesar,"replied in your


our

Jews,"we
victims and
are

love you,

hecatombs sacrifice blood flows

honour,
altars,
that

and slain, you,

freely upon

when

Imperial Caesar, recovered


offered up
our

from

terrible malady, we and welfare,


"

abundant the

prayers for your the universe."


to

united

joy

to

joy of

" Yes," replied Caligula,

you
me

but sacrificed,
no

another Then he alter

God,
rushed

not

to

me;

you

did
room,

honour."

off into another

gave

his directions to

Digitized

byGoogie

100

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

this statue, and

that

leaving the picture,


All at do you The
once

poor the
not

Jews

to

follow in fear and turned said round

suspense.

Emperor pork?'*
could

again. "Why
quite
from

Jews

eat

he, lookmg

grave.

attendants the

forbear scarcely
no

laughing;but

in deputation,
"

merry in the

mood, gravelyexplainedtheir

reasons.

You

are

repliedCaligula, right,"
some more

"

'tis

nasty meat."
out

At

after length,
more

and running in and talk,


" Now them, saying,

of may

rooms,

he
seem

dismissed
to me
as

you in not

go.

You

more

mad

than wicked

me acknowledging

God."
at

But

the

hour

came

last,when
The very

Rome

cut

off his his

this

monster

in his danced his

prime.
on

nightbefore
to

murder

he

the

stage.
seemed

But,

insure

for safety,
to

fate approaching three senators

revealed partially rank


to be

him, he caused
to

of consular

summoned front row, sound

the made

palace. Having placed them


his appearance, and danced The late
next

in the
to

he

the

of trumpets and
a

music. military slumber


at
a

day,

awaking from
under the

drunken

hour, he fell
the traversing

avengingsword
the

of Chserea

whilst
out

of galleries

palace,and
so

breathed

his vile life

within the walls he had


If

long polluted.
a

Augustus

was

Tiberius hypocrite,

and butcher, idiot.

Caligula a

madman,

Claudius

was

an certainly

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE^THE

EMPIRE.

loi

He

had

been

all his life

so

debased
was
a

and

so humiliated,

assured constantly
one, that he ended

that he

fool,and

treated he the

like

the by losing the

littlesense

originally
hands of

possessed. Thus
a

Empire passed from


of
a

maniac

into

those

fool, yet the infatuated people


With about all his

and the Senate there made


was a

meekly degree

submitted. bonhomie of

stupidity,
that

of

Claudius
between How and

his

reigna

kind

breathingspace

the he
too

horrors
came

committed be made

by Caligulaand
emperor with the At

Nero.

to

is

too

amusing,

nearly connected

domestic

historyof
would
on

the
not
news

Palatine,to be omitted.
believe that
as a

first the Senate


;

was Caligula

dead

theylooked
to

the

mere

trick soul

imagined by
held
a

himself

try their fidelity,

and
At

every

his tongue, and herald

stayed at
in the

home.

however, length,
assembled Then

appeared

and circus, his

before the

multitude Senate

announced formally in of the of

decease.
talked

the the

assembled

haste, and

loudlyof
the

re-establishment
memory

Republic ;

was liberty

watchword, the
the very
to be
name

Caligulawas
of all the
one

denounced,and
emperors drama.
were

and

monuments
was

abolished.

This

act

of the

In the meantime also.

the Prsetorian guardsheld theircouncil but they cared Caligula, much

They

for cared little

Digitizedby

102

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

for the emperors them. considered alarmed.

who generally, Under


a

clothed

and

fed and be
no

warded re-

republic they would

more

than the While

common

and they grew legionaries,

holding

their council

of

war,

these
a

the imperial palace ; worthy Praetorians pillaged


moment

it was
came

of the
was

and generalconfusion, Palatine and and


no

the

people also

up

to

assisted them.

Every apartment
comer
sacked; ran-

opened
there
are

examined,

every

for penetralia

robbers.

At

last,

after upon

all pillaging
an

the lower upper

part of the

palace, they came


a tain, cur-

obscure

where, behind corridor,


feet
were

pairof

sandaled
name,

visible.

Praetorian

Gratus by soldier,

laid hold feet

of the feet and


to
a

pulled
who,
his

them

forwards.

The

belonged

man,

and tirembling knees

white with soldier

terror, flung himself upon


his imploring Tiberius mercy.

before the

Gratus of

the suppliantas recognised

uncle Claudius,

Caligula, and, only granted


up,

seized his

by

some

strange

not inspiration,

him

life, but, straightway raisinghim


before him and
came

prostratedhimself
The

proclaimed him
up,
saw

Emperor.
heard
the the

other Praetorians of

Claudius,
not to

shouts

Gratus, who, determined


with all his
so

do

thing by halves,screamed
choice ;
butt

lungs, and Claudius,

entirely approved his


the

the ridiculous

and laughing-stock

of the

was imperialfamily,

Digitizedby

THE

FALATINE^THE

EMPIRE.

103

proclaimed Emperor,
in a litter(for he
was

and

carried down
he frightened

to

the

Forum
not

still so
the

could

be the

got

to

walk),where
soon

terrified at fathers, conscript

soldiers, very
and liberty, Then the

left off

and of republicanism talking him


as

accepted dutifully
seem

their
been

Emperor.

who Praetorians,
run

to have

afraid their
him

prot^^ would
back, and
Palatine.
Those
stone

away

if left to him

himself carried
walls

installed fairly

within the

of the

where those ancient tottering walls, walls,

one

scarce

clingsto
enshrouds

another

but for the those

tangledmesh
cavernous

of

ivy

that

them,

gloomy

grottoes,those deep down


and what temples,

those ruined porticoes vaults, what bacchanals,

hideous

splendour, they

vice,folly, havoc, and pollution, glory,


not

blood, have
had
a

witnessed 1

If each

stone particular
never

brazen

tongue, and

could

speak,

would siurely

their
hausted. ex-

chronicles,accumulated

be through long centuries,

Strange wondrous grimly on gloom


echoed
agony, the soft and
to

walls, gazing down


curse

so

the world

beneath, a
on

of blackness How the often have

and ye

crime
the

hangs

ye!

cries of

despair,to

last shriek
or revellers,

of
to

the boisterous

roars

of drunken

whispersof

venal love 1 the

The

palaceon imperial

Palatine stood

outwardly

Digitizedby

I04

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

fair and

to glorious

behold it

; Caesar after Caesar

decorated, Court,

and adorned enlarged, and the Lararium the


or

Baths

for the

use

of the

privateTemple-chapel,appeared
Alexander Severus has made the
men,
a

in conspicuous

fa9ade.

this same

Lararium

famous, by placing among

effigies
statue

of the deified of
to

Caesars, gods,and celebrated


one

with Christ, together


each of whom the he
same

of

Abraham, and of Orpheusy


sacrifice every
that could

offered mind the

mornings
so

Strange, that jumble


the

oddly

worship of
the the

shepherd-sonof Jupiterand
cause

with Calliope
on one

should Saviour,

to

be

inscribed
that

of
so

fa9ades of

the

imperialabode,

sentence

of expressive
others
as

the very would

of Christianity spirit ; be done


on

*^Do

unto

you

by/*
the

While

these letters shone


of the

in

golden

characters

exterior

palaceof

the

within Caesars,

doors,the Emperor
the

Alexander code

of proclaimed the superiority


over

philosophic

of the Christians

all others. from the

Then
sun

Heliogabalus came
and

East, with

his

worship

Asiatic mysticism,
tower
a

debauchery and
on
a

and luxury,

raised his famous intended


as

pavement
or

of

precious stones,
pile,so
that
on

royal scaffold
from

funeral he
as

by casting himself
and jewels,
^^

its suinmit his skull

might
became

fall
an

pompously
Even
my

break

Emperor.

death

shall be

mag"

Digitized by

io6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

his friends and

and courtiers,

where

he
to

so

far

forgot
the after

his

humble
to

citizen attend

as pretensions,

summon

Senate his

him. the and

Augustus
in Palatine,

was

honoured sumptuous
names

on Apotheosis,

shrine,
Drusus,
as

erected

by

Livia

Tiberius; the

of well

Claudius, Tiberius, and


most

Germanicus, figuring among

as

the

eminent
new

senators,

the

priesthood

of this

worship.
adored
at
an

was Caligula

altar erected

by himself.

Claudiiis
statue

deified his
that of

grandmother livia, placing her


Augustus.
came

beside

At

length,indeed,
adored
in this

every

successive

Caesar

to

be

second
But
to

Pantheon, the
amidst
the
to

centre

of

imperial power.
to

various

temples raised
the

Bacchus,

the

Moon,
in

Priapus, to

goddess Viriplaca,
whose

peacemaker
power has
at

conjugal disputes (a goddess


either in ancient
or

Rome,

in modem
to

times,
the
siding pre-

been

even always extremely limited),

deityof Fevery Imperial mount,


over porticoes,

that crowded

the

summit

of the and

with

Peristyles, courts, arcades,


waved wondrous

which
to

sacred

groves

"

nothing
'*that

could

compare

the mud" the

erected by pile,

imperiallump
of Rome,

of

Nero, after the


Palace of the

conflagration perished.
Rome

in which

Caesars who

Until his

reign,the

deified monsters

sowed

Digitized by

IHE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE.

107

with blood, and satisfied with

peopled it with
surface

crimes, had

been

half the

of the

but he, with hill, Palace


to

incredible rapidity linked


distant

his Golden the

the and the

Esquiline,embracing
the

entire Palatine

Caelian hills,with
Great
to Circus,

from interveningvalleys,
now

where

stands

the Basilica of Santa


extent

Maria

Maggiore, within
senators
were

its fabulous

If the

lodged
Caesar? abuse

like

what princes,

was

magnificent enough
scandalous

for

Nero of

gloried in

an profusion,

unlimited

power,

even revolting

to

the in
a

degraded
humble

Romans

themselves. affect the the

Augustus might live


but citizen, of his he would he

abode, and
in the
an

blaze would

forth teach What

all

glories
the real could

loftyrank,
a

world

type of

Roman be shown

Emperor. during the


of the whom of

Emperor

be, was

to

thirteen bnital his


us

years of Nero's and the

reign ;

that

worthy son

Domitian

infamous
"What The range each the

of Agrippina,
can

own

father had

said,

but evil

be bom

'*

vestibule of the Golden of columns


; the

House

embraced

triple

clients of Caesar, who


but
as

wait there

morning by thousands, are


vast

little specks in
so

space.
statue

The

gilded walls
Emperor,
which

are

that lofty, and gave

the colossal

of the

one

hundred
afterwards

twenty feet

high, that

statue

Digitizedby

loS

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

its name any from

to

the

Colosseum, stands
a

in the
in

centre

without
open
out

Porticoes difficulty.
this

mile

length

hall resplendent with glorious


are

purple

and

gold ; they too


of pillars every

supportedon

triple ranges
There
are

of marble

delicate tint

lakes, and
lined with

woods, and

forests, blendingwith

chambers

and gold,jewels,
to scatter

roofs perforated mother-of-pearl ; ivory and flowers,


on

perfumes
floors

Caesar's guests, and

moveable

that

vanish

like

magic,
There
of
a

to
are

re-appear

piled with
beautiful
roseate
as

sumptuous

banquets.

temples,
transparent

fairypalaces,formed
the reflecting

marble
are

sun's rays like

diamond;
heat
that

there
of

subterranean

and galleries in such

halls for the frescoes

summer,

painted
been

elaborate

whole
are

lives have

spent in their adornment


water

; there

alabaster there
are

baths

supplied with

from

the

sea,

and

others filled with brave


even

sulphureousstreams
Severus and

from

Albula.

Those

surveyors

Celer have says

laboured well;
**

Nero
a

is satisfied: "Now," man."


to

he,

I feel I

am

lodged like
was

All Greece

beggared
to

furnish

statues, paintings,
his abode.

bronzes, and
takes of The
a

marbles,

decorate
assures

(Nero

journey there

and

himself that the best


to

has everything very universe

been

carried

his Golden

House.)
to

itself has

been

exhausted

adom

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE'-THE

EMPIRE.

109

the

monument gigantic to

it has
to

pleased this abominable


riches, food,raiment,
And how Like blood

matricide
and

erect, and

furnish

amusement,
of

for his entertainment. the he world

does
all is to

the master

spend

his time?

wicked emperors
be shed the
even

his reignwell,no begins is a

in the

which Circus,

incredible after thing

in sanguinaryspectacles
were no

which

Caliguladelighted. Trajan, that reign


Nero's

There

accusations,no
could

suicides.

really good

emperor, in In

onlyhope

that his whole

might equal
government.
a

the prosperity those

first

days

of

early days Agrippina exercised


there
was

mother's

and influence,

the

stoical Seneca

with lessons of eloquence and


soldier loyal and

mercy,

and

Burrhus, the

upright man,
could
not

virtue. talking perpetually


agree,
not
to

But this
rule :
to

worthy trio

each

wanted

to

Agrippinaentreated

Nero

sacrifice himself
to

Seneca philosophy,
to be

exhorted

him

"Respect

his

but mother,

Emperor."

Burrhus

would

fain have led the climax slaves of and

his mind

to consider

military as popularity
there
were

imperial power;
freedmen,and
the

and

depraved

chamberlains lesson

by thousands,who
the

taught

still easier
the

"that

indulgence of the

was passions

only true good."


head
was

Nero's

feeble
an

soon

bewildered ; he
As

was

at

best but

artisticimbecile.

he became

conscious

Digitized by

no

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

of his and
once,

own

power
to

he

grew

weary

of

so

many

teachers
all at

determined
he

rule

alone,so
to

breaking loose

paid a

visit

Locusta, the
with
a

Brirwilliers of

Rome,
Poor

and

provided
was

himself
his

deadly poison.
then
once

Britannicus

first victim,and

started every
How
one

and Seneca, and Agrippinafollowed,* whom then

all and

it suited his cruel humour


does his the
master

to

destroy.
spend
his

of

the world
In

time

within

wondrous he
a

palace?

the

gardens

there is a circus where green press before livery, in


at

dressed in his favourite drives,

select

audience;
demand
so

but

the

people
be

the the
a

doors, and fun, that

loudly to
are

allowed
Then

to see

at last

they too

admitted.
his friends fall
A

he

has

where theatre,
a

he

singsfor

surrounded

by

whole

who cortege of courtiers, sound hands of his him

into extasies at the very


senator
announces

divine voice. his


a lyre,

of consular

rank

consul

the

and begs the indulgenceof performance, favour of the the

the

publicin

royal d^utant^ a
pauses

chorus the

of

Roman fallen

senators

fill up

(how are

mighty

I)"others
in
a

ride

on

or elephants,

play the flute,or


into the
arena
as

attired

short

tunic
"

descend The

and gladiators takes

buffoons the

grave

Burrhus The

himself

part

in

performance.
this attempt, to

philosophic
assassination.

Agrippina survived

perishby

Digitized by

THE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE,

in

Thrasea

condescends

to

assist,and
to

certain known

Elia

Catulla, who
dances theatre
on

ought certainly
stage
many
at

have

better,
After the

the

eightyyears
engagements

of age.
; he may

Nero

has

be bound all the Or


at

for the Milvian


Roman

to play Scaramuccia^with bridge,

rou" he is

who

meet

there witness the


a

every

evening.

perhaps

going to
under

night performance
hills.

Circus Caligula's
a

Vatican

It will be

for the condemned brilliantspectacle, who hate tunics


arena

those Christians,
men,

people

both and

gods
elevated their

and
on

dressed
to
"

in

inflammable up the
vast

are poles,

light
an

with

burning bodies;
the

ingeniouspunishment devised
adds much
to the

by

Emperor,

which

diversions of the

evening.
the of penetralia the

When

Nero

at

length retires

to

comedians, banquets,and palace,executions,gladiators,


await orgies
his leisure.
Here

is Senecion

his low

panion com-

in the riots at the

Milvian

and bridge,

Paris the

comedian, and Poppaea


Felicion, court
Otho linus the and

his

and mistress,

the shoemaker the hunchback,

Vatinius jester far excellence^


a

the future emperor


a

classical hundred

dandy, Tigel-

and prefect, praetorian

other

profligate

in different depravedcompanions,all ministering ways

to his

vices. In the midst of this

goodly company

sits, or

rather

lounges Nero

and ill-favoured. fat, himself, flabby,

Digitized by

H2

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

hideous

with object,

thick neck, discoloured


hair

small skin,

features,his greenish eyes, irregular


on slippers

in

disorder,

his

and wearing dered embroia long garment feet, Such is life imperial
passes

with Golden

flowers.

within his time

the
on

House, and thus the Emperor

the Palatine. Nero fell execrated

by mankind, and
House
was

the very form


stone

and
stone

fashion of his Golden

torn

from

by

an

who outraged. people,


was

never

rested

until all that


to
serve
as

remained
a

imbedded for the

in earth and baths

stones,
and

foundation

of Titus

the Flavian

Amphitheatre.
A

report long existed that Nero


years false Neros

was

not

dead, and

during twenty

continually appeared
in differentparts of the all that he had The

heading various petty revolutions

Empire ;

but at last it became the


manner

plain to
related

perishedin really d)mastyof


the the

by Tacitus.

Caesars

was

the Octavii, ended, the Julii, had Domitii, all passed to their

and the Claudii,

gens

long home
the

within the marble Martins.

walls of the

Mausoleum, in
war

Campus

Murder, death,and

had

done

their

able of imperial adoptionsand innumerwork; and spite and divorces, not marriages
a

descendant legitimate The


same

of

these

mighty
the

names

remained
races

fatalit}^
the

attended

noble

allied

by marriage with

Digitized by

114

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

cealed himself

of gold pieces in quantity in the


to

his

and girdle, the

hid

beside lodge,the Cellay porter's

dogs,

kept

there the

guard

the

entrance.

One

dog he placed
with
a

before Thus

door, which

he

barricaded his fate.


from

mattress.

concealed

he awaited Runners

Nor

did

he remain

long in
entered

suspense. the

the army every


comer

had

already
the

city. They
in

searched

within

but palace, imperial At last the Cella


was

vain; Vitelliuswas
\

not

to be found.

remembered
a

they broke
man,

open

the

door, and

found
"

within

meanly
where

dressed

of whom

theyinquired
At

If he knew

Vitellius

layconcealed?"
them, but
ere

firstby
was

lie he endeavoured and recognised,

to mislead

long he
the

dragged

half clothed

along

Sacred

Way

into

the
was

Forum, where, after enduring

horrid
.

his body cruelties, the

flunginto
man

the Tiber.

With

of Vespasian, a reign

of austere

temper,
new era.

and
It

somewhat
was

in his habits, began a parsimonious

then that the which

publicdared
the
name

to express
was

the

loathing

and and

with disgust
as

of Nero

remembered,
with
to

the

coincided disposition Emperor's frugal


was

the ImperialPalace popular opinion,

reduced

the

ancient limits of the Palatine. Titus followed in his father's

footsteps. But
alike tyrant and

Domitian, that butcher,emulous


abode

man

of brick and

stone,

of Nero's added

crimes, again
of

enlargedthe Augustan

and

the Gardens

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE--THE

EMPIRE.

115

whose Adonis,
were they

very

name

betrays the

excesses

to

which

devoted.

I find

nothingduringDomitian's reign
There is the
same

connected particularly weaiy

with the Palatine.

catalogue of crueltyand
or

vice,unrelieved

by the

artistic of Nero, sympathies


of

the dull

amusing extravagances
not heavy t)rrant
even

Caligula. Domitian

was

in his diverting flies with whom

excesses,

as

stupidand
his weary while who

senseless hours. He

as

the died

he

spent

within the

palace: good

stabbed emperors

readinga
succeeded

letter.

Of the five

him,

I have

nothing
memories

to

record ; it was engraven


on

the the

bad

alone who

left their

imperial mount.
of his
own

Trajan
Fomm,
or

employed
was

himself in the decoration


constant

engaged in
as an

warfare; Adrian
the and
;

immortalised of that of which Aurelius

his

name

architect, by
to

creation

superb
a

temple dedicated

Venus

Rome,
Marcus

few
was

mouldering
engaged

arches

yet remain
wars.

in constant seized

At the

the

openingof
at

his third he

campaign,
filled with caused
successor

with

plague

Vienna,

died,

prophetic fears
the

for the welfere

of the state, his


son

by

premature

wickedness

of

and

Commodus.
has left
a

Herodian

vivid

account

of the first arrival of


Left

Commodus
his

at the

imperial palace.

by

the death

of

Marcus father,

while yet a youth, at the head Aurelius,


I
2

Digitizedby

ii6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

of the then

forces imperial became he

in
so

Hungary

where

fierce

war

was

he raging,

to enjoythe delights impatient

of the army

that capital,
to

ran fairly

away
was

and

abandoned

the

its fate.
and

At the
man

Rome

he

received entire

with rapture
out
were

by

the Senate

people.
crowned
every

The with

turned city

to meet

him, each

flowers laurel;

scattered in his
to

path,and

citizen
memory

pressed forward
of his father's
among

behold

princeendeared
had been bom
not

by the
and

virtues. and the

He

educated that who and

them,
been

citizens could
monster

foresee

they had
would

a nourishing

in their bosom,

shortly
wicked in the

show
as

himself

only a degree less mad,


in the meantime

quiteas

Caligula. But
of

Commodus,
:

flower

youth,looked sparklingeyes,
like

transcendent and
a

his fine

features,

soft yet about

flowing locks, that hung


of

his shoulders in the sun's

mantle him

ling sparkgold literally


of The
or a

light, gave

the appearance

divinity (thecomparison is Herodian's, not mine).


Romans,
gaze continues that could historian,
one

not

admire

at him

enough

; every

wishing him

happiness,
and flowers

crowns on blessings him, and casting invoking

on

his

path.
other

After

he

had

visited the thanked the

temples of Jove
Senate
went

and

the

and deities, for their


on

and up
to

the

praetorian guards
the

devotion,he
The

habit in-

palace

the

Palatine.

ancient

palace

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE,

117

and

the

new

guest

were,

however,

not

fated

long

to

be

united.

While

his presence and

darkened

those sumptuous
were

halls, crime,
It
was

luxury, and

wickedness
was a

rife.
tagion con-

the within

old, old story :


those
one

there

moral

walls that
or

infected and

each

successive far

emperor, between. At

save

two

here

there, few and

length, weary
his

of his

misdeeds,one

of his

courtiers,

instigated by
the

sister, attempted to assassinate him in


The horrors of
were

Colosseum, and failed.

Comcruelty He

iliodus committed
was as

after this escape and both

incredible.
as

fond

of

men killing

animals
as
a

Nero

or

Domi-

and tian,

emulated

them

charioteer and

tor; gladia-

which notwithstanding

histrionic and

he propensities himself calling he

insisted on

dropping his familyname


of

Hercules, son
seen, like

Jupiter. From

this time

might

be

the stately of the Caligula, traversing porticoes


"

palacedressed
one

in

with character^'

lion's skin cast

over

shoulder and
The

a brandishing

club in his hand. about


to

Satumalian

games

were

be

celebrated,

and
own

Commodus,
mad way,

determined announced
to the

to

enjoy his

Saturnalia in his of the quitting


corted es-

his intention

Palatine, going down by


them

gladiators* quarters, and

in the city scouring

search of adventures.

his Marzia,

favourite mistress, warmly opposed this frantic

Digitizedby

ii8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

but project, ordered

in vain. that

Conunodus

two calling

ants of his attendin the

rooms

should be

preparedfor him
or

school. gladiatorial whatever him

These

attendants

or chamberlains,

also they might be called,

endeavoured

to

suade per-

this most against

unroyal prank ;
to be

but all of the

they

gained for their painswas by Hercules, who high


at the

kicked

out
own

room

then retired into his So

apartment in

sulks to

sleep.

enraged was

the

Emperor-god

oppositionhe
to rest

had from

encountered, that before l5ring


his bosom of Marzia
a

down and

he drew the
names

small and

note-book,

entered
as

both
numerous

of the cham-* killed that

berlains
very A

well

as

senators, to be with the the

nightwhile
little page

he

was

out

gladiators.
room

chanced

to enter

when

he

was

and asleep, and

seeinga

book

lying beside
She

him

pickedit up
be of

carried it to

Marzia. the

it might thinking

consequence,
once

coaxed her

child to

give it up
real

to

her, and
and

having it in

like a possession,
seized

woman

true

daughterof Eve, is
the contents.
To

with

to curiosity raging

know

her horror and


to

astonishment
committed

she that

finds within very We

a* listof the miu-ders


her
own name

be

and night,
are

at the

top of the page !

even taught,

is by beasts,that self-preservation
our

the first principle of


are

nature

; both

men

and

animals

alike in this

a strongMarzia,evidently particular.

Digitized by

THE

PALATINE--THE

EMPIRE.

119

minded

woman,

reasoned

very

justlythat
More

if Commodus blood is to fall


to the

lived she must

die,and
awful

vice versd.

within those

another ghostto be added walls, haunt Marzia than the threshold. imperial

shadowy throng that


Herodian
more

makes

speak a

nologue, movery pretty little

dramatic

probable;
them their

then
names

sendingfor
inscribed

the chamberlains in the book of

she shows

death,and

calls upon

them

to draw

their

and dip them daggers determined ultimately


of destruction.

in the
on
as

royal blood.

But

poisonis
easy mode full of his

the surest

and most

In the

meantime, Commodus,
most

his the gladiators, projectof visiting and

dear

cronies,
to

quite excited

at

the

thought of
goes to

the murders
on

be

committed, wakes
out,

up and is

the bath ; Marzia

coming
with the

he being thirsty,
cup

presentedby
The

poisoned
to

which

he drains.

poisoninclines him disturbing


a

and Marzia,under sleep,

the pretext of not


one

his slumbers, orders every


which
to

out

of the way,

ing proceed-

excites

no

the Emperor is given as suspicion,

long slumbers.
The

palaceis in deep

repose

"

not

sound

wakes

the

echoes of the endless colonnades.


seem, is wrapt in that last
no

Commodus,
which

it would there is

long sleepfrom

awakening; at
the

least

so

hopes Marzia, who


Not in

is there

watchingwith

chamberlains.

the

least;

by Digitized

I20

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Commodus
of the

wakes, and by

an

effort of nature, is relieved and

poison,but

stillweak

stupified reposes

on

his couch. Then

Marzia, seeingthat
not to

one

must
a

die, and
certain

mined deter-

be

that one, induces

Narcissus,

by promisesof
Hercules
"

immense

the suffering to strangle rewards, And


so

as

he

layin

his bed.

died

Commodus,

the handsomest

man," says Herodian, "of his age, and


in the skill with which he

and unequalledin strength, could


an fling

arrow."

So many better than

murders
a

happen

on

the Palatine it seems


No

no

royalGemonia
on
a

wonder with

that such

nothing

living prospers
human blood
!

soil stained

rivers of

Commodus

beingdead, his body, wrapt


of the

up in rags is carried out the


ex

palace and

thrown

into Deus
to

while river,
machina

Marzia

and

the

the chamberlains, in secret

of the
successor

assemble plot, before


man

conclave

appointa
They

his death of mature

became years and

public.
sober
wars

choose

a Pertinax,

judgment, who

had

himself distinguished
and been honoured

in the

the Germans, against

by

the friendship

of the excellent Marcus


At

Aurelius. leave that the

midnightthe

industrious chamberlains
the When

palace,creeping down might perceive them.

steep

slope so
at

none

arrived

the

house

of

Digitized by

122

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

but the

the they displeased

Praetorian
ever

guards,become day
that

now

executive government

since the

the

election of Galba, created


soldiers alone without the Senate
"

Emperor by regard to
the the

the voice
concurrence

of the of

any

them ^taught

boundless

power

they

possessed.
The of and
at highlyindignant Praetorians,

the

tranquil aspect
carouses,

and public affairs,

the missingthe feasts,

the license of the late


over

Emperor, in
to

drunken

frolic

determine
man

their cups
so

make

away the

with the

good
No

who

lives

in respectably decided the


on

foul

palace.

sooner

is the deed

than it is executed.

They

rush

to tumultuously

and Palatine, the

with furious haste


a "fly,

assault the

royal abode;

terrified domestics

generalsauve
refuses stoutly
There

qui pent takes


even

place, and

who Pertinax, left alone. in

to

conceal of spirit

is himself,

is

something of
these
were

the

the ancient Roman

him, but
that the

no

times for its


are

display. Finding
leaves
to

ragingtroops
with

approaching,he

his

apartment, and

quiet dignityadvances
reason

meet

them, calmly askingthe

of their sudden

attack.

Receivingno

if history and being, be satisfactory reply,


as speechifying

true, as fond of
he tragedy,
to

the heroine of

French

makes

them

its objectbeing long oration,


will not benefit them in

persuadethem

that his death

Digitized by

THE

FALATINE-'THE

EMPIRE.

123

the

least.
as

They, being
as

of

fall upon contraiy opinion, and speaking, the awful kill him.

him
So

soon

he

has

ceased
to

another

ghost is added
those dread his

that procession have know been that

glide through

halls.

It must

consoling, however, to
Severus

to wandering spirit

punished the unmanly wretches,his


the short

assassins.
was

During
much the the

reignof Commodus,
same

the Palatine

injuredby Temple
most

the

that destroyed conflagration flames burst from imaccountable the earth in The

of

Peace, when

mysteriousand
of portions Severus the the

manner.

ruined

imperialpalacewere

restored

by
also

Septimus
erected where also the
seven
new

African, who all-conquering


the eaStem of San

on buildings

summit

of the

hill,
He

now

stands the church


a

Buonaventura,

constructed Clivus

the Septizonium^ near superb edifice, adorned Caelius, above each of the with

Mount Scauri^opposite

raised terrace-ways porticoes,


seven

other,
finest

supported by
marble, each
to
a

ranges

of

columns whole

in form, the differing This

edifice

rising
as

prodigious height
or

buildingserved
the

an

entrance,

to portal,

the

on Palatine,

side of the

Caelian hill. The among


name

of Severus

stands

honourably distinguished
that

the

monsters dreary catalogueof imperial

occupied the

throne.

Constantly engaged in distant

Digitizedby

124

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

wars,

he

spent but

little time

in

Rome,
The

only returning reign


his

from
was

time to time to the Palatine. darkened Geta


to to

close of his

by

the unnatural

dissensions between

sons

and these

Caracalla. wicked could


not

Already did youths


brook
too

their father's life their

appear

long;
slow

tience impaof

rei^

the

progress the

natural

decay.
who

Caracalla

commanded actually
to

sicians phyby-

attended

Severus

hasten

his death his

poison,which

they refusingto do,


very

incurred
was

signal

displeasure.His
their execution. Then ruled

firstact

as

Emperor

to order

the Palatine within the

saw

strange

sight.Two
power
;

Emperors brothers,

palaceWalls,equal in
The

yet mortal
was

enemies.
at

deadlyinfection
the evil

of wickedness haunted

again

work, and

that spirits

these
between
terror

rejoiced. The royal precincts


Geta

palace was
in living
eat

divided
constant

and

Caracalla, each

of the

other,and

daringto scarcely

for fear of

poison. Hate, fear, ambition, suspicion, raged


their breasts. No the
sooner were

within

the ashes

of their father

consigned to
have
summer

Augustan
very

monument, that

than
came

they would
laden
so

poisoned

the

breezes the

with
that
of

perfumes

from

breezy Campagna,
The

they might slay each


the

other.

edifyingexample by
their

princes was

zealouslyfollowed

several

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE^THE

EMPIRE.

125

courts

; Pandora

was
on

the the
was

only deitywhose
and Palatine, of
a

worshipwas
was

then

remembered
open.

there her box


more

always

Geta

softer and from

amiable

than Caracalla,who, disposition


was

his earliest
manners,

youth
cious fero-

remarkable

for low

and

brutal

and

At last, both princes propensities. growing weary of this uneasy


was

determined life,

to

divide

the Asia

Empire.
to

Europe
Their and

to

belong
who Julia,

to

and Caracalla, lived with them

Geta.

mother did her

in the

palace,

their hatred, was best,poor soul, to mitigate


two
"

present while these


She
as was

Cains
sat

"

made

this arrangement.

in

despairas
both
were

she

and

for wicked listened,

they were,

her

sons, and

she

loved

them.
rose

At and

length,overcome spoke,
"

by contending emotions, she

"You earth and

my the

sons

have between

indeed,
you. you

as

hear, divided

the

sea

It is well ; let the

ocean

part the several continents


"

and inhabit,
you

end

your

But jealousies.

have

you
"

considered how
she who bore you

will divide Have

your you

wretched considered

mother?

both?

where, and how, her miserable


Divide
me

existence

is to be

passed?

with

your

swords, slayme,
may

take each
so

and bury half, least my


we

me

in the lands you may mix


even

select,

that

at

ashes

with

the

soil you

and inhabit,

may

be united

in death."

