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ROMAN

LIFE

AND

MANNERS

UNDER

THE

EARLY

EMPIRE
.

''""4k'
nil.

11^*'

,,,\Mi"lll"i("l,,

"

'

ROMAN LIFE
UNDER

AND
THE
EMPIRE
By
LUDWIG

MANNERS
EARLY

FRIEDLANDER
of

Authorised

Translation

the

and Revised Edition of the

Enlarged Roms Sittengeschichte


IV

Seventh

Volume

APPENDICES

AND
Sixth

NOTES

(fromthe

Edition)

By
A. B.

GOUGH,

M.A.

(Oxon.),Ph.D.

LONDON

'

'

GEORGE
NEW

ROUTLEDGE
YORK
:

" E. P

SONS,
"

LIMITED
CO

BUTTON

1913

F.RT^ATA. ERRATA.

Page

line

from
41
2

bottom,

Fof

Africanus

read.

Afranius.

52

from
3

bottom,

For

read,
nares
naves.

55

Delete
9

full

stop

after

copiis.

72

from
II

bottom,

For

Praeseus

read

Praesens.

73

For
14

Septimus

read

Septimius.

Tfearf
134 I, 2,

little

desire

for

amber,

although

it

Iiad

been

much

esteemed

before

that

date.

134

12

For

north

European

gold

read

amber.

171

For 24

Borghesi

read

Borghese.

176

20

For

from

read

for.

202

17,

18

For

Sorrentum

read

Surrentum.

235

from

bottom,

For

Carthage

read

Carthago

nova.

240

20

from

bottom,

For

minor

read

minus.

285

For
3, 4

The

Aiurelian

read

AureUan's.

In

Teuffel,

RLG

{Geschichte

der

romischen

Litteratur)

the

numerals

denote

the

paragraphs,

which
are

the

in
same

the

English

translation

of

the

5th

edition

by

G.

C.

Warr,

History

of

Roman

Literature,

1900.

CONTENTS
PAGE

Abbreviations
......

APPENDICES

The

Lotus

Tree.

(By
.....

Prof.

Ferdinand

Cohn,

Breslau)
II

Exhibition Provincials Embassies

of natural in
to

Curiosities

at

Rome

III IV

Rome
....

Roman

Emperors
....

from

foreign
V VI VII VIII The On Roma The

Countries of Rome
in
sacra

Population
the Use
aurea,

of

Vehicles

Rome
.

aehrna,
a

Officials

ratiombus,
.....

libellis,-ah

epistuUs
IX The Order of the

OfiSces
.....

held

by

Imperial

Freedmen
X

Roman

Names
Freedmen

assumed

by Peregrini

and

.....

XI

The

Friends

and
......

Companions

of

the

peror Em-

XII

The

Use Title

of

Vir

Clarissimus

as

Senatorial

XIII XIV XV

Mandragora.
The The

.....

Sportula
Use in of

of

the

Clientes
.

Domine Life

as

Form

of

Address

ordinary
and

....

I,
Names
...

199,

10

81

XVI

Endearing
Women

complimentary
and Girls Amor of the and

for

I, 228,
and in tiquity An-

10

87

XVII

The

Story
other

of Traces

Psyche

Folk-tale

I,
Y

229,

37

88

VI

CONTENTS

XVIII

The

usual

Age of Girls
.

at
.

Betrothal
. "

and XIX
The

Marriage
of Homeric

Use
for

personalNames"
the North.

Appellatives
Finds
Otto in

XX

Roman Dr.

(By

Tischler, of Konigsberg)
the

XXI

Tourists'
The

Inscriptionson
of
to

Pyramids
as

XXII

Use

the

Word

Romantic

applied
XXIII

natural

Scenery
Names

I. 395.
Viola

19

138

On

the

Meaning of the

Anemone, {(ov),
thus. of
XXTV XXV XXVI Three

Narcissus, HyacinCohn, I, 425. 33


Charioteers.
.

(By Prof. Ferdinand


....

Breslau)

141

Inscriptions on
. . ,

11,23, 15 II,
31, 7

148 164

Diversium

Representations of
Venator

Gladiators
of Art

(and
11, 51, 11,57
i6 166

es) in

Works

XXVII XXVIII

The
Summa

gladiatorialTesserae.
and Secunda Rudis
.

168

; Primus

and
XXIX XXX

Secundus
and

Palus of the Gladiators Roman

II, 57. 15 11,60

170 171

Costume On

Arms

the Animals

used
....

for the

Venationes
XXXI

II, 62

How

Animals

were

caught for the


II. 69, 5 II, 71.
14

Amphitheatre
XXXII XXXIII Modern
Executions

....

189 189

Animal and
out

Fights.
other Punishments
in the

carried XXXIV XXXV On the

Amphitheatre Amphitheatre
Shows. Middle
in

II, II,

72, 6 79,
22

190 190

Velarium
of the

of the

Abohtion

Gladiatorial Shows the

Gladiatorial

Ages and
XXXVI List of Roman

more

recent

Times

II, 80,

22

192

and
....

phitheatres provincialAm-

II, 85, 30
Comedies under

193

XXXVII

The
the

Performance later

of

Empire
of

II. 95,

40

255

XXXVIII

The

Performance

Tragedies under
II, 97,
16

the later

Empire

256

CONTENTS

Vll

XXXIX

On

the

frequent
Names

Use

of

famous

Artists' XL XLI The The

II, 107,
Minor Actian
.

30 7

257

P3mrhic of Asia
Contests in the
....

II, 108,
at

263

Agon

Nicopolis
XLII XLIII XLIV The Contests Continuance

II, 118,

20 12 22

263 264 267

in the of the of

Capitoline Agon

II, II,

120,
121,

CapitoHne Agon
Provinces

The

Extension

Gjrmnastic Contests
.

in the XLV The Taxes

Western of
.....

II,
vinces Pro-

122,

21

268

three

Roman

II, 133,
the modem
of Pearls

270

XLVI

Rodbertus ancient

on

Comparison
Wealth
in

of

with

n, 139, II,
140

19

273 275

XL

VII

The

Dissolution

Vinegar

XLVIII

Catalogue
from
a

of

Table

DeUcacies

Greek

Comedy
Silver Plate
....

II, 147,
ing accord-

19

276

XLIX

of Specification
to

Weight
in Rome Mundi and Bronze
.....

II, 209,
.

31

278
279

L LI LII LIII

Prices Latrines

of

Sepulchral Monuments

n,

217,

33 s.
10

II, 224
....

284 285

Civitates Marble Statues

II, 232,
as

Materials

for

II, 319 f.
....

286

LIV LV

Prices

of Statues from

II, 319 f.
Controversiae in the of

287

Borrowing
the

the

Elder

Seneca
....

Gesta

Romanorum
LVI

III, 16,

41

297

The

Chronology
and

of the

Epigrams
.

of

Martial LVII LVIII The The Patrons

Statius and Friends of


....

in, 59
of Statius Life

298
304

HI,

60

Chronology
and Satires Personal

Juvenal's
in
on

III, 67

ff.

310

LIX LX

On

the

Names

Juvenal

III. 67 ff.

318
322

Chronological Notes

Gellius

Ill, 80

NOTES To Vol.
I Table of
....

Chronological
c.

327
...

The

City

Rome

331

VIU

CONTENTS

To

Vol.

PAGE

c.

II Ill IV V VI VII

The The Roman The Means

Court
.

341 Estates
.

c.

Three

364
402

c.

Society
Position of of Women
.

c.

409

c.

Communication under the

426

c.

Touring
II

Empire

451

To

Vol.

c.

The Roman The

Spectacles
Luxury
Arts

493 555 592

c.

II

c.

Ill Ill
I

To

Vol.

c.

Belles-Lettres

639 655
as a

c.

II
Ill

Religion

c.

Philosophy
BeUef
in

Moral

Educator of the Soul

688

c.

IV

the

Immortality

699

Index

to

the

Appendices

707

APPENDICES

AND

NOTES

R.L.M.

ABBREVIATIONS
AdI Annali delV
Istituto

di

correspondenza
di

archeo-

togica.
Bdl Bullelino delV IslUuto

correspcmdenza
GoU,

archeo-

logica.
Becker-Goll
Bull.
com.

'Becker,
d.
R

Gallus,
comunaU

neu

bearbeilet
di
Roma.

von

1""0-"2.

Bulletino

CIG CIL
D.
or

Corpus Corpus

inscriptionum inscriptionum
Dio,
the

Graecariim. Latinarum.

Digg (alone)
Chr D In the the

Digesta.
Cassius Dio historian.
the

Dio Dio

Chrysostom,
Dissertationes. numeral
Roman

rhetorician

of

Prusa.

lipictet.,
Galen. Arabic
H.A

Epicteti
references page in
the

denotes

the

volume

and

the

Kiihn's

edition. historiae without

Scriptores
are

Augustae.
the authors' i/andimcA

The

biographies
names.

cited
and

Hdb.

d.

R.

Becker

Marquardt,
ist

d"'

rd)"sscA"!

AUerthilmer,
Henzen
or

edition. latinarum selec-

Henzen-Orelli

Orelli
tarum

(Henzen), amplissima

Inscriptionum
coUectio. Gebiet

Hirschfeld,

VG
.
.

Vniersuchungen
.

auf

dem

der

romischm

V IRN
,

erwaltungsgeschichte.

Inscriptiones
A.

Regni

Neapolitani
Bellum

{Mommsen).
Judaiaum.

]osephus,

J., B.J.
.. . .

Aniiquitaies
Lebos
et

Judaicae,

Lebas-Waddingtcn Marquardt,
,,

Waddington,
et
en

Voyage

archeologique (Inscriptions).

en

Grece
Pr! StV
.. ..

Asie-Mineure Romer.

Privatleben

der

Staatsverwaltung.
Staatsrecht.
.

Mommsen,
Oesterr. Miilh

SIR
. .
.

Epigraphisch-archdologische
Oesterreich-

MiithMungen

aus

Vngarn.
denotes
Hist.

Orelli,

see

Henzen.
or

Pliny,
and

N.h.
von

H.N.

The edition

second of
the

numeral
Nat.

the

paragraph

in

Sillig

J
M

an's

Preller,
Renier
RGDA

R.

Romische

Mythologie,
de

3.

Auflage,

bearbeitet

von

Jordan.

Inscriptions
"

I'A

Igirie. (Mommsen).
classischen
von

Res

gestae

divi

Augusti
der

"S'-f-E

Realencyclopddie wissenscha/t,
und

Alterthims-

herausgegeben
romischen

Pauly,

Wall

Teuffel.
der

Teufiel,
,,,.,

R.L.G

Geschichle

Litteralur G. C.

also
1900.

English
Wllmanns

translation

by

Warr,

Exempla

Inscriptionum.

APPENDICES

VOL.
I. The Lotus Ferdinand
10, 1. 9

I
Tree.

By

Professor

Cohn,
from

Breslau.

(Vol.

I, p.

bottom.)

The

word

lotus

does

not

appear
our

to

exist

in

the
uses

Semitic it
as a

or

Egyptian
word,
on

languages.
to

Homer,
no

like

modern

poets,
is
of

foreign
grows
sweet them

which

clearly
Ida

defined
the

meaning
embrace of

attached. Zeus
;

It it is made better
the

the fruit

meadows

of
eaten home
;

under
the

which,
their

by
but
or

companions gives
'

Odysseus,
no
'

forget
than
^

this the

the

botanist of

clue

the

moly
the

of

Homer
which

blue
to

flower Homer
In

romantic eaten

poetry. by
horses,
we

Only
have
meet

lotus,
an

according
fodder the is of it

was

may first
'

been with the


to
us.

ordinary
lotus

plant.
'

Herodotus

92) (ii,
the the

the

Nile,

as

it is called with

by

Egyptians

from

description
be

easily
from

identified

Nymphaea
also called

Lotus lotus

L.,

distinguished
The blue
either have

Nymphaea
of

Nelumbo,
Nile
or

by

lotus-flower

the

not whose

mentioned merits

by
not

Herodotus hitherto

cderulea {Nymphaea Sav.) is The latter, Theophrastus.

been

sufficiently
various forms

recognized
lotus the
same

by
as

botanists
an name

and of

scholars,
those

mentions

(Hist. Plant.,
which
are

vii, 15) the


bear

example
;

plants
kinds value kind is of
as

of

the

different

lotus
a

distinguished
(Sdvafus clover).
and bears
Kara

by
rriv

their

leaves,
stalk

stalk,
and it

flower,

fruit,
One the

food

Tpotripopdv),
;

habitat. includes

herbaceous

with (iroiuSes),
of

foliate

ixeXlXuros
the

(a

kind

Another

kind,

also

called

lotus,

resembles
it is

Egyptian
more

bean

{Kia/Mos Myiimos,
a

Nelumlike

bium), only heads (Nymphaea


Further,
which One
in lotus

smaller, Lotus;
is the
are

slender, Plant.,

fruit

poppyof

Hist.
name

iv,

8,

9).
trees

given
kinds,
most

to

certain

in

Libya,
their the

again
kind

there

several
and

thrives of

best the

is

distinguished found commonly


the
name

by
in

fruit.

Syrtis,
the in old

the

country
of

Nasamones,
who took

in

island
from This

of

Pharos,
it ;

home

the
on

Lotophagi,
the
as

their mainland.
tree
or

and

larger
incised

quantities
iv, 3) is
a

neighbouring large
'

lotus

(Hist. Plant.,
with

tree,

as

pear

little

smaller,

[See NovaKs,

Henry

of OfUrimgm.]

4
leaves, like
its wood
is too is
a

Appendices
sort of very

[vol. i.
ilex wood

holm-oak

translated {tpivos,
,

by
rot
;

Pliny);
(dtraWs),
heart

black,
to

does not close,sapless(fio-apK-oi')

heavy

float, like box, ebony, and


wood is

cornel

the

is especiallythick and heavy. The like the colour its grape changes {xia/j-os), broad, as large as a shoots hke myrtle when ripe, grows closelytogether on the young wholesome berries,is sweet, of agreeable flavour, harmless, and even
of the (li-Zirpa)

fruit

bean

for the used is for


so an

stomach for

common

kind without is also a sweeter This food. of wine as a kind or making a to is sufficient fruit in Libya that the
;

there

stone

or

nel, ker-

kind

of lotus food in

provide

The the

army lotus

for called

days.
is of iroKlovpot islands
-a

difierent

kind.

It is used

is as Euhesperides its shrubmore distinguished from the lotus of the Lotophagi by its red fruit of the size of the its round like growth and ; K^dpos to call wood is superior,but its fruit not so sweet Pliny ; appears it the Cyrenaic lotus. mention shrub-like authorities a lotus, (Ba/ivuSes) Lastly, some stalk thick a with many eirax^s), and large branches, {ffreXix^i Uke leather, not so sweet as that fruit,not fleshy outside but more still of agreeable flavour of the Lotophagi, but of the lotus ; the two three from it will not keep longer than is made or wine which it turns after which sour. days, he of the lotus {Nat. Hist., xiii,104-6), of which Pliny's account the tree, the shrub, and the distinguishes(xiv, loi) three kinds from word for word herb is taken Theophrastus, but he adds some the Libyan in that author comments not to be found ; e.g. that also called celtis tree (which he also calls Syrtica,the S)Ttian) was in Africa the fruit,as large as a bean, was saffron; that (or celthis) in that the berries coloured were jars. preserved ; Again, Theophrastus does not allude to the fact that the lotus referred to above he only is also found out of Africa ; in the passage used for making flutes, knife blades, was speaks of the wood, which have been etc., and may imported like ebony. Phny, on the other that the lotus was common hand, observes (familians)in Italy,but modified of Airican was by the change of soil. He gives the name to shrub ing branchto a small tree or (brevis, according (frutex), Nepos) end of from the ibi he the out root (haec natura arboris, says at the other his description). On hand, the lotus of Italy is a tree throws such a luxuriant out with a short trunk, which growth of that themselves For branches this resemble trunks. they strong firewood

x/'w''''ai) (xavirLfwis ; it

"

"

reason

it is much
often its

in

request
to

in the does

front

of

houses,
out

where but

its thick it
soon

shade
loses

extends

the

neighbouring buildings ;
not

and foliage,
is

in winter

shut

the

sun.

although wild,

agreeable in flavour, resembling the that of the African lotus is only the size of a bean. Pliny sings its praises{Nat. Hist., xvi, 123) : no tree has longer, more numerous, stouter or branches, or a bark more over, agreeable to the eye; moreA lotus tree in the it attains a great age. grove of the temple of Lucina must, he thinks, be at least 450 years old, since Lucina
denves

Its fruit, cherry, while

her

name

from
as

this
as

considered

to be

old

is very grove ; a lotus in the Volcanal Rome itself ; its roots penetrate through

Vol.

I.]