Digitized by

126

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Then, with
the miserable them would than have

tears

and

sobs, and
her

inexpressible sorrow,
in her
arms,
juring con-

Julia folded
to be

sons

and reconciled, easier to

to live

united.
upon

But

it

been

"heap

Pelion

Ossa,"
At the

persuade
her

those

to fiery spirits

peace.

moment,
and

maternal
to

griefpowerfullyaffected them,
their
several

they

returned

palaces without
of division.

further Fresh

discussion

of the broke

proposed
out

scheme

discord

soon

however, and
weary

Caracalla,
any
to

with swelling
to

savage

hatred, and

of

bridle
snatch
plish, accom-

his insatiable thirst of power,


open and violence
to

determined

by

what

treacheryhad by
was one

failed to stroke mother's


room

rid

himself Geta

bold his

of his

brother's

presence.

in

ments apartin
to

when

Caracalla
on falling

burst

into the

sword

hand, and
the whose like
a

the

ill-fated youth,pierced him the

heart, his blood


arms

deluging
Then

unhappy Julia, in
the

he

lay.

rushingthrough
loudlydeclared
that peril, his

palace
had
had in the
to
an

demoniac, Caracalla
mortal that

that he brother

just escaped from

and attemptedhis life,


he palace,

being

no

longer safe
conduct hands

entreated

the

Praetorians to he

him of

their camp. but assassin, The

Afterwards
not

also fell by the

within the walls of the Palatine. besides Heliogabalus,


a

effeminate

jewelledtower,

Digitizedby

THE

PALATINE"

THE

EMPIRE.

127

added
to the

baths and

gorgeous

temple,dedicated palace.
his
to

to the

Sun,

alreadyovergrown
with upon

new

phase
Rome

of and

folly
the

and vice commenced Senate


were

and reign,

called

show

still greater

proofs of
as

their servile of the Sun covered

attired subjection. Heliogabalus,

priest

in the

pontifical garments

of

purpleand gold,

with

necklaces, amulets, and


his
new

celebrated jewels,
he had

the rites of
This
was a

deity within

the

temple grim

built.
to

for spectacle

the

old

walls

witness.

Each

morning
of

the

altars blazed and

with

costly

sacrifices ; hundreds

oxen

sheep were

and slain, The the in

rivers of the

rarest

wines

ran

around, the shrine.


a

degenerate Emperor, accompanied by


fairest Phoenician
"

bevy

of

damsels, appeared, and


"

danced the

Lydian

measiures

before

the

Senate
were

and

knights.
part
on

and Generals,tribunes, in these their

consuls
to

forced
the

to take

ceremonies, and

bear

sacred vessels

heads, dressed in the Phoenician


the sacred Roman of the
power

habit.
much
never

caused Heliogabalus

that Palladium, which had

prized
before

talisman left the

of

Temple cityby
Even

Vesta

except
to

during

the

of occupation
to the

the

Goths,

be

transported
were

Palatine.

the Vestals

themselves

not

respected by
the Sun and

this audacious Moon gave

Sybarite. The
to

espousalsof

occasion

the most

splendid

Digitizedby

128

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

festivalsall

over

Italy.

On

this occasion
his

Heliogabalus golden chariot


he

transportedthe image
driven

of

god

in

by himself, the
with

roads
But

along
time

which and

passed

being strewed
in who and

gold.

patience fail
a

however recounting, named


a

the briefly,

follies of

youth
army, At

ballet-dancer

of generalissimo
to the rank

the

raised three comedians


now,

of senators.

who lengththe soldiers, the

be it observed, always take affairs of state, him in is

placeof

the Senate

in

the regulating

tired of his effeminate extravagances, fell upon the added

palace
to
on

and

killed

him.

Thus

another

corpse
more

the

imperial charnel-house,and
Palatine. indeed
It
are

blood

flows
Sad

the sombre and sombre

the

chronicles

of

the

imperial mount.
the

is recorded

by Justus Lipsiusin forty-three


No
a

genealogy

of

the

Caesars, that among


violent deaths.

emperors,

died thirty-two
either
a

Caesar crime ; of

died without
even

of crime, or the suspicion

the

well-beloved accused
room

Livia, the
of

cherished

wife

Augustus, is

having hastened
for
her
son

his death

by
The in

poison,to

make the
was

Tiberius.

daughter and
Tiberius exile,
and

granddaughter of Augustus died

poisoned by Sejanus,his grandson


whose by Caligula,
at two
own

granddaughter murdered
in her
turn

daughter was

butchered

years

old;

Digitized by

I30

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

a cabbage garden,a vineyard,

tuft of dark

ilex

trees
an

marking the spot where


old crone, she

once

stood

the sacred grove ;


and

like the that,


her

deified

knits livia,

spinsas

with points

bony fingertowards
"

some

yawning
of

chasm, and
an

tells you

To beware/''

And,

worst

all,

modem impertinent

house,with

red walls and the The

staring
chaos
on

windows

down looking insolently Sic transit


content

upon

mighty

of the past

mundu gloria

cobwebs

the Palatine would

HeUogabalusnow
thousand But
murmur,

; his slaves

might find
to the

more

than ten

ing pounds weight clingthere is


none

walls. tottering
a

to

gather

them

; not

sound,
the

not

disturbs the ominous


the
or cicala^

solitude
the

save

melancholy chirrupof
as

of sighing

the wind

it sweeps away

across

the desolate
to

far Campagna, stretching


meet

in

waving undulations

the

ocean. billowy

Digitized by

PERSONAL

APPEARANCE CiESARS.

OF

THE

AS "^^

in

the

knowledge
may
we

of been

unseen

lands,
details in the

however

graphic
the author which

have

the

furnished
a

by

grope
one

as

it

were

darkness,

"

darkness
and

glance

over

reality
or

of

hill

vale,
in

city
an

and

village,
"

cathedral

palace,
the

moves re-

instant;
emperors
"

so

in

considering
of the have

lives
one

of

those

great
at

landmarks

past,
come

"

glance
to

the

statue-portraits which
them brutal
more

down

us,

individualises
of

than is in

even

the

tions descrip-

Suetonius,
at

as

he

cynical

frankness.

Gazing

these truth for

sculptured
be,
we

portraits, idealised
upon what the he the
man

though
himself. what of he his

they
We

may
can

in

look

decide

ourselves

was,

or

was

not;
we

we

can

probe

doubtful the

parts great

history,
the

can

approach general, line,


trace

him,
the

emperor,

renowned
each

accomplished
every
turn

statesman,
his
K

consider

of

counte-

Digitized

by

132

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

nance,

and

form

complete opinionof
has

our

own,

how

far
us.

has, or history
For, be
it

not,

represented him
in these

truly to

remembered,
ran

far-off times

when the

hatred political of party spirit

so

high, and

ambition
so

and

were

so

furious, power
the fear laws

lute, absodeath

adulation
ever

so

and excessive,
no

of

present,
"

^when

constitutional
of
"

defended

the

subject, no
the

fear

national
^we

opinion swayed
accept
all

despots like
with
a

Caesars,

must
even

history

certain reserve, and

feel

in

Tacitus, studying
we are

Cicero, Suetonius,Horace, and


in the presence of

Juvenal, that

personal sense personalprejudices,

of wrong,
as

or personal flattery, personal apprehension,

the

case

may
to
a

be. be

This

is
I

subject
touch
to

on

which what
a

much

remains
become

written.

only
in

upon

might
few

vast

theme,
I may

order

preface

remarks

upon

what

call the

physiognotnistic

of history

the past.
as imperial portraiture" we see

Doubtiess

it in the
BorA

Vatican,in
bonico
man

the

in Capitol,
"

the

in Uffizi,
a

the Museo certain extent


"

at

Naples

^may be idealized to of
a a

may, under of
a

the treatment

skilfulartist Greek
"

cunning
a

Greek, or
and
a

Roman,
a

pupilof

^become

hero,
into

fine features and But not


even

noble presence

be sublimated of
a

god.

the

hand flattering

sychophant

Digitizedby

THE

C^SARS.

133

could make
a

alter the
a

impressof
short"
on

the actual form

and features
"

tall

man

change, so
nature

as

to

be

able, recognisof
was

countenance

which
"

had

set a brand

or cruelty, villany, ugliness or degrade

that which

stamped, as with Antinous,with


The busts looks

almost

divine

beauty.

of power extraordinary expression


of Caesar Julius
to must

in the

portraitHe

be

seen

to be to

understood.

bom

rule the is

world, and
the air
of

fascinate his very

enemies. refined

There

supreme in

command,
that well-

and intellect,

heroic composure

filled forehead, broad

eye-lines, prominent eyebrows,


moutlu
That "A

manly
Mars,
has
no

nose,
to

and

closelyshut
command."
or no

God-like face

threaten and

cut finely

trace

either cruel

vindictive
set

; there
on

is

nothing
in

mean,

hollow, or false ;
the

smile
not

the
no

mouth

which
of but

generalfeatures

do of

partake ;

breadth

chin,always indicative
calm
severe

and sensuality whole

selfishness,
"

lines fiiU of in

over

the

countenance

an

unmoved A
man

look

and tolerance,patience,

wisdom.
mand, com-

even this,

youth, with passionsunder


of temper; the
one

and
cast

devoid utterly
at
a

who

could
woven

aside
him

moment fitting

chains flowery

round

by
or

that

who Circe, Cleopatra,-^" his barbarian

could

son rea-

with
in reply,

exterminate

foes,or

caknly enraged

an

to elegantoration,

the diatribes of

Digitized by

134

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

opponents

in

the

camp

or

in

the Senate, with

lofty

insult. to personal or political feeling insensibility


Caesar much.

is without
He

he feelsi too his superiority vanity;

is

too to

conscious
bear
to

of all

mental victory, his

and

not physical,

humanely with
; for

adversaries.

What and

he proposes

do, he does
Nemesis

he is a fatalistalso,
Into the the

believes in his
of
a

star.

is his friend.

hands

he commits destiny base assassin could All

himself

Nothing but
a

thrust of

terminate such
much
more

career

in
his

its very zenith. "ce One


j the
can

this and

is read

on

lifeof

Caesar Julius how he

is stamped in his
was

portraits.
the army

understand

beloved

by

and
it were

the

people ;
for

how

the

passionate Antony
lay dead

roared

as

when grief,

Caesar

before him

; how son per-

Brutus

was

execrated ; and how


came Octavius,

in the imperialism,

of his heir Rome. avenge One and

to be

on engrafted lican repub-

It

was

all for love of great Caesar, and

to

his death upon


of
as

the vile republicans his murderers. in his busts

touch littie
statues.
was

personalvanityappears
a

Even

young

man

his hair was

scanty,and
forward
no

his brow
to

high. The
most

hair is carefully brushed I have the Senate


wear a

make

the

of it

elsewhere

said that
so

honour
as

decreed him

by
to

him gratified

much

the

rightalways

laurel crown;

because

later in lifeit concealed

his baldness.

Digitized by

THE

CjESARS.

135

As
two

an

older

man

his character

can

be well studied in

very characteristic busts has grown very and thin,

in the Uffizi at Florence. is and

He

wrinkled greatly
the organs of

; much

of the

youthfulcalm is gone, eyebrow have


more

perception

about the

become

as though exaggerated,

life had grown


"

difficult to him. than eyes


a

The

look of intellect almost


"

^more

indeed His

omniscience intellect,
seem

has increased. strife and

to fathom

all things; but

and trouble,

keen

look of hero

fulness, watche^er-present
to

bring down
He is

the he

aged

nearer

humanity.
is and

anxious,for by

has

something to gain which


; Caesar

refused him
cannot

his enemies who lived, laws of the

would ? The

be

king

Had

he

knows

of prejudices

the
to

the Quirites,

Senate, might have

yielded

his

craving ;

for his mouth power and

is tight-set as of yore, and courage does


not

the

of expression

fail under

the network Octavius

of wrinkles.

generally appears
acorns.

crowned
are

with
two

civic crown

of

oak-leaves and
Statues length

There thus

very

fullstriking Borbo-

of him

in decorated,

the Museo

nico
as

at

known bust in the Vatican, Naples. (The exquisite is almost "Young Augustus,"
too

the

ideal

to

represent

more

than the

harmony of classic beauty;itis like a melody


Even here he is very like his
cast in
a

in its modulations. perfect

great uncle ; but it is a fairerface

weaker

mould).

Digitized by

136

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

An

able

man

intellectual this,

and

with self-possessed, eyes. But

loftyforehead,straight nose,
there is
a

and

cut finely

vexed, human
between

look about the the

the lines of the eyes,

wrinkle slight

eyebrows almost

peevishin
of

unlike character,utterly Caesar. which his


sat

Olympian
and

calm

Julius

That

deportment majestic

look, impassive
conventional the strong in

naturally upon
Yet

him, becomes

nephew.

it is curious to trace

family
of the

likeness
two

struggling through alike, yet


man

the different natures

men,

unlike. of mixed

Augustus is a
to

motives.
the whole

He

is false even

of for the expression slyness, is uncertain his


; there

face is fitful, and of


a

the mouth

is the shadow the

fawning
the

smile

on

shapelylipmarking
would
not

hypocriteand

intriguer.He
what bland he

for ask, like his great-uncle, would take


steal it, it, looking

but desired, He

he

the while.

has sensual

passionstoo

this cold

seen Julian,

in the fulness of the under control.


as

mouth, chin,and neck,


is open the
to

though
and

well

He

flattery,

loves

reverence,

offered

by

the craftyLivia,
we

and 'false Tiberius, read


a

the

subservient Senate; for thus


look of
as

certain conscious
himself the

complacent vanity; conveyed by


a

distrustful of partly contraction about

too,
as

slight

eyes,

though curiously tive inquisiAugustus, though

of others'

thoughts about him.

Digitizedby

138
may

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

be called mental

digtstian ; a

nature

that feeds upon he not

itselfin
been

and suspicion. Had bitterness, solitude,

master

of the

world,he

would

have

been

querulous

and

exacting ; as

and it is, he is profoundly discontented, in the fine

of sympathywith pleasant incapable things ; yet


statue
nor

to

which I have
One

Tiberius referred,

looks neither cruel


not
tonly wan-

sensual
so,
or

may

but imagine him cruel,

by
a

nature.

Cruel,because
of

nacy, he is firm to obstifirom confirmed it is may of

from

conviction
there

and justice

suspicion. That plainto


see
"

is great intellect in him


trace

there is every
he
was a

of it \ and

one

believe readily

determined
and
a

a patron general,

an eloquent orator, learning,

both classical purist the


am

in

speech and
head

pen.

He

is

in represented and hair, I of

prime
bound somewhat

of
to

for his life, say

is covered with

that,beyond the dogged


no

sternness

saturnine countenance, him


were

characteristic attributed
Who knows

to

by Tacitus is
not
a

to

be

found.
Who those
can

if Tacitus Tiberius

? partisan

tell whether
went

exceeded
he
are

in wickedness

who
came

before

him, as
These

did certainly

not those who

after him?

the

I questions

ask

into myself,looking Vices absent


in

his eyes and have

his scanning

features.

youth may

developedthemselves
and

in age, fed

by unwholesome
nature

solitude
that could

in personalfears,

that immutable

Digitized by

THE

C^SARS,

139

feel hard

either nothinglightly,
earnest

for that

good
same

or

for

bad, with
may

that have
a

face.
to

But

solitude

exposed Tiberius
more

scandalous have the know

imputationswhich

publiclifewould
have arisen from life. We

rebutted ; and

fears personal

may

knowledge
not

of constant

plots
the
or

his against
Senate while

why

he

decimated
the senators,

of the servility ridiculing Rome


we

why

he retired from
; but
z.

to

live

at

Capri,the cautious
to
a

Tiberius
old age
"

this

do

know, that he lived


the
"

good
that

rare

instance among

Caesars, and

it is probablethat he died in his bed,


is said to have the Caligula, assisted him
successor

althoughCaligula

in his of

dyingmoments.

is well represented Tiberius,

by
as

statue full-length at

in the Museo

Borbonico, as well
at Capitol

in busts

the Florence

Uffizi and in the the

Rome. and

The

historic analogybetween
in

countenance

the lifeis wonderfully evidenced emperor

the Caligula,

first

Roman which

who

broke of the
men.

out

into that

mania imperial
more

infected many

Caesars, making them


was Caligula

like wild beasts than


of

the

successor

Tiberius,and

grandson
of

of

Augustus by Julia his


son

daughterthe wife X)nly


and

and Agrippa, the

of is to

Agrippina
be traced

Germanicus.

Here

familytype

through positive ugliness ; his wicked


out

wild nature

looking

of small savage eyes ; the hardened

tyrant evidenced

Digitized by

I40

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

by

the

dropping comers
and

of the
at

mouth, who

jeersat
more

his vile

victim

laughs
cannot

his

death-throes;a
in the whole

countenance

be

found

galleryof

historic art The

innumerable

busts of his

Nero, whose

face is as his

living

tablet whereon He
was

to read
son

instances of are life,

vanity.
The from much has
so

the

of the is

daughter

of Germanicus.
as

likeness family the fool

again seen,

but diluted

it
was

were

of Caligula. Nero energetic expression


as

as

madman,
brow

and has and


"

weaker

countenance.

He

the broad

shapelyeyes
the evidently almost
"

of his ancestors, but fat of over-fed There


"

enveloped in
that the

fat

youth

Juliant)rpeis
the
"

lost

is a self-satisfied

leer about brutal


meanness

mouth,

and lines of sarcastic crttelty


all a fatuous

Caligula resembling ; over


recalls
to

complacent smirk, that piping in


coward ages who
a

the

self-deified
"

artist ^the
at all
mon com-

cracked knew
not

voice how

the

Senate listening We have Nero

to die !

and

in many

attitudes, showing youth


more

often littlein

with the well-fed is sterner, thinner, and weak and womanish

of earlier years.

Older

he

like Augustus,thoughalways the mouth.


But

about

his foul nature the head

culminates turned eyes

in the well-known the

with portrait-bust features and this

where aside, all the

drawn

murderous

bringout

of treachery

ImperialMatricide.

Digitized by

THE

CjESARS,

141

The

statue sitting

of

is admirable Agrippina
she leans back and

as

trait por-

statue.

as The/(?J^,

in

marble she

chair,
is life-

is full of
weary, and

matronly grace
her

dignity ; but
sad

thoughtsare

Canova
Madame

has imitated

this statue of

in his

of portrait sitting

Mhe, mother
her Borghese,

Napoleon,

and Venus

in the Princess Paulina

daughter, as
Rome.

Victrix,at
the

the

Villa

Borghese

at

was Agrippina

daughterof Germanicus
of every virtue. Not
so

and

the first Agrippina, a model who daughter,


was

her
was

both

hcentious and time


a

cruel. She the

twice

married, the
she

second

to

gluttonous

Claudius,whom
to

by poisoned
on

ragout of mushrooms,
"

place her

son

Nero her. face

the

throne

Nero, who
no

in his
;

turn

murdered
a

Agrippinais
of

longer young
furrowed

it is

sad

stem

regularfeatures

by

the passage

of fierce

the passions passions; gone, is


a

the sadness
the

remaining. There
mouth and eyes where had

troubled wrinkle

look

about

many

as gathers, though

she felt power but shadows


as a

gone

from
son

her, and
whom
to

that she had

come beThe

victim to that

she adored.

of

coming death

seem

gather around

her

she

sits there

curiously musing, the great


be how she
can

empress,

askingherself it may
to

long Nero
had

will

permit her
a

live
"

Nero, whom

crowned

by

crime.

The

vileness of Nero

understood only be thoroughly

Digitized by

142

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

after
at once

studying this

most

statue suggestive

of

mother,

his victim and the Museo of

his benefactress. there

In bust

Borbonico

is

most

remarkable

Julia, only daughter of Augustus by Scribonia,


"

three times married and the is


a

^the last time to Tiberius.

head
see;

face
woman

more

it is impossible to original thoroughly in all her foul whom


or

rises before history


from her bust

one.

This

lady of

judging
others

alone, much
if one knew

scandal with Ovid

might be

believed father

nothing of

her

history ;

and

that her

Augustus,

by disgusted
had

her

banished vices,

her, and

that Tiberius

her starved to death.

It is the most

sensual, false,

furtive face
no means

imaginable. A
charm

Lamia
of
a

or

serpent-woman^ by
and with

wanting in

certain sort

much

of the

and withal clever, Julian dignity, piquante^ upper

The fascinating. and that of


an

part of the face has both


is

cacy delias

intellect ; but the mouth animal.


Her

largeand
low
on

coarse

hair which

grows

her forehead, above

is divided her

in front and

combed
wears

back straight
a

eyebrows ; pencilled
in the
extant

she

kind
I

of know

chignon
of
no

behind, much

modem
so

fashion.
proves the

antiquebust

that

correctness

of

in physiognomy. history
Now
we

leave

the

Julian type, which, even


somewhat

degraded
majesty

in

and Nero, retained Caligula

of the

Digitizedby

THE

CjESARS,

143

of
to

the

great Juliusin the


baser mould

brow
"

and

about
"

the eyes,
or

studya

in the

barbarian

foreign-

descended

emperors. of obscure

Vespasian,bom

parents, is essentially
who

bourgeois practical-looking ; a coarse-featured, man,


would while

certainlyrelish
"

the smell of

and garlic,

fallasleep

Nero

sang,"as

seen

in his busts either at

Rome,

Florence, or Naples. The


for there
to

likeness is

life-like, evidently

is

no

subtle

no expression, peculiarity, shifting

perplex the
and

artist.

He the

is

enormously fat
look
common

about
to

the fat

cheeks

chin, with

bland

faces ; but it is here

with intermingled
set, action

evident falseness
of the mouth
;
a

in the

contracted

eyes and

broad, coarse
"

to any expresmouth, ready to adapt itself sion contract

^to enlargeor

with deceitful smiles

or

hard

indifference.
he
man,

By

reason

of this united firmness and


come

tability, adapA

may

have

to
sees

die would

natural

death.

Vespasian,who
good word
even

one

give no
no

/ZTwords,

but whose but


man

might not only carry suspicion.A

conviction,

might

arouse

soldierlylooking
ifit suited his purpose,

accustomed
could also

to

command, yet who


the

obey, with

of a politic readyfacility

but

heartless nature.

Titus and

Domitian

repeat their

father's

that the expression with this difference, features,

that of his brother diabolical. of Titus is angelic,

Digitizedby

144

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

The

African
a

of Caiacalla, swollen blood.

whom

there and

are

many

busts

extant, has

countenance

thick

lips tive suggesdilated like wonder


more
a

of negro that nostrils,

He
to

has round the him

set eyes and

seem

scent at

smell
one

of
ceases

blood
to

hungry

wolf.
was

Looking
his

that murder idiotic in its

pastime, and
either

that

he

was

than indulgence
were

Nero, Caligula,

or

Domitian,who
how
to

at least men

of education and
manners.

knew
a

be

polishedin
be bom he

their and

How

such

monster

could

bred have
no

is strange to understand been with that terrific could have

; for monster
countenance

must

from
a

his birth ;

education

tamed
Like

such

savage. Verus
are

Nero, Lucius

must

have

been with.
A

vain of his
I describe

person, for his busts him of from


one

met firequently

in the Museo
waves

Borbonico.
his

great shock
full whiskers

curlinghair

about but

head,

and

overlap his

effeminate

handsome

face.

Every beauty;
Hadrian been the

ture feaan

expresses

and self-satisfaction friend and

conscious

imperialfop,the
Antinous.
in These

companion of
must

and

busts of Verus has


not

have

taken refined

youth : debauchery

yet marred

mould

of his features ; but


account

there is sufficientweakness he puerility

visible to emperor.

for every

committed

as

Digitized by

146

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

who

reignedthrough him
excesses

as

and colleagues,

drifted him
his
name

into those
a

of

that early debauchery

made

by-word,in order
with.

that

theythemselves

might not

be

terfered in-

But these Phoenician the wisdom

otiierwise princesses,

most

able,wanted

of moderation.

Heliogaby
the
;

balus,who
novelties of
and

even disgusted
an

the dissolute Romans

Asiatic

three only reigned worship,


were

years

his female
now,

relatives

put

to death

with him. the the

And

lookingbackward

of through the gallery

emperors, basest form

from

the personification of Heliogabalus,


a

humanity,a body without


of

to soul,

the

majestic
gra-

Caesar,where Julius
him
into
"

power,
a

and intellect^ of that

ciousness ennoble with which


he
was

semblance ^is not the

divinity
the

invested
rottenness

of degradation

the line, imperial of the

of the

empire,and

the wickedness

Emperors descendingstep by step lower in


and plainly of any
an

tjrpeand
more

more featmre, portrayed

understood

thoroughlythan in
short

the pages

history?
study, by

This

chapter only details


a

individual
"

which

might be enlarged into

science
the

science

which, looking in the faces


ruled
cause

of
reason

great dead
out

who

the and and


same

world,

we

might

for far

ourselves is history

solve the problem of how effect, historians freedom


and impartial,
as we

correct

the past challenge present

with the

the challenge

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

WITHIN
included
**

the

area

of

the

ancient

Campus
of modem

Martius

is

the
turrets

principal portion
cjowned and the belted with

Rome,
cross." It the

her

domes

and

many

was

formerly
the and of

enclosed

by

the

low the

hills Collis

of

Capitol, loruniy
banks mediaeval vibrate

Viminal,
bounded the Tiber. di

Quirinal,
the Where and

and

hortu-

on

opposite
the the

extremity by

the
the

stately Corso,
Piazza del

Piazza with

Venezia,

Popolo,
rich and

active

life,anciently
with

extended fields of

fertile plain, covered

waving
reserved

golden

com,

royal

estate

or

apanage, and

by
the

Romulus

as

his of

private patrimony,
the nius

devoted After

to

especial

benefit of

kings
and

his
the

successors.

the

expulsion
this

Tarquiplain

"11

of

the

kingly dynasty,
meadow

fertile
to

was

converted and

into

an

open
amusement

dedicated

military
its

exercises

public surface,

purposes
to

for which

level

grassy

and

vicinity

the

river,

were

admirably

adapted.

Digitized

by

148

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

"

It

happened," says Livy,who


the wherefore the of every of com, been
an

ever

loves
"

to

give the

why
was

and
on

occurrence,

that there and sickle,


use

ground

crop

ripefor

the

because the
sent

it would

have

to impiety

make of
men

of

produce
in

of the

a field, great number

were

it who, carrying
into together, The

in

baskets,threw the crop grain

and

straw

the

Tiber, whose
com

waters

were

low at that time. in the sunk

heaps of

being dammed
a

up

and havingcontracted shallows, and

of mud^ covering added


wdiS

remained

fixed, by

which

means

to

the

accumulation formed."

of other the
to

marerials, an

island

gradually

Thus

crops

growing on
on

the

consecrated

ground dedicated
the

Mars,

the

formed Tarquinianfield, Isola del

embryo

of that

over-built largeand thickly


so

Tevere^every stranger has


At first the

often traversed.
was

Campus
course

Martius

ill-drained and
to be

marshy, but
and

in the

of time it came the

improved public

beautified.

During
erected

Republic
it ; but

but

few the

were buildings

upon

under

Empire
splendid city.

the

verdant

plain,profusely adorned
became
a

with

monuments,
What
a

second

and

more

decorated
as we

world

of recollections arise

picturethis

with circuses, temples, porticoes, ample space resplendent

columns, fountains,
groves and

and

Naumachige

divided

by

sacred

spaciousgardens, each

and consul, dictator,

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS,

149

emperor,

to striving

outdo

his

in the magnificence predecessors

of his embellishments This

and

erections !

suburb, built with every regard to architectural


seen (especially

beauty,must

from

the

of heights

the

have Janiculum)
''

realized

Rome's

ot proud appellation

the abode Towards

of all the

gods/*
close by extremity, the Flaminian
to

the furthest the


"

gate, uprose
dead imperial

massive

pyramid consecrated
of

the

the Mausoleum which I shall

Augustus,surmounted

by his statue, of
in dark
masses

speak elsewhere,enclosed
in sombre

funereal towards

groves the

stretching upwards
of the CoUis

summit

horttUoruniy

where

outspread the rich


with the

expanse

of the Horti
of that

Domitii^

crowned But

monument sepulchral

family.
of the

mightiest among
towered

the

structures magnificent

Campus Martius
world

the

all the Pantheon, built, as son-in-law

knows, by Agrippa,minister and

of

of Augustus,in that particular portion the centre, known


as
"

the enclosure

near

the field of

an Agrippa,"

enclosure fortune altered his

embellished with
of the possessor.
to form
a

splendoursuited
his baths
"

to

the vast

Around

"

afterwards

temple,the by
the

Pantheon

his gardens and ^lay pure


source

lakes watered from


a

a Aqua Virgo^

derived

near spring

the this

Anio, first broughtinto Rome day esteemed


above all

by

Agrippa, and

to

others.

Digitized by

ISO

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

under

the

name

of the

thirteen supplying Acqua Vergine^


Fontana di

the beautiful fountains, including

Treviy in
Roman

the modem

city. All
most

that oriental
rare

luxury and

riches could invent

and

was lovely,

lavished in

the decoration of these

gardens.
been
a

The
pen
to

has lake,in particular,


as Tacitus,

immortalised

by

the

of

the

scene

of

banquet givenby

Nero

his favourite

exceedingin profusion Tigellinus, any


had
ever

entertainment
were

Rome
a

witnessed.

The

guests

placed on by
a

or raft,

set size, platform of prodigious

in motion

number

of
was

ornamented richly ransacked


as

boats.

The the

surrounding country
finest fish and game,

for

supply of

as

well

every

imaginable, delicacy
the

(to rouse
all set

the
out

of languidappetites
on

satiated

guests,)

tables

with glittering in the

golden plate.

Thousands while
the

of torches blazed of

surrounding groves,
executed
among

symphonies
of

enchantingmusic

recesses

flowery bowers, and


this scene
of

voluptuousdances, midnight revehy.


the St

added

to the

of delights

Before

speaking of

the
a

majestic Pantheon,
few remarks
on

Peter's of ancient Rome,


and of origin

the progress
to

the sumptuous

structures not
was

dedicated
be

the

gods by
In

the ancient

Romans, may
the world in the
recesses

inappropriate.
a

earlydays,when
a

young, of
a

stone

set

up within

grove,

or

forest, primeval

Digitizedby

TME

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

151

satisfied the
consecrated

pietyof
in

an

uneducated
an

people,and
altar to the

became

as public opinion

presiding

"deities.

The

sylvanaspect of woods, or darkened


shrines the the

an

uncultivated country,

skirted with
gave
or

forests, by impenetrable
names

to

these rude
When

of

Fanum, Zucus^
came

Tesca. be

image of
or

any

god particular
form

to

erected,the
wall, was

Cella

in the ASdicu/a,

of

niched

added
the

to

guard

the the

idol

the against

of intemperature
passers

weather, and
of

of profanation
a

by.

In

course

time,when

the ideas of

more

surrounded a portico dignified worship gradually prevailed,


the

lending a altar, primitive


spot
the

more

imposing aspect

to

the consecrated and increased^ of with


ncien

Later, as

luxury and civilisation


gave

stock aboriginal minds and

place to

race

of

enlarged

cultivated manners,
a

ideas modified

and by travel, of the

knowledge of
Ce//a
was

the

artisticrefinements
too
mean an

Greeks, the

deemed

habitation

for the

god, and

the

Templum place

gradually arose,
on

the altar however

stillkeeping its
of portals the

the exterior of the edifice. The

Temple
came

at first opened

towards

the

but south,

the west

at

last to be the favourite aspect, of which Pantheon What


stone
a

arrangement

the

offers

an

example.

marvellous up
on

metamorphosis from
end

the

rough
of
a

block, set

in the

sileht

depths

Digitized by

IS2

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

to primevalforest,

the

edifice glittering the

which

adorned

the field of dome


once a

Agrippain

Campus

Martins, its golden


of
an

under blazing

the blue canopy

Italian

sky, at

model

of architectural beauty and

artistic proportion!

The Rotunda

buildingwas
and
as

divided

into

two

the portions,

destined the Portico ; the first originally the


"

by Agrippa

CaMarium the the

"

to

his

baths.
a

wards, After-

wishing to
dedicated
to

convert

edifice into

temple

Augustus,as
the

tutelary deityof Rome,


refused that it

he
the

added

portico; Augustus, however,


and

proffered honour,
statue

only
in the

consented

his

should
niche

be
to

erected the

where Peristyle, while entering,

occupied the
of

righton
the

that
was

Agrippa was
to

placed on

left. The'

Temple

first dedicated the curcle of


name was

when JupiterUltor,but afterwards,


came

all

Olympus
to

to

be

honoured
because Dion

there,its
all the Cassius

altered

Pantheon, either

gods
says, No

were
"

included in the its dome


was

worship, or,

as

because

shaped like heaven/'


itin size and sixteen

temple in the world


The

exceeded

cence. magnifiof

supported by portico,
reached

columns

oriental

was granite,

by

an

ascent

of five marble
most

were steps ; the walls of the peristyle

lined with the

ornamented precious marbles,

with bassi rilievi ; the floor

Digitized by

154

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

vidual.
"bulous
was

The

magnates of old Rome


It

must

have
same

possessed

riches.

is related that this

Agrippa

in the habit of

throwingamong
finder to

the

people lottery

the tickets, entitling

of gifts

money,

precious
of

and rich furniture ; that,during the continuance stuffs, his games and also he gave

paid barbers
over

to

shave

every Roman

gratis^

to

the

populace, magazines,filled
to at pillage

with every kind

of

merchandise costly

their

pleasure.