Appendices
contrasted

5
.

the stahones

Although
the Itahan
from

of Caesar municipiorum ' as far as the Forum (xvi,235) Phny (certainly on insufficient grounds) asserts that

lotus, as

with

the Lotus

transmarina, had
a

been but
a

very

Greek name The latter

indigenous, he does not give it early (\ut6s),and also calls it the Greek bean
times
name

Latin

(Jaba graeca).
intended called
to

would

be

distinguish it from (Nelumbium)


coxild
;

the

inexplicable,if it were is Egyptian bean, which


understand how
a name

not

also
a

lotus

really native foreign origin. Dioscorides only says of the XojtJs SivSpov,that it is a large tree with berries larger' sweet than According to Orazio peppercorns. Comes the lotus tree is not represented in Pompeii.
yet
tree have

it is difficult to

acquired

which

indicated

As
can

for be

the

botanical mentioned Willd. Willd.


or or on

determination

of the

lotus-tree,the African
be decided which
referred
'

entirelydisregarded,while
kinds

it cannot

of the to the Z.

different

Zizyphus Lotus Spina Christi


lotus- trees of the orator

by the (Rhamnus
other Greek
the beans

ancients
Lotus of

are

to

be

L.), Z.

vulgaris Lam.,
The
in the

kinds

fruit-trees.
180

so-called

in Rome,

',including those
were

garden
old and

Crassus green

Palatine, which

years

still fresh

have shrubs
trees

been to
or

belong

stiU

fire,must destroyed during the Neronian nettle- trees (Celtisaustralis). They certainly cannot the species mentioned all only thorny are above, which small Mattioli trees. mentator (Matthiolus) of Siena, the comhas identified them if lotuson : Dioscorides, already in Italy,they can only be the trees which are called grow
when
'

and

and near Gorz, and Perlaro in the Veronese is this shown the thick branches and stems, the droopby country ; ing leaves like those notched of the ilex, the agreeable blue-black colour of the smooth like cherries, with bark, the stone-fruit long

Bagolaro

in the Trentino

stalk, first
sweet

in

yellowish, then red, and finallyblack, of agreeable {gustu suavi non ingrato; Comment, Dioscor., Venice, 1558, p. 157).
green,

then

and

flavour

'

sap-wood, of their branches, on account toughness, are the present time for making whip-handles, which Trieste. It is remarkable are exported in great quantities from is made of this in ancient that no mention writers ; Theophrastus and Pliny (followinghim) only speak of the lotus-wood (especially of turnery-ware. A the root) being used for all kinds Celtis is in South also found in German gardens, especially Germany ; the the kindred Mediterranean is not so hard as species{Celtis australis) North American L., the date(C. occidentalis). Diospyros Lotus and indigenous in the plum, belonging to the order Ebenaceae in Italian Mediterranean countries,is still cultivated gardens for its sweet, yellow stone-fruit as an large as a cherry. It forms of and sometimes attains or even a 10 height imposing shrub, tree, carriage-poles ; chiefly used at
the
metres
;

In Istria this tree is sometimes heart-wood, surrounded by a

metre

in diameter

its blackish

light,white

is made^into

its wood

is hard

and

blackish.

It has

been

often

identified

[Possiblyseats allotted in they might hear the speeches ; ambassadors.]

the cp.

Forum the

to the

inhabitants
station

of the

munitipia, so

that

or graecostasis

of the Greeks, i,e. foreign

6
with less
the than

Appendices
lotus of Pliny, but the Celtis.
Exhibition
of

[vol.
to his

i.

in my

opinion answers
Curiosities 14, i.

description

II.

Natural
p.

at

Rome.

(Vol. I,
In and

8.)

republican times art were publiclyexhibited


"

remarkable

and
at

rare
on

productions
two

of

nature in particular

Rome

occasions

of Pompey, the time From triumphs and the games. exhibited who an ebony tree at the triumphal processionin honour Mithridates of his victory over (Pliny,Nat. Hist., xii,20), it became in triumphal processions (for instance, to trees customary carry The the Jews). ornaments after the triumph over the balsam-tree and Comitium the the decorate at used to Forum, (insignia) games but also included natural works of other art, chiefly places, were to curiosities. Thus Scaurus, during his aedileship, in addition the bones other marvels (brought from Joppa) (miracula) exhibited Andromeda had been exposed ; they were to which of the monster largerthan the ribs of the Indian elephant (Nat. Hist.,ix, 11). Parrots at and

other In

rare

birds

also

seem

to

have

been

used

to

decorate

the

(Varro, R.R., iii, 9, 7). sent if possible, imperial times all rarities and marvels were, them the who from usually exhibited provinces to the emperors, then in accessible in public. They were generally places, deposited in especially temples (see PUny, AT. H., ix, 116, xii, 94), which The ancient times were name given frequently used as museums. miracula to all these curiosities was (PUny, xxxvi, 196, dicavitque obsianos or daiifinTa(Pauipse pro miraculo quatuor elephantes), called oi eiri toTs dniimaw (Paus., were sanicis, ix,21) ; tlie curators 46, 2) : see the note of Siebelis and Spanheim, De Praestantia viii, furnished et Usu Numismatum, i, p. 7. The acta diurna, which and chronicles other material to the compilers of the city writers, often of such made mention exhibitions (Phny, Nat. Hist., x, 5 ; senalus actis, i860). Of popuUque Romani cp. E. Hiibner, De of the kind derived all notices not are directlyor indirectly course, this source from cases PUny relates instances that ; e.g. in many under his personal knowledge. came deformities Human Philoperhaps excited the greatest interest. Herdemus, col. 2, 3 (T. Gomperz, \lepl aTj/nclavKal (n]ixeiii"Tcuv, culaniscke Sludien, heft i, p. 4) : koL a-jrdvia 5' ^ittiv ivia, KaOdwep 6 iv 'ASc^avSpclq., Si Ko\off(ri(K)Ti yfvbi).ivos T)fi.lirqxm "p8puiwo{s) Ke^oX-iji' b yafiTjdeU oi rapeix^vral, ws ^5^ f'0* ^X'^^^ "(v ^)'jredelKvvov itrcltvpoKdirovv, (^')ai K"ireLTa yev6{fievo)s Kai 6 yevdfievos "wapB^vos 4(v''")Tnha(ipt^ av'fip, i(vK/"tJ)tt; rots iK rwv dtrrGiV ffTjfJLeiovpLiv "vp"6^(vTtav) 7ri7xw"' 6ktu3 Kai T"TT(apdK)ovTa iv 'AKiipu Tvy/ialovsS(eiKvi')ov"ny, "t(i.S' o!))s(?) dyiiAei S' a}"a(\)iyo(vs 'AvTiivLos vvv i^'Tpla{s ^it.?) Cp.the TOisoOs) iKo}/j.l"r(aTO )(tK2i/pias editor's preface, p. xix ; the pygmies of Acoris (in Middle Egypt, the bank east of the Nile) remind on of the representations us of pygmies in Egyptian landscapes. Such could be monstrosities most in Rome, exhibited at a time when successfully not only dwarfs were kept in the houses of the great, the deformity being frequently caused sometimes by artificial means De Sub(Pseudo-Longinus, limitate,44, 5, ed. Jahn, p. 68, 17 : to. yXarrSKopui, iv ois ol irvyiuMi,
"

Forum

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

vavoi ; Tpi"povTat. cp. Jahn, Archdologische Beitrdgc, der Romer, Privatleben Marquardt, i, 1886, p. 152; J. p. 430; Casaubon on Suetonius, Augustus, 83),but also giants and giantesses cretins also fetched a (Martial,vii, 38). Genuine tial, high price (Marviii,13) and hermaphrodites were greatly in favour (Pliny, Nat. also a monstrosity Hist., vii, 34, in deliciis habiti). There was market in Rome, where of without men calves, with specimens could short arms, with three eyes, and be bought pointed heads oiV iv 'Pii/J-rf ni'is riis ypa"pa.s Kai (Plutarch, De Curiositate,10 : Siaircp
' '

Si KoKoi/xevoi.

Ala ra ^v /^rjOevi KdWtj tCiv tbvi(Oviraidwp Kai "fuvaLKdv i/-J; rods aKvi'ifxavs Ti/yYip TLdi/MEvoi, repciT(jjv dvatTTp^ofrai, irepi Tijv rwv ayopav Kai roOs Tpio^Od\p.ovs Kai tovs KCti Toi"9 ya\"dyKoji'as Kara' (TrpovdtoKecpd'Xovs d ri yey^vv'r)Tai d.Sos Kdiro^diXiov fiavBdvoPTss Kai ^toOvtcs, trdfi^iKTOv T^pus Kai Toi/v afSptdvras

K.T.A.). Lucius Icius, who was Augustus publicly exhibited a boy named voice not quite 2 feet high, weighed 17 poiinds and had a stentorian other the to On hand, Papi(Suetonius,Augustus, 43). according in Rome rius Fabianus, there at that time stature a boy, whose was
was

that

of

very

tall

man

; but

he

soon

died,
"

as

had
'

been

ally gener-

ius 23,5). In the reign of Claudanticipated (Seneca,A d Marciam, Gabbara in from named a Arabia, ( giant Arabic), giant feet liigh, exhibited was (cp. Fleischer in SilUg on PUny, 9j Roman the one mentioned Nat. Hist., vii,74). He is perhaps identical with who calls him Re Columella a Rustica, iii, 8, 2), Jew, and (De by exhibited he had at been that states a circensis, pompa recently the tallest Germans. taller than and was Amongst the presents ells was sent to Tiberius a Eleazar, seven Jew named by Artabanus Ant. 65 did t6 : pi4yi0os yiya^ Jud., xviii, 4, 5 long (Josephus, curiosities Such were preserved after their death for iireKoXelTo). in cases dwarfs' bodies ; 75) saw some Pliny (vii, publicedification. be in to and Secundilla and named Posio were seen a giant giantess in the gardens of Sallust. From of Augustus in a vault the time the Maeander Antioch an on brought to androgynous being was the of thirteen it had to and Claudius. to Rome Up age presented be exhibited to when about in the married, been and a girl, year 45, the signs of manhood. Nero, in 61, was presented with a cliild limbs with Jfour heads, with corresponding (Phlegon, Mirabilia, 35 and 49, in C. W. MiiUer, Frag. Hist. Graec, iii, pp. 6i8, 622). Rome reached ited exhibthat remarkable animals were Any rare and by Augustus, who took specialdelightin them (AureliusVictor, 50 ells long in i, 25), in the circus and other pjaces : a snake epit., the rhinoceros a the near tiger on the stage a Septa, Comitium, he also the exliibited (Suetonius, Augustus, 43). Apparently said from King Porus : a man presents received from India, it was and a river torten toise snake three without a ells, large adders, arms, than vulture three ells long, a partridge larger a ^perhaps describes Forbes as the jungle fowl which having something of the Priaulx in Journal of plumage of the partridge (O. de Beauvoir
'
"

'

'

the Royal
epiMV, dirb

Asiatic
ruv

Society, xvii, 370, 27; ix rqwlov diiiuv iipripTj/j.ii'ov

t6i" re Strabo, xv, 719: Kai toi/s l7/x"s Ppaxlovas, Sv

K.T.X.). The etdo/ifv


the to justify

phoenix

which

was

brought
Gaines

to

Rome

in

47,

celebration

of the

Secular

Zu (Hirschfeld,

den

8
Silvae des

Appendices
Statins,in
in the Claudius

[vol.i.

by

exhibited was Oesterr. Mitth. iii, 1881, p. 275 ".) as an regarded Comitium it universally was ; but
5 ;

imposture (Pliny, x,
Hiibner 17,
were
as

Tacitus, Annals,
The

above,
at

p.

48 f.).

white

vi, 28 deer, which


been

Dio,

Iviii,27

Pausanias

(viii,
21

4)
;

admired
on

the

other
seen

Rome, hand,

also the

appear
animals

to have

ited publiclyexhib-

mentioned
or

by

him

in ix,

probably
model of

by

him

in the of
a

amphitheatre
in the

confined

strayed amphitheatre, probably by it hold bears at the games to Ixxv, was (Dio, ; 16). largeenough fifty Tiberius also exhibited beam from the longest trunk of a tree a known It belonged to a larch that had been felled up to Pliny'stime. feet long,and of a uniform in Raetia, was thickness of 2 feet. 120 It used in the building of Nero's was also amphitheatre. Agrippa kept in a portico of the Septa built by him, a beam as a curiosity, i J feet thick, and 20 feet shorter. Pliny had seen it himself (xvi,200 ff.). Curiosities of the vegetable kingdom were certainly sent regularly the from the to A provinces emperors. procurator sent from Byzacium in Africa nearly 400 sprouts from a singlegrain of wheat; Nero received from the same district 360 stalks from a singlegrain (Pliny, xviii, 94), and from Cyrenaica a specimen of the plant silphion, a great rarity,since at that time it had completely died out in the district (Pliny, xix, 39). During the reign of Nero parent a transthe skeleton

whale, which

had

in cages. into the

Mediterranean,

was

shown

Severus

stone
soon

as

hard

as

marble

became House when


the

known
a

in

Golden
even

temple

in Cappadocia,which discovered for it for buildingin the Nero used Rome, of Fortuna which remained lightby day,
was

shut (Pliny, were xxxvi, 163). Galen says (De ed. Antid., i, 4 K., xiv, p. 25), Kop,i^iUvwv yd,p rots ruv /SairiXcCin Api"TTui" aravTaxiSe", etc., and mentions {ib., p. 64) that the most valuable medicaments from distant lands were kept in large quantities in
On Rome. of Nero
more

doors

the

imperial
than
one

storehouses occasion
of the

(dTrofliJicais). gluttons excited general


informs
us

The there

chronicler lived
a

Arpocras, an following {manducavii pauca) : a boiled wild pig, a live hen with its feathers, 100 stone-pine eggs, 100 kernels, hobnails, broken glass, the twigs of a palm-broom, four of hay tablecloths, a sucking pig, a bundle and then still seemed It '. said that was Nero wanted live men hungry to give him to tear in pieces and devour hibited ex(Suet.,Nero, 37). Another person himself under Alexander Severus, who, according to thesame chronicler, performed similar feats of gluttony. A third named Phagon lived under Aurelian, who was highly delighted with him in Abhandlungen der Sachs. Ges., (Vil. Aurel., 50; cp. Mommsen ii, p. 646). of remarkable Instances female fecundity and multiple births also attracted attention. Amongst the images of remarkable sons perset up by Pompey in his theatre was of a woman one of Tralles named Eutychis, who had borne 30 children, 20 of whom had carried her body to the pyre (Phny, vii, 34). The acta of the nth of April, 5 B.C., reported that a citizen of Faesulae had sacrificed on the 8 children, 28 grandsons, Capitol with 19 great-grandsons,
birth, who
consumed
the

year 354 glutton, named

that

interest in in the reign Alexandrian by


'

trifles

"

lb

Appendices
(sale
Erem..
infuso
"

[vol.
;

Antioch Paul. been

ut

ab

imperatore
.

videretur

Jerome,
to

Vti.

ed. Vallars, ii,7 f


to

ii, 274).

Up

PHny's

time
seen. a a

cp. Tritons
;

J. Beckmann,
and Nereids
from

Gesch. d. Erfind.,
appear have

only
and

Tiberius
seen

heard of, not that announced heard


usual had there

An Triton
cave,

in

also had

of the

type, but
been
seen

covered
on

Olisipo (Lisbon)to of the well known type had been that a shell Nereid, ; blowing a human the in scales with part embassy
same

of the

body,

the of

bank,

and

the

inhabitants

heard

the

melancholy

wail

the

d5dng water-nymph

(Pliny,

in Rome Triton (ix, 21, h tok a ix, g). Pausanias, however, saw with scales, large hair, sldn covered 'Vuimloiv eaiiiain),with green of mussels, ending with shells like those covered teeth, the hands in of
a

fish's tail. he der the


saw

Poggio
a

also mentions
model in

the

appearance

of

Triton,

which

wooden p.

Ferrara

(Jakob Burckhardt,
other the As
was

Cullur In

Renaissance,
17, when
an

528).
Minor and several relic from

year

Asia

countries
heroic

were

visited
sent to

by
were

Tiberius.
of

earthquake, a supposed In places where the


of bodies
more

age

was

earth
size.

had

found

of
than

enormous a

mains splitasunder rea sample, a tooth

from

one

them,
whether

foot

long,
whole
rest

sent

to

Tiberius.