Eighteen
senator

centuries
that its

have

passed since

the

wealthy

raised

glorious temple, yet

the

Pantheon

stillpreserves

its majesticportico, its pavement,


hand of

matchless
once

dome, by

its fluted columns, and


the feet of with the

trodden

Augustus. The
of

time,as

if impressed
has

grandeur
its add

this classic monument, their

dealt

kindlywith
shadows but

walls,and
to dignity

deep

tints and Yet

heavy
.

its aspect.

the interior

of the
and

Cupola

is shorn

of its beams

; the

gildedbronze
vaulted the and

the silver that

on glistened

its sides and dews of

Portico,have
the

disappeared ;

the

morning
and

wintrymists

penetrate its unveiled dome pavement

611

heavilyon lining of
that the

the marble the

beneath, the precious

interior walls has


the

vanished,the
Genseric
had

statues

decorated

cornice

are

gone.

began

odious

work

of

and spoliation,

the venerable

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

155

walls' not say what

been ruin have


on

dedicated
the

as

to church,it is impossible

of succeeding generations rapacity

might not
But

wrought.
to mention

I pass

another

temple,conspicuous

among The

the

famous

shrines

decoratingthe ample plain.


Pius in standing the Piazza di

Temple
now

of Antoninus used
as a

Pietra^ is
columns still

custom-house

j eleven

majestic
order,

of fluted white

marble,of
massive

the Corinthian entablature.

remain, supporting a
to have to
one

They
longed be-

appear

suffered from
of the side

the action

and of fire,

which,accordingto porticoes

the

plan

of

consisted originally of fifteen, pillars. Palladio,

Many

authorities have

looked

on

this

temple as

the

mains re-

of the Portico of memory German

Neptune, erected by Agrippa in

of the naval battles

gained by Augustus;
it to have been
a

while

authorities suppose
to

shrine,

dedicated
valued

Marciana,the

sister of

Trajan;but
the

the most of

authoritiesunite in

it as considering the

Temple

Antoninus his
name.

Pius,once
The column
on

standingin

Forum

that bore

of Antoninus Monte
monument
near.

Pius and

Faustina,
often
founded con-

discovered

in 1709

and Citorio,
now

with the other


Piazza

in standing of and granite, the Fathers

the
was

Colonna, stood

It

was

disinterred the

by Fontana,
order

in the

gardens of
XL

of

Mission, by

of Clement

After many

pro-

Digitized by

156

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

it in different positions, the pedestalwas jectsof raising removed


la
to

that

portionof
which

the Vatican
the

gardens

called the
an

Figndy around
is

extend

and galleries

It library.

admirablyrestored; one
other the

side bears

the on inscription,
A

is repreapotheosis imperial sented

proportioned, finely winged genius, betraying heavy action


and much of the decline of art,

however bears the


as

in its

Emperor

Faustina

upwards. They

appear
are

half-size

figuresvery eagleswith

awkwardly placed, and


extended
on

flanked

by

two

pinions. To
a

the

leftanother
on

is seated genius
a

the

ground, upon
the column

rock,

which the

small

of representation

stands.
on
a

To

a female right, wearinga helmet,and

seated who

images very clumsily Rome, imperial throne,


to

appears

contemplate with pleasureand


the

the upward surprise of representations the two

of flight

good Emperor.
much

Confused

battles too

effaced to be

restored, occupy
much
more

other divisions of this monument, for its antiquity than from

interesting

itsartistic merit
must

Speakingof columns,I
so-called Antonine Colonna.
How

devote

few words

to the

Colunrn, now

in standing
even

the Piazza

few of the strangers, or


traverse

the Romans the centre her varied

themselves who
of the life

that

Piazza, occuppng
where

Corso, the very heart of Rome


aware

are palpitates, audibly

of the historic recoUec-

Digitized by

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

157

tions connected beside


Senate in the

with

that

monument

so standing

fully grace-

gushingfountain.
of the

It

was

erected

by

the

honour

Emperor

Marcus
over

Aurelius
the MarcoThat

Antoninus, to
manni, the
the marble

celebrate and

his victories other


on

Quadi,

German the column

nations.

bassi rilievi

represent his
the stranger;
memorative com-

military exploits any guidebookwill


but all may
not

inform

be
a

aware

that those

are sculptures

of

most

interesting legend.

In

the year his

176 of the Christian era, this Emperor


army in person

commanded
Deceived

against the
found
on

Gauls.

by
in
a

the

Quadi the Romans


encircled valley,
The

themselves

enclosed

deep

all sides

mountains. by precipitous
on

barbarians

were

encamped

the

summit

of

the
a

heights. The
defeat similar advance
are nor

Romans,
to

the anticipating

humiliation of

that of the
;

Caudine

Forks,can
with

neither

retreat

they are

tormented

thirst, they
In this

in want

of

food,a mutiny seems


of the the

inevitable.
Praetorian

the extremity the

commander that

Guards

forms in-

Emperor,

Melitine
are

legion, forming
that

part of the

body
every

of the army,

and Christians,

they declare
"

thing may

be

obtained

by

prayer. of

Let them

Antoninus. replies pray then^^ themselves God


to succour
on

Full

faith,

the

legion prostrate

the

ground, and
troops.

conjurethe Christian

the Roman

Digitized by

158

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

They
clouds

had

risen scarcely
the

from

their

knees, when

thick

darken

air,thunder

peals through the deep


shower of hail from falls

fastnesses of the

mountains,a tremendous

drives accompanied by lightning


their
over

the barbarians rain gracious the

while entrenchments,
the
"

soft and and

Roman So

camp,

refreshes

wom-out
"

soldiers.
same

that," says
in the

the

Pagan historian,at
place, fire and
water
as

the scended dewith In

time, and
from the

same

one clouds,

burningthe

enemy Romans.

scaldingoil,the
their despair, the
and

other

the invigorating rushed down from

Quadi

their camp, of the

themselves frantically into casting


where

the midst

Romans from

the

gentlerain descended, soughtrelief


the them." Emperor pitied Dion
In

their tortures
of

; even

memory army seventh

this

miracle,contmues
Aurelius
decreed be that

Cassius,the
for the

proclaimed Marcus
time;
and he

Emperor
ever
"

after,these

Christian

troops should
When

called

the the

Thundering
Senate,
to

Legion."
inform
them

writingafterwards

to

of this miraculous success, that all

Marcus

Aurelius

commanded
should
In

the against persecutions

Christians

henceforth
the

cease.

close street,

to the Piazza

Colonna,

now

called

Monte

where Citorio,
was Italy,

stands the situated the

new

parliament-house

of United

SeptaJulia^a magni-

Digitized by

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

159

ficent
once

marble

portico, supported by
the

countless
as

pillars,
place

conspicuous in
the

Campus
to

Martins

the

where of
a

people

assembled

deliberate

on

the choice

Not Magistrates.

far distant stood


two

the ViHa

Publican by

sumptuous

buildingof
for

surrounded stories,

destined porticoes,
from
A
an

the

of reception

ambassadors

foreign nations during their residence in Rome.


to

is said portion of the portico


obscure vicoio close
to

exist

in incorporated

the

Church

of Sanf

Ignazio.

Near

the

Septa stood
now

the

Temples
the

of Isis and and

on Serapis,

the space Church dd with


to

occupied by
Minerva, and

garden

of library of St.

the

of the
A
two

the Convent

Stefano

Caad.

statue

of Isis was

discovered here, together


that
now

the
the

Egyptianlionesses

flank the ascent


one obelisks,

modem

Campidoglio; also
della

two

placed on
the

the Piazza

Minerva, the other opposite

Pantheon.

The
name

Church

of Santa

Maria

sopra

Minerva

was,
to

as

its
that

a designates, temple dedicated oiginally

goddess, founded
A

by Pompey,
was

after his victories in Asia found among the crowd the

fine statue modem

of Minerva church

ruins.

The

is noted

among

of sacred

edifices that claim the attention of the stranger as


the

being

only Gothic

church

in

Rome,

and

as

possessing
to
a

Michael

Angelo's statue of Christ

It is attached

Digitizedby

i6o

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

convent

of

Dominicans, who

possess

splendid library,
painter

and Fra

it contains the tomb

of the great devotional

Angelico.
Church of Sta. Maria in

The Piazza

Aquiro, situated

in the its

near degli Orfanelli,

the

Tiber, recalls, by

the Pagan sobriquet^ in ancient horse-races annals


as

column the

of the

celebrated Equiria,
certain games
were

spot where

and

instituted

by

Romulus,
these

celebrated.

Ovid

of givesa lively description

in the festivities of

Fasti.
banks in city

They
of the crowds

took

placein

the month
gens

March,

on

the

river. The
from the

rustica

coming

into the
more

Ager, and mixingwith


on together

the

cast Quirites, polished

themselves

the grassy

carpet

the Campus overspreading into different groups, air.


a

Martins,or

formed

themselves in the open

all drinking and huts which of

singing
boughs,

"Some of

constructed

supportedon
their
sun

network

reeds, upon

they spread by
the

within which clothes,


the wine

shelter when drunk

heated

and

they had
time

theyseated themselves, mirth,wishing each they


recounted

and other what

passed the
long they

in hilarious

life and had


as seen

happiness. Then
at

the

with theatres, gesticulating danced while merrily, their

their hands
many

they spoke ;
with

others

women,

unbraided
half

hau:

over falling

shoulders

staggeredabout

a tipsy,

sad

spectacle

Digitized by

i62

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

still stand, "


the

mocking their

former

in the midst state," decorated

of

once Ghetto; and under those pillars,

with
as

the most

Grecian exquisite

statues, dirtyold women,


in rags,
as

ugly as Goigons, now


The
was

sit huddled

fish. selling

Theatre built

of

known Marcellus,

the Palazzo
of

Orsini,

also had

by Augustus
the

in emulation

Pompey,
with his

who

adorned lately
It
was

Campusr
to

Martius his

theatre. and

dedicated
whose the

Marcellus remains
were

nephew,

intended successor,
the Loculi within
to

the first to
It

occupy
was

Augustan Mausoleum.
30,000

large enough

contain

This spectators'

theatre spacious, under which

once

with polished marbles, glittering of

the

perfumed youth
now

imperialRome
a

is lounged in luxurious idleness, and hideous


the

fallen into

grim

decay.

The

whole

of the lower

of portion cellars
are so

circular

buildmg

is divided, into
the

obscure walls

and occupied by blacksmiths, obscured

upper

by

the accumulated

smoke within

of ages, that the few the walls


are

encased remainingpillars The distinguishable.

barely
the

theatre

suffered

in severely

under Nero, which partlyaccounts conflagration

for its

dingy appearance.

It

was

but repaired by Vespasian,

againfell into

ruin in the

reignof

Alexander
as

Severus,
late
as

took place there althoughrepresentations


.fifth century of the

the

Christian

era.

It

experienced the

Digitized by

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS,

163

same

fate

as

the

other

massive

ruins of the ancient

city

during
and

the Middle

Ages, being converted

into

fortress,

while alternately and assaults, various sieges standing of possession the the Savelli and
were

in the

the Orsini families.

Although
the dead

Romans

in the habit of

interring
most

without the

walls, city generally along 'the


the Via where Appia), in Cyprus the
trees

roads (such as frequented


avenues

whole and
a

of

tombs

embosomed

funereal

groves

lined the

approaches to
few

with city
were

a depressinggrandeur,

illustriousindividuals
within
remains

permittedto
of the

occupy

Mausoleums Some
to
us.

the

enclosure
ments monu-

Campus
have
come

Martius.

of these

down

Pre-eminent

was

the

Mausoleum
as

of
we

Augustus.
read in

tinction, Sylla also enjoyed this dis-

Plutarch,his sepulchrestanding
del

near

the modem of Santa

Piazza Maria

Popolo, near
Miracoli.

the The

site of the
tomb

Church

dei

of

still and solid construction, rests under Bibulus^ of simple


the hill. Capitoline
on

Hadrian's

monument,

although

situated included

the other side of the

Tiber,was, nevertheless,
the

within the

boundary of
a

Campus Martius,
the land die
on

Csesar having added Julius

of portion

the

oppositebank
Vatican

of the river

to extending

foot of the

the hills,

communication
seven

between

either,bank

by being facilitated

bridges.

Digitizedby

64

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

Nothing could
monument,
if not

exceed erected

the

solid

magnificence of

drian's Ha-

with the intention of emulating,


Mausoleum, hand

the Augustan exceeding, of external

Though
of

stripped
has

decorations,the

time

left those
was

stupendous walls
encased

untouched.

Originally
marble, and
men,

the exterior

with slabs of Parian with statues of

the circular summit and

adorned
was

horses^

chariots.

Such

the thickness of the


a

walls, that
a

the interior only contained

small the
urn

and staircase,

narrow

chamber, sepulchral
ashes
was

where

containing the
converted the

perial im-

placed. Honorius

build-^

ing
been

into

which fortress,
at

it still remains, having also


as a

used

various

times the

state

prison.

It

is

worthy of record,that Napoleon,


that his
was

Emperor
here for

of

the

French, Louis

confined and the


on

offences,and political
his
own

name

date,1836, written by
the walls. the

hand,

are

visible still
the

Among

many

Circuses that adorned


is

Campus

that Martius,

of Flaminius

as having been interesting

erected
battle the

by
of

the very Caius Flaminius

who

at perished

the

Thrasymene,

that terrible defeat


ran literally

after which Roman


as

streams neighbouring

red

with known and

blood.

In

times,the ground republican


*'

the

of Flaminius ''^fields
races,

was

used
were

for

horse

chariot
the

which

exhibitions

continued

within

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MAR2IUS.

165

-enclosure famous the


a

of

the

which newly erected circus,

became of
as

afterwards for the games deities.


It served

given there
also
as a

in honour and

infernal

market

place for popularassemblies.


Marcus
to returning Fulvius,

Rome

after

successful him mand de-

campaign
with
a

in

^'tolia, requestedthe
After
some

Senate

to honour

triumph.
was

factious

his opposition

and granted, of the

the

triumphcelebrated
from

with great
Antiochus

pomp,

many

spoilstaken
he

King

being displayed.

"Before

rode

into the of

city," says

Livy,
and

"

he

honoured

great numbers

tribunes, prefects,

centurions,with military presents, in the Flaminian


This circus is also Marcellus of the

Circus.

mentioned
conqueror

by Livy, as
of

the

place
the for the

where

and Syracuse, the

opponent
his
war

Hannibal, was

arraignedby
and

people
of

supposed treacherous

conduct dilatory

The againstthe Carthaginians. him and the

cused acplebeians

nobles, as

the

cause

that Hannibal the tenth the volved in-

still held year. It

in possessions
must

southern
a

Italyfor
scene,

have

been

stormy
the debate

all

passionsand
in the

the

interests

of The

nation ended

being by

discussion.

cellus' Mar-

the charge, and triumphantly refuting the services he had

reciting
was

performed.

The

next

day he

elected

Consul.

Digitizedby

t66

PICTUJtES

OF

OZD

ROME.

Augustus used this circms

as

at Naxiinadiia,

grand
tfaivtyCxrcus
as

the people,when with which he regaled spectacle, six

crocodiles
the

were

killed.

portion of
and
was

the

existed in
Castellum

Middle
In

Ages,
the

known

the
some

Aureum.
were

sixteenth

centufy

remains
make The

but stillvisible, for the of Santa

theyivere demolished^""
of the Palazzo

way

foundations

Matiei.
to

Chmch

Caterina dei Ptmari is

supposed

occupy The
and

the centre

of the Arena.

Circus of Alexander

Severus, also called AgonaliSy


be traced distinctly
so

Stadium

ofDvmitian, may
of the Piazza

in the

form elliptical

Navona,

rated decobeautifully

with
one,

three

magnificent fountaans.

The
"a

central fable of

described irreverently into The open


"

byFors)rthas
the
as

Msxr^ done
of Bernini. the

is considered stone," is piazaai space green


now

chtf tfatwre
a

used

vegetable
an

market,

being

lined with

infinite
colonrs some hand-

of variety

Italian
to

of shapes anid grocery,*' and

utterly stmnge
Church Doria
over

English ^res

palates. The

of Sanf

Agnese,built and maintained


the centre.

by

the

stands conspicuous in fismily,

Erected

the

lupanar of
of the most

the

Circus,this edifice enshrines the


well
as

memory

as ancient,

the

most

ing touchThe

story among
details recorded

the amials

of Roman

martyrdom.

by

St.

in the fourA Jerome, who, writing

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MARTIUS.

167

eentory, says "that the fame


all nadons,^' are In Rome and
was

of St

Agnes

was

spread over

too

to interestmg

be omitted. lived in the

tlie
a

rdgn

of Diocletian
caUed

there

city of
a

certain maiden

of Agnes, daughter this tender

rich

ndsle
not
more

family. Now,
thanthirteen
her

whether years

flower,^o

old,wsb

called

Agnes

in

reference in GitA

to

lamb-like

because Agnes or disposition, recorded


; btttit iscertain

is not chaste, signifies filledwitii die

that shewas
to
an

ofholiness gifts
loved and

and

goodness
the

degree,and eartraordinary
earliestyears.

followed that
a

Saviour bomber
noble

It chanced

certain

youth,son

of the Prefect of

Borne, ^called Sempi"saw

nius, ridingthrough the


became

streets,
of

and

straightway
her

'vkdendy enamoured

to make her, desiring

his wife ; bnt the maiden

all rejected

his

offers, altiiough

hebnxagtat her

rich presents, braceleteof

gold,and

rave

however, to jewels: Agnes:refixsed,

listen to

him, saying,
to
a

"Away

tempter, for I

am

alreadybetrothed
thou."

lover words rage.

i"4io is greater and infamed He


went

fairer than
man

These

the

young

with

and deadlyjealousy
on

home, and
unto

himself casting when


to

his bed

became

sitdc almost
called

death ; and do

the
(Mwe

wore physicians
**

in,they could

notWng
of

liis pam.

Eor^*'
his

they said,"iie is sick


father

unrequitedlove."
he confessed his

Then

him, and questianed

passion, say-

Digitizedby

i68

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

ing,

"

Unless

you

procure

me

Agnes

to

be my

wife I shall

die."

Sempronius,who
to

loved tenderly
to

his son, have

repaired
him words

forthwith

Agnes, beseeching her


him
; but she

pityon
same

and to espouse
as

spokealwaysthe
young man's
"

at

which first,

angered

the

father,who
was

inquiredof straightway
betrothed?"
and
a

the

neighbours,
you

Who

her that

one

"Do replied,

not

know

Agnes
husband

has been df

Christian fi-om her


she the

and infancy,
no

that the

whom

speaks

is

other this he

than

Jesus

Christ?"

When
an

prefectheard
gone
was

joiced, regreatly

for,as
he knew

edict had

forth

the against

tians, Chris-

that he

Agnes

in his power. damsel


to

Forthwith
after she and

sent
on

for the

his

house, and

again urging

her his son's

which passion,

again

disdained,he threatened
death ; and

her with horrible tender

sufferings
chains,
sacrifice.

loadingher

limbs with

dragged her
But
no

before the altars of the false

gods

to

Agnes stood firm. Finding that the fear of death had


power
to
over

her, the cruel noble

ordered

her

to

be the

carried
Circus who which head and

the lupanar of place of public infamy, there to be

and Agonalis,

exposed.

The

soldiers
at

dragged her
barbarous and

thither
treatment

her stripped

of her garments,

Agnes meekly bent down

her

when prayed,

her hair, already immediately long


to her like
a

abundant,became

veil

coveringher

from

Digitizedby

170

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

all the Pagan priests


a

more

theystQl declared
must

that sheiras

witch
were

and

sorceress

and

die. So other executioners


whene ascending the pile

"^ed,

and

one

of them her
arms

the maiden
up

stood

^h

meekly
one

crossed

gazing^ off her

towards heaven, with steadfestiy

stroke cut

head. Then
and the the parents and

friends of

Agnes

took

her

body
on

buried it outside the

cityon
the

the Nomentana

way,

spot where

now

stands

Church

of Sanf

Agnese

fuori le mura^
Such is the story of Sanf Roman

Agnese,ofr-^^ihe Lamby*
women,
as

the

favourite saint of the

told

by St.

Jerome.
The interior of the church
built in her in the honour of
a

is perfectly
Gredc

superb.
cross, and

It is constructed

form

is not large.The althoughvery lofty


are

spandriis

of

the

dome

covered

with

glowing frescoes,and
bassi ing charm-

preciouscoloured

marbles, gilding, statues, and


the walls and altars.
A

rilieviprofusely decorate
statue

of the

saint executed

by Ferrata, surmounts
of chastity expression for
we

it is distinguished heraltjsu-; by which


St.
"

that

forms

her
as

peculiarattribute:
the

may

consider
her of

Agnese
"

Christian

Diana,
the

and

accept

Lamb

as

more

than significant

silver crescent

the

Pagan goddess.

Digitizedby

THE

CAMPUS

MARTI

US.

171

But church

the

most

interesting portionis
remains of the steps take
one

the

sabterranean

the inchiding
A

Circus lupanarKAHoit down into


a

Agonalis.

dozen

vault the St.

and supportedby heavy pillars preserved, perfectly

spot is pointed out

on

the ancient mosaic

floor where

Agnese

was

exposed.

Digitizedby

CAMPUS JULIUS

MARTIUS"

CESAR.

GAIN would Church

we

are

into lead
Sant*
di

the

midst

of

Pagan
into

antiquity.
the

-^"^

now

the
Andrea

stranger
della

vicinity
near

of

the
modem

of

Valle,
of the

the

Campo

Fiori,

portion
to

Campus people
of whose

Martins

originally
famous

presented
Acca

the

Roman

by

courtesan,
and

Laurentia,
Macrobius

luxury,
the

prodigality,

excesses,

gives

us

details.
Avenues of marble

plantain peopled
that

trees

led

to

long
and

Porticoes adorned the

of

dazzling

with

statues,

with ilex
and

glistening myrtle

fountains

murmured

among

groves, and

enshrouding
theatres these
;
a

$tately Basilicas, colonnades,

temples,

region

of

Pagan
rose

delight.
the the

eminent Pre-

among

fair

buildings
Some
to

Theatre,
remains of the

Portico,
the arches

and

Curia
and

of

Pompey.
are

of

walls erected

said
over

be

concealed The

by

Palazzo

Pio,

them.

semi-circular

Digitized

by

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS
the

CjESAR.

173

form

of the

theatre,and

inclination
be

given to

the

ground by

the

slopingvaults, may

traced, distinctly
the

according to Murray, by observingthe positionof


houses from the Church of Santa
Maria

della Grotta

Pinta^ to the Piazza


The who up
to

dei Satiri.

conqueror
a

of

Mithridates

was

the

first Roman

erected his

permanent

such buildings theatre, having,


tures struc-

time,consisted onlyof temporary wooden


at the

always removed

termination
these
were

of the often

games. raised To

According
at

to

Pliny,even
were

great cost, and


a

profuselyembellished.
his
to

give
united The

certain with

to dignity religious
a

work, Pompey
Venus Victrix.

it
was

temple, dedicated
several

theatre

times

burnt, and
Nero.
came

successively

restored

and Caligula, by Tiberius,

During
to

the

visit of Tiridates, king of


his
crown

Armenia, who
of

receive
fligate pro-

from

the

hand

Nero, that eccentric


a

was

suddenly seized with

mad

ing desire of exhibit-

the riches of the hours four-and-twenty

Empire
the

to

his

foreign guest.

In

cornices, pilasters, vaulting,


vast
was edifice,

in

word, the

whole

interior of the
At

gilt

by
in

his command. the Forum


as a

the conclusion

of the ceremonial the


crown

where

Tiridates received

of journed ad-

Armenia

fief from

Nero, the royal personages theatre, where

to

Pompey's

nothing

could

Digitizedby

174

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

exceed

the

wonder

and

astonishment

of

the

Asiatic
with of

prince at beholding
burnished

this

spaciousbuildinglined
countless

gold,and
sat

with blazing
30,000

millions

flambeaux, where

spectators. A

sumptuous

after which banquet awaited the princes,


at

Nero, delighted
histrionic of
a

the

of displaying his opportunity


on

talents,

appeared

the stage in the buffoon.

character

charioteer,

comedian, and

''His

divine voice'' echoed


round the
arena

and hall, throughthe spacious

he drove

in his favourite
But
to return

livery.
to

earliertimes

; when

Pompey built his


was

theatre he believed that the within his grasp.


too
on

crown imperial no

already
fore there-

No

cost,

was magnificence,

great

to

conciliate the affection of the


The whole
as

people
a

whose

support he reckoned.

afi^irwas
a

grand electioneering job. Caesar, whom justlydreaded, was


Crassus way.
was
'

rival he
even

absent, proconsul in Spain;


so

gone, his

Pompey

had
out

his everything
that the

own

While

friends gave

safetyof
in the trod

Rome
new

he a dictator, required

exhibited games Six hundred


mules

theatre

on

grand

scale.

the stage, and


the future

fifty elephantsmade
a

their debut, while

then dictator, his

mature

bridegroomof fifty,
wife,until the people

amused

himself with
declare

young

should

his election.

The

games

succeeded

Digitized by

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS

C^SAR.

175

the people admirably,


was

were

enchanted, and
was

Pompey

named

sole consul.

That

much, but, certainly


and

in his

six opinion, have made


a

hundred him

mules

fifty elephants

ought to

king.
the honour but
a

Having by
of
a

brilliant exception obtained


his return from
near

triumph

on

Asia,while yet
his theatre The
a

Pompey simple knight,


dedicated
to

built

temple

EquestrianFortune. assembly of
the

Curia, a palace
soon

destined for the added.


It
was

Senate, was

after

surrounded, accordingto
architecture, by
a
'

the

splendid

styleof
of

Roman

composed portico,
marble and of

arcades, supportedby
was

hundred
statues

columns,

and

embellished
on

with

It paintings.

opened
fair space

both

sides into groves

plane trees, the


and

beingrefireshed by
threefold purpose
a

fountains of
a

streams, and
summer

the serving for

promenade in

as idlers,

retreat

for the

spectators at the theatre


as a

when
avenue,
must

driven

out

by bad weather, and

sculptured

Curia. leadinginto the palatial the


senators

Very grand they lounged


the

have
of

looked,
state"

as

through these

"walks

towards

Curia,
marble

their purple-edged togas sweeping along the


floors,
of the

Propertiuscelebrates
groves

the

summer

beauties

in

some

elegantverses.
as

This

portico
sat

is. noted

by historians

the

place where

Brutus

Digitized by

176
in

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

judgment

as

Praetor

on

the

morning

after

Caesar's

murder.
In the

year 43 before the hand of

the
an

Christian era,

Pompey

had his

fallen

by
at
was

after Egyptian assassin,

defeat
Caesar

and Pharsalia, both


a

JuliusCaesar
and he
a

ruled

in Rome.
statesman.

great warrior
which

great

The

very

clemency with

treated

his enemies
left them
as

after the death

of his illustrious rival his

Pompey,

and evinced defenceless,


as

wisdom, diplomatic
increased
the his

well

his natural the

clemency.
and

It

popularity

with

masses,
to

caused
In

his republicans, life and


cause
"

opponents,

be

despised.

them granting of their

he signed the death-warrant liberty died out


As
a

^it

with them.

legislator, nothing great


He had
a

or

small

escaped

his

observation.
for every

remedy
came

in his well-stored mind


to

evil

Nothing
in

amiss
and
to

him;

he
a

even

studied
on

astronomy

Egypt,
love

composed Cleopatra
he
much found

poem the
to
arrangement, re-

the

subject,making
On the his return
to

all time of

while.
reform

Rome,
stood

which calendar,
the year

in need
to

having increased

445

da3rs.

He the

adorned

the

with templesand theatres, extended city


to

Campus Martius

the

side opposite
a new

of the

Tiber,
at

drained the Pontine

marshes,erected

harbour

Digitized by

178

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

He he

took

no

pains to

conceal

the

contempt

with which

and regardedthem, saying continually, ^^the

without reserve,
a

that

Republicwas
a

a nothings

name^
a

shadow,

body without

soul; that Syllawas

that foolto abdicate^


with
more

to be treated in future he, Ccesar^expected

and vejieration,
as

that his words

were

to be
more

forth regardedhence-

laws"

Nothing

could

be

indiscreet than

such
on

language; it was
last it came
was

commented repeated, exaggerated,


to be

; at

said among

the

that multitude, from

Caesar
Rome

about

to transfer the seat

of government

to

Alexandria.
are
some

There

grandly dramatic Campus

scenes

in Caesar's well
as

lifeassociated with the

Martins,as

with

immortalised of stately so tragically edifices, Pompe/s pile


as

the

scene

of his murder. endeavoured

When
to

Caesar returned establish


under

from
quillity tran-

Alexandria, he
in the

public

torn by dissensions city,

the government

of the drunken After

Antony

and

the

tribune Dolabella. the

various laws, and enacting debtors the

between legislating and the

the contendingparties,

creditors

(the

old

that grievance
a

drove

ancient

plebsto

the Mons

Sacer under

new

Caesar, face), havingnot yet terminated

his wars, desired to


to

depart.

The

veteran
a

refused legion

stir.

He

had

promised them
was

which gratuity,

they

declared indignantly

insufficient.

Already they had

Digitizedby

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS

CjESAR.

179

left their camp and

and

entered the walls of Ronae,

pillaging ment predicadeclares

all they met. killing


was

They

were

mad.

The He

awkward, but Caesar is unmoved.


the rebels in the

that he will meet

Campus Martius, and


goes.

spiteof
The

the entreaties of his

he friends,

riotous troops rushed


on
"

into the

tribunal where

Caesar, seated
awaits
"

the What

curule
means

chair,frowninghorribly,
this tumult V^ cries
"

them. demand

he.

We

our

discharge," replythe

soldiers.
^^

Your
I

demand

shall he

granted^^ repliesCaesar,

and

when
arrears

have
and

all conquered other nations with other legions^

rewards

shall he

discharged^ Having
is entreated
to

thus
a

spoken

he rises and he refuses ;

retires. He
still more
"

add

few words

vehemently implored,he again


he exclaims. Quirites (citizens), the
"

mounts
^^

the tribunal
are

We
not
as

soldiersy

shout
us

with legions,

one

voice,
punish

"

citizens. Lead"
you
was

into
your

Africa^ decimate
soldiers /
"

us,

us

will,hut

we

are

It

long before Caesar


to allow

would
to

yield ; long before


killed for his

he

would
sake
In

consent

them

be

glory's

by the Numidians.
this he
scene
we

have

specimen of
"

that

fortune of
his
one

which
motto.

so

often boasted. had


"

was Veni^ vidi^vici^^

He

conquered

whole

army

with that

magical word,

Quirites,^''
N
2

Digitizedby

i8o

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Caesar descent

was

real

and patrician,

was

proud

of his

"Jl/y grandmother^^ saiiihe, in the famous

oration he
Ancus

pronounced over
;

his aunt,

"

was

descended descended

front
from

Martius

the

Julii, my family,are
can

our Venusjtherefore

race

boast the consecrated

power

of

anointed

and kings,
seem

the that

majestyofgods,masters
Venus, the Goddess

ofkings^
of

It would

Fortune,
endowed

his ancestress, him

patronisedher descendant, and


vain gifts.He, naturally and

with all her

proud

of

these

advantages, is marvellouslydelicate,has
a

white

hands, and
all which
man

smooth

skin,and
not

wears

his cincture

loose,

follies do

prevent
the

his

being the greatest


strove

of that great age, when that and young athlete the the

dpng Republic

with knew

youthfulEmpire,
did
not

Caesar

understood

position ; he
the times. He

he follow,

led the
not

of changeftd spirit

understood
must

that,
head

to be crushed storm
sees

by
must

the be

he coming revolution, either the slave


or

the
He

; he

the

master.

but Will

one

and place worthy of his.genius, wade

that

placehe
of Rome's
But

have,though he
to

throughrivers, oceans,

best blood

obtain it.

it is

vulgar to
such

shed
means,

blood, any fool

can

do than

that

Caesar

disdains

he tames, rather

slays,

his opponents.
Yet

Caesar,when

his rule

was

and while established,

Digitizedby

CAMPUS

MAMTIUS"

JULIUS

CESAR.

i8i

at sojourning

Rome

in times of peace, could not


scenes

the forget

old the

trade.
way

He

in delighted

of
an

bloodshed, all in

of amusement

however

example sufficiently
his
successors.

appreciatedand During
times famous his the

followed

by

the

Emperors
Martins
wanton

the life, of
was

Campus
the
most

was

at

various

scene

slaughter. His

Naumachia

constructed after

within its enclosure.