Being

asked

he

would

like the
the of idea

body
of the

to

be

sent, he
in their

declined, being unwilling to to form grave ; but, in order


named
to

disturb
an

heroes

Pulcher, to make a the length of the tooth, which he then ing sent back (Phlegon, accordto the grammarian ApoUonius, Mirabilia, 43, Miiller,p. 621).
These freaks
of nature

its size, he ordered a geometrician, model of a head in proportion

aroused

fresh

interest

in

Christian

times.

of many of the statements in the Bible. They proved the possibility in giants incredible remarked that there was Augustine nothing since mortal the union of angels and women, being born from the the before destruction of Rome Goths a giantess shortly by (410) had of the ordinary stature. been publicly shown, whose parents were of a giant on the shore at the molar-tooth Augustine had also seen Utica (De Civitate Dei.xn, 9 ; 23, 2). On the other hand, the freaks of nature, real and fictitious, such as pygmies, skiapodes}et caetera hominum vel in maritima platea quasi hominura genera, quae Carthaginis musivo picta sunt, ex libris deprompta velut (?)curiosioris historiae (ib., used xvi, 8, i),were by unbelievers as arguments though Althe of the descent Adam. of all men from against possibility of these Augustine regarded many supposed freaks as pure that there invention, he observes who, were men certainly many scended still and were though wonderfully made, men consequently defrom Adam. At Hippo Diarrhytus there was whose a man feet were almost crescent-shaped, with only two toes on each, and the hands same. Hermaphrodites undoubtedly existed, although ing they were Further, several years before, but durvery uncommon. his breasts his limbs

time,
and
were

man

had hands
;

lived

four

but single,

East who had two heads, two middle of the body downwards of remarkable length. As long as he lived
from

in the

the

them

[A fabulous people in Libya, the soles as umbrellas.] up and use them

of whose

feet

were

so

large that thev could turn

VOL.

I.]
persons undertook

Appendices
the

11
to

many him.

journey

to

the

East

on

purpose

see

III.

Provincials

in

Rome.

(Vol. I,
The victories of Greek and
in the in

p.

14, 1.

13.) singers,
agones
;

Asiatic

atliletes,musicians,
other
Roman

flute and
are

citliara

players

Capitoline and

frequentlymentioned

their

ii, 2682, 3425,

3674; Add., p. 1112, On Greece and Asia Minor 6829). see plastic artists from vol. ii, pp. the whose The of lives 322f. are majority sophists, described On the influx of by Philostratus, appeared in Rome. Greek into Rome savants from Tarsus (in Strabo's time especially and Griechische Alexandria), cp. Bernhardy, Literaturgeschichte, settled in Rome " 82, 2, vol. 1 ',p. 497 ff. On the grammarians, who during the period from Augustus to Trajan, see E. A. Grafenhan, der klassischen Geschickle Philologie,iii, 32-67. The following poets of the Anthology mention their stay in Rome : (ep. 27), Jacobs, ii,p. 102 ; Crinagoras Antipater of Thessalonica (ep.24), ib.,p. 134 ; Antiphilus of Byzantium (ep. 16), ih.,p. 158 ; of Alexandria Leonidas (ep. 8), ib.,p. 175 ; LucilUus, ib.,iii,p. 29. Greek, Oriental and Egyptian physicians and astrologersin Rome will be spoken of later. Here add a few examples of prowe may vincials, who of them to Rome, at a very came some early age, to finish their education. From Rhegium (CIG, iii,61 12) :
"

inscriptions(CIG, i, 247, 1440 2810 no. b; iii,5804-6, 5910,

de 5u)pa

Mov(rdiav

Kal

"v iyairdv, ^pi(pos

'PibfMTjv, 5w5e/ceT^s ijXOov (piXe, ttjs jue KoXviTTeL Xnr6vT^ vioif ^uiXos "ijde irarpl S,x.^a,
From Vitellii

Lugdunum
Valerii.

(Boissieu,Inscr.
Hie
annorum

de Lyon,
in

p.

499)
Romae

Memoriae

A.

de[functus]. in Arcadia studied lav/ in Rome youth from Messene Apoll. Tyan., vii,42). Epitaph of one Titus Oclatius (Philostratus, Nicomedensis the Via Labicana on juris studiosus Athenagoras of Other instances provincials studying lav/ in (Henzen, 7235). in E. Kuhn, Die siddtische und Rome biirgerliche Verfassung des romischen Reichs, i, 88, 608 ; O. Karlowa, Romische Rechtsgeschichle, i,674. Epitaph of a youth of Salona who died in his twenty-second studiis jam Rome (CTL, iii,2, 6414 : nam (sic)laetantem year Fortuna invida mersit).' From Leptis the future repenti funere decimo Postea Severus anno : octavo publice declamavit. emperor Romam venit Rome and studiorum causa (Vita,i). Journeys to mentioned residence there for study are by Julianus, Digg., v, i, in Ulpian, Digg., xii, i, 17 ; Ulpian, xlvii,10, 5, 18 " I ; Scaevola
studiis

beautiful

"5

; and

Modestinus,

1. i, 36
est
a

Titio, quum

esset

Romae
ut

studiorum

gratia,epistolamissa imperz^tori.
It from
can

magistratibus patriae suae,


that
no

porrigeret

only

be

an

accident
centuries.
a

such the of

the

first two have of


been

From
influx

there must

constant
; Seneca

forthcoming empire into the capital provincials


evidence

is

beginning
as

of the

for purposes
1

study

mentions

this
found

one

of the
near

usual

[Accordingto

was note in CIL, the inscription

at Plastova

Scardona.]

12
inducements
for also
causa

Appendices
See

i. [vol.

6, 2).
cias
suas

foreigners to come Tacitus, Dialogus


oratores

to

Rome

ad {Consol.
20
:

Helviam,
qw
ac

de

Oratoribus, saepe

Juvenes,

profectus sui

sectantur,

in colonias

provm-

MapKiavds: oSros s.v. Suidas, i6., 10. ; 0 Moucriiix Uafi"l"vXlas- ^iXiS/taXos yip 0"v koX tpiSdyaSos avvriv M.omwvl(ji rbv alSijpov. Tois iravraxiSev elXke wap' iavrbv, Oxnrep ri fiayyijns no!
scribunt also IV.

Embassies

to

Roman

Emperors

from

Foreign

Countries.

(Vol. I,
In de

p.

17,

1.

2.)
mission

throws doubt Inscriptions, x, p. 226) Letronne upon to the of the supposed Indian embassies Roman several emperors. the reaUty of the emIn particular,following bassy Mannert, he doubts of King Porus lord over 600 kings, to Augustus, Pandion, or referred to by Strabo (xiv,686 ; xv, 719) on the authority of Nicolaus of

his Mimoire Acad, I' des

oil I'on discute

la rSaliU

d'une

arienne

(M6m.

Damascus,
rather

who

had

met

it at of
a

Antioch.

As

he

observes,

the

account to

jugglerseager embassy of a vivors powerful Indian prince : three ambassadors (the reputed sole surof of a largernumber) slaves bearing presents consisting eight three almost naked, an armless man, large adders, a snake ten ells dentials, long, a river-tortoise three ells long, and a large bird : their creGreek written of the members letter One a on parchment.^ of the embassy the Indian, who was voluntarily burnt himself to
company

gives

the idea

of Indian

get the best price for

their

than curiosities,

of the

death

at

Athens. Letronne's
in

Although
wrong referred
statement
:

suspicionsdeserve
all the
as one

consideration,
embassies
same.

he

is

tainly cer-

regarding
writers

Indian
and

to

Augustus
be

to

by
on
'

ancient the

the shows before

Augustus'own
to

Marmor embassies had


never

Ancyranum
from Indian

this idea had


in the

missible inad-

that which

kings
f., from

been frequently
case

sent

to

him,

happened

of

Roman

RGDA', general' (Mommsen, p. 132 Augustus, 21, followed by others, has borrowed). At least one such known as embassy was early as 17 B.C., in which year Horace the that had says proud Scythians and Indians recently (nuper) petitioned Augustus {Carmen saeculare,65 ; cp. Odes, iv, 14, 41 ; Te
which Cantaber
non
.

Suetonius,

ante

domabilis

Medusque
had

et

Indus,

te

profugusScythes
sies embas-

Miratur)
In from

fact, we

first during his stay at Tarraco B.C. : the Spain {26 or 25 B.C. ; Orosius, vi, 21 ; Jerome, Chron., ad 01. in the island of Samos 188), the second (20 B.C.). The latter is referred to at length by Cassius Dio the (liv, 9). As he mentions
n man

know that India before 17

Augustus

received

at least two

without

arms

and

the

self-immolation
the

of

one

of the

Indians
cus. of Damas-

on

the

pyre,
A

he

evidently means
statement,
of the

embassy
makes of

seen

further the

however,

it

by probable
Nicolaus with says
a

that

he

has
a

confused

report

later Indian
The Beauvoir
t use

embassy

embassy (about 12 or n

Nicolaus
Dio

report of

b.c).

that

amongst
by 0. de

of

Priaulx

parchmeat for writing purposes by the old Hindus (Journal of the Royal Astatic Society, xvii,309).

is doubted

VOL.

I.]
presents brought by
been
seen

Appendices
the

13
the tigers,
who

the had item


met

Indians

were

some

first that describes


whom

in the

Rome. would
as

Is it have

likelythat
the this of

Nicolaus,
'

by
at

item

presents brought by
omitted

ambassadors

he
'

Antioch,
B.
we

truly royal present

(O.

de

Priaulx,
know the acta

above, p. 313).
the statement that

taken

PUny, to all appearance of the diurna, Augustus, on the occasion of the theatre dedication of Marcellus the 4th of May, 11 on B.C., in exhibited, for the first time in Rome, a tame a tiger cage (PUny, Is it conceivable that Augustus postponed for nine years viii,65) the exhibition of a curiosiiry before that had never been seen (Varro declared that it was impossibleto catch a tiger alive, De ling,lat., the risk of the valuable animal ran v, 20), and d3ringin the interim ? such of Suea tonius Against supposition we have the express statement {Augustus, 43) that Augustus always exhibited objects of interest without at once, waiting for the show for which they were intended in the rhinoceros a (citraspectaculorum dies) such as the stage, ? The on a snake Septa,a tiger 50 ells long in the Comitium is undoubtedly the one in the theatre exhibited tigerhere mentioned of Marcellus at a show wild animals but not one at which certainly, without for the wild common. next beast were Augustus, waiting hunt, took advantage of the first opportunity that offered itself for
from
.

Now,

from

'

"

the

exhibition.

If, then,
exhibited

the
11

first
B.C.

(tame) tiger in
;

Rome

(accordingto Pliny) was


(according to Suetonius)
to in

in

if this

exhibition
after

aU

place soon appearance Rome if to (according Dio) the ;


ambassadors,
for whom

took

the

arrival
be

of

the

animal
to Rome

first tigers were


it would that

Indian reached confused Nor

bring tame

tigerswith them,

it follows
or

brought by comparatively easy to this embassy must have


and that Dio

Europe-in
two
can :

11

B.C.

shortly before,
embassies.

has

reports
statement etiam

of

two

different

20

of Florus (iv,12) refer to the embassy of habitantesque sub ipso sole Indi cum gemmis inter munera nihil et margaritis,elephantos quoque trahentes, magis longinquitatem vitae imputabant quam quadriennio implequam verant color alio venire caelo fatebatur. ipse hominum ; et tamen has be shown it to ii, {CEuvres, 96) certainly Borghesi very probable that amongst the marks of respect decided by the senate on upon the occasion of Augustus's return to Rome in 19 B.C. was an entry drawn a car on no by elephants (ofwhich certainlyAugustus made The of statue of its first onan use) Augustus elephant biga (the first coins of this period,and stood on kind, Pliny, xxxiv, 19) appears the arch of the Milvian finished in 16 B.C. over was bridge, which Borghesi (p. 105) expresses the belief that the elephants brought by in 20 B.C. he refers the statement the Indian ambassadors (to which of Florus) suggested this distinction, and Mommsen [RGDA^, p. But the omission of the elephants in Nicolaus 133)agrees with him. would must be as inexplicableas that of the tigers; hence, Florus be referring Indian which to another Augustus according embassy (of at least had received to the saepe of the Monumentum Ancyranum of an decree needed for the no reason was Further, special three). his make desired to had since entry already Pompey elephantcar,

the

B.C.

Seres

14
in
one on

Appendices
the occasion of his African and triumph (8i B.C.), his intention

[vol.i.
had

only

been of the of

prevented from
Indian

carrying out

by
14).

the

narrowness

gate {Pliny,viii,4;

Plutarch,

Pompey,
are

in Specialists the embassy

who antiquities, described Nicolaus, by it


was

convinced

of the
at

reality
most

have

attempted
arrived descendant

to determme

and whence whom different conclusions.

by

sent, but
to

have

the

Lassen Nicolaus founded


was a

p. 59) {IndischeAlterthumskunde, iii,


be
some

takes

the

Poms

of

of the
in

old the

Pangava
western

nation,

who
and

Punjab,
of the

Mommsen,

RGDA^,

p.

an independent kingdom snake-worshipper. A. Weber is Porus 133) is of opinion that

(in
the

of the the tribe Pandya in Pangava, Pandion de Beauvoir Priaulx O. India southern (On (Lassen, i, 158). to Augustus, in the the Indian Embassy Journal 0] the Soyal it is assumed that there Asiatio Society, xvii, i860, p. 309, where conclusion that Buddhist arrives the at a one ivas only embassy) in the Hindu north of the rajah peninsula was persuaded bj' to send an Alexandrian merchants cial embassy with them for commerto whence it to Alexandria, Augustus proceeded purposes to Samos). Lastly, Reinaud tions (Rela(perhaps by way of Antioch romain I'Asie orientate de V empire et commerciales avec politigues in Journal asiaiique, 1863), who also supports the view that there dhist considers that it was was one embassy, dispatchedby a Budonly in written of who is called Kanishka a history prince Bactriana, in Sanskrit, Kanerk6 and ^aaCKioiv on his coins (on which ^aaiXeis the most half the legend is Greek), and was powerful Indian prince of his time (see A. Weber, Indische Skizzen, p. 99). Chinese Reinaud a embassy to Augustus, (p. 189) also assumes and the of etiam Seres the evidence on Florus, iv, 2, (miserelegatos) to Maecenas ode of Horace 29), in the eighth strophe of which (iii, he finds an allusion to it (Tu civitatem quis deceat status Curas et urbi et soUicitus times Seres Quid parent regnata Cyro Bactra allusion to a treaty and in Odes, iv, 15, 23 an Tanaisque discors), with concluded Cliina. This assumption, however, is inadmissible, since omitted to mention a Augustus would certainly not have addition of received Chinese him."^ In in list his those embassy by to the Indian, he only records embassies from the German peoples (RGDA *, p. 104 f. : Cimbrique et Charydes et Semnones) ; from the kings of the Sugambri, Marcomanni, and Suevi (pp. 135 and 140); further the frequently mentioned embassy of the Scythians(between the Danube the and (in lower Moesia Dnieper) and Bastarnae the of the Don, both banks beyond on Danube), of the Sarmatae of the Albani and Iberi (in Shirwan, southern Daghestan, Grusia), of the Medes and Parthians bassies (inAtropatene ; ib., p. 133 f.). The emof plurinae aliae gentes are not obviously specified by name, not being of sufficient importance. as Probably they included those of the Aethiopes and Garamantes in Rufius Festus (Brev., mentioned i, 9),unless they wrote abusi vocabuHs 19) and Victor (epit., Vergilianis (Mneid, vi, 795 : super et Garamantas et Indos proferetimperium ; RCDA^. (iv,p. 200) also speaks of an embassy of p. 133). Strabo

people

F.

Hirth, China
that Kan

and

the Roman Hirth

insinuate ^s

Ying (a.d.98) was

Orient (1885), p. 305, says the first Chiaese who

The

Chinese annals

dearly
far west

ever

T'l^o Chih

penetrated

as

to (according

Chaldaea).

VOL.

I.

Appendices

15

rdv cwaa-rwv rivh idv airidi Trpea^eOaeaiKai princes : vwl fj.4pToi rhv ^e^aarbv (piKiav, depaireiaLS TrpiiS Kaiaapa "va6-/itt,!' KaTa(TK"va.(rafJ."vot Kal iv oiKfiav re tc^ /xard d.viBtjKo.v KaTrerwX/y (rxeSic rt irapeffKeiaaav rots mentions the presence of 'Pw^aiois 5Xr;"' Augustus himself ttji/ vijaov. two British in
son

British

kings Dumnobellaunus,
Kent and

whose
. .

gold
.,

coins

have

been

found
. .

Essex,
whose

and coins

Tim

more

of

.,

Commus,
from

have

been

correctly Tine found, especiallyin


in the

Sussex

(RGDA^,

Ambassadors of Tiberius urbe

p. 139 f.). the Garamantes


:

also visited Rome


et

reign

in sequebantur legati, caeso visi, quos perculsa gens et culpae socia ad satisfaciendum miserat populo Romano (Tacitus, Annals, iv, 26). In the reign of Claudius, according to Pliny (vi, dors 84),four ambassafrom the chief of whom named was Taprobane (Ceylon), Rachias, arrived in Rome. escorted of Annius They were by a freedman of taxes the Red on Plocamus, farmer was Sea, who supposed to ashore cast have been round on Arabia, and Ceylon during a voyage have of the island the to of Rome persuaded king (by his accounts and of the Roman overtures by the excellence denarii)'" to make also contests the reahty of this Letronne to the Roman Emperor. the of of its stateof the on ments, some embassy, chiefly ground absurdity
raro

(a.d. 24)

Garamantum

Tacfarinate

e.g. that

the

Great

Bear

and

the

Pleiades

were
'

not

visible
'

in

inventions takes offence at these no Ceylon. Lassen, who (p. is of that the sent was 216), opinion (p.61) by King Kanembassy dramukhagiva (Chandra-Mukha-Siva, a.d. 44-52). O. de B. Priaulx (On the Second Indian Embassy to Rome, in Journal or the Royal A sialic actual also regards the ambassadors as Society, xviii, 345), who of actual their false statements an representatives prince, explains due but to misunderstanding, since no Plocamus' freedman as one understood that their language, and probably only very imperfectly. He but south
was

thinks
to

that the into

the

ambassadors

were

not

real

Sinhalese,

belonged
Hindustan
at Nalloor further

Tamil

stock, who Ceylon, and were


;
an

frequently penetrated from ruled by rajahs,whose court


Tennent, Ceylon, i, p. 532)
.

(pp.357-360
mentions

J. Emerson
Arabian

visited Rome embassy time aetate : qui mea legatiex Arabia venerunt, (de ture) incertiora fecerunt omnia of the (xii, 57). This was probably one of the Sabaeans and Homerites embassies sent Charibael, by king of southern Arabia, to ask for the friendship of the Emperors also assumes) ; see (Vespasian and Titus, as Gutschmid Periplus Maris Erythraei, 23, and cp. the chronological abstract, awexiin inhabitants Kal Trpecr/36/ats 5(ipo(s ^iXos t2i' airroKparbptav.The chief the of Hadramaut Sabattha town was (Chatramotitae) whose

Pliny during his

which

'

'

chief centre Sabaean


After his

of the

incense

trade, at that
Lehrbuch

time the

were

included

in the

kingdom
return
numerous

(Kiepert,
to

der from

alien

Rome

(io5)
from

Dacian

received Indians
S.\\av
re

embassies

barbarian
8(rai

Geographic, 167). war Trajan peoples, including


doubt it came
to
a

(Dio, Ixviii, 15 : TrXeio-Tai Kai 'Ii/Sdv). Letronne, who embassy, (included under
believes

"wpea^eia.i irapci, papflipuv


even

upon this Indian Arabia southern


^

wrongly throws (with Reimarus) that due India),and was

from
recent

the

Quod

pares

cum pondere dei^ani esseiit,

indicaxent diversae imag;ines

factos, pluribus

6
of Arabia

Appendices
Petraea that Indian Gulf
and

[vol.i.
In

conquest

by

Palma
who

(Dio, Ixviii,14).
after ten this event

itself it

is very probable to gain the friendship of far


as

princes

endeavoured

later penetrated as Trajan, years abandoned his unwillingly only very 28 fiis advanced Ixviii, of (Dio, ; age designs on India on account ambassadors were present at the spectacles p. 369). The cp. Reinaud, provided by Trajan where they occupied the seats of the the Persian Hadrian and

senators.

Antoninus

Pius

received

ambassadors

from

amicitiae {Vita, 21 : reges Bactrianorum Hyrcania supplices miserunt), the and India etiam Indi, Bactri, Hyrcani (Victor,epit.,15, 4 : ad quem misere *"' aKcpSii, ^ip^apa idv-q TrevixP^ legatos ; Appian, praef., 7 : Bactriana

petendae

causa

legatos ad eum latter also from

Sjv

iydi Ttfas
The Indian is the

eldov iv

Kal dLSdvTas ^avToi/s ifjnjK6ovs re wpefr^evofj^fovs 'Pu"/a^

etvai.).

embassy

met,

first whose

entirely
assume

without
it
was

Elagabalus, which the Gnostic Bardesanes realityis admitted by Letronne, although not Lassen reserve. (p. 62) and Reinaud (p. 376)
to

that

peror em{Ed., i, 3, 56) toO 'AvTuivlmv tov Elagabalus : 'Ivdol ol iirl rris (Sao-iXeias i( ^k MetroTroTa/itas e/s \670us afjjiKbiievot els TT]v ^upiav BapSfjadvii ^'Sip.iauiv rt^ : De : Abstinentia, iv, 17, p. 355 BopSi^irdi'Tjs a.v)jp cp. Porphyry,

Pius)
was

; but

sent AureUus to Marcus it is clear from Stobaeus

(Lassen calls

him

nus Antonithe

that

^ttI tuiv BajSuXuii'ios, irar^pttiv i^fiSiv yeyovuis 'IvSoh irpds t6v Kaiaapa. From TreTrefip.^voii

Koi

ivrvx^v
the
name

rots

Aafj.dSapxv irepl
one

of

of the

bassadors am-

(Sandanes), embassy
Ariake ruled of the the
over

Lassen

concludes of the

that

the
coast

sender which
;

of the is called

that

part
and

Malabar

Sandani
name

less

correctly Sandani

in

Stobaeus,

however,
In the
cus are

is XavddXT)!.

descriptionof Aurelian's {Vita, 33) the ambassadors


enumerated in

addition for

to

great triumph (a.d.274) in Vopisof foreign peoples present in Rome the captives (as Reinaud, p. 389,i
,

correctly observes) ;
Axomitae,
have Indi
and

Aurelian

had

not

been

at

war

witii the

others,and no captives from these tribes could suis quique cum triumph ; further, the words muneribus show that the preceding names but not to captives, refer, to ambassadors. The ordinary punctuation must, however, be altered ; perhaps the word has legati(although not indispensable) After out. the wild animals in the dropped enumerating procession the writer proceeds : gladiatorum paria octingenta praeter captivos. eudae[legatij gentium barbararum Blemmyes, Axomitae, Arabes figured in
his

Indi, Bactriani, Hiberi, Saraceni, Persae, cum suis quique Gothi, Alani, Roxolani, Sarmatae, Franci, Suevi manibus Vandali, Germani religatis captivi processenint. inter hos
mones,

muneribus.
etiam

A Palmyreui. with gold, silver and car, richly ornamented of the one precious stones, was presents sent by the King of Persia. Tacitus (afterwards emperor) speaks of the same and embassies their presents {ib., 42) : ilium (Aurelianum) Saraceni, Blemmyes, Axomitae, Bactriani, Seres, Hiberi, Albani, Armenii, populi etiam

Indorum barbaris Rome.

veluti

gentibus

venerati praesentem sunt deum. Illius donis, quae refertum meruit, est Capitolium. Reinaud

rightlyobserves

that this

triumph

was

the last great festival of pagan

8
"

Appendices
that of Beloch

[vol.i.
of

view

{Die Bevolkerung
will be

der

Welt griechisch-romischen end and this section.

1886, pp.
The the
'

392-413)
statement

found

at

the

Marquardt are based Zumpt, Hock he had a.u.c. that in given 749 Augustus upon denarios urbanae trecentis et viginti miUbus sexagenos plebis with I viritim now Marquardt agree (Mommsen, RGDA^, 58). p. ment stateHirschfeld's after convincing i i*, (Staatsverwaltung. p. 119), in Philoromischen in Kaiserzeit, der {Die Getreideverwaltung of the only include plebs urbana logus,xxix), that the 320,000 male children. those citizens who to vote, not freeborn were qualified Dio expressly states 16, a.u.c. (liv, 747) that the free female'populathe male than tion of Rome : was considerably smaller iwei"ii Kal 7^o^I" irKeiov rb d^pev tou BijKso^ rou edyevovs ^v, en^Tpe^pe i^"\evd^pai Tois iO^Aovcri,ttX^v tQv ^ov\"v6vtuv, dyeadai. There being nothing to settle the question, I reckon (with Wietersheim) the free the female cent, less than male (5 1 7 per population to be about in accordance with the usual proportion in great modern per cent, in Rome of free female to the lack 12 cent, cities,and owing per domestics from other usual but The places).' quite arbitrary estimate of and their senators families as knights and 10,000 is too low ; the judices quadringenarii and their families 3,000 have must means prised comequalled that number, and they by no all the in Rome und Verknights (Madvig, Verfassung waltung, i, p. 176) ; at the transvectio on the 15th of July, which attended was never by all those who had a right to take part in it, in in the reign of Augustus (Dion. an knights put 5,000 appearance the increasing frequency of the Halic, vi, 13) and, to judge from their number was equestrian title on inscriptions, being continually Staatsrecht,iii,i, 491). Consequently the augmented (Mommsen, of the knights and of their families may number be the members reckoned at 15,000 during the reign of Augustus ; the 600 (atleast) The senatorial families (Madvig, i, 128) may have numbered 2,000. of non-Romans number (residingtemporarily, for a considerable be assumed, for purperiod, or permanently in the capital) may poses of of comparison, to be twice that of the foreign population Paris at the time of its greatest splendour under Napoleon I (Dureau de la Malle, icon, polit., of soldiers did not i, 370). The number
estimates of Bunseu,

of

'

'

'

re

but about (Wietersheim), 20,000 ; in the time of in stationed Augustus, only three praetorian cohorts were Rome (Marquardt, Staatsverwaltung, ii",p. 476), only about 13,000. Consequently, for 749 we get the following figures: amount
to 30,000

when

"

* The

from to the

Castiglioni'stables

of the population of Rome following estimates in modem (p.351) ; the large preponderance of males clergy,

times

are

borrowed

is undoubtedly due
Total.
" .

Male.
^"^^

Female.
. .

63,133

'J""

j;""
'"'7
.

282,214 122,030 Cmsmmlo delta According tt Italia al 31 Dec. 1S22, vol. fomales in Rome to 1,000 males, and '' 'i'',V fo'"'',t 10 137 boys under years: see Beloch The same IBevol/ierung, p. 401) proportion being assumed, Rome would have contamed (m 759) 254 720 free aijult females of the ptebs but this is not permissible,foi i f ^he feason given above.
.:;-,"". to the
.. .. . "
"

88,929 80,580 160,184 popolazione del Regno

..

46,596 60,518
72,424

109,729

..

149,447
153,004

..

..

"

"

"

"

VOL.

I.]
(i)320,000 (3)
(4)
17,000
13,000

Appendices
free grown
senators

19

up
up

(2) 265,600 free grown


soldiers.

males belonging to the plebs. females belonging to the plebs.

and

knights with

their families.

(5) 60,000 foreigners.


675,600
With the exception of (i)and these figures are useless for real (4), and statistical purposes there are no ; absolutely trustworthy data for estimating the number of freeborn children of both of or sexes, the slaves. As to the first, it can only be affirmed with certainty that it was of children in modern considerably less than the number

large cities,marriages being

less

frequent

and

less

It prolific. and
more

is

whether the effects of infanticide perhaps doubtful der Romer, i^, 3 and (Marquardt, Pnvaileben 4) were
than the
enormous are

exposure ruinous

infant known.

of which
En
en une

well

times, the reasons mortaUty of modern Duruy {Hist,des Romains, v, 16) remarks
le nombre

pleine civilisation
France de

moderne
de of

des

enfans

trouves

et6

exposed children rose from 23,000 in 1790 (Taine,Origines de la Fr. c. Revolution, iii, (out of about 800,000 50,000 p. 108, i) ; as early as 1796 it reached births ; in the foundling hospitals| of the foster-children died ; see Sybel, Geschichte der Revolutionszeit, iv, 440). As for the (Staatsverwaltung, slaves, Marquardt ii^, 123) has adduced of of his view, that a number weighty arguments in support But it does at least half as numerous they were again as the free. not seem that so high an estimate is justified.'It must be to me of that of the most first urbana were all, remembered, plebs poor few of whom had slaves, while persons -proletarii, people, or even of moderate the maintenance of slaves found means a very heavy burden the of to owing high price provisions (Juvenal, iii,166 : In Petronius' Servorum ventres) colony a well-to-do freedmagno man might certainlybe able vigintiventres pascere (mostly slaves ; of Umbricius, The entire household Petron., 57), but not in Rome. who taken without could be not quite on a single reda was means, himself home with the end of a candle and he lights (Juvenal,iii, 10),
to
more

moyenne Revolution the number than

en 125,997 annuelle

1861, malgre la suppression des tours,


203

avec

infanticides.

In

the

time

of

the

63,000

in 1802

(286).
Juvenal's
income Naevolus reach in his straitened
to

circumstances
;

has

slave, yet he will be obliged


should
of whom than
20,000

buy

another

but

even

if his

only one yearly


than

four, two
in
more

cannot

which that

are bring they cost to keep (Juvenal, ix, 64-66, 142-146). We of the wealthy households even (in conjecture the number slaves of were so kept) or of the servi publici, large numbers of slaves. I make the total number no attempt to estimate

more sesterces, he does not want that to be skilled workmen, so they may

'

estimates Castiglioni

the

slaves

in Rome.
to 2.

from

700-800
Beloch other

a.u.c.

at

half,from
thinks that

800 the

of the male at two-thirds proportionof slaves to freemen was of 280,000 in a total population of

onwards

burgess population.
i

(p.404)

hardly h^ve increased to

an

objections,a slave population 850,000 (870,000includingthe garrison)in 749, could number by the year ?4. filarming Apart from

20

Appendices
it
was

[vol. i.
the statement
of Tacitus

That
of

very
:

however, large,
that

is shown 24
Rome

by

{Annals, iv, 27)


a

in the
. .

year
.

was

terrified by the fear


multitudinem fami-

slave

war

urbem

jam trepidam

ob

liarum,

in dies minore plebe ingenua ghscebat immensum of But male slave a iii, e.g. half a million population 53). much was enough for that. smaller) (the female must have been very

quae

(cp.also
I would

the 400 slaves from to argue that it is unsafe also observe of Pedanius Secundus in the house (Tacitus,Ann., xiv, 42), the man of the of In in
12

highest position in
domestics
A.D.

Rome

at

that

time, that
households the

the
was

average

ber num-

in

rich

and

well-to-do
to

very
than

large.
125,000

Augustus,

in order

check

growing luxury
more more or

of persons
20

exile, ordered

that

they

should

not

possess
not

denarii
or

two

^"5,000), (500,000 freedmen (Dio Cassius, Ivi, 27). May we standards were proportionate to each
many
more

sesterces, about

than
assume

slaves these
quired re-

that If of
a man

other

servants

in
;

Rome and
of been

than it is not
set

in
to

places
be
as

exile,life in
that small the
in

much latter was number of servants

the

cheaper
would
for
reasons

believed
very

have

down

relation offered
a a

to

property
better

much

security,since a large property for dangerous undertakings than opportunity

of servants. large number Assuming the above figuresto be approximately correct, we can in 749 probably exceeded a only say that the population of Rome million the estimates of the number of to but, owing varying ; much. cannot slaves, we by how say On the analogy of the changes in the population of modern large in the the time of of Rome the must case assume towns, we (to increase, only epidemic in the reign of Marcus Aurelius) a constant In temporarily arrested by pestilence, famine, and civil war. the of Paris in in was 1856 599,569, 1788 population 1836 899,315, 1,178,262,in i860 (afterthe enlargement of the city) 1,525,235, in 1866 in was 1,825,300. In 1600 the population of London 150,000, in 1881 3,816,483, 1760 676,000, in 181 1 1,304,000, in 1841 1,948,000, in 1886 In 1709, after the union with Colin (estimated) 4,149,533. the the Berlin in and was adjacent suburbs, population of 55,000, in 1825 220,000, in 1855 440,000, before 1873 880,000, 110,000, 1749 the ist of December, on 18S5, 1,315,297 ; the increase (about 4 per cent, yearly) is twice and Paris, and is as large as that of London York only rivalled by that of New (Lammers, Berliner siddiische in the Deutsche Rundschau, Feb., 1882, p. 182). Selbstverwaltung, of the male and Owing to the great difference in the numbers of Rome female inhabitants and the resulting limitation of marriage, the growth of the population by births must have been considerably less than in a modern In any of the number large town. case, children of the wealthy classes born in wedlock far smaller than was in the nineteenth At the century in a great part of Central Europe. beginning of the 'thirties in Naples, Wurtemberg, and Bohemia there five or six children were of a singlemarriage, in Hesse, Mecklenburg,

Prussia, Russia,
of legislation

and

the
its

Netherlands
and

four

or

five.

The

Augustus,

with

punishments

rewards

the (e.g.
classes

framed in reference to the well-to-do jus trium liberorum), effect no especially, produced (Tacitus, Ann., iii, 25).