Returning to
and
a

Rome

having triumphedin Spain


to

in

Gaul, he determined

enliven the

with Quirites of the

series of

festivals, worthy
name.

of his victories and

gloryof

the Roman

exhibited Troops of gladiators

their prowess gave

in the various quarters of the every

city ;

actors
were

in representations
to

language;

thousands the

attracted
games,
men

the

various of wild

to witness circuses,

Trojan
between
near

combats

beasts, and
above
In

battle

and

elephants. But
was

the Naumachia all,

the Tiber the and

opened.

this immense

fed by basin,

classic

a river,

hundred

triremes,biremes, vessels,
and manned fleets, the

divided quadriremes,
men,

into two

by

eighteenthousand lake,one
fleet

occupied

extremities of the other the


;

the Trojans, the representing says the


were crews were

Egyptians.
in other

Tacitus

all malefactors
war,

words,they
to

of slaves, prisoners

and

forced gladiators, of pleasure the

sacrifice their lives for the


In the

good

people.

fear that these

unhappy

Digitizedby

i82

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

men,

emboldened

by

their

numbers, and

aware

of

the

inevitable fate

them, might form awaiting


vast

some

plan of

the edge of the revolt,

basin

was

lined with troops,

them preparedto repulse At You of

sword

in hand.

all beingready, Caesar's tall figure length, appears. him might recognise he
at

any
to

distance hide his

by

the

crown

which laurel,

always wore
the back conceal

the baldness,
fully beingcare-

littlehair
combed
to

remainingat
forward him
to

of his head

this defect, any allusion Of all the honours,

which caused

great annoyance.
him

says
none

decreed Suetonius,
so

by

the

Senate,he esteemed
laurel wreath

much

as

the

of wearinga privilege

at all times.

You

might recognise too, by great Caesar,


well-trimmed

his

his shapely his limbs, carriage, graceful black and

beard,his

piercing eyes,
with

fair complexion, and


a

triumphalhabit
over

ornamented

rich

falling fringe
dress he
was

his hands ; for in his


too

of generalstyle luxurious and

as being reproached

effeminate

for

such

mightywarrior. by
officers and

Surrounded

preceded by

lictors bearing the

he laurel-wreathed fasces,

advances
him.

towards

ficent magnihis

chair of

state

preparedfor
pays
no

Accordingto
to what

generalcustom, he
around

attention

is passing

him, but is wrapt in thought

murmur general

of discontent firom the trcops stationed

round

the Nau-

Digitized by

CAMPUS

MARTIUS-JULIUS
him however
j he looks
"

C^SAR.

183

machia, arouses
sides loud
exclaim

up, and
use

from
to
"

all

complaintssalute him.
of the boldest among ? Are

Of what
the
we

us,"

some

soldiers,is this
the better for all

vain and
these that
we

ridiculous expense
?

shows may

Give

us

rather

the money, be

great Caesar,

share it together, and


a

happy."
broidered em-

The

who dictator,

moment

before,wrapt in his
almost

looked laticlave,

like
casts
a

woman,

upon

hearing this
upon the

knits his

brows, and
A
moment

witheringlook
and he has

malcontents. his

more

darted

from

chair of

state, and
rage with
at

is among

them.

Impelled by ungovernable
seizes
orders
one

their his
The
own

he insolence,

of
away

the
to

foremost

hand, and
back

him and

instant death.
odds that
one are

rest stand

aghast

silent; the
man,

great, thousands
was

against one
threaten and

but

man

bom

**to

command."

Order

Caesar slowlyand being re-established,


to

rately delibethe folds his

returns

his

as he place, arranging

goes

of

his toga, and

over replacingthe golden fringes

hands.
The
"

two

fleets

now

row

by

in

review

before shrill

him.

morituri CcBsar,
as sailors,

te salutant*^

exclaim,in
where

chorus,
The
to

the

they

pass

beside
to

he

sits.

echoes

of

the lake

wake

this strange

and salute,

Digitized by

i84

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the

crash

of

the

vessels

as

they

defile

by.

The

two

fleets range

on themselves,fifty

either

is the signal side,


oars

given,the
and fall in

combatants

raise

generalshout,the
waters

rise rage^

cadence, the troubled

surge

and

the very air is agitated as other.


arrows, and

each fast grappling they close,

Stones, pitch, beams, lightedmissiles, javelins^

flyaround.

The

sun

is darkened
and

by
there

the smoke

illuminated here mist,horribly


of

by darting
affixed
to

streaks each
waters

flame.

The

sharp

prows

of iron

vessel strike each

other with

horrible

the clashings,
are

tremble,blood
the

flows in streams, corpses

piled
and

upon

decks; the lake is filled with the dead


of those towards the whose vessels have

bodies floating The swim living

foundered.

the shore ; vain

hope, they are


"

driven back
meets

by

immovable, unpitying legions, death

them

everywhere. Yes, they must

die, as

they

have
A

said,for Caesar.
horrible
massacre

still continues
the afloat,
water

on

board is

those

boats which

stillremain the
a

tingedwith

blood
for the
a

from flowing time with

on ensanguined decks, they fight

desperate courage,
sink
the
one heavily,

until

at

length

disabled

vessels of
As
"

by
Few

one,
even

into the
of
men

surging waters ships remain.


have

sullen

lake.

the

for the
are

thousand eighteen

they

vanished

they

nearlyall dead; they saluted

Digitizedby

i86

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

to haunt

the
was

soul lofty

of Caesar. fear. He
too

Yet

he

did not

fear,

for he he

incapable of
those about

despisedthe people profoundlyto


allow

ruled,and
to
move

him,

them

him.

at Precisely

this very

time,shortly
"

before his

murder, he dismissed

his

Spanishguard.

It

is better to fallat of his die"

he replied to the expostulations once^^


to

^^than friends,

live in dreads little to nUy

"

Thai

I should

added

he,

^^

matters

it is the

Republic
and

that will
^

suffer. All
been

my

both of ambition desires^ the

of

glory have
will
worse

but accomplished^

Republicat
There warned
"

my

death
a

be

plunged into
war

endless calamities.

will be

civil and

than

before." When

against
he
cared

Antony

Dolabella, he answered,
it was facesy

That
ones

little for those merry Brutus


was

thepak

he dreculedj^

pale. singularly
the
rule
eastern
over

Doubtiess who the


was

of prophecies

coming Messiah
as

to

all

backed nations,

they were

by

local oracles

of -the

affected the materially Sibyls,


These vague

of imagination these

Caesar.

legends, floating

ancient

traditions

(the Jewish propheciesespecially),


century, seemed
to
so.

to pointing

the very time and


man,
was

mark But

Caesar the

as

the

at

least he
to be
a

might
the

think

coming

Messiah

king :

Pythian

oracle, the

the Jewish prophet, all Egyptian priest, Now Caesar

agreed in this.

yet wanted

the

mere

vulgar

Digitized by

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS
visible

CjESAR,

187

title,the outward
was
a

and

of royalty. It trappings Rome


ever

name

odiously unpopular in

since the
in

and expulsion of the Tarquins, the

connected strangely crime

popularmind

with

the

detestable

that caused

Lucretia's death.
is
has
aware

all this, Caesar,who Notwithstanding will prejudice,


to

of the national

be

and king,

he

friends unwise

enough

second

him.

Antony,the
by the side

drunken of the the

Caesar's evil genius, walks reveller, and litter, imperial calls out,
as

he passes The

through
are

Forum,

"Long

live the

king!"

people
"

so silent,

Caesar is

obligedfor

the present to say,


was

He

is

not

kingy but

CasarJ^

Still there

the

the desire,

evident
the
ran

hankeringafter
wild

the forbidden bacchanalian


streets.

at fruit, especially

that Lupercal, naked

when festival,

men

through the
a

Antony drunk,

and

naked in the

too,
arms

very Silenus in of the

}iiscoarse
as

liftedup revelry,
the rostrum where

people as high
offers him
a

Caesar is
murmurs

seated,
"

diadem.

Warned

by

the
as

that

are

heard

but around, Caesar refuses it, say,


"
"

Shakespeare makes
every
was

Casca the

He

put it by thrice,
to my

time

than gentler

but other,

he thinking

very loath to Caesar

off it'* lay his fingers

by

no

means

understood
wary

the playing

game

of

like his nephew, the kingcraft


was

Augustus

his

nature

to superior

such

mean

dissembling.He

ruled

with

Digitized by

i88

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

absolute power,

and

he

made

no

secret

of it.
a

At

last,

that the people would finding he

not
crown

have
.as

bon"

fideking^
to

magnanimously sent

the

present

his

at the Capitol. Yet his brother,celestialJupiter,

statues to

bore

the

and fillet, imperial

this alone

was

enough
was

irritatethe

people, for

to

their minds

there

thing some-

sacred absolutely This and the

in that half

yard of

ribbon

! Brutus

at royaltycost playing

Caesar

his life.
to his

Republican party
his title of

had

submitted

rule,had
not

acquiescedin

but they could dictator,

abide the notion of actual, avowed


not

royalty. They could Republic morally


rather assassinate terrible
omens

stand

by

and

see

their beloved

murdered
Caesar
were

before their eyes ; they would


once.

at

Awful
announce

warnings and
the in that assemble

not

wantingto
Ides

coming catastrophe.
same

On

the

of March
was

year, 44 the

before

Christ,the Senate

to

within
was

Curia,in
with
a

Pompe/s
portents.
lioness and upon The

Theatre.
"

The

night before
seen

heavy
the

Horrid

sights were

by

watch,

whelped

in the

streets, and Fierce

the graves

yawned

yieldedup
the

their dead.

warriors fought fiery upon the


"

which clouds, of battle

drizzled blood
hurtled did

Capitol.
did

noise

in

the and

air;

horses

neigh,and dying men


and about squall

groan,

ghosts did shriek

the streets."

Digitizedby

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS
in her

C^SAR,

189

Calphumia
the

was

troubled

she sleep,

dreamt

that
was

front of their

palace had
and

fallen

down, that Caesar


not

killed in her arms, abroad that

wamingly implored him


replied,
**

to stir

day, but
threatened

he
me

Caesar

shall
my

the forth, back." his house sayer, soothhim

things that
When
on

ne'er looked in the the who

upon

Caesar went

out

morning from
the Capitol, had his

the Sacred

Way

towards
name,

same

Spurinna by
of

warned already

impending danger, crossed


are

path.

"

The

ides of
not

March

come," quoth Caesar.


stood
the

"Ay, Caesar,but
a

past." Artemidorus
every of particular

ready with

letter, containing
the

againsthim, and conspiracy by Brutus, but


papers which
we

list of his

enemies, headed
other

Caesar held

put it
in his

by, mixing it with

he

hand, saying,
All

"

What

touches

ourselves

will read last."

warningwas

in vain ;

Atropos* fatal scissors already

touched When the master

the thread of his brilliant life. he entered the Curia built is

by

his rival

Pompey,
by
his

of the world

surrounded unwittingly Brutus is

deadliest beside
him

enemies.

Pale-faced

there, and
dark
and

wiih Cassius,the two'prsetors,

looks heavy as stormy night, and Casca, and threatening and Cinna, and Metellus,and Cimber Tribonius, the had

bending
the word of

pliantknee passedround

before great Caesar.


that all
was

When

ready,under

the

plea

Digitizedby

190

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

"low-crook'd

courtesies and
round
in

spaniel fawning,"all
as

the the

conspirators press
curule

him
his

he sits enthroned

on

chair robed
a

ample toga.
and that

Alas !: poor

Caesar!
mantle

moment

more

well-remembered

is

with jagged'

assassins*

daggers!

See, he

is

with innumerable surrounded, enveloped,pierced

blows. the
rent

Cassius'
made stabbed mark

dagger

first went

through,then

came

by envious
"

Casca, the well-beloved


he

Brutus, too,
steel away,

deep, and, as
the blood

plucked his

cursed

how

of Caesar followed

it ! "

**

This For

was

the most

unkindest Caesar
saw

cut

of aU ; him

when

the noble

stab,

more Ingratitude,

strong than traitors'arms,


; then

Quite vanquished him


And in his mantle
at the base

burst his his

mighty heart,

muffling up

face,

E'en Which

of

Pompe/s statue.
ran

all the while

blood, great Caesar

fell! "

before Accordingto Suetonius, immediately the tomb founder of of

his

murder,
and

Capys, one Capua, was


found in
a

of the earliestkingsof Alba

discovered
on tablet,

by

some

and slaves,
was

within it was these words

bronze
"
"

which

engraven

Greek,

When of

the bones

of

Capys

are

laid open, of his

the descendant

Juliusshall

fall by the hand

and his death fiiend?,

be

avengedby

the troubles of

Digitizedby

CAMPUS

MARTIUS"

JULIUS
Caesar

C^SAR.

191

Italy."The
passage of the loose into shed
on

horses, too, which Rubicon, and


had

had

used and

at

the

consecrated from

turned

pleasant pastures,abstained

their food and

tears.

Suetonius says, that Caesar, being indisposed

the fatal

morning of

his
at

death,hesitated
home

if he

should

go

abroad, and
he took him

delayed
his
as

until the

fifth hour.

When

seat

in the

Curia,Cimber
a

Tullius Caesar his

approached

if to

request
seized

favour,but

Cimber to listen, refusing

his toga with


"

both

hands, at
At the

which
same

Caesar
moment

cried out, Cassius


his
arm

but this is violence." him in the

wounded

and throat,

Caesar
was

caught
about

him piercing when forward,

with his

poniard,and
and another

to

rush

another
closed en-

blow

prevented
on

him.

Seeing himself
covered
to
cover

by
his toga, his

weapons

all

he sides,

his head his

with

his extending with the

left hand

legs and

body

so drapery,

that he

might falldecently;

thus he

received
or
a

twenty-three wounds, without uttering


word.
The
too senators

either a groan
of the

around,ignorant by horror,
even

were conspiracy,

much

overcome

and astonishment,
to

fear either to transfixed. and


on

flyto

assist him, or

speak ; they sat


When he
was

dead quite

every
a

one

had

escaped,
carried it

three slaves
away
to

placed his body


own

litter and Palatine ;

his

house

under

the

one

of his

Digitized by

192

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

arms

hanging

out

all the while

as

they passed through

the

city.
was

Brutus

induced,either by
of
remorse

the fear of the

people or
kindest

by a

sentiment

towards
to
a

his patron and The

to benefactor,

consent

funeral public into the

body

of
an

Casar

was

therefore

borne

Tribune, and
corpse

image of

wax

the mangled exactly resembling the command The the whole funeral of

was

exposed,by
and

Antony, on

bed of hear

purple

gold.

city assembled eulogy, which

to

Antony

pronounce

he

prefaced by
Caesar

all the reciting

decrees of the Senate

of laudatory

and his all the

exploits.He

then read aloud the oath taken


the person of Caesar.

by By

to defend conspirators

as degrees,

he

saw

the

of feelings

his audience

awakened,

he warmed the

in his

and discourse,

at

lengthdrawing aside
the with

purple draperywhich
every

concealed

played image, he dishis told fingers, ing touch-

wound, traced them


been

by whom
every The

they had

littlebut inflicted, saying

and weeping abundantly. heart,

people became

maddened
made
aware

with

indignation,

when especially left by Caesar. the

they were
They
talked

of the testament in

the body of burning wildly the

Temple
was

of

or in Jupiter Capitolinus,

where Curia,

the crime

committed.

At

it was length

decided that it
the multi-

should be burnt in the

where Campus Martius,

Digitized by

194

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

During the
thrown

convulsions of the Gothic


and for many ages

wars

it fell, or

was

down,

layundiscovered

among

the ruins. At of two

lengthdisinterred between
came

the foundations

it houses,.

into the

of possession

Cardinal

Spada.

It is of white
an

marble, and admirably sculptured.


stem

It stands in form

attitude of

command,
hand

''the austerest

of naked

majesty,"one

as extended, though

on calling on

passingcenturies

to

approach,and

meditate

the strange vicissitudes of all sublunary events.


Of the two

rivals, Pompey
the

and

Caesar,who

disputed
the

the

empire of
by
the

world, one, conquered by


of
an

other,

falls

ignoblesword
by
his best
-

Egyptian slave; the


fnend,falls they had
the
at

murdered other,

beloved

the

foot of his rival's statue.

In

blood d^s

and lived, the

by violence, thejrdied.

Thus

erf justice

with unerringhand, right the Almighty,


universe !

balance

of the

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS.

T^VERY
-L--'

stranger

visiting
the

Rome

is

aware

that the

the sole

Tiasteverini of

claim the

distinction
Romans

of

being
j

existing
are

remnants

ancient

their

features

said

to

l"e

more

statuesque,
allusions those and in of the

their

language

more

ancient,
more

and

their
than

proverbial
use

expressions
the
I
cannot

classical
the

among Tiber.

mixed

races

on

opposite
with
any
any

side
of

say

was

struck did
I

these

characteristic

differences,
seem

nor

notice

classical the

peculiarities. They
same

to

me,

to

speak

precisely
common

vernacular,
of Rome.

coarse,

loud,
But

and

unmusical,

to

all parts

one

portion
with and

of

the

Trastevere

must

ever

be
as

pregnant

historic

interest,
as

as

recalling
the

scenes

glorious
Here broad
was

as

gorgeous
the Via the

even

Forum

itself. whose

situated

Triumphalis, triumphs
of

along
the

stones

pasised
and

victorious

generals,
glory,
the

emperors,
very

consuls,
bound

bringing
in

power,
to

famie,

world

itself

chains

Rome.
2

Digitized

by

196

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Beside the iElian


where stand is It is
a a

now bridge,

the Ponte
"

Sant*

Angelo,
age, parent-

those

"

breezymaniacs
Santa

of Bernini in

church

called

Maria

Traspontina.
beautiful,
others

church the

neither
common

laige,nor
eye,

grand, nor
a

to looking,

like

hundred

blockingup
Yet
so
a

every

comer

of this ecclesiastical capital.

memory

dwells
even

within
face
to

those walls, so
face
must

sacred,
of the it.

solemn, that

with pause

one

grandest images of
You

the
one

past, I

to record

enter, and
a

in

of the lateral

chapels are
white

shown marble

by

two limping sacristano^

of pillars

veined
and

with

red.
are

To said

these
to

the Apostles Paul pillars, been

Peter

have

fastened, before
the die.

undeigoing
execution
Not those tium
came

the

that always preceded flagellation


or

of the

slaves

strangers condemned

to

that
two

apostlessuffered here, on
once

this spot, but


the Comi-

antique columns
Forum, where
of time the
our

standingin punishmentwas
moved
of

in the

the
to be

inflicted,

in process

into this church.

Now

passing into
us

porch

this

barren-looking
is

let building,
"

cast

eyes around.

There

nothing
wme

suggestive, shabby houses, dark


and

streets, stalls of

the long facade of the Hospital of Santo fruit,


a

Spirito, perchance
St. Peter's

with fountain,
over

the

huge

dome

of

towering

the

adjacent roofs.

Yet,

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS,

197

where

stand,

was

once

the

centre

of

the the

far-famed

Territorium the mole and the of

triumphale^extending
Adrian,
diadem serpents
A
to

from

Tiber,by
its olive
Vatican rocks

Monte

Mario
to

with the

groves where in the and


In

of

pines, back
upon the

crawled

sun-burnt in the

early times. pride


groans order and

plain renowned
of
!

of history

pomp

Rome,

heavy with the sighs

of mankind
to

claim

the

high

honour

of

triumph,
taken

the many made

general, usuallyof
cities
a

consular

rank,
several

must

have

by assault,gained
number of

pitchedbattles,

certain the

enlarged the prisoners,


suffered any each defeat

of territory the

not Republic,

during
the

campaign,

have

improved

victory in

highest possibledegree, and


thousand the

have
were

killed at the of
a

five least.

enemies.

Such virtuous

requirements of
Rome's vain and
power.

Senate, in the

days
but

Afterwafds,a
show,
desired
collected and
to

triumph
granted

became
to

empty
who he
;

and

was

any for

madman imperial

it;

to

Caligula
on

Gaul, visiting
and
cut

where

sea-shells

the

coast

down

trees

at the Olympic games Nero, for singing

to

his

guitar.
When the martial Commonwealth prowess of
a

general was
a

deemed
at

by

the

of deserving

triumph

the

Digitizedby

198
conclusion
walls of From

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

of

campaign^ he accompanied by

encamped

under

the

Rome,

his victorious legions. wreathed letter, with

thence the

he

despatched

to laurel,

Senate, following .up this written request


in person, tq. plead his
cause

himself by presenting
a

in

studied

the fathers assembling for oiatioQ,

that purpose

without
that
or
no

the

walls, it being written in the early laws,


for
a

candidate

triumph could'

enter

Rome

pa^s the threshold of the Pomerium^ without

forfeiting

aU

rightto
the
the

this distinction.

Without
some

the

city walls,

under

sculptured portico of
Senate
gowns. saddest the

magniGicent
white

temple,
and

jcobed in their deliberated,


If the

purple

request

was

granted, the
menced cominstantly

grandest and
for
at
once

were preparations

celebration

of

this

sumptuous

rite;

and national, religious, of passion before the the

warlike,appealing to

every

Quirites.
sun

Long
mount, the

the

had

broken

over

the
;

Alban

shook city

itselffrom

slumber

the

palaces,

arcades, the
baths

streets, the
were

Campus. Martins, the

innumerable

filledwith eager. crowds; every


open, every, altar blocked
were

tcsnplewas

thrown

.smoked with
every
avenue,

fragrantincense.
the banks

Crowds

up

of the Tiber

fringed with multitudes,


the accumulated

Jthe .bridges groaned under

weight of

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS,

199

passengers, .Gardens the ay,


on

while

echoingfrom

all parts,from
to the

Lucullus'

the CoUis the

Hortulorum

from Vatican,

Janiculum to
"

Palatine, came

the

soul-stirring

lo

lo iriumphe,^' triumphe^ the waUs all was


soon

Without life* The


sun

alive and
as

astir with martial of the

as soldiers,

the first beams


of the

had

tipped

the

distant

crest

Sabine
of and
a

hills, freshly

habited

in silken tunics and

wearing crowns companies

gathered laurels,formed
and

into

legions,
splendid
the
manding com-

approached
was

the gates of the for them

where city,

banquet

spread
On

by order

of

general.
of-

the occasion of the


over

joint triumph

Vespasian

and has

Titus left so

prostrate Judaea, of
and

which the
two

Josephus

ample

vivid

chronicle,
held in

Emperors, having presidedin the


the of

Senate

within
memory

Portico
his

of

Octavia

(built by Augustus
with

and sister,

decorated
the

the finest

specimensof
of the
to

Grecian

received art), the


court

congratulations

and patricians

They then proceeded


the repast the

the

triumphal gate, where


for the

they joined in

spread
and

oflfered sacrifices to soldiers, the

gods,

invested themselves with music

triumphal ornaments.
swelled their

Martial
brazen

sounded, the
amidst

trumpets
shouts of

and throats, forth.

the rejoicing

set procession

Digitized by

200

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

First work in of boms the


"

was

borne

wondrous

collection

of

carved
ments vest-

and gold, silver,

ivoiy,with

stuffs and

purple and
the

many

colours,fresh from the Syrian


and

spoilsof Jerusalem'sgreat Temple


Next
were

Jewish palaces.
and diadems
were

displayed the jewels,


from the

crowns,

captured
borne

treasury.
in

All

these of

riches

habited by legionaries, with

tunics

purple embroidered
of statues,

gold.
every

Then

came

hundreds

sculpturedin

metal, all

of

workmanship, followed by exquisite


unknown

troops of strange and


deserts

animals
and the

from

the

sandy

bordering

Egypt,

phants richly-wooded valleysof Judaea, ele-

also, and
as caparisoned,

dromedaries,bravely harnessed they bore appeared


a

and
to

when

Eastern

tyrants forth multitude

battle.

Afterwards

countless

of

and slaves, who a heavy-eyed, droopingthrong, prisoners advanced ill with

lingering steps and


this and

sullen

looks,as though

brooking

crowning

insult of Roman
woes

pride
a

in

paradingthem
These

their bitter

to

grace

triumph.
No

Jews

are

all fated to
sun,

become

slaves. merry from

hope

for them.

The

the

the multitude,
torn

the cries, the brow


a

crowns banners, the jewelled floating

of their native pang


to

kings
"

every

with object is fraught

fresh

their wounded
their
once

spirit, pangs
beauteous

the regal recalling her glorious city*"

splendour of

Digitizedby

202

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the Penetralia,

Sanctum

Sanctorum
no

of
save

that the

Tenaple
anointed

behind

whose

mystic veil
ever

mortal

had highpriest here

dared

to

penetrate with hope of life ;

they

are-

carried in

the

glare of day, under


the The

an

Italian

to sky, profaned,prostituted

vulgar gaze
brazen

of

Pagan
of

Romans

to scoff

and

jeerat

statues

Abraham, Sarah,

and

the

kings descended

from

the

line of David before


heads

; the sacred

untouched utensils of the altar,

by

any

unconsecrated

hand,

are

carried

on

the

of laurel-crowned the

whose legionaries,

rich garments

sweep
the

ground;

thje table

of

massive
that

gold

for the

shew-bread,the silver trumpets


very the

sounded

the Jubilee, the

sacred,that divided veil, unutterably


seven

Temple,

branched
law
"

also candlesticks,

of

gold,and

the tables of the the

^those awful
Mount
"

first tables,

givenby

hand Almighty's sunk

on

Sinai*

Next- appears
not

in sullen
son

grief, conquered though


of

subdued," Simon, the


robe, laden
"

Gorias,habited
clanked

in

black

with had

heavy chains,that
defended

at

every step

he

who

Jerusalemwith

such

frantic courage,

on fighting

imdesperately, savagely,

heeding
surrender

the
ere

humane
the

calls and

of injunctions

Titus

to

became legions

maddened
knew
as

past recall
that he
was

by

too

obstinate
to
a

resistance.
as

Simon
soon

destined

speedy death

the

procession

Digitized by

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS.

203

reached

the

Capitol ;
as

but he strode on, he had been when

as

haughty on commanding

the
on

brink of the grave his native walls. Then

there is a sudden of

hush, a deep silent murmur,

as

of the pent-up breath

thousands,anxious, expectant,
of

tide joyous,the overflowing


fro with
sense
a

humanity ebbing to
is

and

hollow

sound; every eye

strained, every

for the Romans, quickened,


of these

well versed in the programme that when

triumphs,know

the
"

spolia
laurel-

opima
crowned well

have

passed, the Emperors

will appear

Vespasian,and his royal son


for his many virtues.

and Titus,gentle, The


statues

beloved

of

of ivoryand gold,come Victory,

and first,
on

then
two

behold

the

father victors,
; and
as

and

son,

mounted
the
one

golden
masses

chariots
of that

they appear,
burst into

mighty pent-up

huge

crowd

uproarious cry
of heaven
!

of lo

triumphe^echoing to
is
now an

the very vaults

sian Vespa-

old man,

and fat, grey-haired, all the of brilliancy

wrinkled ;
a

but Titus is
and

in resplendent To

virtuous

well-spent youth.
is religion

enhance

the

of their dignity
a

appearance

called

in,and the Emperors, by


that

pio^$fiction, are supposed,on


"

to reprehigh festival, sent

himself, supremely Jupiter good

and
the

thus great,"

heighteningby
their presence.

mystic symbolism,
the

majesty

of

On

occasion

of

triumph,every

Digitizedby

204

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

victorious
to

generalwas

dressed

in the classic tunic proper

the

Olympian god,

their bodies

being coloured

milion, ver-

in imitation of his venerated the

image

enshrined
rode

in
are

Capitol. The
with

very chariots in which steeds

they

harnessed
of
none,

four milk-white

tion abreast,in imitaaccorded


to

an Jove'sheavenlychariot,

honour

save

by

the express

decree

of the

Fathers. Conscript
shone
out
a

Titus, standing on god


in the eyes

his

triumphalcar,

verythe
to

of the assembled the

Quirites. Again
went

cries of lo

triumphe rent

and air,

booming

the mountain

of Latium,as depths that gird the plains face and hands coloured

he

appeared, his

vermilion,his

purple toga bordered


his head covered almost Simon. crowned

with

golddrapinghis manly form,


and laurels, that clanked chains of the his and
arms

with

immortal

with
as

bracelets military the


an

rang

loudlyas
Titus bore

heavy

wretched

ivorysceptre surmounted
which he

by

an

eagle.
open

The

chariot

on

rode

was

round

and

in shape that behind,resembling drove round the walls of of

in which

victorious
his the

Achilles wake the

Troy, draggingin

mangled body

Hector, which, when


from
a

gentle Andromache,
beheld, she swooned
Titus's
car

looking out
and fell. bronzed
was

high

tower,

of

ivoryand
It

gold,set

with

jewels,

as glistened

it passed.

drawn

by nodding steeds,

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS,

205

who, like their master, him,


mounted
on
a

were

wreathed

with laurel. Beside his

war-horse,rides prancing
the most olive

brother,

Domitian, togetherwith

illustrious of Rome's and garlands, horses of robed the in

proudest citizens, wearing


white

togas, guiding the milk-white


car

umphal tri-

with

golden

reins.
a

Behind

him, restingon
office it is memento^' writing handall. die

the
to

stands step of the chariot,

whose slave,
te esse

whisperin
was

his ear,

"
"

Ccesar hominem head


one

Here

the the

death's

of

the

the festival,

on

wall,the

bitter
as

drop envenoming
art, thou
to
"

deified Yes, Caesar, glorious,

thou

must

like the vilest slave that stretches

his throat

proclaim

thy triumph.

Thou

art

man,

though
even

thou
now,

paintan

inch thick'*to imitate great who passest in thy glory, is not The songs

Jove; and

while thou
urn

knows

but that the funeral

alreadycarved
army of
or

that is destined to hold


street

thy ashes

follows, making the


here and

resound

with

broken victory,
smart

there

by

spiteful
all

satire
license And

at the generals* pleasantry expense,

on beingpermitted

this great Satumalian

holiday.

then

the crowd

close every

in, a white-robed
voice raised
in

multitude,
tumultuous

vast,

innumerable,

shouts,and cries of extatic joy.


The

processionenters
on

the

city by

the

Triumphal
that

Gate, situated

the

banks

of the classic stream

Digitizedby

2o6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

bore

up

Horatius

on

that fetal the

day

when

the

Tuscan

assailants, rushingon
valour would and her have

bridge,but
Rome

for his bore

desperate
up

entered

; that

Clelia,
and hiis

maiden

from fellows,flying Father of


are

Porsenna whom the

Etruscans; Old

Tiber, "to
this gate,

Romans such

pray."

All

traces

garlanded with
but

memories, glorious
to

irrevocably gone,
same

it is said the

have

stood

on

the

spot

now

occupiedby
may
see

Hospital of
the

Santo you

which Spirito,
pass the Ponte

you Sanf

fronting

river

as

Angelo. Beside
the

the gate, the Pons This but

triumphalis spanned
sunk

rapidstream.
river

bridge, too, is gone,


whjBn the
stream

into the

deep

below; heats,
in the

is the
a

low, dried up by

summer

the foundation

of and

piers may

yet be

seen

yellow waters,
current, shows

certain the

disturbance observed
up

in the
bedded. em-

where

massed

ruins still lie

Over

the

bridgethey pass

"

banners, crowns, ^prisoners,


laurel-wreathed Phoebus shone

and elephants, emperors, citizens,


as

legions,
upon
"

grand
to

company

as

ever

old

on

the

Campus

Martius,planted with
decorated From

groves

and

tufted

thickets,and

with

porticoes, temples,

and circuses, what is


now

fountains.
the the

thence,passingthrough
the the modem

thickest

portionof
on

city,
in

they follow

Triumphal Way

to

Velabrum,

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS.

207

early days
were

where stagnant marshy lake,


over

weak

infants

exposed,and
and

which

the

earlyRomans

passed

to to

fro in littleboats, when

business

carried them

the silent

Aventine,where

the

golden

roofs of

Juno's
and

magnificent Temple

glistened. But
Velabrum, the
was

when Forum

Titus

Vespasian passed
been

the

Boarium densest
and in

erected,in what
of the

then

the busiest and merchants

portion
under

city,where
of the

buy
up

sell the
the of

the

shadow
the

Brazen

Bull, set

centre, where
arches

classic

canagliagather
and where

under

of the Cloaca

Maxima,

the arch

with Janus Quadrifrons, cornices niches,


Now this
Forum

its four-faced

arches,its sculptured
out

and

mouldings shines

dent resplen-

and mouldering solitary returned


to

in inarticulateruin,

region has
has

its
the

solitude. original
marble

The

and disappeared,

arch, its niches


totters to
a

mouldings gone, empty, its sculptured


decay.
But
to return.

slow

Passingthe

Forum

Boarium,and
the

the

great Circus spreadingaway

behind

the Palatine,

processionturns
between the

to

the

left,by the
the

Circus

Veteres,
the Via

Caelian and
with

to where Palatine,

Sacra^avenued
leads onward

superb temples,statues
to the Forum.

and

shrines,
the

in

line straight of the

Along

well-worn

pavement

Via

Sacra, on

those very

Digitizedby

2o8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

stones
come

on

which

we,

two

thousand

years

still afterwards, that heart The


of

and

go, the victors of

approach the Forum,


and liberty
mount

and Forum the the the

hearth-stone

Roman

glory.
ascent

slowlypassed, they
the road

the

steep

Capitolby

to the

left, coming down

from

TarpeianRock,
banners

the Clivus
on

Capitolinus.See already
sacred mount, the

flutter the

the

long

lines defile up

the multitude ascend hill, the

the marble

steps, and
molten

soon

reach that most

with colonnade, blazing triple

of gold,

transcendant

Temple, the Pagan


Here its eye

sanctuary, inhabited
pause; but
as

by CapitolineJove. throng
press under

they

the
a

pillared
is fixed of the
now

there portico,
on

is

sudden

silence.