The

fact

Vol*

l.J
this

Appendices

it

that

did not extend to the poorer classes is no proof legislatioil that marriages were more frequent or more prolific amongst them, is assumed as der antiken by Pohlmann (Obervolkerung Grossstadte, that p. 48, 7). It is quite conceivable Augustus only had in view the promotion of prolific marriages in the middle classes ; it is also in the case of the possiblethat he regarded this as unattainable the other On Pohlmann in is hand, proletariate. right saying that the passage (Dion. Halic, ix, 51) quoted by Rodbertus only refers to the rarity of marriage amongst the country day-labourers, not be borne in mind amongst the city proletariate. Further, it must slave populations the proportion of births is always that amongst i, 157). unusually low (Wappaus, AUgemeine Bevolkerungsstatistih, of Rome and the frequent Lastly, considering the unhealthiness of devastating calamities occurrence in assuming we are justified of an mortality.^ extraordinarilyhigh rate On the other hand, the irresistible and many-sided attractiveness with the absence of Rome, of restrictions on migration, probably about of increase from a brought larger population by additions without than in any The emancipations of modern large town. slaves also contributed en to its growth, since undoubtedly masse the place of those who in part at least obtained their freedom v/as filled from vvfithout (Rodbertus). Of course it is impossible to determine the rate of increase. The number of recipientsof the congiaritim(320,000) in 749, compared with in the distributions from 710 to 742, does not justifyus 250,000 in assuming with Mommsen of (RGDA', p. 60), that the number from the plebs increased to 320,000 during the years from 250,000 of free found recipients 710 to 749 ; as early as 708 Caesar 320,000 and munificence of the corn (Marquardt, SiV, ii^, 118) Augustus
' '

(Suetonius,Augustus, 41) that Augustus during the dearth nummarias of 759 tesseras a siderable condupUcavit, that there was very increase of population during the ten years (as 749-759 in antiquity Rodbertus does, in discussingthe real value of money in Hildebrand's xiv, 386 note). Zeitschrift fiir N aiionaloconomie with the tesserae Rodbertus identifies the tesserae nuinmayiae fruconcludes from their duplication that from mentariae, and 749 to of the plebs (with 200,000 recipientsof corn gratis 759 the number it is least But doubtful at from than to more rose 752) 400,000. whether the tesserae nummariae are Benndorf, Beitrdge really (\Vith Kenntniss des attischen Theaters, in Zeitschrift zur filrOester. Cymn., as xvi, 1875, pp. 592 ff. and 621, i) to be taken frumentariae or and .RGDA^, MoTXivcisen, (with Marquardt, StV, ii*, 125 p. 26) as
, ,

in 749 may statement

have

been

unusual.

Nor

is it safe

to

conclude

fi-om

the

tickets for the

purchase of
to

corn

at

reduced the quam

price.*

The

cation communi-

of Tiberius

the
:

senate

during

Ann., vi, 13 (Tacitus,


^

quanta majorem

scarcity of Augustus

the

32 year rei frumen-

No

doubt

infant mortality

Pohlmann,
are

p. 27, 2) that the conclusive the point. on

not inclined was very, high, but I am distributed four oyer inscriptions sepulchral According to Beloch (p.48) the epitaphs in
out

to believe
or

{with

five centuries the 1st,2nd and age

loth regiones that 289 persons of Italy show compared with 540-4 in Prussia in 1876,
' Hirschfeld

of 1,000

died

before

the

of 16,

as

also

has

abandoned

his former

view

(VG,

131,

i)

and

now

agrees

with

Marquardt and

Mommseo.

22

Appendices

i. [vol.

copiam advectaret)is perhaps a stronger argument for an of the population. increase than a to more in 749 amounted But if the population of Rome the than in increase case for smaller a considerably milhon, allowing it have risen of Europe in modern times, of the large towns might
tariae
to
a

million statement in

and in

half

or

more

in

70

or

80

years,

A
corn

Rome,

Josephus (B.J.,ii,16, 4) on the consumption of official document derived from an (cp. Ind. led.

ment Regimont aestiv.,1873),probably dates from this period. The docuings headdrawn totius imperii, was a breviarium up under the same after his that composed by Augustus and read in the senate as death (Suetonius, Aug., loi ; Tac., Ann., i, 11). Like the latter and list of the regna it probably contained a provinciae,no doubt of the statements a five days' journey(of that Thrace the source was the imperial idbeUarii) in breadth, and a six days' journey in length : that Asia contained tribes, and cities,Gaul (in round 305 500 under cities : that Asia was a numbers) proconsul, Achaia 1,200 with six lictors and Macedonia under a (Mommsen, StR, governor the source of i*, 369, 2). Also a Ust of the tributa and vectigalia, that the population of Egypt the statements cluded) in(Alexandria not and that the was according to the poll-tax lists, 7,500,000 of the tribute from not a twelfth tribute from Judaea was Egypt. necessitates that Africa : ac one-third, Egypt suppUed Largitiones two-thirds of the annual Rome. Classes corn : supply required by with the Pontus fleet of forty ships of war a personnel of 3,000. Quantum militum sub signis ubique esset : cp. Marquardt, StV, ii', had the opportunity of utilizing 453 ff- Josephus could hardly have such
a

document the

before

he

settled

in Rome,

where

he

wrote

the

history of
Geschichte
In the

20,000,000 Rome. There


source,

about the year Jewish war 75 (cp. Paret, Josephus' des judischen Krieges, introd., p. 19). Epitome de Caesaribus (2) it is stated that under Augustus modii of corn were supplied every year by Egypt to is
no

doubt least

that

is taken tliis figure that

from

an

official

and

Breviarium
much this
corn as case

this source is Augustus' probable since the historians certainlyutiUzed totius imperii, it as
rerum

it is at

his Index the

gestarum
modii
would

(Mommsen,
be the

RGDA^,

20,000,000

be supplied to Rome by Egypt as fixed under that the amount Marquardt (StV, ii',126, 6) assumes
to the

budgetary Augustus.
mentioned
time in the

p. ix). In amount of

in

Epitome
and,
the

was

still contributed
it formed at
a

by Egypt
of

of

phus, Josea

since

third

the

reckons

latter

60,000,000

modii.

total From other

amount

required,
he

this

draws
Rodbertus

the population. conclusion to On the as observes that the double tithe contributed and in the time of

hand,

by Egjrpt both under Augustus Josephus (Marquardt, 16., 196, 3) was only varied with the produce of the harvest. a proportionateimpost,which The in Augustus' time, could modii, even, 20,000,000 accordingly only be taken as an average figurefor five or ten years. But during
'

the

interval

down

to

the

time

of of

the

productive development

Vespasian are Egypt ceased


in the

we

to

assume

that

20,000,000

modii
In

harvest of 100,000,000 a suppose first century of the empire the

time
were

of

provinces

the Augustus. flourishing. especially

Vot.
If the

I.]
production of Egypt
modii,
the the

Appendices
rose

23
100,000,000

during
in the

this

period from

to

I5o,ooo;00o and 3o,ooo;ooo,


a

fifth

of application
The

Vespasian's time brought in figuresto the populationgives


to the

different

result

'.

fact that

according

passage

in Tacitus

in 32 wis (Annals, vi, 13) the total import of corn greater thaii in also third of that the us the total justifies believing 14, under amounted to than more required,supplied by Eg}^t Vespasian, of undet the modii Augustus. 20,000,000 impost be assumed Hence it may as probable that under Vespasian Rome than consumed more 60,000,000 modii, and that the population was than would froni calculations this based upon really larger appear In rate of consumption. of the attempting to ascertain the number people from the consumption of corn, we must not (asMarquardt has already observed) reckon 5 modii monthly {or60 modii yearly) as the of gratuitous corn head. For this ration consumption per average that it should than Enough; be moire was given with the intention lived almost Slaves, who entirelyon grain, in Cato's time received (Marquardt, ib., no ff.). But at Rome certainlyonly 4 to 4J modii slaves and the lived exclusively on poorest inhabitants part of the of the chief articles of food (Pliny, one grain ; vegetables also were Nat. Hist. xix, 52) ; the better to do amongst the plebs and upper

in

classes

consumed
less

other than

articles,while

women

and

children

needed the 4

considerably
average modii per

hardworking
of
corn

slaves. amounted

Consequently,
to

consumption
head.

probably

less than

Assuming a consumption of 4 modii per head monthly a total consumption of 60,000,000 modii would givea population of i ,250,000 ; be 1,714,285. the total would with a consumption of 3J modii in used liveries the Further, by Josephus expressions regard to the deand Africa of corn from o-itoc 'Pci/i?; ixi)vSiv Egypt (rij leave dKTtb t6 Karci r^p PtiJ/xi/i/ TXijdos rpitpovffi) reaadpuivand p.r}(rlv total Rome that the amount doubt required by scarcely any be asfixed officially sumed during the reign of Vespasian. It may was than a year's that the state granaries always contained more gency. or supply, in case of navigationbeing interrupted, any other emer'

of also be official statement Vespasian'sreign may of Rome. The utilized in estimating the population begun survey of the circumference the inhabited in 74 gave as part 13,200 paces

Another

miglia city (Jordan, Topographie, ii,85-87), or 13-13 Roman mille 1478-7). The passus miglio I484'9 metres; (i of the (not including the projections length of the wall of Aurelian Bernardini to 10-58, according towers) according was, 251 rectangular His statement on to NolU 11-13 miglia (Jordan, ib.,i, 343, noteg). the of the wall the left denote on length p. 334 that these figures In the measurement given by D'Anville, quoted bank, is an error. the in Preller,Roma, StRE, vi, 507, namely, 12,345 Roman paces, Dureau to Its area, according projectionsare evidently included). de la Malle (i^con. pol.,i, 347) is 1396-469 hectares ; according to Beloch (p. 404) only 1230 (not including the river). of 1396 De la Malle's area calculation [ib., 406), that the assumed needs refutation, inhabited by 560,000 people, hardly hectares was
of the Roman
"

24
Zumpt (Stand
der

Appendices

[vol.l.

Bevolkerung, p. 62, note) has already observed, the population of the most had la Malle that if De argued from where crowded quarter of Paris in 1821 (the fourth arrondissement) arrived have at 46,624 people occupied 51-63 hectares, he would not is it a But in the year 74 question nearly double the number. enclosed of the area (1,230 hectares, if Beloch by the Aureliauwall If the circumfereiice of a considerably larger area. is right),but of Rome the (supposing a similar of the wall was area 11 '13 miles, of 13-13 circumference figure) in the time of Vespasian, with its of the wall to 1,712 hectares ; if the circumference miles, amounted the under in same the assumption was 1,894 was area 10-58, 74
,

hectares. For that


than
even

time in the

we

must most

greater density of population largecities, thickly populated of modern


assume
a

owing
of the heim

to the streets.

greater height
In addition
we

of the houses
to

and

the

this, as already observed


into consideration the
'

greater narrowness by Wietersradical such


as

(p.260)
between

must

take and

ence differ-

dwelling-houses, against the by the example of Pompeii. Protection in ancient houses ; the furniture weather the only thing considered was essential that least what at to so limited was was ; absolutely chambers could be contained in a four of the Pompeian rooms or in later times, down to the Even room. tolerably large modern Middle was extremely limited, and no Ages, the accommodation till the last three or four centuries '.^ took essential alteration place o'f dwellings were merely sleeping rooms Certainly, thousands allusions is to dark shown numerous rooms as (Rodbertus), by which could not be entered without 30) ; stooping (Martial,ii,53 ; iii, in sheds 86 i, Hist., Horace, (Tacitus, ; slept probably many cp.
ancient

modern

is most

vividly shown

'

'

Odes, i, 4,

13, pauperum

tabernas,

Ars

Poetica, 229

Nissen, Pom-

peianischeStudien, p. 600) ; it is clear that attics and garrets were often used as lodgings (Juvenal, iii, 9 ; 159 ff. ; Suetonius, Gramm., the and considerable number have a Pohlmaim, spent p. 98), may
night
above in the open all it must
in air be
or

under

the

archways (Martial,x,
that the
a

remembered

5, 7).^ But sisted conpopulation of Rome rule had


we

great part of slaves, who certainlyas sleeping accommodation. Consequently, if


denser i88i the On

the

poorest
a

must

assume

population in
1,470 persons

ancient
in

Rome

than
than

even a

in

Naples (where
in
on a

in

lived

quarters only
more

hectare
lived

extent

near

number.' the highestpossible average in 74 would have this calculation, Rome ants inhabithad 1,117,000 to 1,800 hectares between and mean (the 1,894) ^"^' 1,712 have been must sequently, in reality their number considerably
'"

harbour), certainly many which Beloch regards as

650

tare, singlehec-

'

In

square
and
2

some without quarters of Naples the sleepingapartments (all windows) of ^ to 5 divided metres are wall into an upper and a lower room by a horizontal partition afiord shelter in favourable circumstances to no less than 20 human tion beings,in addi-

to various

animals.

(W. Kaden
takes

in

Augsburger AllgemHtu Zeitung,15 Dec,


other

1873.)

for cellar-lodgings. There may been some have in Rome, but there is no evidence of it. 3 Neither the imperial palaces swarming with inmates the Cfccus Maximus with nor its shops in the arches of the lowest storey are to be included amongst the iminhabited are to be deducted from the total area. publicbuildings (Beloch, p, 409) which

Pohlmann

wrongly

these and

/ocbmk

l6
jusserat et
tanonem

Appendices
P.R. unius anni dari, extramuranis
Severi in
fet

i; [vol.

ineretricibus, lenonibus,
eo

exo-

letis intramuranis

juxta provisionem GetreideverwallungRoms


eanon

alio promisso, quum Bassiani, Hirschfeld, Trajani (v.l. xxix, septem annorum 24) Philologus,
'

pore tem-

frumentarius
corn

Romae
'

esset.

Provisio

in

the

administration

calculation a rough or supply is a technical the biographer provisional estimates (Rodbertus) By extramurani of the suburbs (outsidethe fourteen evidently iriCans the inhabitants of his day, when with the in accordance the language regiones); wall was made Aurelian If,then, such a promise was already built.
of the

expression for
-.

to the have

meyetrices been

lenones

exoleti and

of the

considerable,
of the

the

suburbs, their numbers suburbs, where they formed


must

must
ah

important part
extent. From the

population,
of the
corn

have

been

of

considerable

amount that at

supply

25)

concluded

that taken

time

of Rome
the

had

already
of the
corn

a great place. He

decrease

of Severus, Hirschfeld (J). in the population

largest part

in Rome in kind

had
hold

that by far the supposes been sold by the State; since

system of taxation which, besides,


And

left little for


out

could

not of

(pp. 23, 33).


were

since the

only 75,000
time
at

modii

private trade (Rodbertus), against State conipetition daily (27,375,000yearly)


estimates 30,000,000 the total
quirements re-

supplied by
of Rome

canon

Severus,
about

he

at that

modii, which

give a population of 625,000 or 714,285. On the other hand, the amount of the canon according to Rodbertus frumentarius had It do with the to the general grain not was nothing population. the of but Rome, supply regular budgetary figure of the State for frugrain-quantum, which was kept in view and fixed at Rome mentarian requirements (market department, pauper department, '. institutions) the to ascertain Lastly, attempts have repeatedly been made at that time from the 1790 and population of Rome (1782) domus in the 46,602 (44,171) insulae mentioned description of the city written between and (pp. 251-265), who 312 315 (?). Wietersheim thinks that insulae must not only whole mean houses, but also parts of houses separated by walls up to the top, arrives at a population of 1,400,000 to 1,450,000. In Marquardt (StV, ii^,125) says : 1872 in Paris one house was occupied by 28-84, i" Berlin in 1871 by in Rome, this gives 1,332,637 ; reckoning 29 to a house 57-14 persons should inhabitants, with 57, 2,619,321 ; taking an average of 35, we it '. But that is evident all conclusions drawn froni get 1,608,335 the number of persons livingin the houses of modern large cities as to the number than problematical are more livingin those of Rome the (Pohlmann, p. 22). Besides, meaning of insulae in the description of the city cannot be settled with certainty. Jordan (Topographie, i,543) arrives at the result, that it is impossibleto consider them as On the other anything but houses. hand, O. Richter in Hermes, 1885, pp. 91-100) defines them of (Insula the blocks as entire houses dwelling-houses (amongst which be included), might as a whole, which regarded administratively existed in the time of is to say, a conception which Constantine ; that be reprecannot sented topographically'. Beloch them (p. 408) considers to be
would
'
-

'

'

Vol.

I.]

Appendices

27

'

places separated family apartments, somewhat correspondingto the fireItahan statistics '. (fuochi) of medieval The
statement

of

01ympiodorusinPhotius(Bi6ZioMec(J,pp. 59, 30of

33)
pp.

on

the been
et

corn

requirements
uncertain deserted
to

Rome

soon

26, 37)

is too very

be

utilized. time

to have

; for at that

after 410 (Hirschfeld, 500 Rome appears Theodoric populo gave


In

Romano modios would

pauperibus (Anon. Valesii ;


:

annonas

Ammianus

singulisannis, centum vigintimilia Marcellinus, ed. Wagner aiid


of

Erfurdt, p. 622)

at

the

earlier rate

distribution

I20)0oo

modii

enough for 2,000 persons. The most recent investigatorof the subject(J. Beloch, Die Bevolder kerung griechisch-romischenWelt, pp. 392-413), who regards all lamentable as previous attempts to settle the population of Rome
' '

only have

been

failures,arrives
at

at the in

result round

that

for the the

year

5 B.C.

it may

be

mated estiit

800,000
This

numbers

(without Ostia), and


time
on

that

remained 394,

stationary to practically
result is based
area

that the wall surrounded Aurelian the superficial 1,230 by in is not only almost circumference the fourteen to equal regiones of Augustus, but was not essentially in all later enlargeincreased ments of the city (p.404) ; whereas as early as the time of Vespasian it was wider in circumference, and, consequently, its superficial area
of hectares

412).

mainly

of Diocletian the assumption

(pp. 404,

considerably greater, and still further increased in later times. The number of the recipientsof corn total a (320,000),for which far too low, is explained by Beloch population of 800,000 appears of the Campagna within radius of as a including the inhabitants miles We to that the proletariate, : assume perhaps 20 or 30 may for distance of about a 40 kilometres, regularly poured into Rome in the the distributions of corn, and were consequently included
was
'

lists of those Avith


a

who

had

claim

to it.

circle described

round

Rome Veli'

radius

of 40

kilometres

extends

trae, Praeneste, Tibur, Cures,

to Caere, Ostia, Ardea, Sabatinus Soracte, and Lacus that the


mere

(p.

402)

of the

'

the to be put on places entitled them would lists of the recipients. the feeding of the country only population at the post of the State have been as useless an expenditure perative imthe feeding of the proletariateof the capital was as an the but latter could be called Romana necessity; only plebs and urbana StR, iii, i, by Augustus (RGDA^, 59, i ; Mommsen, show These indications alone sufficient the to are 61, 2) impossi4 estimate Beloch's and therefore of his of as a bility assumption, whole. of The of Aurelius that the statement Victor, corn supply from modii is to all to 20,000,000 Egypt under Augustus amounted derived from official source it is rejected by an ; but appearance who that Victor has assumes Beloch, evidently quite arbitrarily it with the total of the amount and has stated confused corn supply in round numbers (p.411, 2). Lastly,Beloch's view, that the population remained of Rome stationary for three centuries, is contrary he observes to all analogies. Certainly, as (p. 393), the situation of Rome was unfavourable, living dear, the climate unhealthy, and raised it to the rank of a great city. But this only factitious causes is the case to a greater degree in St. Petersburg, whose population,
Not
.

But for several reasons of these inhabitants

it is inconceivable

influx

'

'

28
rose flotwithstaudingi

Appendices
from
in

[vol.1.
to

in 1784 soldiers) 191,846 (including


in

320,000

1826,
Vli

and

532,241 Use

1852.
Vehicles 1.
in

On

the

of

Rome.

(Vol. I,
The

p. 20,
to

4.)
of

republican regulations
unaltered under the
no

as

the

use

vehicles that
of
as a

in rule

the

city-

remained
were

longer permitted Caesar's municipal law of streets of Rome, during the


sunrise, i.e. at the time
were

to

empire, except drive (Mommsen,

v/omen

StR, i', 378, 3).


vehicles
in the

forbade the use 709 of the first ten hours

when
case

pedestrian trafi"c
of

was

day, startingfrom greatest. Exceptions


:

made the

in

the
and

conveyances

used

Xi)~^f^piit'Iic
persons

buildings, temples,

hou^S'tegating;
the

(2) by
at

certain

(the Vestals,
generals at
bestowed arrived
a

rex

sanrontln,
of the

flamines

and public sacrifices,

of trijifflph ; the privilege


some

which had procession ; (4)in the case of conveyances if the but city during night, only they were empty used for the removal of public rubbish or were (Pohlmann, p. 131 ; Privatl., ii", 729). cp. Marquardt, Rom. This regulation,which the conveyance of all heavy loads hmited material for and (with few exceptions) (especially private buildings) personal carriage trafi"c to the time before sunrise or the two last of the day, appears hours in force to have continued during the first two centuries I at of not aware least, am ; any authority against this. of the supCaligula'sorder to those who brought the news posed in

upon the circus

was subsequently empresses); (3) at public games, specially

the Vestals

the

of Britain ut vehiculo ad forum et curiam usque is Suetonius of madness act pertenderent as an evidently reported by {Caligula, 44). Where heavily loaded carts are spoken of as passing

conquest
"

"

through the city by day, there is no on pubUc buildings,for which there Such the following passages. are
festinat calidus mulis

doubt
was

that
such
a

they
mania

were

employed
time.

at that

torquet

nunc

lapidem

tristia robustis

gerulisqueredemptor, nunc ingens machina tignum, luctantur funera plaustris. (Hoiace, Epp., ii,2, 72).

Digestorum (Digg., ix, 2, 52 [53] "2) : In chvo mulae ducebant plaustra onusta priorisplaustri ; muliones conversum humeris plaustrum sublevabant, quo facile mulae ducerent, [inter]superius plaustrum cessim ire coepit, et muliones qui inter duo plaustra fuerunt e medio quum exiissent, posterius plaustrum a priore percussum retro redierat et puerum cujusdam obtriverat ; dominus cum pueri consulebat quo se agere oporteret. (Here humeris sublevabant Miiller : is a conj. of C. W. F* has subl. : but plosU'umoH Mommsen's see Plutarch, note). Galba, 8, 4 : 'Airipioi/ S^ riva tuv Kar-qyopiKCiv d/icifas d,vaTf"i\j/a,VT(% \ido(p6povs iTn^ayov. Juvenal, 3, 254 : Capitolino
duo

Alfenus

libro

II

longa
serraco

coruscat

veniente

abies, atque altera pinum


; nutant

plaustra vehunt

alte

populoque minantur.

VOL.

I.]
nam

Appendices
si

29

procubuit, qui
eversum

saxa

axis et

fudit super

Ligusticaportat agmina montem,


cum

quid superest

de corporibus ?

Accordingly,when
ingrediprohibuit
above passage, Dirksen
of for

Hadrian

(Vita,22), this absolute

written observes
enormous

law,

as

ingentibus sarcinis urbem than the prohibition (later under Trajan) has nothing to do with the Abhandlungen, p. 278). But the (Civilist.
loads
was

vehicula

conveyance much

not

forbidden have been

out

of any

sideration con-

pedestrians, who

might

of the by smaller ones, but because and cloacae. on houses, pavements, Cicero, Pro Scauro, 22, shaking in privatam domum diceres tantas vectas esse moles, 45 : quum infecti coegeritredemptor cloacarum, quum ut satis dari damni in This Palatium extraherentur. is plaustris quoted by Pliny passage 6 ; xxxvi, 106), where the indestructibility of the (Nat. Hist., XXXV,
"

injured just as dangerous effect of the

cloacae

is extolled cavis

trahuntur

moles

superne urbis

tantae,
51
:

non
non

succum-

bentibus

operis, etc.
nee

Pliny, Panegyricus,
tecta These nutantia.

ut

ante

immanium seciirae domus,


do not know.
:

transvectione

saxorum

jam templa
Hadrian's

quatiuntur : dangers were


details of which

stant evi
we

dentlythe origin of
In

prohibition,the
in which

the
were

general terms

for

there

divided,
As far

e.g. monoliths.

it is stated, it is meaningless which be loads could not some enormous Hadrian himself had the colossus of Nero is
trace of vehicles

transported by
as

24

elephants (Vita, 19).


there
no

being used by any in Rome one (apart from the excepduring the first two centuries tions specifiedin the lex Julia and later). On the contrary, the lines of Juvenal (iii, 236) :
vicorum redarum transitus arto inflexu et stantis convicia mandrae Druse

I know,

eripient somnum
show that the
use

marinis, vitulisque
limited
to the

of the

redae

was

night. They
the

are

travellers' vehicles, arriving,departing, or

Juvenal (vii, 179:


recenti
the

anne a

serenum

passing through city. expectet spargatque luto jumenta


in the
a

?) refers
The

to

drive

in the

funeral

city. guests, sent banquet, were (Dio, Ixvii, 9) : Lucius


cum

whom

away Verus
et
:

vehicula ita de

mulabus redirent
from

by pretended Toi)s5^ (fiopelois ox^M*^""** Tapadous (Vita,5) provided his guests with mulionibus cum juncturis argenteis, ut
roi/s ^v
cases

open country, not terrified Domitian

streets

of

convivio

in both

after the
be

tenth the

hour that

of the the
perors em-

day.
The

Apart
did
statement

this, however,

it may

supposed
about
rb

not

always
to

trouble Domitian's

themselves

regulation.
53

in Philostratus

(Apoll. Tyan., viii,7,


informers,
iKKVKKeiaBai Galen 299, \eVKUiv he to

p. 133,

ed.

Kayser), referring
airois Kirl

liiviirTrorpo^ei*
is of nO

I'evywv els
in Rome from

t^v
own

except
one man

for Philostratus' his

ayopa.v time.

weight,
no a

testifies that expressly


relates

drove drove Marcus

(ed. K. xi, p.
house
in
.

where

that

rich
tu"v

the

suburbs
When

the

place

ffda

dxvfui.Tuv "T0^aiveiy eUrlv


of

elBur/iJi'M )

Annius

Libo

(consul
Commodus

128 ;
at

Faustina, daughter 224) Borghesi, CEuvres, iii,


Annia

drove

to visit the sick

the

third

hour

of

the

day

30
(Galen, De

Appendices

[vol.i.

ably praenot. ad Epig., xii, ed. K. xiv, p. 66i), she probhouse. the to this related as imperial privilege enjoyed mentioned the first person to be Plautianus (a.d. 205) appears as According to Dio (Ixxvi,4), when using a carriage in Rome. Severus summoned day), {certainlyat a very late hour of ^the by iv avrbp ireffeti' rds "yo6tras Tt^ TraXaWy. oilrws 7}Treix"V d^t^TETcis ijfiLdvovs of the of the distinctions time one at that Possibly a carriage was later of the high imperial officials generally as praefectuspraetorio, But there is Hdb. d. Civilproc, p. 59, 20). (Bethmann-Hollweg, it the third the of at doubt that was no by no century beginning Soon to drive in Rome. unusual for private persons afterwards, means with silver (Fj7a L Fen, 5 quoted above) the use of a carriage decorated been to have order : a regular privilege of the senatorial appears
"

Romae et redas senatoribus Severus, Vita, 43, carrucas ut omnibus Romanae argentatas haberent permisit ; interesse his urbis ut tantae senatores vectarentur : Auredignitatis putans dedit ut lian.Vita, ^6, praeterea potestatem argentatas privaticarrucas Alexander haberent was,not fuissent.

allowed (i.e. needed for


In

them

to

use

them
antea

in

Rome,

for

permission
vehicula influence

oiitside), quum
the alteration

aerata

et eborata

Perhaps

is to be

attributed

to the

of Orientalism.

Ammianus' features.

carriages(carrucae solito city


are

description (xiv, 6) the enormous and the dangerous driving in altiores)

the

prominent imperial towns the regulationwas no doubt frequently travellers to pass transgressed.^ Claudius issued an edict to remind the of towns in sedan-chair foot litter on or a or through Italy tions Nero, men(Suetonius, Claudius, 25). Yet Seneca, writing under the rattling of carriages passing through (Epp., 56, essedas of the unceasing noise at Baiae. transcurrentes)as one of the causes in towns forbidden was Riding large again by Hadrian [Vita,22), Aurelius riding and driving by Marcus (Vita, 23), and Aurelian (Vita, 5) before his accession, although wounded, did not venture Antioch in a carriage (quia invidiosum to enter tunc erat vehiculis in civitate uti), but rode on horseback. Certainly, however, the imperial legatiat that time used carriages in their provinces : ex ut in vehiculo etiam pedibus legatisederent qui antea quo factum written ambulabant to have (Severus,2). Artemidorus, who seems under Commodus (ed. Reifferscheid, praef.,p. vii), speaks of riding in towns is as a but the reference peculiar privilegeof free men, to the use certainly processions : according to the same passage, of carriages was confined to the priestesses : Oneirocritica,i, 50 :
In the other Si AyaBbv i\evB4pais yvvai^iv Hna Kal irapff^fois T\vv"rlais ri Sm 0j)/il D^aOveiv. dpfia 'Aya^As aurais yhp leputrOva^ trepnroieiTat, Hevtxpcus 5i iropveiav rb Scb, iriXews tTnrd^ e(r(?at irpoayopeOef do6\ois 8i ^Xevdepiav, iSiov yhp iXeuSipois rb Slot TroXeoiv IwTreietp. According to Philostratus (Vit.Soph., ii, 10, 2) the sophist Hadrianus, the successor of Herodes Tr6Xews

1 At Pompeii the remains of a stable have been found on the high road before the gate of Herculaneum. The staliones of the cisiarii (cab-drivers, who carried travellers) were In an inscription certainly always before the gates. from Cales (C/i, x, 4660) a clivus is mentioned as ad cisiarios port[ae]Stellatinae paved ab Janu {sic) ; at Pompeii extra portam Stabianam, CIL, x, 1064, viam a milliario ad cisiarios, qua territorium est Pompeianorum (consequentlyoutside the city).

VOL.

I.]
in the chair of

Appendices

31

Atticus
anecdote to

have
to
a

continued

drove The to his lectures. oratory at Athens of centurion of who a wanted (Philogelos, 138) Sidon, man long bepunished for driving through the market, may later date ; driving through the market places probably to be forbidden, when it was allowed in the streets.

VII.

Roma

Sacra. Aurea, Aeterna, 1. (Vol. I, p. 29, 6.)

course aurea official epithet. Ovid, A. A., iii, was never an 113 : Roma est et domiti aurea simplicitasrudis ante fuit : nunc magnas diu Martial, ix, 59, i : in septis Mamurra possidet orbis opes. hie ubi Roma vexat Vita suas aurea multumque vagatus, opes. Pescen. Nig., 12 (a translation of a Greek epigram) : hunc reges,

Of

hunc Prima

gentes
urbes

amant,
aurea

hunc

aurea

Roma.
aurea

Ausonius,
Roma,

CI.

urb.,

inter, Divum

domus,
Roma.

juvenc, Libri

iv, praef.2 : evang. Of the other two Tibull.,ii,5,

(Cp. Jordan, Topogr.,ii,374, 425). epithets (Wilmanns, Ex. Inscr. Ind., p. 454 ;

nondum firmaverat urbus aeternae moe23, Romulus became official under who built the Hadrian, temple and Venus Roma the foundation on R.M., ii^,356, dedicated (Preller, day of the city,April 21st),of which there are coins with the ROMA AETERNA legend VRBS (Roma sedens in templo d. glo-

nia) aeterna

Eckhel, D.N., vi, 510 f.). called sacrain was Jordan (Eorma Urbis,p.8) Rome in which the sense connected with that word was to applied everything the emperor and his household (Hirschfeld,VG, 96, i) under Severus, who stamped it as the imperial city both in reality and name the (Hirschfeld, 174, i). The oldest official inscription in which XIIII is found SACRAE REG. vi, 1030, epithet (VRBI ; CIL, Jordan, F. U., i) belongsto his reign. The coin referred to by Preller Severus is called sacerdos urhis (if.Af.i, i) on which (which 709, would be hardly conceivable the origin of the if this were name) is In Africa a forgery (Jordan, ib.,and on Preller, R.M., ii,358, 2). of high urbis (Cirta,Thamugadis) there are municipal sacerdotes rank tainly and Pannonia (Jordan, ib.,ii,355, 2). Cer; also in Noricum into the provinces this cult may have been first introduced
s.

bum

hastam

According

to

'

'

under
at

the
at

Seven
Praeneste

perhaps
of the may

the

title urbs
occurs

sacta

first became of inscription


12 as a

official
corn-

that

time.

But

it' already

in

the

dealer urbe

,1and sacra)
the

thus

year have

136 (CIL, xiv, 2852,


come

: notus

in

into

existence

early as

the

building of
VIII.

temple

of Venus

and

Roma.

The

Officials
.

Ratioihibvs,
p. 34.