Every

Simon, son

of

the Gorias,

dauntless and

defender he is

Jewish Temple.
die.

His

hour

is come,

to

See, the lictors advance


with laurel ; him away,

bearing the deadly fasces,


him,
the

wreathed

they approach,they surround


his black
robe
on trailing

they

bear

ground, his

chains

as clanking horribly

he

moves.

he is beaten, severely beaten, within the enclosure First, of the

Forum, then he is borne


to

away

half dead, bleeding, the horrible


crest

below,

the

foot

of

the

rock, where
upon

Mamertine
the gorgeous

dungeon Temple

opens, stands halt.

whose

topmost

before whose

gildedportals
horrible
con-

the

Emperors' chariots

Strangeand

Digitized by

2IO

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

helmets

are

ranged ;

among

them

the shield of Asdrubal


on

is conspicuous. Beneath, shields pillars,


the and

trophieshang military
and
;

the

swords, helmets
of Rome

axes, rusted

by

blood of the demies

the

thaginian prows of Car-

the sword of Bremius, vessels, Gaulish-helmets, the


arms

of Pyrrhus, the standards spoils of the


"

of the

the "pin"ts,
Ae

^all offerings to Liguriaxis

national

shrine.
bronze.

The

^eps

are

of

rare

the doors, of gilt marble,-

Theinterior is divided into three naves, fonmt^

where separate shrines^

Juno and

Minerva

were

also

honoured
bkzes

The /Edicukky or sanctuary, of


the

Jupit" literally
a

y^th gold,the walls and

roof shine Hke

firtnamcnt of fire; the

image

of the

of ra god,painted

milion ver-

colour, is seated, a toga of purple ":lothes its

limbs,a
appei^s
In
mom

crown

of

on gold glitters

its brovr,in

one

h^nd

trlikunderbolt lance,the other holds the symb0lio"


has night)?
evfe conte
on.

this meantime until shadowy

From

early

has -thatvast

procession dragged
now

its huge darkness

throu^ splendour
but

and the;city,

the

coming

o()en3

more

i"fcenet)rif;F"M[ty glittering
the,

elephantsloaded with caiwJelabr^


and
the

"fencing lights

flickering among

the

ranges of

supporting pillars:.

darkness the lofty )tuniing Capitol, light portico, triple into


a

day. brighter

noble

idea those

forty

illuminated

surrou^^ded by elephants,

millions of flam-

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS,

21

beaux

sparklingamong

the

countless and

arcades

and

porticoes of Jove's great Temple,


their Greeted

mocking
the

with

fhe brilliancy

colder
of

splendours of

night
descend

by this

blaze

the Emperois light,

froih their
mofunt enter

and golden chariots,

prostrate on

their knees,

the marble the

steps leadingto the sanctuary.


the dividing
vast extent

They
of that

naves triple

fane, where

the accumulated been

of peoples, spoils kingdoms,


on

empires,have

lavished ; whose

whos^

doors of

gilded

bronze, ?Lnd upon


the arid

columns

the trophies of hanjg

the mighty slain,

enemies
for
a

of Rome.
"

They
for see,
a

enter,
lictor

they

pause

"

but

moment

advancing through
as

the

aisle pillared

bows
"

in the Actum

dust

he

pronounces

the expected message


is

est^^

it is and

finished; Simon
the

dead, the
Then

wretched loud and

captive, mighty
to

! Emperors rbayrejoice rend the

shouts

loftyhalls, Jupiter echoing


of

his

brother-gods peans
as

triumph

over

the slain

prisoner,
a slaying

though

some

mighty deed

were

done Titus
now

in

chained

captive. Vespasian and


of where Jupiter,
a

penetrate
of the

into the sanctum


to

the image

god,

whom

they address
enthroned

prayer of
a

and thanksgiving

sits praise,

on

high

altar.

Then

Titus
of

approaching the idol,places in


and laurel, off taking

his hand

a' branch

his

diadem, he dedicates glittering

Digitizedby

212

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

it with all that is most


to

rare

and

costly among

the

spoils

the

god.

Victims

are

advance, brought,the priests

the altars smoke

with choicest under the


;

hecatombs, and
vast

splendid
of the

banquet is spread golden Temple,


the
senate

the

colonnades

where

triumphant Caesars entertain


while all the while Simon's

and

the court

cold corpse towards


moon,
on a

floats downwards, borne


sea, under

by

the

rapidcurrent
the

the

the

cold

glimmer of
savage

silvery
even

dismal witness of Rome's

revenge,

this day of universal


The assembled followed

joy. throughoutthe livelong


retire also
every
to

who multitude,

day

have

the victor'schariot, now


a

their homes, where

festival is

spread for
Rome
are

family
a

according

to

their

means.

All

rejoicesin

feverish delicious
Enormous
raw generals,

holiday.,Nor

the soldiers

ten. forgot-

are presentedby largesses

the victorious festive tables

meat

and distributed,

the

groan cheer.

for successive Falemian in

days
and

under

the accumulated

good

the

choicest
out

Cyprian wine"
barrels

measured

amphorae,is
army.
one

served

of immense

to the whole

I will

glance at

or

two
names

other

triumphsin

earlier

from interesting times, led

the

of the great heroes who the

them, and

remarkable

from

importanceof

the

conquests

they celebrated.

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRIUMPHALIS,

213

At

the

conclusion noble
a

of

the

second of
an

Punic ancient

war,

Scipio
as

Africanus,as
overwore

specimen

Roman

the toga, who, with his

and regalmagnificence minds


.

courtly breedingquitestaggeredthe simple frugal maxims


Hannibal
and
out

and

of of

his

contemporaries, after
north

driving
Africa,

Italy, conquering the

of

bringingcaptive to Rome,
the Via

Siphax the
"

Numidian

King, passed along


most

Triumphaiis, leading the


"

splendidtriumph,"says garrulousold Livy,


ever

which rated modePaulus* that

had

been

beheld."

But

Livy

should the the

have of

this

expression, remembering
more

days

for -^milius,

brilliant stillwas

when sight

great and

after returning upright general,

the conquest of in

Greece, led Perseus,King of Macedon, through Rome


chains. entire
defiled the in
A

rightroyal sightwas
the

this, occupying three


the victors Sacra
to

days,duringwhich
along the
Via

vanquished and
the Via in the
a

Triumphalis and
were

Capitol. Scaffolds
every

erected

Forum, and
view of the

part of the
whole

citycommanding
people appeared

the solemnity,
as a

dressed
set

in white open, lands gar-

symbol
adorned

of

the temples festivity,

were

the

walls,the altars smoked

with aromatic

the fasces wreathed incense,and lictorsbearing cleared the way. torious laurel,

with vie.

First

appeared paintingsand

statues, the

of spoils

Digitizedby

214

PICTURES

Ot

OLD

ROME,

dassic
Next and

Gzeece,borne

on

two most

hundred

and

chaxiots. fifty
arms

were

the displayed

beautiful Macedoniaa

armour,

of furbished brass and

helmets, steel, polished


targets, Thradan

breast-plates, shields, greaves,

Cretan

of arrows, naked bucklers, quivers

swords, and long pikes,

all thrown

which,as they passed together, promiscuously


of the often traversed harsh and and way,

clanking along the rough slabs


woke could the the echoes
not

with sounds
them

so

men terrible,

hear

without walked
and
seven

dread three

horror.

After soldiers

armour glistening

thousand

loaded

with money,

hundred bore

And

vessels fifty

filled with
and goblets,

silver coin.
cups
came
"

Others

jewelled bowls,

of

enriched silver,
a

with the finest bassi

relievi. Then
brazen used

company
such

of

legionaries sounding
"

trumpets,
in
a

not

airs,'^ says Plutarch,


entry, but
such

as

are

of procession

solemn

as

the the

Romans

sound

when

they

animate
came

their troops
droves

to

charge." Behind
from

the trumpets

of fe.toxen

the Thessalian and

plains ; their gildedhorns gsirlanded


the

with ribbons

in fluttering gaily flowers, and

breeze,

accompanied by boys carrying gold


sacrifice. But time fails
crowns
me

silvervessels of
rich

to

the particularise

the. caps and spoil,

of

Antigonus and

Perseus,
:

Kings
must

of

Macedon, jewelledwith dazzlinggems


to

and I

hurry on

speak of

the great

the himself, captive

Digitizedby

THE

VIA

TRWMPBALIS.

215

successor

of
came

Alexander,dragged
his firstbearing

in

to trioni^h

Rome.

A
at

chariot
a

armour

and

his diadem,

short

distance followed
age, the in

his

captive children, yet


out stretching

of

tender

littleinnocents

their

tinyhands

to supplication

the assembled

as Quirites

they passed along. Unconscious


the and

in their

babyhood

of

heavy

doom

them, they were awaiting


at

only terrified

astonished
at

the

and stared and strange spectacle,


men

wondered

those them.

iron-featured
Even those the poor

who

gazed

so

earnestlyupon
touched
tears
were

stem

Romans

were

at

the shed

sightof
in

and children, and

many cruel-

pityfor
children

their innocence
came

fate.

Following the

their

unhappy father,
ordered head, dissurrounded

Perseus, clad in black

robes, with downcast


eyes. He
was

hair,and by
a

weeping

train
But

of

mourning friends, all prisoners like


anon as

himself.

this

melancholy train disappeared,


came

what of the
scene,

thrilling change
the

o'er

the

spirit
Paulus

when

hero, the
in

conqueror,

^milius
in his

radiant himself,

glittering armour,
slaves the

appeared

triumphal chariot,preceded by
coronets

bearing

four hundred

of

gold,offered by
a

vanquished

Grecian
man

cities. Paulus, at all times


and of
a

some remarkablyhandwas

most

noble with

presence,

set
a

off

by
of

purplerobe

interwoven

gold,and

bore

branch

Digitized by

2i6

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

laurel in his hand.

shout of
the

a delight,

roar

of rapturous the very

applause, shook
the trembled, Capitol
that
seven

packed ranks,
to the

hillsrang

joyful paeans
who

greetedthe great

warrior and

his brave army,

like followed their general's chariot, every soldier bearing,

him, a joyous

laurel songs,

branch, the badge of victory.Some


others chaunted
odes of

sang

each victory,
man

of iEmilius,'^a the exploits celebrating and


man

revered whom
no

admired could

by all," says Plutarch, ''and

envy."

^w?g

Digitized by

2i8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

on

humanitythat
;
a

would

have

the rejoiced
to

heart of Voltaire made


La

plaisanterie ghastlyenough
smile. of Mausoleum

have

Rochefoucauld
The very
name

has

departed,and,

to

discover

the

place where
ask for the network and of

Caesar's ashes
Palazzo
narrow

reposed, the
to

stranger must
dive into
a

Corea, and
and

find

it,

streets \y\Ti^g filthy

between

the Corso

the
Via

Rippetta.
dei

At

lengthan

pleasant un-

alley, named,
stands in
a

is gained, and Paniejfici,

one

front of kind of

dismal

lookingpalace,fallingto
aristocratic decay.

in pieces

and dignified

Dirty

and stables, many


on

dark

littleshops,a great windows

and Fortohe'btlovf^
the

half-closed
no

above,
ever

ornament

fagade,

which

sunbeam solitary

lingers. This gloomy


you
must

Palazzo it to
seems

stands to the street,and the

pass

through
what of kind

gain
a

cortile behind, treadingon irregular


but

dirty pavement,
marble slabs

which that

in fact, formed is, green

beautiful called On in the

of

speckled

Serpentino.
one

side of this

is a littleniche Farlme-pSiSssLge
no,

wall, not

for statues, oh

but

for

the celling

This the biglietti. tickets, which around sits


a

is the with
"

Bott^Mno^ within
a

man grim-looking

long beard.

All

otiiers are
sono

cryingout,

vuole ztgari seelti^ Zigari^


How

comprare^

zigariP ecco eccellenti,

enraged

the

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS.

219

manes

of the deified Css"eurs must between earth


"

where somebe, if floating

and

heaven, they hear


the

these of

men

screaming
!

on Cigars to sell,"

threshold

their tomb

Escaped
raised

from

the who
can

cigarvendors, and
smoke be
no

the dense

vapour

by those
There

them, the cortile beyond is


mistake about its

reached.

being the

for over rightlocality,


a

the

door

of the inner
Mausoleo

buildingis
di

huge board, on
segment
is
an

which
a

is written

Augusta.

The

of

circular
an

building with angle

projecting

cornice above browned of the

just visible in
"

of the; cortile, rising

immense
worn

substructure

^of

reticulated

tufa,

and

by
as

ages. you

This learn

fragment is a glimpse
but afterwards,
so

Mausoleum,
like
a

at first

it all looks

shapelessmass,
and

deformed time

by
to

additions
understand.

and

gloom
The

dirt,that
as

it takes
as new

walls,old
recent

well the

(meaning Ages),are
turesque picof illthe

by

new^

something as
with

as

Middle

festooned

ivy

and
stern

trailing plants,giving a
old

reliefto the

pile.

Idle groups

canagliaalways hang looking

about
A
more

this cortile when

performance

is

going

on.

ungracious, heavythe

race browed, malicious-eyed

than

plebs urhana scarcelybe

now

prowlingabout
There

the is
an

Eternal

City,can

ceived. con-

air of fallen

grandeur,and

conse-

Digitizedby

220

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

quent
half

sense

of wrong, scowl

an

half beggar, indignant bearing, and


wear

a assassin,

of defiance

of

cruelty, quite
like

peculiarto
but kings,
are

the
it is

Romans.

They
and

their rags

majesty fallen
men,

and starving,
must

kings

hungry
a

like other
stiletto
now

and then

steal

too, and
not

unsheath

and

if

begging will

fill their pockets. There


cavern,
on

is and

great gaping entrance, like the


then
come

mouth

of

three
are

of flights dirty which fixed,


one

steps, and

the walls marble

tablets

naturally
be

examines

curiosity, supposingthem witl)


connection

to

tions inscrip-

having some
have
are a

with the ruin.


with many

Yes, they

very close connection


more

the present ruin,and


tablets
over

much

legiblethan
blinded

which

have antiquarians informs of Fame


name

themselves. "that the in any

One, in particular,

the passer
cease

by

loquacious trumpet
where locality

may

sounding

the

of Giovanni

and Guillaume, the superb cavalier, much

most

so rider, extraordinary

applauded
These

in the

city

of

the

Tiber, is
"

not

known."
on

are inscriptions

nothing hM\.puffs
laurels
won

graven

stone,"in laudation of the

in the circus above.


at the

Arrived
not

top of the

dark

stairs, where, if you


with felo-de-se
as

do

take

care,
as

you

will commit

much

unconcern

did the

Thrasea, your philosophic

check

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS.

221

is taken you

by

another
on

dirty personage
not anfiteatro^

with

beard, and
size but
rows

emerge

the

large in

like shaped precisely of


stone

the

Colosseum.

Ascending
towards
seats

seats,

receding gradually
it
covered These

the
are

top,
mounted sur-

surround entirely

tiers of

by
divided into
or

one gallery,

half pf which above


an

is

private boxes,

while

is

an

open

esplanade
to

promenade, guarded by
Such

iron

railing,
and
come

prevent accidents.

is the present outward the

visible aspect of the

Mausoleum, where

plebs

rushingin by the
the fact throw take the shades of

"

littleabout as Vomitorium," thinking

Augustus,or Marcellus,or
the honest The

Drusus, or

in

as anythingclassical,

John

Bulls who

orange

peel at Astle/s.
the lower

plebs rush in and


with corresponding
unconcern,

their
ancient

places on

range

podium, with

marvellous

puffing
at the

those

which zigari, everlasting


the

they have

bought
of

on door, (standing

beautiful blocks
the

serpentino)
around.
the

and What

are

with quitedelighted

flimsy pageant
the

do

they care

if

in they are sitting


oii

place of

vestals with

who

lounged

their curule
the
"

cushioned chairs,

embroidered
or

beside pillows,
seats

pavilionof

the

Emperor,
with

in the

of the

ConscriptFathers,"
ample, hangthat

their snowy
about them

togas purple edged and


in statuesque

ing

folds,
"

so

they are

Digitized by

222

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

amused
the and

Party after party enter, and


the

seat

themselves

in

placesof

the ambassadors, the tribunes, knights, all


out eagerlylooking
a

the censors,

for

or Paglictcdo comes

or Stmiarelloy

on betting

favourite horse which


fair

bounding in,ridden by
by drapery.
the horses stands while There radiant in scud the round The

some

nymph
out

little encumbered

music round with

roars

joyous airs, Pagliacdo jokes,


scene.

and

the his

arena,

midst

ready

well-worn

above

is the. blue

sky encanopying the


to

is

no

envious

Velarium

shut

out

the

mildly

with the last rays of departing heavens, glistening the Ave Maria the hour.
roars

day
the

at

Spite of

the

clanging of

brass

band,

of
some

Bravo, BratfissimOy Via,


favourite of
one cigars,

Coraggio,Bis, spiteof
of Spirit the

that

salute

equestrian, -ifeels the

insufferable

odour
one

the past

dealing over

in certain uhdefinable the preiSent environments.

visions, very incongruous

indeed,in

"

It is
as

a essentially happy

scene

this al its ancient


was so

frescotheatre,
prototype,the

and

"uch.

differs from totally the smell df blood the

Where circus, every


now

that oppiressive

aiid then

performance was
showered-

dtbpped,whik
There
worst

distilled perfumes were


no

fro^i above. th^

is fortune mis-

tio SpdlmtiuM; gioOftiy Sandapitay

that

can

happen

is 1^

be

hissed'

t^fr the stage.

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS.

223

and

then

the discomfited

actor

escapes

by the

Sanavi-

varium. The

audience is in

highgood
a

humour

because to-night,
a

rides Sigfwr B(U"efalo


pony
to

favourite steed,and
a

wonderful

sitsdown

to

table with
out

white

napkin i^tened
then

his chin,and

eats

of

pkte.

Clown Two

wipes

his mouth, and gets kicked for his afterwards appear,


who have

pains.
and

brigands
some

robbed

murdered
their

in the Abruzziyand hide fifty:travellers


in the

bag

of

gold

sawdust, which

the wise pony,

who

in the

time mean-

has

finds and pulls out re-entered, should have heard


how

with his teeth !

You

the

excited

Italians

screailied and
and

roar^

BravOy and

clapped their hands,


the

how

the band

cl^hisd out

BagatteUa! it made
would have

mas^ve

old /"^la shake

and again,

shaken

tbd aabes of th^

im^rial Caesars
um,

too, were

the Mausoleum
was

other than. " an.empty

whose

holydust
on

scattered

long ago,". As

to

the

cigar gentry

the

esplanade, they

drink dintfinata^ and


are

and stamp, and bellow till laugh, they Before

dioked. w^llrnigh
set

the performance is
stars
come

over

night has
out, but

in, and the


soon

young to

trembUng
arena

they are

put

shame, fpr the

i"
cast

and siiddeolyilluminatedy

the
on

glowing

torches

st^ang^ Mghtsand

shadows

the actc^rsand absolute

the horses,
darkness.

leaving the spectators enveloped in

Digitizedby

224

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

It would

take

but

littleimagination to tiansfonn

Pc^-

into the shade of Augustus. acdoy in his white tunic,

Well, it is all

over, and

the

who audience,

have

been those

doing the classics without knowing' it, pass down


stairs and dirty
out

into the street,treading on


over

the mudpompous

covered

serpentino pavement

which

such

have passed, and processions and the


at

the

placeis left to solitude


lised scandautterly the smell of

owls, or

any

imperial ghost not


and

clowns nineteenth-century

cigars.
Strabo tells us
tumulus marble of that the Mausoleum
on a

consisted of

large

earth, raised

loftybasement
manner

of white
a

shaded

by

evergreens

in the

of

pendant
in

garden,from
a

the base to the

summit, which terminated


bronze
statue

crowned pinnacle,
the tumulus of fourteen stood
two

with
was a

of

Augustus.
which
the
ran

Beneath
a

central hall around


At

range

chambers. sepulchral

outer

entrance

around Egyptian obelisks, and


terraces.

lay

sacred

grove, divided into walks


Mausoleum
was

site Oppopile,

the

the

Ustrina, or

ftineral

built also of white marble, surrounded


and about planted with

by iron balustrades,

poplars.
enclosure of the

Comprised within
Martius,
on

the vast the modem

Campus

which

citystands,the lofty
most

tomb, with

its three

open

looked galleries/

im-

Digitized by

226

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Drawing
of the
scenes

aside the veil of the connected

past, let us

call up

some

with this Mausoleum.


more

rules in Rome Augustus, its founder, than

absolutely

Julius Caesar,though
as

he

is

only styledperpetual
a

dictator, or,
whom Divided
of

he

calls of the

himself, "

humble

citizen

to

the

care

Commonwealth Livia and


age

is confided." the ambition have infirmity


^

between

the

of intrigues
son,

Tiberius his

adopted
a

old

and

overtaken Sole his and

him, after
absolute
a

reign of unparalleled prosperity.


the

sovereignof
time breathing

civilised

universe,

reignformed

between

the distraction

and of civil conflicts, of the emperors


;
a

the deliberate and


moment

systematic tyranny
nations
quiesced ac-

when

conquered

in the power
were

of their conquerors, their native of

the barbarians peace

driven

back the

to

wilds,universal
was

and prevailed,
It
to
was

Temple
and

Janus

closed.

summer,

fi-om isle leisurely Augustus,sailing and there


He
on

touched isle,

here Gulf of

the delicious

shores

the bordering breathed

Naples,

listened to the flatteries

around the

him, to

the recitation of the poets, to the


now one visiting

of disputes then city,

philosophers ;
;

beautifiil

another

received everywhere, and rapturously


in the circus and the theatre. that mortal
It
was

diverted with games in the midst of this

delightful progress

illness

overtakes him.

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS,

227

He he

the struggles against that he is


He
to

fatal The

malady for
stoical

time ; then is
un-

knows

die.

Emperor

inoved.

and playsat laughsand talks,

cards with his

illness permits, as long as his fapidly courtiers, increasing

inquiresof

those

about asks

him for
a

if his state mirror and


a

ej^cites much

at Rome, curiosity

comb, trims
the

his of

and hair, his raising

recommends sunken
as

to his attendants

propriety
artificial
been

cheeks

after death what


an

by
actor

some

means.

Then,

if conscious

he had

throughout his
and

career, he turns

to his

friends, surrounding
of life? If

asks, "

If he had

played well

the drama and the

so," continued
with

he,

"

applaud me,
he grew
worse

clap your
crowd
was

hands

pleasure." As
and he
was

missed, dis-

left alone

with

Livia; "Farewell,"
Soon after

said he,
he

"

never

our forget

union, Farewell."

expiredin
All Rome

her

arms.

flocked

to

the Palatine whither his

body was
on
a

removed, and where


raised and

it

lay in

state

for

seven

days
with cruel

bed, draped with purpleand ornamented


To say he
was

ivory

gold.

lay in

state

is but

fiction,

the real corpse

hid at the foot of the


a

bed, while in its


and

place appeared
clothed in the

waxen

pale figure,

emaciated,
stood

triumphal habit.

Beautifiil slaves

beside the

in ghastly pallidimage,pretending, mockery, the fliesfrom the and imperial face,


to
Q
2

to drive away

guard

Digitizedby

228

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

the slumbers
sat

of

Augustus.
in

Around

the sumptuous

couch

the

Senate

mourning habits, along with


They
wore

the most

matrons. distinguished

neither
or

gold nor jewels,


to mourn,

but

arrayedin

white

robes,mourned,

seemed
seven

the great the

departed. Daily,during the


in

days

that

body lay
as

state, the

selves presented themphysicians

if

the visiting
"

deceased At

Emperor.

Each

day
farce
on

they repeated
ceased, and
the shoulders

He

is worse."

last the hideous the

Augustus was
of of forty funeral

carried from
the Praetorian couch
was

Palatine

guard.
bome
a

Preceding the

statue

of the the

conceived a Victory, delicately

invented flattery

by
to

that the goddess herself belonged Senate, inferring of family the

Caesars, and

that
were

was victory

in hereditary of

their line.
one

Side

by

side
on

two

statues

Augustus,
to

of

gold, placed

scaffold

destined
on
a

receive

divine

bome honours, the other of silver, There


was no

triumphal
now
:

chariot.
it
was

need that

of the

warning slave
was

evident plainly
came

deified Caesar
of the

mortal

Then

the ancestral
a

busts

Julianline, posed, supfi*om Venus

by

to be poeticflattery,

descended
son

through lulus, the they claimed


of ancestors
as

"fair-haired"

of

^Eneas, whom
This

the founder

of their

race.

long line

was

in effigy, all save displayed

JuliusCaesar,
company with

who, being

god,

could

not

appear

in

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS.

229

mortals.
Romans

Busts, too, followed


since
or

of

all

the for

illustrious

Romulus,

celebrated

tHeir great

wisdom also the

heroic valour. which

Among
were

these

images, pictures
the the titles of all of the and

appeared,on
laws

engraven

by Augustus, and promulgated

names

nations

vanquishedby
sang

his in

arms:

Troops honour;
an

of

youths

maidens

hymns

his

the

Senate, the throng

the knights, of citizens All the


were

Praetorian

and soldiery,

inmiense

the procession. closing habited each in

mourning, and
had

in

compliment
the

to

deceased

senator

exchanged

golden
at the

wore ringsthey usually

for those of iron.


two

Arrived

Forum
were

the

processionpaused, and
Tiberius and

funeral orations Here the the

pronounced by by
their it on
own

Drusus.

senators,
couch and

desire,took

possessionof
towards

bore

their shoulders

the funeral

pile. As
were

the

all who passed through the city, procession


on

able and

threw

it aromatic

perfumes,sweet-smelling
crowns riiilitary war.

herbs,

frankincense,also
for

and
within

decorations
the enclosure the second

heroic actions in

Arrived
was

of the

Mausoleum, the couch


temporary
to

placedon
the

division of the
which it
was

temple, on

Ustrina,within
maximus

be

burnt, the Pontifex


Tiberius and
last

and

the

standingaround. priests
advanced
to

the

familythen imperial

givethe

kiss,

Digitizedby

23"

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

not

to

Augustus,but they took

to the

wax

statue
a

him. representing and the tribune,


to be moment
were fired,

Afterwards

their

placeson pilewas
At the

with which torches,

the funeral

presented to
vast

the

centurions.
and

that the

caught fire catafalque eaglewas


let

blazed

up in whirlwinds

of the

an flame,

fi-om fly

the upper

division of
bolised symthe for

Ustrina^ whose
the

towards rapid flight the deified dead. in white


to pile,

heaven and Livia,

of apotheosis

senators principal

habited

remained tunics,
collect the

five

days to

watch

the funeral

imperial

ashes,and

to

placethem
not

in the Mausoleum.

Augustus was
he
had

the firstoccupant of the Mausoleum the


young

erected;
and

Marcellus,his favourite
son

nephew

intended

successor,

of

his
within

sister
the dark

Octavia, was
marble cypress and

the firstof the


over

laid Julianfamily summit waved

pyramid,
and

whose

the

laurel trees.

Of Marcellus made the

littleis

known,

yet his short life was

subjectof excessive

adulation.

Here, too, reposed his mcjther Octavia,the neglected


wife of the

voluptuous Antony,
whose household

woman

of

exemplary
ill cope

but virtue, with the

excellencies could
of that
"rare

surpassingbeauty

Egyptian,"

Cleopatra, Agrippa,the
near

husband

of the first Julia, lay

; he who

built the

for Pantheon, and paid so dearly

Digitizedby

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS,

231

the

honour

of

himself calling
to
a

son-in-law of

Augustus,by

being

united
own

wife of such
was

profligacy, undisguised
banish her.
ancient

that her the

father
was

forced
as

to
an

This

was

Juliawho
at

educated

Roman,

who

lived and

domi mansit^latiam fecity home, learningto spin,

whose

every Caius

word

and

action

were

entered

in

journal.
were

and

Lucius, nephews
his Livia,

of the

Emperor,
wife,with

placed
he had

near, and

well-beloved in

whom and she and

lived

seven-and-thirty years
rested beside

perfectlove
At his death

harmony, afterwards
was

him.

honoured

by the

Senate with the titleof the memory,'


"

Augusta,

in fulsome adulation of his


"

further

appel*
her

lation of
son

Mother

of her country these

was

proposed. But

Tiberius

both negatived

motions,and Livia lived


a mean

to

with bitterness, the neglectof feel, he owed both his

who tyrant, succession


to

forgotthat
her

adoption and

interest on unremitting

his behalf. the warrior, attached

Germanicus, the
husband, the devoted

noble-hearted

the kind father,

master,

gentleand

graciousto all,undebauched
success,

unspoiltby by pleasure,
urn

lay here,his funeral

placed beside

the ashes

of his relentless enemy, Tacitus relates that


as

Livia. the fleet conducting his faithful


urn

wife, Agrippina, bearing his funeral


where he died from the effects of the

from

Syria,
"

poisonadministered

Digitizedby

232

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

by Piso,
"

hove

in

sightof

the

Italian shore at

Brundiof the

sium, the sea-coast, the

walls of the

the tops city,


even a

houses, and every spot that afforded


were

distant

view^

covered

with spectators. When


husband's and
urn,

Agrippinaappeared^ leading two


of their

bearing her
men children,

and

women,

relations and
sorrow.

strangers, all

joinedin

one

loud burst of suffered


as

who Agrippina,

such

grieffor

the

loss

of

Germanicus,

as

well

every mortification and and


were

tion persecu-

the malice in

of Tiberius her ashes

Livia

could

invent,died
lie in the

exile,but

permitted to

Augustan

Mausoleum

beside

those of her husband.

Beside the firstAgrippina was


urn

placed the

monumental mother of in of

of her No

the daughter, funeral pomp


;
an

second

the Agrippina,

Nero.

lights up
matricide
son

the funeral groves had

her honour her life.

execrable

deprivedher

the Britanniqus,

of

Claudius,lay here,,
year

destroyed by poison in
Nero

his lourteenth
had stained

by

the

same

his

who half-brother,

his hands

with

mother's blood.

Among

the

later

Emperors, the
He
same
was

funeral of Severus is buried in the

recorded. particularly

not

tan Augus-

tomb, but in the


of Marcus vivid Aurelius

temple where

rested the ashes has left a

his

predecessor. Herodian
observed
on

of picture

the ceremonies

the

occasion.

Digitized by

234

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

eagleflew

from

the summit.
to have

Accordingto chronological
mentioned,that long home
his had
urn

order,I ought before


the last

Nerva

was

Emperor
of

laid in the When

of the
was

deified

successors

Augustus.

deposited
had

in

the

Mausoleum the

centuries

passed, death
all the
was

been cells

busy in
were

house, and imperial


The
a

sepulchral
closed.

filled. there
comes

marble

pyramid
;

then

Then and the the

long,long pause vine,and

centuries roll clematis

by,

the ivy,

wild

the snowy

clasp
; the

Mausoleum lonely

in their wide-stretching arms

mightyfabric

falls into

gradual decay ;
the dark with the

the

surrounding
grow

groves, the tall cypresses, and

ilex woods
storms

old,their branches
and the breezes

are

scathed the the

of ages,

from
once

yellow Tiber flowingthrough Campus Martius,sigh sadly


and
moss

the fair meadow,


among
on

the consecrated

shades.

Grass

gather
the

the
no

stately terraces, the longer echo


to

green

banks
a

to sloping

river

the

feet of

gay and

reckless

let the passingfestivalbe multitude; of Caesar


or

to celebrate the birth

his

death,so
the of

that

they may

enjoy the

games

in the

circus and
the

theatre. the

All is desolation and

decay,
pompous shadows
In

glory

city has

departed with
and

the

pageants of her emperors,


wrap the the world in

deep

mediaeval

gloom.
brutal

fifth century the

soldiers of

Alaric

Digitized by

THE

MAUSOLEUM

OF

AUGUSTUS.

235

burst
that urns,

like

volcano
was

over

the

devoted

city. Believing

treasure

interred within the Caesars' monumental down the bronze their

they

broke

gates, violated the

tombs,

in and, disappointed
to the

search, flung the


Goths
as

imperial ashes
were

winds,
"

lean ^hungry

they

The annals
a

race

of the

Colonna,

ever

the

foremost

in the into

of national

turned spoliation, all that

the Mausoleum

thus fortress,

devoting

remained

to

certain

destruction. Soon afterwards the


Roman

populace enraged

at

repulseby
attributed
.

the citizens of Tusculum


to

(a mishap ^generally Colonna) ruthlessly


marble

the

treacheryof

the

destroyed all Nothing


massive
was

that remained left

of the
some

Mausoleum.
so

standing save

walls
But

hugely

that

they defied

destruction. these

the Colonna tected pro-

again gained possessionof


by
them
In

fragments,and,
a

their

strengthactuallystood

siegewithin

from the had

Pope Gregory IX.


fourteenth dreamed would

century
of

arose, great patriot

one

who

re-animatingRome; brought
back

who

with

ideas primitive such


as

have the
was

laws, primitive
and
was

prevailedin
the world

days of
happy

the and

Camilli
Rome

the wise.