Libellis, Ab
1

Epistuiis,

(Vol. I,
were

1-

7-)
greater importance
in

That
the rank
1

these three offices


second

considered the

of far

century
who

than

in

of those
Also in the

held
of

them

first is most by the clearly shown and the offices which they previously
Mithres

epitaph

L, Nerusius

koI Bao-iAtSa of Circus games Kal fieTa touto in December, ig6 i Ka\ ttjc 'Pwju.t71' ' Ada.va,Tov ovOfJ-ao-avTes eKpa^av (Dio, }xxv, ^), jLte;^pt tto'tc TOiavT(nrdcF\ofLevl'

ix, 4796, [CIL^

1.

6).

On

the

occasion

32
or

Appendices

[vol.i.

subsequently filled. I shall accordingly give a list, as far as possible in chronological order, of the officials in question for this to me, together with a statement period, so far as they are known where, in inscriptionsor elsementioned of other offices held by them as
and additions of corrections number to my indebted friend I am to this and the previous edition, for which The and signed H. Otto Hirschfeld, are enclosed in square brackets
so

far

as

is necessary.

nature

of these has
sur

memoria)
Mimoire
Mimoires tom.

a ofiices (and also of the a studiis, a cognitionibus in Ed. his been Cuq, exhaustively investigatedby le Consilium (in the Principis d'Auguste d, DiocUtien
,

priseniis par

divers
;

savants

I'acadimie

ix, 1884, pp.

311-503

cp.

especiallypp.

des inscriptions, 356-401).

{a) A
There under is
no

Rationibus.

evidence
as

of this title under


name

Augustus

; it first appears

Tiberius

the

of

subordinate

official of the

imperial

by the directors of the central office for had the administration of the certainly imperial finance, which existed since the beginning of the empire (Mommsen, StR, ii', 2, freedman Pallas to be first raised by Claudius' i), but was looi, offices. Hadrian of the most one important and influential court and its holders (now made it one of the equestrian procuratorships, and called though now again freedmen, procuratores a rationibus), the equestrian prothe highest position amongst regularly assumed curators, had assistant both rank and an as salary. They regards
household. .Jt-was borne of officials, for the most also the known (cp. Hirschfeld, VG, 30-33, where part freedmen subordinate officials of the office a rationibus are given). Inscriptionsof the second half of the second century also mention
of lower

rank

and

considerable

number

the title procurator summarum cal rationum, who is certainlynot identiwith the procurator a rationibus,as assumed V, Marquardt (Si by of refers sub-director to Hirschfeld thinks that it the ii^, 308).' the whom Marcus fiscal administration, upon AureUus probably title bestowed honourable title. The a higher rank and a more

by in the used {KaBoXiKds), commonly century for the superintendent of the fisc (Hirschfeld, pp. 33-40). In enumerating the officials a rationibus I ignore the subordinate officials (for these see Hirschfeld, VG, 32 f. ; CIL, vi, 8417-8431). All those to whose the simple a rationibus is added names (without be being particularized as adjutor, tabularius, and the like) must to absence definite of regarded as supreme reasons directors, in the
procurator
thaX
a

rationibus

must

have

been

replaced

not

much

later

oi rationalis

third

the

contrary.
Ti. Caesaris

Antemus

Aug,

1. a rationibus

accensus

delat. ab

Aug.

CIL,
=

vi, 8409 (Mommsen,

StR, i^, 336, i).


a

Ti. Claudius

CIL,

Aug. vi, 8412.


Felix

1. Actiacus

Doni, vii, 139, rationi(b).

p. 900

Ti. Claudius

Aug.

1.

rationibus.
the

8413.

Hardly
No

identical
the

with

well-known

OreUi, 4377 =CIL, vi, procurator of Judaea,


promoted
to the ab

1 [This is clear {CIL, vi, 1564).

from

fact that

importance

the proc. summ. need be attaclied

rai. is

lal. epist.

(Marquardt,308,5)

to Greelt names

in literatureaud uf t^^e office

inscriptions. H.]

34
Later filled the T. than

Appendices
the time of Hadrian, freedmen The earliest of the former of"ce.
as

[vol.i.
well
as

knights

still

is

Aurelius
2
=

371, manumitted

Aug. lib. Aphrodisius proc. Aug. a rationibus shows, As the CIL, xiv, 2104). praenomen

(Grut,
he
was

by
when

Antoninus
Antoninus

Pius
was

before Statins

the

latter'

adoption
Fulvus.

by

Hadrian,
Ti.
6 of
=

still called Titus


L.

Aurelius

Claudius

Secundinus

Kellermann,

Vigg. 31
and and
rose

CIL,
the

leg. Trafjanae]

from

(Murat., 690, 867 [AquUeia]) was praef. of the provinces procuratorship


Macedonicus
v, i,

wards Aquitania to be proc. a rationibus, and afterIn his inscription CIL, [Cp. Murat., 915, 9. proo. annonae. supplies proc. provinc. Lugdunens. et AquitanV, I, 867 Mommsen arationib. Aug. Rather [icae] Aquitan. [proc] a rationib. Aug : cp. 18. A of tliis Secundinus is perhaps reson ferred Philologus,xxix, 32, to in CIL, vi, 1605. H.]. His date is defined by a leadpipe found at Portus, CIL, xiv, 2008a : Imp. Antonini Aug. Pii sub cur. Anni CI. Secundini et a ra[tion](rather ration.) Phlegontis liberti. Aug. lib. ex off. Demetri L. Valerius Proculus (according to the inscription on him in Henzen, Malaca, CIL., ii, 1970 6928 ; better ib.,p. 522) after various holding important procuratorships became proc. provinciarum trium Galharum, Aug. praef. annonae proc. a rationibus praef. Aegypti (the praef.Aegypti is confirmed by Henzen, 7420 e, the the annonae quently, praef. (in 144) by Grut., 255, 1-3 ; conseyear according to the analogy of similar equestrian ofi"cial careers the procuratioa rationibus may with certainty be assumed as having been held by him). Hirschfeld, Cp. Philologus, Getreideverwaltung

Lugdunensis

xxix,
his way

30,

II.

Bassaeus up

Kufus,

of humble

by

his

Aurelius worked origin,under Marcus to the highest equestrian offices military ability
=

Orelli, 3574; C/L, vi, (Dio, Ixx, 15; iii,p. 372 cp. Henzen, After 1599). having been procurator in several provinces, lastly in Belgica and the two Germaniae, he became proc. a rationibus, then or praefectus annonae vigilum, praefectus Aegypti (between 161 and i66),l3.stly as above, p. 31,14 praetorio. Cp. Hirschfeld praef. and VG, p. 226 foil. His immediate successor was perhaps Ti. CI. Vibianus TertuUus ad aedem CIL, iii, Dianae): 6574 (Ephesi Ti. KX. rbv cirl Kal TSm iiriirToKCiv Oieifiiavbv twv TliprvWov 'EWriPiKwi/ KaB' S\ov \6yui"tuv Kal lirapxav /leylaTbip airoKpnTdpuv oiiyiXuv Spectatus Augg. nn. lib. adjutor tabul. ob merita ejus.
"

P.

Liclnius

Papirianus proc.

M.

Aureli

et

d. Veri

rationibus,
Bassaeus

CIL,

viii, 1641.

Cosmus Rufus was

Aug. lib., who


praef. praet.
stood,

administered
At

the

office,while

where Saepinum (Altilia), the from

the

Bojano

gate
which

once

through
are

the

sheep
be
seen

driven

is still to

the

Apulia into the Abruzzi, there inscription (Mommsen, IRN, 4916 CIL,nt,
=

which back

path (iltratturo) goes,

along

2438 Aug.
tur

166 a.d., cp. the notes),which contains copies of official letters. The third of these is addressed by Septimianus
;

after

tn^ (ii6.

adjutor

ration.) to
sunt

Cosmus
tua in

: re

cum

conductores

gregum

oviaricorum, qui

sub

cura

praesenti subinde

per itinera callium

quereren-

frequenter injuriam se acciperea stationariis

VOL.

I.]
pastores,
quos

Appendices
et

35
in transitu

et et

magistratibusSaepino
abactia habere sibi pereant
et
cum
"

Boviano habent
et
"

eo

quod
dicentes hac
necesse res

jumenta
esse

conductos in

jumenta
dominicae

retineant

sub
: ne

fugitives specie oves


habuimus

et

quoque
etiam

illo tumultu contumacia

atque etiam

scribere,quietius agerent,
in

dominica

detrimentum
non

pateretur ;
curaturos

eadem
eis

perseverent, dicentes

se,

neque

si tu

haut scripseris

si tibi videbitur,.indices Bassaeo Rufo eminentissimis viris, ut praetorio


etc. magistratus et stationarios in the praejf. who accordance praei.
to

fieri rem, rogo, domine, Vindici et Macrinio praefectis

eosdem ad epistulas emittant Cosmus accordingly approaches with his desire give instructions

the

officials of The

Saepinum.

The
2
=

same

Cosmus

and
;

the

same

Sep-

tumanus

in Murat., 896, (sic)


159.

CIL,

vi, 455
I
...

p. Venuleio this Marcus

VG,

inscription is dated Apronia]no II et L. Ser[gio Paulo


Cosmus and is called L. Verus
a

op. Hirschfeld, Octobr. Kal. [L.


168 the

II

a.d.].
two

As

in

fragment

raiionibus

Augg.,

(died 169) are meant. LanCosmus on a lead pipe, AdI, 1857, p. 69 (Rpmae in Aventino ciani,Acque e acqued.,p. 237, 173 ; according to the same, his house in the 13th regio,ib. 303) : Cosmi was H.] His Aug. lib. a rat.
=

Aurelius

Augusti [The same

immediate

successor was perhaps Galen, xiv, 4 : ^v Si Euphrates, who filled the office after 168. rhv 'larpov riv Iv tois 5ia TrSSe/iov Trepi Antonin.]T")"'i/:aDTa TepixaviKiv [M.

iKetvrjv, ^Trel Si r^v virb t^v dTodrjfiiav XupioiS ifiov TcapaiT-qtrafihov airov dvTiSoTov iTrrjveL^ Tov ffKsvat^ofiivTjv dpxt-drpov fiera ddvarov ATjfiTirptov ypdij/as ttjv aivdeiyiv eXdfi^avev E^^paret Tip KaBoKiKQ^ Tap* oS ret irphs rCiv 'Kafj.^avdvTUv ris airi^ dirXS ipdpiiaKa, aivra^iv airoKparSri\utrai irapijv Trv$6fi"vos ifii5td ircwrbs a^(p Kark Tdcras t"s avvd^ceLs irapayiyovivaiftrKevd^ecdaifiiv ^K^Xevtrev i/ir ifioV rijv avrlSfyroVt Marcus
opticqv, Kal

Aurelius which

was

time

away Galen
at also

on

the

Danube
a

from

168
to show

to
was

174, that

during
in

practised as

physician and
seems

engaged

work literary
a

This passage the imperial horrea.^ exercised supervision over rationalis Achilles Aelius was procurator a rationibus) in (i.e. addressed the edicts to by him and (his adjutor) 193, according Flavianus Eutychus to the officials of the Cl(audius) Perpetuus
Rome. raiionibus

the proc.

department
Zosimus. Zosimi C.
a

of
a

pubhc buildings :
and
b
:

Wilmanns,

Ex.

Inscr., 2840

CIL, vi, 1585

Bronze rationibus.
of

as above, p. 36. cp. Hirschfeld : Kircher Museum in the (unpublished) stamp

Hirschfeld date the


:
"

as

above, p. 32,
5
=

3.

Knights Junius
p.

uncertain attained

Flavianus

(Grut.,426,
same

Or., 3331

Boissieu, Inscr.
same

d. Lyon, had been

240)

office
name

tr. mil.

leg. VII
as

Vespasian : Hirschfeld,

32, 17. M. Petronius Honoratus (CIL, vi, 1625 the military was offices, proc. proc. monet. ration. Germaniarum et duarum a proc.
' Lurius Lucullus,to whom coloni of the saUm Burunitanus not viii, 10570, col. iv,4) was Rom. Rechtsgesch.,i, 650),

Gem., a above,

lay given
a xx

the
to

the

steps. He legion under holding Belg. praef.


imperial

and

b), after
ann.

her. proc.

prov.

Aug. praef.
to the

the

answer

of Commodus

complaint

of the

is addressed
a

(Mommsen,
leader

Hermes, xv, 1880, p. 385 ; CIL.,


of the

procurator,but the

complainants (Karlowa,

36
Aegypti (accordingto
op. Franz,
15. L.

Appendices
Labus in the last years of Marcus
as

[vol.
Aureli

CIG, iii, ; p. 131) : de Vac. de Bruxelles, xvii (1843), p. 40. [Cf.Roulez, Mim. L. VePiil] reading Julius Julianus (according to Barnabei's in the Til found his to inscription G[ratus] Julianus),according and Germa Parthian in the several officer after holding posts as an war proc. Augj (inboth of which he distinguishedhimself)became et in t Macedoniam et Achaiam et] pr[aep.] vexillationis per rebelles Mauros et adversus Castabocas (176178-9) (sic, panias, he then held various procuratorships,including one with a militi command became (lastin Britain, 183-4) prefect of the fleets Ravenna (1S5) and Misenum (186) ; received the office a rati( [ibus] 187, the prefecture of the com supply 188 (between Honoratus Petronius and M. Aurelius Papirius Dionysius); las1 succeeded Cleander as pyaef. praet. 189, and was put to death Commodus (Hirschfeld, VG, 229, 49 and 52, which with Barna I regard as identical). See Barnabei, Di un' epigrafeonoraria a Julio Juliana, in Notizie degli Scavi, Dicembre 1887. Cn. Homullus Aelius Gracilis Cassianus Pompeius Longij Cj Fabr., 128, 47 KeUermann, (Mur., 735, 4 Vigg., 36 vi, 1626), was Britanniae, proc. prow. Lugdi proc. Aug. prov. he was et Aquitan. before rat. is a [The inscription by proc. after his death. set heirs, and was presumably H.] up M. Aurelius Julianus. CIL, vi, 1596 : AureUo Juliano a ratio bus et a memoria, cp. Fabretti, 573, 395 (M.AureliiJuUani a memoi and CIL, xiv, 2463 with the notes ; perhaps identical with the sii larly named praefectus praetorio : CIL, v, 4323 ; Hirschfeld, % He had a villa on the Via Ardeatina (Lanciani,Acque, p. 32, 3. 304)The fragment in Muratori, 768, 5 (wanting in KeUermann) [n Cj according to De Minicis Iscriz. Fermane, p. 215, no. 628 ix, 5440 : Proc. Aug. a rationib. ^praef vig. p. c. d. d. p. ; m( correctlyexplained in AdI (1839, p. 44) patrono coloniae, etc. ". Achai" L. Mummius : Forged and wrongly read inscriptions praef. coh. trib. mil. ab epist.T. Caes. divi Aug. item a rat. e Furth Grut., 1073, Orelli, 3567 ; cp. Henzen, iii, 372. 7 Gruter, 414, 8, regarded by Henzen, Jahrb. der Alterthumsfr. xiii, Rheinl., 95 as badly copied [cp. Borghesi, AdI, 1846, p. 315 Also Donati, 308, 7 ; 320, 4 ; Murat., 979, 3 CIL, vi, 5, 30S
" = = =

pontif.minor

Hirschield

above,

"

further, CIL, Gruter, 588,

ii, 396 *.
4

The

Speratus

M.

Nonii

rationibus M. No

should

be

(as in CIL,
:
"

v,

413) Speratus

Agathonici.
Third Aurelius and

H.].
centuries
of

Toi)s Kaff6\ov

Emesa, perhaps Hbertus, under Elagaba N(S7ous iinTeTpa/iii4vos (Dio, Ixxix, 21) : cum plerosc eunuchos rationibus et procurationibus praeposuisset Heliogabal hie illis et veteres sustulit dignitates {Akx. Sev., 23). Felicissimus, Fuit sub Aureliano etiam monetariorura bellu
rationali cui d.
auctore
. . .

fourth Eubulus

Felicissimo ultimo

servorum,

procurationem

extulerunt spiritus in Nuove tit.,

(Aurelian., 37).

Felicissi: auctore fisci mandaveram, rebel Cp. Mommsen, De Caeli Sain

monetarii

Mem.

Inst.,ii, p. 324.

VOL.

I.]
Victor

Appendices
a v(ir)p(erfectissimus)

37
ia the time of Diocletian.

Aemilius

rat.

CIL, vi, 1120. 5887 Basilius Donatianus period, ib., 1121. v.p. rationalis, same rationalis under Maximian, Julius Antoninus CIL, iii,325.
notes to
=

Henzen,

Geminius the same,

rationibus a (vir perfectissimus ?) under Eph. Epigr., iv, p. 278, 795. of a procurator a rat. iisc. Constantini (The inscription Aug. n Murat., 83, 2 from Ligorio,is not genuine.) v.par.
"

Festus

(6)
Hirschfeld, VG,
a

A
:

Libellis the title of


a

p. 202,

freedman

of

Tiberius

acceptor (Wilmanns, 384 [= subscr{iptionibus) with note) no doubt in use corresponds to the a libellis
of Claudius. C.