Fabii,when
For
an

instant the

vision splendid

seemed

realised j all

Digitized by

236

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Europe
over

stood

astonished, and
a new
era.

prostrate Italy rejoiced


But
a

the birth of

littlespace

and

the

brilliant chimera

fell with

its creator, and

still

deeper

shadows
died
no

close around.

the Rienzi, lion at the

last of the

Romans,
No

beside the marble

Capitol.
mark

word,
strange

records epitaph,

his murder.
:

But

the

vicissitudes of fortune

his

body, after havingbeen ignostreets

miniouslyexposed
was nights,

in the

for two the

days

and

two

dragged by

some

Jews, at

command burnt
on

of the in

his bitterest ruined


walls than
a

enemies, the Colonna,


of the in his

and

Augustan

monument

Happier

his death

the greatest enemies life, the ashes

of Rienzi of Rome's Caesar

him provide last tribune and

and fitting sepulchre,


on

repose

the

same

sacred soil where

Augustus rested.

Digitizedby

THE

C.ELIAN

HILL.

'nr^HE -^

Caelian
abounds

but hill,' in monuments,

little

frequented
is rich
In

by strangers,
in

and Rome. and

memories
the

of hill

both

Pagan
called

and

Christian

eariy times
with this

was

Querquetulanus,
Tullus the

was

covered included

grove

of

oak

trees/

Hostilius

first After

sylvan
of those their

suburb

within
"

city

walls.
"

.the destruction

Alba,
citizens

the who

long
were

white

city

beside
to

the

silverylake,
Rome fixed
first

transported
But the
name

habitation from
at

here.

of

Caelian

was

given

Caelius
head
of

Vibenna,
his

an

Etrurian

chief, who,
assist
the The

marching
had
of

the

countrymen
him said down
as a

to

Romans,
number that

this his

hill

assigned
is

residence.
been Forum.

followers extended the

to

have
to

so

great
In

their of

houses Tiberius fire.

the the

the

reign

buildings
who

on

Caelian

were

destroyed
retired
to

by

Tiberius,
unusual in

had

shortly
a

before

Capri,
of had

with
money

liberality ordered
to

large
each

distribution individual

proportion

the

damage

Digitized

by

238

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

and sustained,

the

servile Senate be henceforth

at

once

commanded

that the hill should


a

called Mount
the

Augustus;
sense

command
commons.

by disregarded judiciously
So the
name

good

of

the of

of
was

and the memory Caelian,

the

Etruscan

warrior
were

remembered,

when

the

of Tiberius liberalities

forgotten.

Standing portalof
where hill to far from where ascended

on

the

verdant of San

piazza before
Gregorio,
"

the
a

stately
bowshot
up the

the Church Caesars

within

the

dwelt,"a lonely lane extends


It is
a

the left. the the

melancholy unfrequented path,


modem How

noise and

bustle of the

city, a spot
often have in
I

past reigns supreme.


that
"

narrow

stony w;ay

closelyhemmed
Nero's
"

by

ancient walls, ^remains


and afterwards of the

perhaps of
Baths of

Golden

House

Titus, supported by spanning the road,


encircled piazza,
extends
e

of over-arching groins

solid masonry grass-grown

leading up by

to the

desolate

vaulted ruins

which crumbling into dust,


to SS. to

before Paolo.

the Passionist

Church, dedicated

Giovanni
been

This
Pammachus Palatine warmed of the

venerable

church, said

have

built
from

by
the

the friend of St and into


a

Jerome, is visible
its
sun

the

Colosseum,
tint

galleried campanile
of ages, belts
out rising

ruddy

by

the

fair forest of

greenery

that

the

Flavian Caelian

Amphitheatre,and

clothes the

the valley dividing

Digitizedby

THE

CJELIAN

HILL.

239

from

the Palatine.

The

the piazzais profagade facing columned the

vokinglymodem
little the
once

; the

portico and

iron gates

with assimilating
on

surrounding prospect, where


the walls tottering
an temples,

eye rests
were

nothing but

of what

and theatres, palaces,


as

impressive
fumed per-

picturesuch

Rome of the

alone

can

oflfer.

Sadly the

breezes desolate in these

coming spring sigh through the


rents

loopholesand

long
now

centuries wreathed

have with like

cloven ing creep-

unintelligible masses,
delicate death
out

plants and
on
a

floweringgrasses
hideous. in the of
one

garlands

corpse,
caves

making

Under

the grottoes

and

hollowed
a

ruins, congregate surrounding


emboldened

complete

army

beggars,who,
with
cosa

by

the

beset solitude,
^^

almost

threatening
Vamor
"

importunity.
Madonna^
^^

Dammi

qualcke

per

della

Per

un pietdy

povero decoy

Un

Bajocco
che
as

per
mi

me

che infdice^
di

ho

perduto una
sounds

gamha^

"

Guarda^

muojo

fame,*^ Such objectscome


the mins

arise from
of

all sides

the wretched and


comers,

huddling out
ancient

holes filthy still and blackeyes,

of Rome's

grandeur
the then
sun

from children, shrouding them, her suffering from robed the rain. These monk with beggars,
now

and and

with

countenance pallid
on

downcast
crown

wearing
and

embroidered monogram,

his breast who

the

of thorns

sacred

glidesby

the

old walls like

Digitizedby

240

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

ghost doing

penance,

are

the

creatures only living

I
.

ever

beheld in this
the church

place.
stands open,
a

But

door
!

let

us

enter.

Alas

all is modernized such within, walls


an

Yet, such

peculiarsanctity reigns
after but
a

awful

that silence,
serve

time
an

the whitewashed

are

or forgotten,

as

appropriate
pass to and

background

on

which

the

death-like monks

fro with noiseless steps. The organ

peeled forth

in strains of

inspiring harmony,
to

the monks

knelt around the

the

bowed altar,

the

earth in and

speechlessprayer, again
the organ

voice of the

priestsounded

rolled and away


more.

thundered

through the lofty


murmurs

then melted aisles, and


was

in hollow The
vespers

tremulous
were

heard

no

over, and

the
of

pale sad monks, laden, as it seemed,


out. humanity,glided silently

with the burden looked found round

now

for the of

the

tomb

of the patron
a

and saints,

it under

where high altar, these

porphyryurn

enshrines the bodies


were

Christian
on

heroes, who
the brow

buried

where

their of the

palace stood
most
:

of the Caehan

one hill,

beautiful situations in Rome. their home, their household

Touching hearth,become

tion associatheir

! sepulchre In

the

fourth century, SS. Paolo


of

and

Giovanni

were

officers in the army

Julianthe Apostate,that

callous

Digitizedby

242

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

knelt

beside
at

it, almost
end of

his corona^ prostrate,repeating

and,

the

each

Ave^ bending forwards

and

the kissing On
were
"

stone.

the

spot naarked

by

that marble

slab the

saints

massacred, a crime recorded

by

these

simplewords,

Locus Hard

Martyrii Ss. JoannisetPauli by


the

in aedibiispropriis^^

church, where
leaves falling dark
cavernous

solemn in autumn,
recesses

thoughts come
a

over

the soul like

huge portal
able of unfathomUnder these
were

opens,

into leading

depth formingthe
vaulted arches of confined

ancient

Vivarium.

Cyclopean masonry,

the wild beasts


arelia
was

before,being turned into the


A

below

in the
to

Colosseum.

large cistern

of

water
was

provided
thrown

and quench their thirst, from


an

their food

down

visible. aperture in the roof,still of the

Subterranean

the rocky sides galleries, piercing passage into the


carceres

hill, opened

of the

amphitheatre. Below,
immense
reservoir and

deep

down

in the chaotic

gloom, an
a

of water, it is

said,existed"
in

lake, vast Stygian

profound, enshrouded

perpetual darkness, used,


one

as according to tradition,

of the

many

reserves

of

water

for transforming the required


a

arena

of the theatre

into open

Naumachia.
out

Grottoes

and

vaulted

apertures still

in the? walls of the into

ducting dimly-seen enclosure,con-

yet

unexplored

subterranean

chambers

Digitizedby

THE

C^LIAN

HILL.

243

below,
destined
To

cut
as

in
the

the

tufa

rock

"

damp,

dreary vaults,
the

of or Spoliarium, prison, the savage

gladiators.
once

recall the

of roaring and

beasts that them the above

trod

this

starved soil,
as

tormented forth

to make

stillmore assembled

ferocious thousands all them

they

rushed

before

tier liningthe amphitheatre, the blood of


"

tier, who,

for thirsting

the
to

madden Christians,

with wild

yellsand

cries

conjure up in fancy

these lonesome

dungeons, where
side

sighedthe resignedbut
with the who gladiator,
men
"

believer suffering

by

side

vomits forth his foul lifecursinggods and


of all this,standing in this of light With the the
a

to

think

under gloomy hall,


me

the trembling
!

torch,made flickering

shudder the

characteristic indifference of
vaulted hall

modem
cesses, re-

Romans,

leading to

these

sombre

where

subdued
as
a

descends ligbt

through a

circular

aperture, is used

bam, and filledwith freshly-scented


of dried the provision of the fuel,

hay

and

great bundles
for the

monks
The

coming winter.
commenced

Temple

by Agrippina in by
Nero
as

honour

of

her husband with the

Claudius,demolished
of sight his Golden

ing interfer-

House, and reconstmcted


ments grandest monu-

by Vespasian,one
of ancient the space

of the richest and

Rome, is believed
the

to have

stood

within

occupiedby

garden of

the monastery.
R 2

Digitizedby

244

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Again in

the

narrow

ascend road, I gradually


to by high walls,

the hill,
where Ruined and
a

stillbordered

on

either hand

massive arch of travertine terminates


towers

the vista.

aiid turrets low

crown

this sombre
stunted shrubs

monument,

ivy,and
the

and plants, The its

protrudethrough region is
of

partingstones.
fearful in
"

aspect of the whole

almost

desolation; no
nature
"

soft features

Italian scenery the

no

luxuriant of the

is here, to mantle

gaping
of

ruins

past.

Walls, fragments,and
in indistinct

heaps

stones

"grovel on

earth

decay.'*

Through
are

the breaks

in the walls the Neronian

aqueducts
the the arch
im-

the plain like visible, huge skeletons, traversing of procession of this wreck Rome's of

funeral

departed glories.In grandeur, the


old the

midst
stands

fallen

in entire, symbolic,

its stern

of simplicity, Not
a

alterable
a

of republicanRome. severity
even
a

tree, not

shrub, not

cypress, breaks

the

hard, bare lines,

or

softens down This is the

this marble arch


io

wilderness. who
was

of

Dolabella it marks

joint-consul
of the of
was

with

a.d. Silanus,

; and

the entrance in

Campus
Mars
were

Martialisy where

public games
the

honour

when celebrated,

Campus

Martins connected hill

inundated
with

by

the

Tiber.

Nero

afterwards this

it
was

his line of

aqueducts.
into the

At

point the
and

divided anciently

great

little Caelian

Digitizedby

THE

C^LIAN

HILL.

245

Further (Coeliolus). known


were

on

lay

the

school

of

gladiators,
men

under

the

name

of Indus
act

matutinus^where
other

instructed in the

of

each slaying fashion


of

tifically, scienboxers.

something after
The well Macdlum
as

the
was

modem

Magnum
camp of
over

situated in this five cohorts

as direction,

the

the the

(appointed by

Augustus
lend

to watch

city during the night,and


or

assistance in
of

case

of fire other

also accidents), of

the

palace

Lateranus, and
remain. arch
a

monuments,

which

only the

names

Beyond
and stands
enter

the

barren-looking green

even piazza,un-

broken

by shapelessruins,appears.
of San Stefano

Opposite
we

the Church
anon,

Rotondo, which
of
a

will

the aspect presenting externally

theatre
same

from sad

its elevated
scene

dome
"

and

circular

shape.
"

The

is around
a

churches,walls, ruins,

the gaps
even

of the

centuries;"not
sound
of
a

human the
one

being

is

not visible,

cicala breaks
as

silence. oppressive
can

It is only solemn

in such

scenes

these

the realiz.e fully

desolation of the fallen

city,
in her voiceless woe."

**

Childless and

crownless

Yet

recollections and

memories

dear

to

Christian Rome
dwelt the rich with the

gatheraround
matron

this desolate waste.


name

Here

Cyriaca,whose

is connected

Digitizedby

246
death

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

of San

Lorenzo, who

on

the

eve

of his the

martyrdom
naked, the
ministered
of the
ducted con-

gathered together the

sick,the

poor,

of Cyriaca,and hungry, beside the dwelling


to

them

there.

San

Filippo Neri, the founder

the Apostle of Rome, Oratorians, jusdy styled his young and penitents to disciples

often

this verdant

in with genuine Italian vivacity, himself joining, piazza, their

boyish sports-

There

is

something

most

affecting

in the mixture

of ardent

and Christian love,vivid][faith, life of this eminent

throughoutthe simplicity, displayed

philanthropist
Passing across
between pendulates the right,
or

the

rugged piazza the

mind

strangely
To the

Christia;nand
on
a

Pagan times.

eye rests

small

marble sculptured
to

trireme been
an

bark, called the Navicella^supposed


voto to oflfering
ensure
a

have

ex
**

happy return, from


whose

some

Ancient
near

Mariner"
this

to

Jupiter Redux,
the Caelian
to

temple
this
its

stood pagan
name,

portionof
the

Hill.

Behind

relic stands
Santa Maria

church

which

it has

given

della

Navicdla^ a striking incongruity


in Rome
one soon

in nomenclature accustomed

but truly;

becomes

to the

harmonious
This

of profaneand adaptation
to be

Christian

symbols.

church,said

built

on

the

site of the house


not enter.

of Saint is
one

I Cyriaca,being closed,

could and

It

of

the

oldest

in

Rome,

by Digij^ized

THE

C^LtAN

HILL,

247

contains Pierino

many della

fine

frescoes well
as

by
some

Giulio

Romano

and of

Vaga,

as

precious

mosaics

the ninth century.

Beside the
into
a

mouldering church, a largeiron gate


a paradiseof plaisance^ perfect

leads

beautiful

Hfe and The air

colour.
was

Finding the gate


the odour

open

entered.

with fragrant
came

of fresh

and flowers,

gentle
How

breezes

through the sighing


yet how

classic groves. the


same

beautiful and
nature

! Ever gielancholy

image,
a

wreathingthe
a

dead.

At

the

of extremity
on

broad of

walk,
the
to

handsome

modem

villa stands

the
It

brow

surrounded hill,

by balustraded
of Prussia.

terraces.

belongs
a

Prince Adalbert

Around

stretches

riant luxu-

garden ; purple violets fringethe borders,turning


their

perfumed
of

bosoms

to

the

sun.

Further

on

is

berceau-walk
branches

venerable head

ilex and

trees, their

knotted

over closing

formingan

impenetrable
commands

shade.
a

At

the

a spacious terrace extremity

splendid view.

Immediately

below

lies the
the

Vegria
the

stood Casale,where^ in ancient times, that Sjrmachii, interest


to
was

palace of

distinguished family
in
an

whose obstinate
recesses

powerful tion opposiof the

invariably employed
the

Christianity. Among
many several

green

vine-walks clustering

still interesting inscriptions

remain, as

well

as

curious

mosaics.

Beyond,

Digitized by

248

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

embosomed stand forth

in

fragrant groves,

the

Baths

of Caracalla in their vast connected

crowning a gentle eminence


breadth; cyclopean masses,
and the

lengthand

by

yawning arches,loftygateways,
haunted

crumbling walls;
murdered Geta
;

by bloody memories
every
stone
seems

of

where
out

to

become

articulate, calling
^^

in

hollow

murmurs

those in moments

terrible words,
of wildest

Bibe

which fratreni^* echoed


turn

even

debauchery,

in Caracalla's ears, tremble. these

fratricide making the imperial

pale and

Bordering
backed valley, and

ruins lofty

lies

broad
out

undulating
in

by the Aventine,now
broken

laid

vineyards
In

gardens,and

into knolls
of the

and

braes.

earlydays, before
the Piscina
amusement

the erection

Baths

of Caracalla,

an publica^

artificial lake devoted-to the

of the Roman the lake extended feet with


an

youth,occupied this hollow.


enormous

Beside

palaceor portico
the
rarest

four thousand and decorated

long, lined
statues

with

marbles

and

the paintings, the roof


the

floors
liant bril-

and mosaics, paved with precious frescoes. from

in painted

This hall formed

central apartment,

which

sixteen himdred opened out, rightand left,


with
a

chambers, each furnished


The of pile

bath and

marble

chair. from

Titanic

on confusion,

which

I gaze

the Terrace

of the Villa

Mattel,is girtby the level line

Digitized by

250

PICTURES

OP

OLD

ROME.

perial guard as
came

earlyas
German

the

reign of Augustus.
the soldiery,

wards After-

the then who

of janissaries

Caligula ;
of Galba when

the
were

lUyrian troops
quarteredin
was

enrolled in the army


at the very

Rome

time

their patron

killed in the Forum others.

nian ; the ArmeHere also

bodyguards expired
the

of

and Constantine,

German

king

Conodarius last defender

(made prisoner
of his national

the by Julianthe Apostate),

liberty.
remnants Leaving these interesting

of old

Rome,

turned in
a

to the left and

entered

low
a

door,almost buried damp


a

moulderingwall,leadinginto
whence
I

grass-grown

court, from

passed
passages
a

under and

ruined

gateway
the
was

through divers damp portal of


a

into galleries,
sacristano

church, where
a

miserable

prowlingabout, like
keien and

human

for bones,so dog searching


He

were searching

his looks.

trembled
tne

with with

fever and his eyes


as

did
I

not

followed speak, but curiously

passed into the church.

It is circulaf^ii
a
"

shape

and

proportioned, with exquisitely


the Ionic order

perfect

forest of and inner columns

of elegant pillars light

elevating
the

dome a lofty supporting circle stands which th6

in the centre. almost

Within

high altar
it. The

hidden

by sixty

surround

exterior

fbma pSlars'
It is

the aisle out

of which

several small

chapelsopen.

Digitized by

THE

CyELJAN

HILL.

251

and singular a specimen of as striking altogether architecture


as

classical of the

any

extant, the

precisefeatures

dated accommothough skilfully Pagan temple being retained,

to

the

of exigencies
to

Christian

worship.

quarians Anti-

disagreeas
say it
was a

its

previous destination
to

; some to

temple dedicated
been

Bacchus, others
whether
it were

while again it has Jupiter,


a

doubted
a

and temple at all,

not

an

arsenal, or
is

bath. public

Perhaps no

church

in all Rome

more

tional devoawfully

than this once dedicated the


to
a

Pagan temple, its


of display the

walls

being especially

of physical sufferings
a

eariy martyrs

represented in

series

of

large

executed by the skilful hands of Tempesta and frescoes, Pomeiancio.


Other
as

shrines contain
of this

separate pages, bits and


of such

scraps

it were,

agonisingtale,full
this

infinite

significance ; but here, in


on

edifice, singular engraven


where sacrifice played dis-

Pagan walls, under


incense
the burned whole

this

loftydome
of

and

in honour

Pagan gods, is

chronicle of

martyrdom.

Elsewhere,

episodes, passages,
appear, ages here the

fierce tiltsand

duels of the great


of
a

fight

entire panorama
before the
our

the

battle-field of and
a

is unveiled

eyes,

wondrous of
man.

to hiunbling sight

prideand
muse

insolence of

Here

is St.

the Cecilia,

Christian poetry,

Digitizedby

252

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

**

severe

in

the beauty," youthful the

pure

the dignified wife,


were

Roman in the

matron, for whom

brightroses
a

plucked

in heavenlygarden, expiring of which in the bath


are

bath, the scalding

remains

still distinctly visible within St divine

her church child-like

Trastevere.

Agnes, the innocent


courage
to

with girl,inspired

refuse

sacrificeto the
under the

Pagan gods ;
of
nor

here she is
"

picturedsinking
z.

sword

the

executioner

being
the

to

her

neither dreadful
messenger who

but alarming, her to

rather

welcome

summons

glory.
name

By
of

her side stands St. Lucia,her the heavenlylight,

cal symbolisweetly
bones
at

fair Sicilian saint whose noble

rest within

the great silver shrine in her she bears her eyes in she
a

church

Syracuse;
the

dish,their loss being


Near

martyrdom by which
St

God. glorified maid of

her

appears

Agatha,the

courageous

who, Catania,

rather than wed


was

the wicked beaten


tore

Pagan

governor

Quintianus,
also
"
"

bound

and

by

his accursed her


"

who slaves,

by

his command

and

rent

tender

bosom.

thou
me

tyrant !

"

exclaimed

she,

shamest

thou not and

to treat

so, thou who of


a

hast been 1" St

nourished

fed from

the he

breast

mother

John

is

representedas
Rome

suffered, according to

immemorial

at tradition,,

under Domitian,being cast into duringthe persecution cauldron boiling

of oil beside the Latin

gate, where

Digitizedby

THE

C^LIAN

HILL.

253

small

shrine

marks under

the the

spot;

and

the

proto-martyr
that extatic rained

Stephen, who,
upon his

crushing stones
his eyes in
an

head, lifted up
on

vision,

beholding,while yet
heavens.

the effulgence of the openearth, ing is

Ignatius, too,

here, the brave Bishop of


famous

Antioch,.the

discipleof
the

the
torn

Polycarp, who,
games that

coming
of the

from

East, was

by

lions in the

Flavian
a

: amphitheatre

those

hungry beasts
And

left but

bundle

of his whitened
name,
to

bones.

Dorothea,

with her soft musical


sweet

the

whose Cappadocian virgin,

face

love painters
crown

pourtray ; her
of flowers

long hair hangs


on

in wavy young stands the and

tresses, a

rests

her

fair

brow, and,
beside

as

she

suffers

an decapitation, angel

to comfort

and

console

her.

Martina

too,

Roman

martyr, who
bones
"

suffered
a

by

the

lictor'saxe,
her church
cross;

whose

rest

in
St

shrine within costiy

in the and

Forum

and

Andrew,

on

his forked

St.

Peter, bearing the

sacred

keys, who,
the and

in

his

extreme

suffered crucifixion on humility, head turned

Janiculum,
brave St

his venerable

downwards;
"

the Christian Pallas, Catherine,


stars

wise

enough

to talk of

and
our

firmaments;" and
own

St

George, the legendary

saint of

land,on

his

high prancingsteed,spurning
the maid
A

the horrible upon

Chimsera; and
are

Margaret,"who

the

dragontrode,"

here.

saint is picturesque

Digitizedby

254

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the

maid
"

Margaret,

as

we

image

her

painted by
in her mood

Guercino, blithe
and many
more

in her heart and

merry

;"

pictured on

these

these mysterious,

tremendous
Those

walls ! of
"

beautifully pleading lines


this church,occurred

Wordsworth,

so

to apposite

to me:

Ah

! if the old

be spumed, idolatry

Let not Her The And

your radiant
was

shapesdesert
demand.

the land ;

adoration fond heart therefore

not your

the it, proffered


are

servile heart,"
to

ye summoned

depart.
brand flaming
"

Michael, and thou St. George, whose


The Whbse And Of Who Gales and Dragon quelled, rival sword
a

valiant

Margaret,

like opponent slew ;

Queen seraph-haunted rapt Cecilia, harmony,


in the
sweet

and

weeping Magdalene,
met

desert penitential
as

those that

over

Eden

blew

Digitizedby

SAN

GREGORIO.

/^^N
^^

opposite extremities
two

of

the

Caelian Hill stand

celebrated St

churches,one, vying with the great


in

Basilica

of

Peter's

antiquity,grandeur,
a

and

the other,situated sanctity,

in

lonelycomer,

sheltered

by waving
dedicated
to

groves

and

overshadowed

by frowningruins,

to 5an

Gregorio.

It is of this latter I propose


on
a

speak. This church, elevated


a

platformreached
back
to

by
the

noble road

of steps, stands flight the arch

somewhat

from the

leadingfrom
Before

of Constantine
a

Appian Way.

extends it,
on

grassy parterre, half

bounded wild, half-cultivated, Close

either hand

by

trees.

by, to

the

left,a

large portal 9p^ns

ii^tosome

public gardens, or
Academic
the grassy grove,
a

rather, more

an speaking, correctly

peacefulspot, lonelyand by clumps


roots

su^estive,
avenues

slopes broken
whose

and

of

tufted trees, aroimd


flowers
terraces

the

earliest
walks

spring
and above

blossom, and

traversed the

by

broad

leadingtowards

Caelian Hill.

High

Digitizedby

256

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

the of

thickets,tower clustering

the

Colosseum, the
the distant

arch

and Constantine,the Palatine,

Forum,

trees. forming classic vistas throughthe over-arching

But

to

return

to

the

quiet church

throned

on

its into and from


same

mkrble
a

steps.
area

portico opens spacious pillared


or

cloistered

cortile, ever

characteristic

peculiarfeature palaces have


arrangement

of

earlyRoman
converted observable

sanctuaries which
into
at

been

churches;
Santa

the

being
Sanf that

Santa Cecilia^ We learn


was

Sabina,and
from Tacitus

Alessio

on

the Aventine.

this architectural

arrangement
the
new

expresslycommanded
erected after the

by Nero,

in

buildings
occurred elevation before the front.

of conflagration
A
new

Rome

which

during his reign.


of the the houses
was

plan was
with adorn

adopted,the
an

defined

open

area

doors, and
house

to porticoes
was

and

secure

"Every

to

stand

detached

and the

isolated;"
ment embellishto

which regulations of the have been


to

added

to considerably

city,and
a

which, it is curious

observe,
to

certain extent the Roman

even perpetuated

the

present day among

nobles.
house in of

The

site is historical,

for in classic

days the

Mamurra, praehere.
on

fectus fabrorum Pliny


celebrates

of the

Julius Caesar splendour


us

Gaul, stood

of this mansion Mamurra


was

the first

Cselian Hill, and

tells

that

the

Digitizedby

2S8
tells us At

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

**he

possessedbut

one

horse,and
found

five

donkeys/'
in the

another of

time, a beggar being


Rome,
he for

dead

streets

excommunicated actually

himself

and

abstained

days
own

from

communion,

shutting
by

himself up
tears

within
penance

his

to make cell,

atonement

and such

for his

supposed

omission His and

in allowing life is
a

neglectunder
of

his government his fasts

very

romance

piety; by

personal

austerities he

sacrificed his health; by his


and

he writings
course

the church; enlightened and holiness,industry,


career as a

by

an

unwearied
not

of

zeal, he

only

marked

his
of

beacon

of

amid spiritual light, has

the

gloom

the
over

Middle

Ages, but

exercised

influence powerfiil

the universal Church


us,

in all times.

Let the and

before

his church, standing within entering it


were

as pillared cortile,

between

the

present
in

the past, "in

the Palatine, front, Pagan Rome


a

dust; behind, the little cell slept in


to

few

feet square, gave the

where

sackcloth of

the

man

who

last blow of the

the power

the

some recapitulate Caesars,"

events principal

of his varied life. the


son

Gregory was
of wealth descended and

of

Gordianus,a

Roman

senator

a member influence,

of the Anician

family
his wife

fi*om

Pope Felix
a

II.

Gordianus,with
house
on

Sylvia,dwelt

in

sumptuous

the

Caelian

Digitized by

SAN

GREGORIO.

259

Hill; but

noble

and

powerfulas they were,


to temptations

the

pleasures

of the world

oflfered no

this

pious pair.
orders and

Gordianus, after the birth


became
one

of

Gregory, took

of the

or Regionarians,

cardinal

deacons,
in
a

ruling over
the

ecclesiastical Rome;

while
almost

who, Sylvia,
as

life of St
as

Gregory, takes
in God that in
a

prominent

part

Monica

of

St

Augustine,dedicated
a solitude, inhabiting

herself also to

life of

little oratory outside


St Paolo

the

gates,
No

near

the that

Church
the

of saint

fuori
a

mura.

wonder such

while

yet but

reared by child,

parents, showed
a

to holiness, especially as dispositions preternatural

careful with
to

and

studious

education

had

stored himself

his mind

various
the

knowledge. Applying
of grammar,

especially

study
the

rhetoric, philosophy,civil
commenced

law, and
as a

canons

of ,the Church, he twelve

life

lawyer. Afterwards,for
functions of chief

years, he exercised

the that

or magistrate
a

praetor, a situation
and
state

obliged him
from

to assume
a

pomp

fering littledif-

that of of

consul. the

At

the death

Gordianus,Gregory,possessed of
Lord's

obeying our estate,literally patrimonial


devoted
all his wealth mansion
to charitable
on

command,
converted

purposes,

his sumptuous
and

the Caelian St

into

monastery
the

dedicated hospital,

to

Andrew,

at erecting,
s

Digitized by

26o

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

same

time,

six

similar establishments

on

his

estates

in

Sicily. Within
he took the

the walls gf this church, in the


monastic habit
of

year

375,

the

Benedictine

to contemplationand order, devotinghimself entirely

the

studyof

sacred he

for a as scriptures, preparation


to

the

life which

hoped
his

lead. the

The

little

cell, still

preservedwithin
At

was chapel,

place of

his retreat

this of

period of
his

his life

we

find him the

plaining combitterly

to inability

observe

canonical

fasts

from

weakness

he

had

contracted,in
was

consequence
was

of his excessive austerities. It


first attracted

now

his notice

by

the

beauty of
he
saw

certain

fair-complexioned
for sale in the His

Anglian youths,whom
slave market benevolence
as

exposed

[of the neighbouringForum.


was

active
well

awakened
were nation,

that they,as by hearing

many

of their

Pagans.
over

For

the Christian

religion, though generallydiffused


the

Britain

during

reign of Constantine,by
country

the

Roman

legions that
had been

garrisonedthat
formallyabolished
the of religion

after and
on

Paganism

by

law

proclaimed Christianity
the withdrawal of tliese the

the state, had, and

foreigntroops Empire,

the disseverment

of all ties with

fallen into small

neglect and
remnant
a

become the

comparatively
Christian Church
in the northern

forgotten. A
indeed took

of

in refiige

few monasteries

"

Digitizedby

SAN

GREGORIO,

261

and

western

portion of this island;but


the rule of their Saxon

the

mass

of the

nation,under
into absolute Informed

conquerors,

lapsed

idolatry.
of these

circumstances, Gregory,fired
to to

with
as
a

holy zeal, determined

quit Rome, preach


a

and

go
to

missionaryinto
Angles.
"

Britain

the

gospel

the

For," said he, " it was

lamentable

tion, consideraof
so

that the much


so

princeof
these

darkness

should

be master

beautyas
an

and comely Angles possessed, have

that
to

fine

outside should

nothing of
the

God's

grace

furnish it within. be sung in those

and Hallelujah

of praise

God

must

parts." Possessed
Benedict

with this

mediately idea,he im-

appliedto
to

sion I.,then Pope, for permisforth

and havingobtained it set depart, with several monks

privately,
When in
an

in company his

of his monastery.
was city

departurebecame
the

known, the whole


ran

uproar; who
was

people

out

in

body

to

the
"
"

Pope Holy

proceeding to
have have you

St. done

Petei^s, cryingout,
? In

Father, what

suffering Gregory to
undone alarmed
us,
at

depart, you
offended St.

destroyed Rome,

and the their recall

Peter." of

Benedict,either
the mob
or

threateningaspect
entreaties,forthwith
him.

touched

by
to

despatched

messengers

Meanwhile, Gregory, foreseeing probable opposition


to his

had departure,

pushed

on

to

considerable

Digitizedby

f62

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

distance

from
to turn

Rome.

Nothing
whole

could soul
was

exceed
set
on

his

luctance re-

back, his

ing teach-

the

"

to Anglito sing Hallelujahs

the

of praise

their

Creator."
On the

his
seven

return

to

Rome,
whose

Benedict

named it is
to

him

one

of

deacons
Pontiff.

duty

assist and
dict Beneto

advise in

the the

II.,who Pelagius

succeeded
as

papal chair, sent

Gregory

nuncio
Lombards

Constantinopleto solicitsuccours
from with the the

the against

Eastern

Emperor

who Tiberius, says

received

him

highestdistinction. "But,"
did
not

Butler, "his
the of

public employments
of practices active his
a

make
at

him

lay aside

monastic

and life,

this very time up


to
an

period
compose

occupation he political
on

found
to

books thirty-five

Job, and

ke^p

immense
Christen-

correspondence,extending over
dom.'^

all parts of

and gratitude to Rome, Gregory returned with delight


too

happy
of his

to

have

escaped

from
He

the

toils and

tions vexa-

mission. diplomatic

buried

himself

in and
to

his favourite

in monastic luxuriating cell,


a

solitude

in as tranquillity,

secure

harbour.

"

For,"writes he
is
to converse

Leander,
with the

"

see

how

difficulta

thing it

world
But

without
was

contractinginordinate long destined


to

ments." attach-

he

not

enjoy this holy

Digitizedby

SAN

GREGORIO.

263

calm.

Pelagiusdying
590^ the

at

the

beginningof

the

great

in pestilence named

clergy, Senate,and
his successor,
means an

mously people,unanihonour
that As pope

Gregoiyas

he himself
was

opposed by

every

in his power. of
a

it
to

then customary to refer the choice

new

the
to

Emperor, Gregory wrote


the

urgent privateletters both


the Patriarch of Constantinople,
act

Emperor Maurice
them, imploring
as

and
an

of

to annul friendship,
one

his election.

But

his

courier, private by outstripped


Prefect of

despatchedby Germanus,
seized and
others

Rome, had his letters


his election.
so

praying for substituted,


able
to

at being Maurice, delighted

confer

signala

boon When

on

the universal

Church, named
made

Gregoiy Pontiff.

the

appointment was

whelmed Gregoiy,overpublic,

with

all at finding grief had been

his efforts to

avoid
to

the

honour proffered
fiom Rome He and

determined ineffectual,
in have wicker
some

fly

hide

himself

impenetrable

solitude.
let down many able the and

said to is actually the walls in


a

escaped by being
basket
an

from

and

for

days to
cave

have

concealed

himself in

undiscover-

enveloped in deep woods.


of Rome humbled
went to

During his absence,


with

people

themselves in search

fasting
are

prayer, while those who been

of him

said to have

directed

the

place of

his concealment

by

celestiallight; while another

tradition relates

Digitized by

264
that the

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

dove

flew

before he
was

them, conductingtheir steps


hid.
He
was

to

placewhere
the

brought
upon

back

in

triumph to

the tiara was city,

forced

him, and,
renounce

to his sorrow,

Gregory found

himself

obligedto

the

narrow

cell and and His

solitudes leafy the

of the Caelian Hill for the

the pomp Lateran.


"

splendour of
letters with

palace on imperial
his

eloquently express

feelings.
lost

I remember

writes he, " that tears,"


repose,

I have
a

the calm look


me,
on

harbour

of my

and

with

many

sigh I
love with

the firm land which

I cannot I
am

reach.
so

If you

assist me
I
am

with your prayers.


scarce

overcome

griefthat
thinks have

able to

speak.

All that the worldand for affliction,


I

agreeablebrings me
comfort
am

trouble

lost the

of my

calm, and

appearingto

be

outwardlyexalted,I
At this time
a

feUen." inwardlyreally
over

melancholy cloud hung

the Eternal

City,a
soul
was

terrible

pestilence raged, and Gregory'stender


the he sufferings beheld he around

agonised by

him.

After

sermon, preachinga pathetic

a appointed

or procession

solemn authors

Litanyfrom
say
Santa

the Church Maria

of the Ara St the

Coeli

(some
He

Maggiore)to
so

Peter's.

himself walked
space

and first, of the


are

fearful

was

malady, that duringthe

hour single said


to

that the

lasted eight persons procession On

have

died-

passingover

the Tiber

by

the -^lian

bridge, opposite

Digitizedby

266

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

have

done

it

to

the least of these

little ones,

ye

have

done

it unto
as

towards me," his exceeding charity well


as

all men,
rivalled. un-

sinners

believers saints,

and

was heretics, an

He

considered

preachingas

indispensable
many
a

mission and part of his apostolic

has lent

heart-

stirring memory
martyr
scenes

to

the

mouldering walls' of
skirt the of walls of

the

lonely
as

churches where Two

that

Rome,

the livered. de-

several

his famous
were

homilies

were

of these homilies

pronounced

in the

Church

of Santa

Maria

in Via Hved

Lata, where
to
a

during two
Roman
turion cen-

years the
;

Apostle Paul

chained

the twenty-eighth homily,was another, in the


now

read from of San

the

chair episcopal and

desolate
I believe

Church
at San

Nereo Two

Achilleo ; another

Clemente.
two

he delivered

in the Church

of SS.

and Apostoli, fiioriPorta penury But

in the ancient Church Of his boundless it reduced

of Sant*

Agnese

Pia.
to which

and almsgiving, have

the

him, I

alreadyspokea
that
"

it was

not

of works ^one the charity that nobler all he mental

him, it was distinguished


thinketh
the
no

quality,that
all

evil, hopeth

believeth things, wrote,

things."To
him
to

Bishop of Naples
and
own

commanding
who

receive
on

reconcile
soul the

readilyall danger,
if
"

desired it, taking


should be

his

lest any should

answerable
too

for their

tion, perdi-

they

perish by

He great severity."

Digitizedby

SAN

GREGORIO.

267

considered
each The

himself

as

the

common

to shepherd,
was

whom

individual
very

sheep of
those

the Christian flock


outcasts

entrusted.
of the

Jews,

and

pariahs

Middle
that
wrote to

benevolence. Ages, felt his all-embracing

ing Hearhe

they had
Peter it
"

been

deprived of
of

their synagogue,

to

Bishop

Terracina,commanding
not to be

him
pelled, com-

restore

For," said he, " they are

but converted

by

meekness

and

charity."
up

Although by generalconsent with,as


was

looked

to, and

advised

the

common

father of When he

Christendom, his humility


that his of

unalterable. had been

heard

writingson
Ravenna, he

Job
was

read aloud

in the

Church
"

afflicted and be corrected

confounded.

am

ready,** says he,


him away I look the and
as a

"

to

by all

persons

; on

friend
of my

by

whose

tongue I learn
What he

to wash

stains
intended, super-

mind."

accomplished, wrote,
and the

for the

glory of God

advancement

of

during the Christianity


the

thirteen years

he

presided over
his. wretched

Church,

is almost

when miraculous,

health is considered.
^

He

has with

been the

reproached

for his

friendly dence corresponthe

Emperor Phocas,
and his entire

barbarous

derer mur-

of Maurice with has been

family \

his correspondence her age,

Brunehild,the Gaulish Jezebel of


also

writers. severelystigmatized by infidel

Digitizedby

268

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

has broken Bayle especially


a

many

lance

in

attacking
to

man,

whose but

virtues he
my

was

unable utterly
enter

ciate; apprethe this

it is not
or

province to

into

motives political

historical details of his


to

in reign,

rapid sketch, simplyintended


interest
of his
to his

give

local and

living

sanctuary, by calling up the remembrance


among the walls
once

good

deeds

hallowed

by

his presence. As
are a

the missionary,

zeal and

success

of his endeavours him


a

historical. We

owe English specially

mighty
God,

debt of of

as gratitude, having been

the means,
our

under

the light of Christianity to restoring As but


a

benighted

land.

reformer, his institution of celibacy, rally geneto

ascribed erroneously boldest He the

Gregory VII., was

one

of

the

strokes

of

ecclesiastical power
the services of the

ever

executed. defined

also reformed

Church,

Roman

Liturgyas

it has

since remained,
music
"

the sacerdotal garments, arranged the regulated the

of

choir

and

himself

trained "had

the

choristers.
him the

rience," Expe-

says these
to

Gibbon,
and

shown
to rites,

of efficacy

solemn

pompous

soothe

the

distress,
to

confirm

the dark

and the fierceness, to mitigate faith, enthusiasm of the and

the dispel The

vulgar."
been

belief in

pioustales

legends has

urged
some
"

him. against

Even

the greatestcharacters must, to

Digitizedby

SAN

GREGORIO.

269
of the

extent, partake of the characteristic weaknesses


age in which
a

and they live,

as

it has been
a

well observed

by
and

Protestant

writer,
"

if at

period when
showed

credulity
some

ignorancewere
credulous
one,

he universal, and

himself in
seems

instances

ignorant,it
so

hardly
and

reproach to
That

in other respects
a

good

great."
an

Gregory first preached


faith,I
can

belief in purgatory, as
;

article of
comes

admit scarcely and

the

accusation
not to

from

his opponents,

is therefore

be

admitted
Let door
us

without
now

suspicion.
the crimson
enter.
over

undraw

curtains
A
on

shading the

of

his

church, and

feelingol chilling

comes disappointment

one,

findingthat
modem,
Ferrari.

the

church, as
1734

well

as

the

cortile, are
Francesco the

rebuilt in
What evil
to

fi*om the

of designs

of spirit possessedthe prelates


mar

eighteenth century
past ?

and wonder

of destroy every vestige the very catacombs and well

the sacred The

It is

escaped !
nave

interior is

handsome

the proportioned, the

by supported
wash whitehad

fine columns
are

; but

and and gilding, painting, have

so

I fresh,

could

fancied
a

fifty years
not
a

not

elapsed since by

the walls arose, Italian which

delusion
that style, the in eye

little
meaning un-

increased

the modem

florid

architecture of
weary after
a

becomes

so

lengthenedresidence

Italy.

Digitized by

270

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

To

the

of right

the

grand

altar is
to

chapel gay with


the saint, altar

paintingand
adorned from
In

dedicated gilding,

the

with

events representing carvings by Signorelli,

his life.
a

small

niche, entered

by

low

tical door, is the iden-

and where, in prayer, fasting, cell, contemplation, penance, he

passed
his bed
sat

so

many

years;

the

aperture
chair

occupied by
on

is

there,and

the very marble with silent

which

he

As

gazed
almost
worn

"

worship of
the

the'great of old,"I could

fancy I
down the

beheld

tall,
and
'

dark-complexionedman,
premature

by pains
darkened
a

in infirmities, sitting
gaze,

room,

in extatic contemplating,
state! In

the
on

of glories the

future of

the Salviati
a

Chapel

opposite side

the

is high altar,

fine

of Gregory by portrait

Annibal
a

Caracci,arrayed in the pontifical habit,kneeling on


with cushion, from above. his hand while outspread,
a a

dove

descends the

Here, too, is
silvered and
he

miraculous

pictureof
to

Virgin, much spoken


to

decorated, said prayed.


It is
or
a

have

Gregory while

pressive pale inexFlorentine

paintingof
school. stiff hard The
to St.

the

earlySiennese

I looked

at

the well-closed mouth

indicated

by

and lines,

wondered.
not

present edifice is

the ancient church


on

dedicated

Andrew, built

as

said

the

site of

Gregory's

Digitized by

SAN

GREGORIO.

271

house.

This
a

is

an

tumble-down antiquated,

building,
of
a

forming

wing

of the present box


I
was

church, at the end


and

lonelygarden plantedwith
over

wild

roses

that trail

the

long grass, whither

conducted
a

by

an

ligent intel-

young

monk, looking very like


distinctive
costume

ghost in
the

his white

drapery, the
founded
In

of order

Camaldolesi

by

St

Romuald,

of the

of St. Benedict and

this ancient be found


so

church, battered
some

by time
for the

weather,

is to

compensation
shocks one's

modernising
the

that spirit edifice.

much

in feelings

larger

It contains three

entered by diflferent separate chapels,

doors, which
without

the monk
or

duly unlocked,coarse
embellishment
In

oak

doors

ornament to St.

the firstchapel,
or

dedicated

Barbara, the armed


to

Pallas

Bellona

of

mythology according
imder
a

Mrs.
a

Jamieson reproduced
fine statue

Christian

aspect, is
of

by Niccol6 Sylvia the


and

a pupil Cordilieri,

Michael
in be

Angelo,

of

mother

of

Gregory, who, grandeur, might


Above is
a

majestic bearing
deemed
a

devotional enthroned. the

Madonna
senting repre-

feeble fresco
a

by Guido,

Almightyhovering over
round
a

seraphicchoir
adorned

of

angels, arranged drapery.


I confess

balustrade share in

with

I cannot
as a

tion admiraKiigler's
can

of this fresco

work

of art, nor

I endure

to

Digitizedby

272

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

behold

that form into

"which the

eye hath not of


man

seen,
to

neither hath

it entered

heart

conceive," thus

trifled with. irreverently


In

the

second

chapel,dedicated
of

to

St.

Andrew,

the

real and the


two

visible scene
famous

devotions, are Gregory'searly

frescoes and

painted in

emulation The
a

of each looks

other like
a

by Guido

Domenichino. and

chapel

bam, moss-grown
wherein

musty,

strange locale in
finest works
ever

Rome, Imperial
two

to find the two

of the

greatest

the geniuses

Eclectic school

produced.

In the last of the three

ing chapelsoccupyingthis interestcharacteristic peculiarly


the identical marble of the
on

is portico,

relic

excellent
which he

Gregory, being

t^le
to

dailyfed

twelve

beggars. According

the

legend, a particular beggar again and


himself at the gate of the convent, with charity, relieved overflowing

again presented Gregory,

askingalms.
his wants silver

until he had in porringer


retreat sent

nothing more
which him
a

to

save give,

only the

his mother

from Sylvia, This became poor


men

her monastic

little broth. After he

he porringer

also gave his custom


at

the
to
own

beggar.

Pope, it
every

was

entertain twelve

evening
Lord's

his

table,in pious remembrance


supper. St. Paul
says
"

of Be

our

sacramental

not

to receive forgetful

strangers, for

thereby

some

have

entertained

angels

Digitizedby

274

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

leave

the church

struck paused on passingthe portico, of the Palace From


no

by

the

grand view

of the

Caesars and these

the

Palatine remains hence. embosomed within


even

opposite.
appear The

point do
or more

mysterious
fi-om

better defined dark

than majestic

lines of the sacred grove,

moulderingpalace still
which
to
"

in

twines

its roots
scorn,
a

the in

imperialhearth," seem
abode of him

mock

and

decay, the

who

stood, like
the

Christian Colossus, between

the his foul

present and
intellectual

past,
and

bidding, by

the

power
"

of

might

temporal authority, these


about the Roman

shadows, still Kngering

vanish into everlasting altars, night

Digitized by

THE

CATACOMBS.

T -*-

the

Rome

we

behold, with

its

ruins, Temples, Museums, be

and Palaces,Churches, gardens, villas, less


so

eloquently suggestive, no
"

is the subterranean

city

that hidden

Rome

"

^at once

the

Capitoland Necropolis

of the The

Martyrs.
upper

and
one
:

visible
let
us

cityserves
study
the both

as

guide to
is

the

subterranean food for the

here

ample
the

and imagination the from

head soul,tjie Nor

and

heart, the intellect.and


scene

feelings.
the

let the

busy
those

above

withdraw

us

of contemplation

harrowing annals
jewels garnered
to finitely

that lie entombed in


a

below, like choicest


What adds

dingy

casket.

in-,

the interest of the Catacombs the

that they not is, served well


as

only were
as

sepulchreof

the

but earlyChristians,

their

as refugeand asylum against persecution,

the The
were

rallying point and


bones

centre

of the

Church. primitive
the altars
on

of the believers the

lay beside

which

celebrated

mysteriesof

our

common
T 2

faith,

Digitizedby

276

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

they

came

here
a

to

live,and

to

die, to

home,

to

church, to
Fifteen from

grave. roads
aureum

consular

parted in different
in the Forum, and

directions after traversing the four

the MUliarium the

Campagna, disappearedtowards

the various portionsof quarters of the globe,connecting that vast borders

empire that knew


of those

no

certain limits.
ways

Along

the

fifteen Roman

lies the
a

ranean subter-

city of
network

the

Catacombs, forming

labyrinthian
Each is

enclosingand
each has its name,

embracing

Rome.

known,

its highways,its narrow

alleys,

its shrines, altars, monuments, and cell, The the

frescoes, sculptures ; every


marked
were

nook, and

tomb

are

and

noted.

reason

why
various.

the Catacombs The Roman


a

situated without

cityare

laws did not

permit of
or

interment

within have had

the

walls;

refuge too
to

near

too

public would long


custom

led surely

certain

and discove,ry, their


so

taught all

classes to which
we

bury
see

dead many

"beside the great

highways, of

examples in
as

the monuments
numerous

bordering the Appian Way,


and columbaria the

well

as

the

Pagan mausoleums

which

still remain,borderingevery outlet from aroimd actual visible

city.

Thus
and

Rome,

as

spread Christianity
be

another multiplied, of the

citycame
earth, with

to

formed,hidden divisions,

in the bowels

its various

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS.

"

277

names,

and

inhabitants of every

sex

and age

itschurches,

its open spaces, all communicating by innumerable


some

galleries,

low and the

tortuous, others

largeanS broad, piledone


of four and
even

above

often other,

to the number

five,

and uniting, intersecting, crossing, diverging, only again


to

separate,in

thousand

windings. These labyrinthian lamps


of bronze
or

galleries, lightedby innumerable


dried
above
narrow

of

and earth,
to
renew

with apertures here and there the exhausted


or

openingfrom
rows

air, were

lined with

of

graves
a

loculi cut

in the tufa

rock, justsufficient

to

admit

body

in

horizontal miles round

and extended attitude,

at

least three hundred of


as

Rome, bordered

by

six

millions Much

! sepulchres

has

been

written
the

on

the

of subject is still a known well


as

the Catacombs,

'the very

originof
excavations

name

subjectof
among the

-dispute ; these
Pagans,
which
as

being also

latomicR and

as arenaricBy

catacombce^
out

subterranean signifies deep pit, rock.

place,cut

in

the Pozzolana these the that


IS,
no

By whose

hand

and for what purpose

vast

subterranean

regionswere

formed, originally

is

first questionthat the respecting

and arises, naturally

it is one, like The fact genious in-

name,

stillveiled in doubt

certain information

and, therefore, exists, any

theorymay
such logists,
as

be

accepted. Many readily

archeothat

and Bosio, Aringhi,

hold Boldetti,

Digitizedby

278

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

they were
whose
name

opened by
and

the

Romans, while Padre


so

Marchi,
as

are authority

highly esteemed
own

connected

with the subject in

our

ward day, bringsfor-

all his local

knowledge

and

that to prove research,

Christian they are entirely


to say, that I hold to be the best to
soon Boldetti,

in their

origin.I

must

be permitted

reasons

adduced The

for the first clusion con-

supported.
discovered

Romans,

ing accordon

that the

Campagna
in

which

the

city was

situated,abounded
mixture

excellent

materials known them


as

for

building. The

of tufa and
use

sand^
of

was pozzolana,

therefore
But
not

made early
to

by

for this purpose.

injureor endanger
small and
narrow

the surface of the

soil, they opened


means

exterior apertures,by
the lower of portions

of

which, descending into


on

the

rock, they carried


The

their excavations

to an

immense

extent.

surface soil remained


mented ornaprofusely

therefore

while uninjured,

the

citywas

with the

product of
work
was

these subterranean

diggings.
ever-useful

This

laborious

executed
many

by
of

the

slaves.

Boldetti

insists that

these into

quarries
Rome the

existed when
and
to

was Christianity

introduced

and strengthen

confirm

his

he cites position,
or

subterranean the

excavations

stillremaining under
Paris. We

near

and citi^ of Naples,Syracuse,

know, too^

that

Carthage had

also such

subterranean

and quarries,

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS.

279

and Vitruvius, describe Cicero, Suetonius,


so as to particularly,

those of Rome
on

leave

littlerational doubt
one

the

subject Cicero
into
arenaruB l^the

mentions
near

Asinius who

was

decoyed
and there
ceal con-

the

Esquiline gate,

murdered.

to Nero, according to Tacitus, desiring

was himself,

recommended
he

to take to

refuge in

one

of

the he

arenaruBy

which

refused

do, because

it would,

himself be burying said,


terms excavations,

alive. them

in speaking Vitruvius,
arenarue.

of these Now in terror


recesses,

that

the

Christians, persecuted,pursued, and


should lives, seek The
an

of their is

asylum

in these

highly probable.
offer them for the the*
no

neighbourhood of
shelter. needed But
a as

Rome
as a

could

better

well of

refuge

living, they

place

sepulchrefor
had

for those martyrs who dead, especially The

suffered for the faitL

pozzolanawas
the

sofl and excellent its porous

easilyworked, and, further, possessed


of absorbingall damp quality and

in impurity
narrow

that along the formation;therefore, their tombs subterranean for the ashes

of galleries
excavate

hiding places they


of the

should

and departed,

conceal

their

remains
That

along with themselves,was


such
was

natural. perfectly

the the
acts

case

is

proved by
as

several from

tions inscripvarious One

found passages

in

Catacombs,
of the

also

in the

different

martyrs.

Digitizedby

28o

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

passage, in
and
"

in the particular,

acts ;

of the

Marcus saints,

is conclusive Marcellinus,

it
*

declares, expressly
two

that

they were
Rome,
there
at
a

buried

on

the

Appian Way,

miles there build


as

from
were

place called
sand

Ad
was

Arenas^ because
excavated
were ever

where quarries
That the these

to

the

wall" city

arenaria appears

used

burial

placesby
are

Pagans
a

very

doubtful the

; the

Columbaria

quite of
many

different

form, and
are

very

distance the

at which

of the armaria

situated from
the ashes of
so

citywould
should

render be

it very

that unlikely that

the dead
many
near more

to transported

when distance,

convenient

and

existed localities appropriate


the

at

on hand, especially

Esquiline.Besides,a
of origin this subterranean

concludingproof of

the

Christian

is the fact, that, Necropolis amongst of

the thousands foimd of


a

discovered,not inscriptions
anterior
to me, to

one

has been of

date
seems

the

introduction

It Christianity.

that Boldetti's arguments in

tian proof of ChrisarenaruB

cemeteries
are

having

been

opened

in

Pagan

quiteconclusive.*
That the Christians the constant
to

in number, increasing

and

ing suffer-

under
ranean

apprehension that
so

these

subter-.

known vaults,

many,
to

might become
an

unsafe,
extent,

arenarue enlarged the original

immense
new

opened

out

fresh

erected gaUeries,

and shrines,

Digitized by

282

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

That any
most

these

immense

excavations
or

were

executed

without is

plan preconceived improbable.


intricate
on
an

architectural arrangement,
of portions first the

The
as

Christian

original
are

armaria^
constructed

they

at

sight appear,
determines

uniform

plan

which

the

interior portionof each cemetery, and


as

connects

together,

in

one

vast

net-work, the various separate Catacombs


The

surrounding Rome.

dimensions
found
to

of

the

different
same,

throughout are galleries

be

nearly the

justsufficientspace being allowed


men

for the passage

of two the the The


to

bearinga

corpse;

the

positionof rectangular

tombs

is also universal,that

being,according to
the dead.

Christian rites, the proper tombs


themselves
were

for position
not

constructed

according

fancy or caprice. They


in horizontally
one or

were

niches invariably

opened
either

the

wall,broad
were

enough
closed with

to
a

contain

two

bodies,and
This

slab of marble
over
a

or

stone.

arrangement,
hundred

repeated

space

occupyingthree
well-considered
of appropriation for Christians, well

miles, suppos.es
well
as

regularand
exclusive the is

plan, as

proves
as

the

the Catacombs the

burial
the

places by
Romans,
as

both

Greeks

and and be
to

'known, burnt
funereal

their dead
urns.

depositedthe
clear to the every

ashes
one

in small who has

It must

givenany

consideration

that subject,

the

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS,

283
borrowed from the

Christian

mode

of

interment

was

Jews by the earlyChurch, the Jews being one


nations who
formed of the

of the few

preserved the bodies


rocks and

of the
caverns.

deceased, and
The of

sepulchresin
martyrs were,
and

bodies
Christian

by

the

pious

care

widows
in rich
cast

virgins, enveloped
embalmed
"

in fine

sometimes linen,

and stuffs,

with and

and spices

perfumes

into the grave.


sent
us

Arabia

Sabia," says TertuUian,


with
our

"have

more

aromatic
sold to

spicesto bury

dead

than

have

been

perfume the gods." And by declaring


to

again
"

Prudentius

confirms
manner

this account of

that the Christian

buryingis
tomb,
upon the

spread the

finest and and been

whitest linen in the

which

spices
I have

to perfumes are placed,

preserve this

body."

tempted

to

dwell

on

^s hypothesis

being

to subjectdeeplyinteresting

every reader.

It is a curious reflection that that

during the

many

centuries

passed from
was

the

time that the firstgerm


until

tianity of Chris-

plantedat Rome,

Constantine,enthroned
the enclosure
of

in

the

vast

Ulpian Basilica
declared

within

Trajan'sForum,
world,
"

of the religion Christianity

the

the

Church primitive

possessed no
All
were

other

place

of

but sepulchre home


cut
or

the Catacombs.
out

laid in their
or

narrow

of the

tufa and

rock, martyrs
and

lievers, be-

sinners

rich saints,

poor, master

slave,

Digitized by

284

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.*

noble

or

plebeian. All

were

bome

down

into the

tuous tor-

of labyrinths

the subterranean
or

galleries by lighted suspended


some

small
the

lamps

of bronze

earthenware
the grave
one

from

or vault,

placed over

of

especially
the

venerated

and saint,

deposited in
on

among If the

sand thouwas

loculi that of the


a

yawning
a

either hand.

body

martyr,

small

the ampulla filled with vessel,


a

blood,was
a

placed in
was

little niche

beside
to

it in

the

wall,and
for

lamp

suspended near

mark

the spot

generalveneration.
walls sepulchral spaces, area^ of the
were galleries

The open

broken

by

where at irregular occurring distances,

the

primitiveChristians assembled, and kneeling before


were

by

the

crypts,
blessed

where

the altar raised

over

some

martyr, th"y

nourished and the

by

the

bread triple There


rooms

struction, of inwere

prayer,

holy eucbarist

also the cubiculcR in the

upper

passages, small

or

cells,varyingin size and


with
a

sometimes height, the top for often

fiimished and rude

circular orifice at These cubiculce humble

admitting air
with

light

were

adorned

fi-escoes and

ornaments,
the

where Catacomb

all spoke of of San

hope,

In joy,and immortality.
a

Ponzio
our

the baptism of paintingis preservedrepresenting

Lord of
a

by

St

John
an

; the

descends Holy Spirit in his hands

in the form the


name

dove, and

angel bears

of

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS.

285

Jesus,while
of the under of the
most

drinks the at his feet, stag,standing


the

waters

river

of Jordan. Symbolicalfigiires

Saviour, rivers,

the form of the of ship, the

good Shepherd, of
the
are fish,

the four

vine,and

but firequent,

is the fact, that interesting


our

the found

earliest traditionary
here. One of the

of representations best the

Lord

are

preservedof
Catacomb
It is

these

exists pictures

in that

of portion

of San

Calisto entered
the in ceiling,
a

firom the

Appian

Way,

placed on

large medallion
Over the the left

surrounded shoulder unclothed.

by arabesques with
is thrown The
some

doves.

otherwise drapery,

is figure

face is

oval,the expressionserious and


the
flows forehead, in curls
a

mild,the hair, parted on


the the shoulders, and thirty charm sanctified their

over

appearance

being of altogether
old. There is
our an

man

between

fortyyears
ancient

pressible inex-

in these the seal of

of portraits

Lord,
from

by

and tradition,

venerable

antiquity.
few remarks
on

These

subterranean

Rome,
are
so

on

whose

walls the annals of the engraven, of my


own are

Church primitive
as
a

touchingly
narrative

intended

prefaceto
up

short

drawn impression

after first visiting the

Catacombs.
*
.

To-day

on

the

Appian Way,

that

"

reginaviarum

"

so

Digitizedby

286

PICTIJRES

OF

OLD

ROME,

inexhaustible in
broken has wall,

where recollections, its history, each the

every

stone,

every the
turies. cen-

of formingportions

great mosaic,making up
I

chronicles of

bygone

passed out
rich

of the

cityby

the tombs

of the buried

Scipios (wherethe
in the the

sarcophaguslayhid, deep
subterranean

gloom

of the

long
of

galleries), through
by
the loftier

triumphal arch
San

Drusus, backed

pile

of the Porta

whose Sebastiano, the shadows.

twin-turretted towers,
On
I go

aloft, deepen rising

along
were

the still

walled-in road, roughlypaved too, as


in struggling
a

though we
two

the

city; on,

"

perhapsfor

miles.

I pass

low door ruined

in the

overshadowed wall,
once a

by

trees

wa^dng over
and and landed garthat
to

mass

of stone, luxuriant

tomb, wreathed
that grove

with

ivy.

Beside

tomb, sheltered by those


the Catacombs
liot to
a

dark

trees, is the
I
am

entrance

of St. there.

whither Calixtus,
I go
on
a

bound,
and
come

but
to

enter

littleway

church, which
a

is that is

of

San

Sebastiano, standing

in
or

piazza. There

venerable nothing particularly


me

ancient
a

in its aspect, yet it strikes


from
am

with

thrill

as

mysteriousspot; perhaps
that from this church that
I

for association, about in


to

know the

descend
are

into

Catacombs,

livingbook
martyrs,
or

which

written in the blood

of the

with the

unready
manners,

pencil of

some

unknown

the faith, the artist,

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS,

287

the
lives

customs,
of
our

every

detail

of

the
;
a

painful, yet
book

sublime
an

Christian

ancestors

without
The

end,
monk

both

for the Christian and

the

! antiquarian

actingas guide not


time of
a

I have being forthcoming,


me.

plentyof
on

to

look

about

The

church

stands

the fall

and is shaded hill,

by

grove

of funereal the dark

cypresses,

the

only living green


to

appropriateto
front there is
an

memories
and
a

attached

it.
a

In

open
a

space

behind pillar,
as

natural wall of tufa-rock of

golden tinge, beating ivy,

though

warmed sides.
It

by
is

centuries
woven over

of

sunshine with

againstits

cypress,

matted weeds, and wallflowers,

and

massed

and togethes,

fringed with
snowy

festoons of

of

hawthorn

just bursting into

wreaths

blossom, like Springweavinggarlands


forehead of old Time. the

round
the

the wrinkled of

Beyond,
solid tomb

on

summit

another
"

stands hill,
stem

of

Cecilia Metella,that
the
monument grandest

round

tower

of other

days,"

of the street

of tombs.

I entered

the

church, a spacious building, handsomely


without
a

decorated, but
it although,

single claim
seven

to

antiquity,
was

is the last of the

and Basilicas,

founded

by Constantine.

Some

cardinal, ill-disposed
of the last century,

however, stepped in about


and tomb

the middle the

of destroyed every vestige of St. Sebastian under

past.

Here

is the
name.

the altar

bearinghis

Digitizedby

288

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

where

he is represented in

marble

statue

of

some

merit,
is

with dead, pierced lying

silver arrows.

The

statue

by

and Giorgetti, pupilof Bernini, may be better


was
a

the French

taste

apparent
that soldier

pardoned
Gaul, bom
armies.

when
at

it is remembered

Sebastian

Narbonne,

and
an

in the Roman

Opposite his

altar which

immense
the
as

collection of relics is
extracted many monk
a

displayed, among
are

arrows

from

his wounds
I had

pointed out,
time
to

well

as

others who
was

which

not
me

as inspect, now

the

to accompany

below

approached,
to

brown-robed, barefooted
the
a

more firiar,

akin

death,
sented prein

and darki\ess,
me

tomb, than

to

the

living.He
a

with
of

small

lightedtaper, opened
after found
cut

door
some

the

nave

the

church, and
steps,
we

descending
ourselves in

twelve

or

fifteen
A
to

the

Catacombs. rock

low-arched

passage and in
a

in the Fozzolana
save

opened

engulfus,

moment,
we were

for the in
utter out

feeble

glimmering of
Innumerable

the low

tapers,

darkness. every passage

opened galleries
on

in

while direction, possible


we

either hand
of
our

of the

traversed

(whichjust allowed
above

walking
of lateral

without

appeared range stooping),

range
a

sufficiently excavations, large to contain


graves of the

body;

the

old,the

young,

children,soldiers, popes,
common

mart3n-s,rich and

poor,

minglingtheir

dust;

Digitizedby

290

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

owe

the (humanlyspeaking)
it
were

very existence of

Christianity^
of the

preservedas
earth and
to

for centuries in the

bowels

reappear

in the

fulness
one

of

time

triumphant^
the

be

proclaimedwith
What
a

voice the
these dark of those
! I

religionof
vaults

imiverse.
the

do picture

of display

the zeal, the devotion, whose

love

earlyChristian
them pictured the and

converts to

baptism was

in blood from the

forth myself stealing towards the

city in

gloomy pearing disap-

out twilight
one

lonelyCampagna,
well-known

by

one

through

apertures^

their way through the windinggalleries to some threading


where altar,

lightand

and life,

food, spiritual
the

the

soft

chauntingof holy psalms,and


brethren awaited
of the them. The

greeting of
these

faithful

of sight

earlyhaunts

persecuted and
I
can

infant

is inexpressibly religion be

and affecting,

pity those,
visit many them

they

Protestant

or

Papist, who
emotions.
lacerated thousands
mm!

without
"

overwhelming
torn
roars

How

martyrs,

^theirbodies
the

and
of

by

the

cruel

beasts, amid
the cry of

forth shrieking

Christianos

ad

leo"

in the

bloodygames

of the Flavian

amphitheatre,
passionate com-

have

passed by here,borne
widows
or

or by mourning friends,

to virgins,

their last

narrow

home many Eternal

along

the

very

path
now

was

now

! treading

How the

saints glorified

of singing the praises

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS.

291

around of

the

great white
have been

throne laid

in the
to rest

seventh in

heaven very held I

glory, may

these
I

apertures lightedby the


But feel
I must

flickering taper
an

that

pause,"

^this is
to

endless

theme, a

paean

utterly unworthy
on

sing!
on

I wandered

bearing my taper, close


Sometimes
we

the noiseless
narrow

steps

of the monk.

descended
of

damp
tufa
one

steps into lower


with still perforated above
are

stories,the walls
countless
we

porous

tombs

piledclosely
In all

another; sometimes
four

ascended.

there
the

separate stories in these Catacombs, and


a

after wanderingfor confusion, Now and


was

littlespace then
we came

becomes upon
over

overwhelming. perfectly
a

square of

opening,where
some

service

performed
tomb of could

the

grave

the saint, especial altar


to

the
not

dead
but
to

serving as
observe those
now

the

the

living. I
these

the

in similarity striking
all the

arrangements

in existing least
on

martyr churches of Rome.

Antiquity at
Church
are

and

the

example

of

the
"

primitive
The
same

the

side of the

Catholics.
sacrament

slab," "givesthe says Prudentius,

and

faithfully
in

guards
the

the

martyr'sremains;
of

it preserves

his bones and

sepulchrein hope

the Eternal
meat.

Judge,
is the

feeds

the TibricolcB with sacred the

Great

of sanctity

place,and

near

at hand

is the

altar for those who


u 2

Digitizedby

292

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

pray.*'Some

of these

are chapels

small extremely
no

and

but low, others comparatively large,


are

fresco

paintings

found
one

in this portion of the Catacombs

of Sl Calixtus.
to

In

spot, after

descendingmany

steps

the

very

lowest story of the tier of

catacombs, three chapelsopen


that in their immediate passages
meet
as

into each

other.

remarked
ways

neighbourhood many
with

and

and
are

sect interthe

tenfold

but confusion, the mouths These

countless
more

stillopen, galleries
to

of mapy

are

closed

avoid

danger.

chapels cannot

fail deeply to
sane,

the imagination as being the impress


torum

very sanctum

of the

early martyrs, where

they drank

of that cup

and tasted that immortal


under mortality called
^^

food which

alone sustained frail

the

torments

awaitingit
the arch

They
over

are

Manumenta

from arcuata^^

the

slab, for the celebration of the sacramental Here, too,


to
were

mysteries.
"

held

the

"

Agapae," or
the

love-feasts

not

be

confounded, however, with


accuse

holier rite which

Protestants

Papists

of

having subsequently
for the dead
"

into to degenerate permitted

masses

to

be

celebrated over,
were

or

near,

their mortal

remains.

These

the

days

of

the humiliation
nature

of the

Church, who, Master,was


career

as

the human if sharing

of her Divine
to

to predestined

rise from the

and earth,

beginher

in infinite

nothingness. At this early period, according

Digitized by

THE

CATACOMBS.

293

to

the

"

Liher of

the holy utensils for PonUficalis^^


eucharist the
were

the celebration the sole

the

of

glass; and
was
^

property
the Sta. letter Church.

possessedby
senator

infant

Church,

given by

pious

Pudentius,father Pudenziana, whose

of the
names

holy virgins
as

Prassede saints The called

and
are

black-

honoured deservedly senator's


estate

by

the
a

Protestant

and

that of of

Christian
the siastical eccle-

widow

Lucina, formed

the nucleus

possessions.
As I

penetratedwith

the

monk could

deeper
not

and

deeper

into this
at

I mysteriousregion,

but feel alarmed


even

the solitude of my
to doubt

situation ; my

fears

prompted
we

me

his

knowledge
But
"

of the intricacies in which silenced my

were

involved. his calm


I

he Non

soon

apprehensions
ten

by

reply,
lived

abbia
more

paura^ Signora, For


below than
so

years

have

here,

above

the

ground.
walk

I know

every turn, every step


"

well

I could

it in my

sleep."

But," said I, seeingthe taper


the
"

and flickering

waning ominouslyunder
our

currents*

of

damp air,
he replied After

"

supppse
; "I

lights go
take you
I ceased

out

?"

Non

importa^^
them."

could

out
to

without safely and feax,

this

assurance

doned again aban-

myself to

the

strange fascination created


The

by

the

cousecrated gloom.
is
warm

atmosphere

in the Catacombs close.


I

and

pleasant, though

somewhat

only

Digitizedby

294

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

of damp a feeling perceived

when then

we

descended

to

the
saw

fourth, or
many open

lowest

story, and

but

I slightly.
were

graves,

what containing the


saw

once

bones,
into tombs.
a

which, when
handful When
an

exposed to dust;

crumbled air, literally many

of

I also

unopened

or inscription

other

outward

indication invites
is found form

and curiosity,

the

sepulchre is opened,within

nothing but dust,representing by its positionthe


of
a

human

body
at

; even

this faint evidence breath slightest


or

of the human the

form touch

vanishes
;
no

the

gentlest

indication remains
bones

of the bones.

Very rarely,
a

however, a few
some

remain,and

sometimes

sword

or

other instrument

indicative of

martyrdom

is found.

Thus in

did the savage


tomb from of

nations of the north

place armour
the and

the

their

chief,or
But

portions of
the

spoil
the

gathered

his enemies.

lamp,
the

ampulla^or
most

vessel filled with

blood, are

clearest and

undeniable

evidence

of the

martyr's resting-place.
one

interested by I^wasparticularly
most

where chapel,

that

holyman

San

called Neri, Filippo justly of the

the

Apostle

of

Rome,

the founder
ten

Oratorians, had, during a


Carlo Bor-

period of
romeo,

years,

constantly slept. San

the great Milanese

another brightexample saint, said to have

of

and holiness, is also charity these sacred

passed many

nightsin

solitudes.

Digitizedby

THE

CATACOMBS,

295

After last

threading mazy
at the

we confusing, utterly windings

at

emerged

foot

of the of St.

stair

leadinginto

the

church, beside
when found

the

tomb

whose Sebastian, above.

remains

here

were

removed

It is surmounted

by

an

of the saint,by exquisite half-figure


I

Bernini.
awe, soul

"

Could

impressmy

readers with the visited

solemn my

the

overwhelming thoughts that wandering


Catacombs my my life. among would the stand
;

while
to

holy dead,
forth, as

my

visit
an it,

the
in of
to

I felt

epoch

But, alas
am

perhaps from
the

the very multitude

emotions, I
or

less able

properly either

define

to

describe them.

Digitized by

ST.

PETER'S.

St home.

Peter's

the
as

whole

world

finds

common

-^^" all

Either
a

artistic pilgrims, or we religious

bow

before

common

shrine; distinctions

of

and country, of grade, of opinion,national prejudices,


customs
are

forgotten. they French, English,American,


what
a or

Catholics,be
Greek
"

^no

matter

and nation, naturally

neously sponta-

join in
within and the the

universal walls of
a

ship citizenfeelingof religious

city at

once

the

cradle
at
one

centre

of their creed. in

They worshipas
western

altar, they unite

the great venerating


same

arch, Patri-

they recite
the
same

the

prayers,

they

commemorate

awfiil sacrifice.

St

Peter's is the

material and

of palpableexpression The
waves

religious power,
may

fixed,immutable, supreme.
the roll,
even

beat, the thunders


advance

storm

may

rage, nay,

destruction may

to the very

but threshold,

Digitizedby

298

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

speaking of
mais

another

subject, "Beaucoup

en

ont

parld,

peu

Font connu." the quarter lying beyond (la3rs, the

In
now

classic

Tiber,

called the

Vatican,formed
cultivated

of portion the hand

those fertile
of Cincin-

meadows, Quintilian
natus, where

by

the lictors sent


called of the
on

by

the

Senate Roman

found

him

labouringwhen
Tacitus quarter

to

lead the
as
a

Legions.
infamous
as

speaks

Vatican

vile and
as

Vaticani locis). Even (infamibus

late that

the

the reignof Vitellius, contracted


In earliertimes it was

soldiers

quarteredin

bourhood neigh-

diseases and avoided

epidemic distempers.
account

by the Pagans,on

of the horrible serpents that infested the rocks and in the

pools
was

valley. To
reason

the

early Christians
abominable

the

spot

execrable,by

of the

rites and Bona

foul
Dea
were

at the Temples practised superstitions

of the

and

of

Apollo.
out

The in

hills surrounding the

Vatican
to

partly laid

gardens belonging
and

Agrippina,

daughter of Agrippa

Julia and
the
a

of granddaughter where valley circus to


now

first built in Augustus. Caligula stands

the Basilica.

He

erected

which
his

was spaciousportico

attached.

Here

Claudius
the games

cessor, suc-

Suetonius
as Circus,

tells us, exhibited


combats of

of the

well

as

of wild beasts and

gladiators.
a

Domitia,the

aunt

Nero, also owned

portionof

Digitizedby

ST.

PETER'S,

299

the her

ground laid

out

in

gardens.

The

cost possession

dear,for Nero,
with

who

inhabited frequently
on

this part of

Rome, looked
and

longingeyes
to

his aunt's
to

garden,
her

condemned

her

death,in

order

become

heir.
In the

early part

of his

of all this portion reign, became

the the

city lyingbeyond the Tiber,


scene

infamous Milvian

as

of his

profligate pleasures. The


his favourite the Vatican in

Bridge,
for first

was accordingto Tacitus,

rendezvous

midnight revehy,and
exhibited wide
where space he

at

the

Emperor

his
to

talent charioteering be enclosed in the

causing a public,
an

valleyas

Arena,

invited the attendance

of the

multitude,and
This

diversions. their passion for public gratified added


became that
to the

Arena,

alreadyconstructed by Caligula, buildings


nucleus of the
vast

the

palace

and

edifices
here

occupied the

very site of St. many


"

and it was Peter's,

that Nero
on
"

committed

of the most

cruelties revolting

the Christians ; infected

men," says Suetonius in Nero's life,


a superstition,*' nation desigmalignant

by

new

and

of them them classing

in which
with the

the historian

coincides, evidently

charioteers, actors, and vagabonds, in


lower When classes Rome

enumerating
to

which
was

the
set
on

Emperor

tended in-

reform.

either fire,
is

in

mad

frolicof Nero's,or

the deed, as by accident,

Digitizedby

300

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

well

known,

was

ascribed

to the

Christians

**

race

of

" to Tacitus, detested for their evil pracmen," according tices.'*

Nero and

found

it convenient

to

ascribe
to

an

popular un-

believed odious act, generally


at

have

been
sect

committed

his

own

to instigation,

an

obscure

into just rising


were

notice. declare
were

set

of abandoned and guilty, for


on

wretches dence this evi-

suborned the

to

them

Christians

condemned

having fired
human race." that the
stem

the

city, out
may

"

of sullen hatred

to the whole

One

plainlyperceive by
were

this accusation the


to

Christians

confounded

with

Jews, whose

and strange prejudices them The


to

aversion

all

made foreigners

detested. generally
convicted Christians, with

by

false and

were witnesses,

put

death

exquisite tortures, mockery


the skins and

to

their

sufferings
were

Nero covered

added

derision.

"Some

with

of wild
were

beasts, and
nailed
to
a

left to
cross,

be

devoured
were

by dogs, others
burnt and alive,

bers num-

many, when

covered the

with

mable inflam-

matter, were
serve
as

lighted up,

to day declined,

torches

during the night." Juvenal,as

well For

as

Tacitus,describes these barbarities with horror.


convenience his and
own

the lent

of

this tragic Nero witnessing spectacle, He added the sports of the

gardens.

Circus,

assisted

sometimes injperson,

and a chariot, driving

ed by Digitized

ST.

PETER'S.

301

occasionally mixing with


charioteer.
in the The

the

rabble

in the

dress

of

midnighthorrors
of the

of that

amphitheatre
with
the

valley

Vatican, illuminated
can

bodies blazing

of the Christian martyrs, who


some

tell?

Accordingto
here, but the
that the

St. authorities,

Peter

was

crucified

more

received generally
on

tradition records
the

great Apostle suffered


the where Janiculum, is erected. Piazza The

neighbouring
of San

of heights in

the Church obelisk

Pietro
the

Montorio of the

standing in

centre

of St

beside the glorious Peter*s,

once fountains,

adorned often

the
has

Spina
this

of

Nero's

theatre. amphiof

How

curious

remnant

Pagan
beheld
round

ages,

first

placed
as

in that
a

position by Caligula,
madly by
the

Nero, habited
the

charioteer, drive
now

piazza,which
colonnade. and
was

is

encircled
now

matchless

The

obelisk is
on

surmounted

by

cross,

placed

its present

site

by

Sixtus V. This

valley,these
with

stones, the

surrounding heights
Circus where the

stained

holy blood, the imagined he


decreed the
man

very

impious Nero
its cradle, was God
to

had

crushed

in Christianity of providence and


most

by

the inscrutable the

be

spot where
ever

grandest
should

august Temple
honour. On

conceived

rise in his

the

soil where

the serpent

where' crawled,

Digitized by

302

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

Nero's mad

commenced, persecution
^'

the Mosaic seed

prophecy
bruises the

is

and fulfilled, literally

the woman's

head.*' serpent's

Many
were,

of the the

martyrs sacrificed by the rage of Nero


care

by

tender

of Christian widows and

and

holy

interred virgins,
near

in the

caves neighbouring

grottoes,

the

imperial gardensand
as locality

circus. St

Tradition
Peter.

points
Within
the
cessor suc-

out

this

the
once

sepulchre of
the

these cradle

grottoes, at
of

tomb, the asylum, and


Anacletus

primitive Christianity, Pope


Peter, erected
and the
a

of St

small

oratory, where
of the

the

tears, the
and

groans,

prayers
course

early saints
horrible
out, terranean sub-

confessors, during the


rent

of the
were

many

persecutionsthat
beside
a

the

Church,
in the

poured
of

hid lowly altar,


caves.

deep gloom

These
customs

subterranean borrowed

tombs

and

asylums
The

are

evidently
as

from

the East

Bible,as well

the accounts of

of Eastern

shows travellers, When of


our

us, that this mode

is general there. sepulchre

Lord
"

died,Joseph
laid it in

of Arimathea his Now


own new

begged

the

body

Pilate, and
hewn
out

tomb, which

he had

in the rock." and

the

first missionaries of and be

St. Peter Christianity,

St. Paul

their followers, being Jews, would interred


to according

naturally
of their

desire

to

the

manner

Digitizedby

ST.

PETER'S.

303

while nation,
the

the

knowledge that
further

their Lord
and

was

laid in
the

rock, would living


to every

endear

consecrate

custom

Christian. primitive
of the countless

Hence

these

eariy

graves, the nucleus Rome.

catacombs

encircling

When,
to

at

the

accession of

Constantine,
"

^who

is said in the modem the

have

beheld

the vision of the the


"

cross glorious

heavens,from
Monte Church

over heights was

the

Vatican,the
to

Mario,

peace

restored
over

earth, and
the

finally triumphed
Pope

Paganism,
was

primitive
into
a

oratory of
more Basilica,

Anacletus

transformed

worthy of

the sacred

traditions associated

with it.
.

On

the

day

fixed

for the

stantine laying the foundation,Con-

repairedto
of his

Vatican,and
and

himself divesting
in hand full

diadem imperial the

purplerobe, spade
away twelve twelve

opened
of
not

ground,and
honour
a

bore the

baskets

earth,in

of

"Was apostles. and

It

asks just," the hands

great modem
of the

divine

historian,

"that

Caesars, once
be

defiled

by

the

service of

should idols,

sanctified by
the tme
same

labouringat
"

the erection of the On of this

housS of

God

occasion, says
was

the

the body authority, tomb


a case

St. Peter

raised from

the

where
of

it had

lain

in and being placed, concealed,

sculptured

Digitized by

304

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

silver, was
and stantine,

depositedat
his mother

the

foot

of

the

altar.

Con-

Helena,

were

prodigalin their
was

donations

to

the

new

which Basilica,
324. In

consecrated it remained who


so

a,d. by Pope Sylvester,

this state

until the

accession

of

Nicholas

V.,

Pontiff

compensated richly
his elevated

for the

obscurityof
noble

his birth

by
He

sentiments
the her idea

and of

intellect
to

first conceived
some

Rome restoring

at
a

least
mencement, com-

portionof

ancient

and, as splendour,
his

turned naturally

thoughts towards Catholics,as


were

the the the

ancient
tomb of

shrine, honoured
the

by
whom

all

Apostle

to

intrusted

spiritual keys.
In order to execute

the

splendidtemple he meditated,
was

the and

celebrated
the

architect Alberti
of the
new

called settled. Three


was

to

Rome,
the

plan

Basilica

Before

tribune
were

was

Nicholas finished,
to

expired. mighty

centuries

fated

elapse ere
an

the

work

entirely

"completed.
Pontiff

After

interval of

fifty years,

the warlike

induced II., Julius


a

imagined by personal vanity,


intended be
to

for himself the


new

gorgeous

monument

become the
fided con-

admiration

of future ages, to The

placed within
he building

Temple.
to

continuation of the
of

Bramante, the kinsman


was

Raphael, while

his

own

monument

to be

executed

by Michael Angelo.

Digitized by

3o6 Angelo,
as

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

and

to

substitute
The

Latin
want

for of

Greek

cross,

before

proposed.
the

harmony
of

in

the
whelming over-

whole

design,and
size, that

unconsciousness

its

strange
edifice
to

optical delusion
appear

which

causes

an

immense

smaller infinitely of this

than Those

it

were is, really

the consequences that

change.
be

who

esteem

a merit, must peculiarity

ignorant of totally ought


never

the proper
a

effect which

architecture
error,

to

produce ; it is

great and

flmdamental

contemplated by

the
even

great Michael
the size of the

Angelo

in

his

original design.
the marble

Not

angelssupporting

shells of the

holy water, standing containing


great entrance, which
of the
are

on

either hand

six

feet

high,and

yet only appear

ordinaryproportion

of monumental
I
am

cherubs,can
that
no

this impresdissipate sion. person without


ever

confident
for the

entered
founded con-

St

Peter's and

first time,
the

being

at disappointed

comparative

smallbulk the

ness

of

its

apparent

proportions.Its mighty
an

is

only perceptibleafter
colossal

examination
first
our

of

various appears The of

details ;

at

sight
own

the St

interior
Paul's.

less considerably

than is

magnificentvestibule
the
edifice

perhaps
to

the

only portion

fullyanswering

one's

high-wrought

expectations.

Digitizedby

ST.

PETER'S.

307

And limina

now,

standing upon
us

that
pause
a

sacred
moment

threshold and like


a

ad

let Apostolorum,

recall

the wondrous

of pilgrims procession who,


our

chain of
to far-off

before gold unfolding have centuries,


enter

eyes

and

us linking

passed through this portal


space

never

the

hallowed
the

without

to calling

mind

the the from of


I

emperors,

the saints, and kings,the pontiffs, the

great
the

of doctors, pillars

Church, who, coming


to

East, and

from

the

West,

honour

the

tomb

of the Galilean Lake, passedby where Peter,that pilot tread.


At

the

head

of

this
to

stately company,
the ancient

whose

dim

shadows
loved
so

stillseem

haunt

shrine
the

they
queror con-

well,appears

Constantine

the Great

of Monte

Maxentius, who, while lying encamped upon


beheld
"

Mario,
cross,

that

gloriousvision

of

the

minated illu-

in which

sign he conquered."

Theoso

dosius

comes

next, that

who powerful sovereign,

meekly submitted
Ambrose
at

to the penance

inflicted on
had caused

him
to

by

St.

for the barbarities he


"

be

mitted com-

before Thessalonica, ^lying dust and ashes.

the altar in Milan


came

Cathedral,in
Rome and before offered

Theodosius
war

to

undertaking a
up prayers
at

against Eugenius,
for
a

St. Peter's

speedy
also,

the victory. Valentinian,

Eastern

Emperor,

came

Digitized by

3o8

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

with his wife


and

Eudoxia, and

his mother

Galla

Placidia;
conqueror
on

the Belisarius, Justinian's great general, the Barbarians, altar. with hero of

of the the
a

Rome, l^d his laurels


above the both
rest

hallowed

Towering
a

appears

form, gigantic

countenance

terrible and
all nations

stem.

It is the fierce

Totila,before whom
in blood.

for his footsteps tread shrink, ravager the of

But,

see

this

this remorseless nations, is


a

conqueror

beside Another

Apostle'stomb
head of

gentle and
barbarian

subdued

crowned

king

is

there, Cedfar-oflf

walla,king of the West

Saxons, who
a

leavinghis

as island-kingdom, approaches

humble

catechumen, to

receive
Nor

baptism within

the walls of the ancient Basilica.


our own

is this the

only royal pilgrimfrom


the his

infant

Cendred, king of isles,


himself divesting of

Murcians,came

to

Rome, and
beside the

regal garments
a

Apostle'stomb,
monastery.
But
name

became

monk

in

neighbouring

what
one

an

endless

unfolds procession

before

me

; to

half is impossible !

Luitprand, kingof the


of

bards, Lom-

Ina Richard

king of

the West

Saxons,Carloman
the

France,
and
an

of of of

England, Bertrade
Of^

wife of

Pepin

mother
excess

Charlemagne, and
made zeal, his

the Saxon,

who, in
St

to kingdom tributary

Peter ;

also the most

powerfulGerman

Emperors, the Othos,the

Digitized by

ST.

PETER'S.

309

Henries, with
same

their wives

and

sons,

all caime

on

the

pious pilgrimage.
among

Pre-eminent
a

these

advances sovereigns,
"

one

of the

tall and

statelypresence,
Roman

it is and

Charlemagne,

restorer

of the Four
on

Empire
did

the favourite of the

Church. St. Peter's"

times
the last from the

this

warrior
the

king
year

visit

occasion, in
the hands

800,

the receiving

crown

of Leo the
an

III., humbly
shouted

kneelingbeside
forth One from
same

while altar,
at

Romans ancient

paeans

of

as rejoicing,

triumph.
crown

of his successors, Pascal I. Oiu:

also accepted the Lothaire,


own

Alfred
same

was

crowned
on

on

the
we

spot,

passingalong the
other

ground
and

which

and many tread,


numerous

German princes,

French, too
for the

to

mention, also journeyed to

Rome

same

purpose. universal
was

So

the veneration
even

with which
savage

the

old

Basilica was
conqueror

regarded,that
and St.
so

the

the Alaric, trembled


to

the

spoiler of

Rome,

approach

Peter's,and,
many other

though burning and

vastating de-

temples,palaces,and exception spared


who fugitives its

ments, monu-

by
and

remarkable

walls,
taken

left unmolested

those

had

there. reftige

We, of the nineteenth century, may

forgetthat

on

this

Digitizedby

3IO

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME.

spot
that around

the

blood
the

of martyrs was' hollows of

poured

out

like water,

within

those
were

low

rocky

banks the

St. Peter's,their bones

interred ; but
"

mediaeval

Barbarians, enemies, schismatics


"

conquerors

though they were


At

remembered
the

and

trembled.
that precedes
two

either
the

of extremity

hall palatial truly has recorded

entrance, the Church


"

of its

benefactors greatpolitical both


one

Constantine and

Charlemagne,
other;

superbly throned recallingthe


other

in niches

each opposite

final the

over victoryof Christianity

Paganism,the

establishment

of the

Church's the

temporal dominion
execution of the
the less said
are position on

over

Europe.

I say

nothing of

statues

embodying these

events, because
the

that

the subject

better ; the idea and themselves

alone

grand,the

statues

being in
the fluttering

the worst

possible taste,rampant specimens of


school. On the great bronze
are

Bernini into of with Greek the St

doors

opening

central

nave,

sculpturedthe martyrdom principal events


the connected

Peter, and
of

the

the Council and Latin

Florence, where
was

union

of

the

Churches

for

time

accomplished.

over Opposite, so by Giotto, reason seems

the ill

entrance, is the celebrated Navicdla


ill
seen

placed and
to

that

some

special
reason

necessary many

explain it.

The

is

this.

For

the superstitious generations, Pagan

Digitized by

ST.

PETER'S.

311

converts

to custom

continued Christianity
of In

to

observe

the

heathen

veneratingthe

sun

before with
a

entering
Christian
the

the church.

order to present them mosaic which

object of homage, this beautiful


old Basilica the
same

occupied in
it is
now

in position

placed.
Baronius
of

It is further
never

that the learned related,


a

Cardinal
the
space

failed

singleday during
symbol
on

thirty

years to bow here

before this

of the

Church, primitive
sea
"

as represented

tossed

the stormy
"

of persecution,
save me

to repeating

himself
as sin,

this prayer, thou didst

Lord Peter

from
waves

the

waves

of

save

from

the

of the sea." less to admire in the interiordecorations

There is much
of St Peter's than

might be expected.

The

absence

of

and painting, well executed


or

the substitution of
cannot

mosaic, which

however

of conception, to originality aspire has

harmony
leaves

of

surface,and
to

always a glazed look,


The
celebrated

"

much

be

desired.
to

Fietd,

by Michael
excited my

Angelo,

the

righton

entering,never
of iron beside of pillars

enthusiasm ; the column

it,
the

to tradition, is, one according

of the twelve

Temple

of

Jerusalem, placed here by Constantine.


of the
so

The

general character

monuments

is of that
be

tionable objec-

taste flimsy

to cordially
a

abominated,weak

and

mannered

imitations of

school,essentially insipid

Digitized by

312

PICTURES

OF

'OLD

ROME.

and

emasculate.

If there be
to

Cerchio

in the

Inferno ought
to

devoted especially suffer unutterable fine


s

peccant

Bernini artists, evil his

torments
means

for all the of

naturally,
alone

geniuswas

the

accomplishing.He
marble

answerable

for many

of the

caricatures that

the aisles of disfigure The weak


monument

St. Peter's.

of Pius

VII., by Thorwaldsen, is
and

composition feebly executed,


of the

worthy utterlyun-

genius of
an

so

great

sculptor. Pius
the

looks

more

like

old

woman

than the

heroic
of

and the

virtuous

Pontiff,whom JupiterTonans
The

even

thunders Tuileries Stuart

moderp
to

the inhabiting
monument to

failed

intimidate.
me as

the
worst

family
of
an

struck

being altogetherthe
I had
ever seen.

specimen
to

Canova's
absolute

art

There

seems

be

about fatality of St
as

these

efforts for the great artists' The

decoration
once

Peter's.
cover

present baptismalfont

served

the

to the

sarcophagusof
with
the

Otho

II.,

as painfulassociation,

connected

hopeful

of purity
I
to
most

the sacred rite.

must

confess, that the impressionfirst conveyed

my

mind

by

the

bronze
one

statue

of

St
at

Peter, Home,
to

was

but repulsive; fi-om the

graduallylearns
the of

to

look
an

type

to

and anti-type, which


may be

honour

idea, the

execution

extremely

Digitizedby

314

PICTURES

OF

OLD

ROME,

sculpture, mosaic, and


and
a

carving, gorgeous
rainbow,
as

with rich

colours,
of

like glittering
sun

the

gleams Upon

southern

come

streaming down.
imaged
"

this

mimic beside

hemisphereare
that

the hierarchs and tainted nature's

saints, solitary

mother-maid,

our

boast"
*

Above
as

sit enthroned the nations


to

the and and

awful

Trinity,beholding

it

were

languages,principalities
fro
on

and

powers,
"

passing

the

marble

floors

below,
blue

while

without,towering over
skies,the
cross

all,piercingthe
in snowy

Italian

appears

purity,

! the infinite ruling


"

Stranger," says

famous
are

Catholic

autliority, writing

of St the

" Peter's, you, who

unhappy enough to approach


a

with Apostle, august shrine of the glorious

soul

defiled with

impious doubt, and

you

pilgrimsof empty
now

all that with vain curiosity, science, inspired for you is


to

remains of this brilliant


or

retire.

All

the

external before them


more

beauties
as
a

superb
panorama

edifice have
; you

passed
admured

you with
or

have

more

less

criticised them intelligence,


and

with

less

sincerity

knowledge.
the from

"But

interior beauty of
your is eyes, the

the

house

of

God

is this the

shrouded
vast

poeticsymbolism of
for comprehension,

monument

beyond

your

Digitized by

ST,

PETER'S.

315

supernatural world
sacred shrines
are

of celestial veiled from

these beings inhabiting


eyes, alone
a

your

standing underfitting for the

of these

being mysteries

reserved

pious Catholic."
Warned

by

this

exordium,

I conclude.

THE

END.

BRADBURY,

EVANS,

AND

CO.,

PRINTERS,

WHITEFRIAV:'

Digitized by

Digitized by

DIARY

OF

AN

IDLE ITALY.

WOMAN

IN

By

FRANCES

ELLIOT,

Author

of

"

Pictures

of Old

Rome."

OPINIONS
From

OF

THE

PRESS.

The

TimBS.

"Mrs.

Elliot's she
the

style
a

is

throughout
eye

bright and
details

pleasant
as

to
as

read
....

Everywhere
and upon have

has

woman's with

for small

well

great

effects,
rests
or

stamps
....

narrative

She known
them.

knows

reality by painting just as few Italy and the Italians


book is written
as

the

picture her
write

eye know

Englishwomen
could it."

Her

few

women

From "This book


is

The

Morning

Post. authoress

is

remarkably

interesting. The

traveller,and

frequently remarkable

for the justice of her

keen-sighted appreciation."
a

is

From
"

The

Daily

News. her

Mrs.
the

Elliot

was

not certainly

idle during
and

stay in

Rome,
a

which

gave of

her

opportunity
Her
....

of

noticing, studying,
of the famous fearless

reflecting upon

variety

incidents
in Rome
are

judgments
with
a

buildings,statues,
and

and

pictures
the

formed

independence,

expressed

without

slightest reserve."
The
of an

From
* '

Standard.
idle
woman,

This

is

by
and

no

means

the work
who has of

but

of

woman

of singular
mastered the

enthusiasm
vexed

energy,
of the

thoroughly
ancient old
Romans

studied
It
to

and

really
very
a a

questions
Rome of

localities

Rome.

is the
as

book

for

an

enthusiastic

admirer and
a

of the

grand

take

companion

and

guide
powers

to

its antiquities. of

Mrs.
an

Elliot possesses

in
....

strong degree the


As
never
a

both Mrs. she


on

and descriptive

imaginative writer
has usual the

fellowbling grum-

traveller
;

Elliot is
not

charming.
us

She the
once

happy

faculty of

does

bore side.

with

travellers' grievances, but

looks
a

alwa3rs

the sunny
and

It is at

and lively

interesting, and Imperial City."

will form

pleasant

instructive

guide

for visitors to the

Digitized by

DIARY

OF

AN

IDLE

WOMAN

IN

ITALY.

OPINIONS

OF
From

THE
The

PRESS-^onttntted.
Record.
be

"Those

who

have

travelled

in

will Italy,
of

glad by

the

perasal of
in her her

Mrs.
may

Elliot's diary to refresh

their memories such of


a

its treasures, and of

an^

all her readers

with satisfaction accompany


to
....

frank
and

charming guide
beauty
"

the

many
She

points

interest

described
a

by

pilgrimage graceful
indicates

pen passes from subject to subject with her artistic appreciation of the force of contrast.

which rapidity

From

The

Echo.
seems

"Mrs.

Elliot,
Her

the and

'Idle Woman,' self-styled in

to most

us

to

have
time

been
and about

exceedinglybusy,
opportunities.
Rome,
.

two

way to little volumes


every

have

made much

the

of

her

contain

pleasant reading

its churches, pictures,and


with
"

vated woman,
love of "fun

society. She writes always like a highly-ciiltikeen appreciation of beauty in art and nature, and a healthy
; and

of all sorts
some

readers

who

wish

to

form

for themselves, without

much
do better

labour,
than

sort

of mental

picture of

the

Eternal

City,can

hardly

take her for their

guide."
The

From
"
.
. . .

Examiner. in
a

She
has

style,and by
reverence

is well-informed, writes (Mrs. Elliot), and entertaining book. produced a lively

dashing, sprightly
is not

She

hampered

for

anything

in heaven

above,

or

in the earth beneath."

From
' "

The

Court
use

Journal.
ample historic reading, and gives the life. It is a vivid and impassioned
truth for the the book
for

The

authoress
her

brings to her
of ancient
or

very

reader

imagings
not

Roman

sketch, yet
effect.

over-coloured

These

chapters

are

infringingupon worth cullingfrom production


Bristol
'

sake

of dramatic
poses, pur"

educational

while the remainder

of the

is discursive and

pleasantreading.

From
"

The

Times.
her husband
taste

Mrs.

Elliot,
in

who

dedicates

her

Diary'to
to

the Dean
for
enter

of

Bristol,
of
art sees

is at home and

Italy. Her

her her esprit, vivacity, her qualify

the

objects

beauties
hears

of that lovelyland,
Hfer narrative

enjoy and
around

into

all she

and
fun rich

there.

of 'the Artists' festa' is

glorious for picturesque


and

and

and frolic,

the descriptionsof the scenery

photographs."

ip Rome

are

like

Digitized

byGdlt^e

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