CIL,

vi, 5181]

after the time

Callistus. So he is called in Scribonius. Josephus, KdAXurros Si ^ Tatov kt\. iireKeiBepos [Neither Antiq., xix, i, 10 : iif in this lengthy passage nor in Dio, lix, 29 (murder of Caligula :
6 ols ijv would In
re

JuUus

KoXXicrros

icai 6

is Ijrapxos)
10

probably
Nat.

have

mentioned
notus.

it,if he had
he Under

PMny,

Hist., xxxvi, Zonar.,


the

spoken of ; both held it at the time. H.] is described Caesaris Claudii as


any Claudius
iirl rah tSv /3i;8\ois

office

libertorum

potentia
who
9,

d^iiiffeuvMraKTo,

563

D.

By
of
to

sempstress

he

had

daughter,
the
were

became

mother

Galba,
year

i). [Since,according
was as

arch, (PlutNymphidius Tacitus {Ann., xi, 29), in

Sabinus

48

Callistus held

a6 respectively
in Scribon.

evidentlystill
passage crasti Rhein.
medicinalia does

and Pallas, who powerful as Narcissus and rationibus a epistulis (cp. Ann., xii, i),he the office of a libellis at that time. H.] The latina Largus, praef. 23 : tradendo scripta mea Caesari
"

deo
not

nostro

divinis

manibus

laudando

conse-

justify the conjecture of Biicheler (Conjectanea in Mus., xxxv, 327),that he was also a studiis. His predecessor was perhaps a /i6e//isaccording to Claud., 28), Polybius,also a studiis (Sueton., Seneca posed (Cons, ad Polyb., 6, 5 ; cp. 5, 2). Seneca's treatise wais combefore 44 : Jonas, De ordine librorum L. Annaei Senecae philaHe at the instigation of Messawas sophi, p. 30, put to death lover he had lina,whose been, in 47 or 48 (Dio, Ix, 31, TUlemont,
H.d.E.,i, p. 374).
12402.
A

Ti. Claudius

Polybianusoccurs
powerful freedmen

in CIL,vi,

2,

Doryphorus {rbv ra
successor

rijs dpxfjs /3i/3X/a Siiiropra,Dio, Ixi, 5), the


of the most
of Nero

of Callistus, one

and

said to have been companion (Sueton.,Nero, 29), was for the of Nero and marriage poisoned (iu 62) having opposed was Poppaea (Tac, Ann., xiv, 65). His successor probably assisted Nero who libellis, S uetonius, Nero, (a 49), Epaphroditus to take his life, for which he was executed Domitian by (Sueton., Domit., 14 ; Dio, Ixvii, 14 according to Dio's chronology this was
"

his boon

yeax

before The

Domitian

was

murdered).
20;

He

is sometimes
was

tioned men-

i, 1, by Epictetus {Diss.,
slave.

i, 19, 16;

I, 26, 11),who

Epaphroditus, to

whom

Josephus

dedicated

his bis A nti-

38
quitiesand
65
of the latter

Appendices
Autobiography, must
be
a

[vol.
person,
since in
( s

different
II

S. Paret, Des identification Atticus had Miscell.


man

; of Agrippa work the death T Krieges,introd. p. 23. Joseph. Gesch. desjiidischen vilic of an Epaphroditus Aug. 1. a cubiculo, whose contubernalis Prima (Lancia certain Claudia as a the fre( d. Ji., v, i877,p. 17Z, I53),with epigr.iaBull. com.

(loi)is assumed

of

Nero

is at

least

doubtful.
unc

Entellus

(o

rd

tt}? ipxn^ fii^Xla Si^iruv, Dio, Ixvii, 15),


Dio
as

(not by Suetonius) Domitian, is mentioned by Martial part in the conspiracy against the emperor.
the

having tak (viii, 68) sa


Ent

praises
occurs

of

his in T.

glasshouses.
z86. Fl.

M.

Ulpius Aug. Aug.


lib.

lib. Cladus
a

lianus Dis

Wilmanns,
dulcissimo

manibus

CapitoliuiHermes
v. a.

libellis et Flai
; ai

Irene

parentes

fiUo

viii. m.

v.,

CIL, vi, 8614

subordinate officials. (8615-8617) the inscriptionsof some to me second known of the are as havi three century Only equites his to held this office. T. Haterius Nepos, according inscripti Henzen, 694 (Borghesi, AdI, 1846, p. 313 [CEuvres, v, p. 3] first Ar censitor Brittonum after holding the military offices,was but then vionens. unknown Bdl, people ; 1867, p. 40), (an cp. pn Aug. Armeniae major, (between 114 and 117), ludi magni, heredH tium, a censibus, a libeUis Aug., praef. vigilum, praef. Aegyp libellis pi He held the last office 126 a.d. a ; consequently, the Hadrian's of at the bably reign. beginning earlier view Mommsen's {SIR, ii",i, 398) that a libeUis may ha
=

been

the

first

century
two

term

for

the

office

later

called
said of

censibi of t

appears difference view office.

incompatible with
of the

this

(to say inscription


same
a

nothing

offices) ; the
that
a

{StV, ii^,217)
The

combination
. . .

iii, 259
would and
to

[Ancyra]
be
best

feld(FG, 18,4) by
the

the

only 0 (so also in the fragment CI is explained a libellis et c[ensibus]) by Hirsc of the census fact that the head departme
of the two
as

libellis et

may censibus

be

Marquard

denoted

informed

to

the

circumstances

of the

petitione
referen

justiceof their
the the

taxation.

490)
a

that
,

claims, which in his most Mommsen, department a censibus requests


for
'

certainlyin
recent
was a

part

had

explanation(StR,i
subdivision into the
was

of the offi

libeUis, dealing with


and senate

admission of

order

(in which

evidence

property

equestrii of especi

the title a censibus whether importance), leaves it undecided, libellis belongs to the whole department usually called a libellis, how
the

titles

libellis and

censibus

are even

related if the

to two

each

other
we we

[It

is

certainly very

probable that,
existed

offices

different, a close connexion


often

between

them,

and

they
=

chief director. managed by the same H.] C. Julius Celsus Henze de Lyon, vii, p. 246 Inscr. (Boissieu, been 6929), having procurator in several provinces, lastlyin Lu dunensis and Aquitania, became libellis et censibus ; as an hono a to him, his son in amphssimum was I ordinem ab imp. Antonino allectus. M. Aurelius
=

Dionysius Papirius. Marini,

Atti

d.

jr. Arv.,

p. 7

Franz, CIG, iii,5895 : M. Atoviiffiov rhv Kpi AiSpiiXiojTlairipioi' Kal IvSo^/naTov(irapxoi' iffTon Kal Alyiwrlov] HirapxovtiOfvias, al /3ij3X

Vol.

I.]

Appendices
re

39

Kal repl ttjii ralxiivTa]

Kal d.vayvti"TciDV toD Se/JacTToC* Si(i)[i'] /cai bouiii\vipi.oi eirap[xoi/] dxqiJ-dTiiii' i^a/uvtav iin[T7id(iC!"v] toD Sc^oittoS (rOp.,3ov\6ii (Mommsen, SIR, ii',2, 1031, 2). Perhaps the' inscriptionin Orelli,
=

2648

: X, 6662 [a libeUis imp. Commodi ?] Pii Felicia Aug. praef vehicul. a copis Aug. per viam Flaminiam centenario consiliarioAug.,etc. (cp.Hirschfeld, VG, p. loi, i),refers to the same Franz him considered identical with the person. pyaef. annonae who to in death was Dionysius Papirius, put 189 (Dio, Ixxii, 12-14) the other hand, Henzen on {AdI, 1857, p. 97) has pointed out, that the praefectura annona preceded the praofectura Aegypti. Sievers (Philologus, xxvi, p. 42), who maintains the identification, of assumes a from the praefectura Aegypti degradation Dionysius to the praefectura annonae, to which in Suidas the passage (s.v. 6 dk K\4afdpos iXoMpijae rtiv Oirarov i\oiS6pri(re) might refer : Al\tct.t"6s.

CIL,

ducenario

'"

airbv TTJsill AiyiTTTij) 6,pxTi^ '""lUfSdvKal irapaXiei


,

oiSiv aiiKoiJPTa. rrji apx'ns

degradation, although certainly extremely rare, was feld, impossible, is proved by the case (quoted by Hirschof Varus Arrius Varus in 28) annonae : praef. p. praetorianis 71 retinebat. eum Mucianus praepositus vim atque arma pulsum loco, sine solacio ne ageret, annonae praefecit. Consequently, there is doubt of the identity of the Dionysius Papirius of the inscription no
a

That

such

by

no

means

VG, p. 269, 5. cp. Hirschfeld, p. 32, and above none to have risen higher than the praefectura appears Aegypti, this is either accidental or the inscriptionsare previous to the end of their career. was magister Papinianus, who Hbellorum under became afterwards Severus, as is well known,
;

and

of Dio

If

of the

Alexander praefectus praetorio. Similarly, under Severus, Ulpian, after holding the office a libellis (cp. Hirschfeld, p. 33) ; also C. Caelius Saturninus, whose in inscriptionis discussed by Mommsen the Nuove d. Inst. of the office of magister mem. [Other evidence Hbellorum : Henzen, 6518 CIL, vi, 1628 : praef. vigil. magistro a li(bellis ma)gistro a ce(nsibis). Orelli, 2352 CIL, vi, 510 : et cognit. sacrar. magister libellorum Gruter, 151, 6 CIL, xii, scrinii libellorum. ex "9: magistro Digg., 1524: magister prooem. libellorum et imperialium cognitionum. Aurelius Arcasacrorum dius Charisius magister libellorum A sub(fourth cent.)Digg., i, 11.
=
"

director
=

in the

beginning
: a

CIL,

vi,

180

dedication

tonius

(?)lib. proximus

century, Fabretti, 689, 107 Caracalla, Geta Julia Aug. by Anlibellis. Gruter, 587, 7 CIL, vi, 8615 :
to
=

of the

third

M.

Aurelio officials in
=

Aug. Cuq,

lib. Tertio
Le
*

libellis

adjutori. Other
370.

subordinate

consilium

principis,p.
a

is not genuine. CIL, vi, 5 n. 3245 vi, 5 n. 3379* : M. Caecilius Paullinus

Gruter, Similarly Orelli, 3215


libellis fisci f.

587,
=

CIL,

H.]

to be one office {StR, ii^, 926, i butaot in ed. 3) takes en-l ^i^\. koi dti/ay. des dcoles franQaises, similarly, Cuq, Le magister sacr. ccgn. {Bibliothiques xxi [1881] p. 108). Biicheler, Canjectanea in RhdiK Mus., xxxvii, 328 taltes {cettainly to mean stvdiis. Hirschfeld understands a by it a rccUationibxis wrongly) "7r'ai/a-yf. to draw to be delivered by Augusts, i.e. the official whose duty it was up the addresses the emperor in castris (cp. Dirksen, Manuale, s.v. recitare. e.g. oratio D. Marci quam duced praetoriis recitavit), perhaps an extension of the duties of the department a libeUis intro"

Mommsea UbeUis

under

Marcus

Aurelius.

40

Appendices
(c) Ab Epistulis.
treatise
of

[vol.i.

la fonction de sur historiques become not did (Paris,1858), secretaire des princes chez les anciens until after the first edition of this section had appeared. to me known to it for some indebted supplementary remarks, which I have I am always acknowledged. I Before Hadrian.
The

Egger, Observations

Justin, xliii, 5,
C.
curam

11

Trogus

dicit
et

Caesare

militasse

epistularumque
the
same as

patrem quoque legationum, simul et


.
.

sub anuli

habuisse. office is not when that


202,

This As

of

anT^mpetia^privat" secretary.
latter
'

Hirschfeld

observes he He

(VG,
says wrote

3), itja the

that

is meant

by
ante

Suetonius,
to

that
to

Augustus

ofiicium

epistularura
rescribendis, rescribendis;

detuhf

Horace.

ft^cena.s(Suetonius,Vit.Horat.) :
:

ipse scribendis comparing Sueton.


rather
simus

(O. Jahn, ^ilologus, xxviii, 10 ^;"m".,,-^57 legendis ac epistulis


suf"ciebam,
a

amicorum rescribea^e) epistulis

nunc

occupatis:

etiafirmus

Horatium

nostrum

ergs-ab ista

ad hanc scribendis parasiticamensa StR, ii', 2, 764, 4 epistulisjuvabit. Regiam (which Mommsen, considers a clerical error) is in my opinion unobjectionable,if it be regarded as a humorous expression (likeparasilicam derived from does the palliata) not seem to me Hirschfeld's : suggestion rectam written his freedmen even possible. Augustus' will was by partly Hilario and Polybius (Sueton.,Aug., loi) ; Polybius read it before the senate (Dio, Ivi, 32). [Polybius Divi Aug. 1., Gruter, 75, 9 CIL, xiv, 3539. H.]
=

cupio abducere regiam, et nos in


te

veniet

From that
from

the

time

of its

institution, the office

was

held

by

freedmen

tillthe second
the In

half of the first century.

divided beginning it was spite of this division, however,

It is in itself very probable and Latin departinto Greek ments. the


these

least after

the

time

of

Claudius,

when

supreme three court

control hands hold

(at
of
a

offices first

acquired their great importance) was evidently in the director this is the which single ; proved by high position held together with Callistus and Pallas and could only
head of his
on

Narcissus
as clusive ex-

office,and
the

from

the

fact that
with

Abascantus

Domitian
Latin

carried

correspondence

both

the

under Greek and

tury speaking provinces. On the other hand, in the second cenof the two departments appears to have been constituted an independent office,perhaps by Hadrian ; the fact that in that tion officials ab called without were century epistulis any further addiis by no means a proof of the hardly be contrary ; for it can doubted that not only the heads, but also the subordinate officials" adjutores,proximi {CIL, xiv, 2815), tabularii, scriniarii (CIL, x, 527), ab epistulis for the (cp. Cuq, p. 391) were called simply ab epistulis sake of brevity. One Libanus died Caesaris vern. who ab epistuUs,

each

"

in

his

seventeenth

year second

(Gruter, 586,

CIL,

vi, 8597), was

no

doubt

only

subordinate.

Although
from the

in the

century also freedmen


as

held exceptionally

theofUceabepistuHs {i.e. apparently


fact that the division

this maybe heads), explained of the office iiito two independent

42
man.

Appendices
The
Burrus
son

[vol.I.
cubicularius,
was

of

Parthenius,

Domitian's

also

called

Secundus.

(Martial, iv, 45). ^(kovpSos6 f/r/Trnp iirl rQv


9,

iwurTo\u"v
as

Tod'OBam, yevd/i^yos authority


6
on

Plutarch,

Otho,
final

who

quotes
orator of the of

him

his

the
to

emperor's
indicate with he was

resolutions.
was an one

[As the

epithet
we

pfrap

seems

that

he

reputation,
'

may

identifyhim

speakers in the Dialogus of Tacitus ; celeberrima of the one ingenia fori (Dial.,2), and a friend of Quintilian (x. 3, 12),who praises his elegance of style (xii, lo, 11). He was He died at an early age (x, i, 120). H.] an probably eques ; the fact that Tacitus i, 58) that Vitellius expressly mentions (Hist., appointed equitesto posts in the imperial household usually given Julius Secundus,
' '

to

freedmen,
322,
I.

does

not

exclude

the

probabiUty
und Cluvius

that

Otho

same",
iv,

Mommsen,
Suidas

Cornelius

Tacitus

Rufus

did the in Hermes,

Dionysius
Kal irpodffTTj

6 VXaijKov Atovij"rtos ^AKe^avdpe^s.


rots

vUs, ypafip.aTLKdij
tGiv

SdTti iirb 'Sipdivoi irwrji"Kai

p.^XP'T/jaiai'oOxal
Kai

'

^i/3Xio9i)/c

^trlrioif iwiffToKwv

^}v Si
Tou

Kal

diSdfTKaXos Hapdeviou toO

iyivero /cat atroKptpATtav,^ irpeff^eiwii Si X.atp-^povo^ ypap.fiaTLKOv' pt-adrfriis

6v Kal SieSi^aro eV *A\e^avSpeii^. C. W. Muller's tion identifica0iXo(r60oi;, the of him with of author the min., (Geogr. p. xvi) lUpiiiyifait

is
in

impossible.
the

The

latter wrote

under

Hadrian,

as
"

he

himself

states

of the poem (109-134, 513-522 i/iTiAioyvatov rod 9c6t 'Epp.rjs ivrbi ^ipov iirl 'ASpiavou discovered by G. Laue (Zeit und des Periegeten in Heimath Dionysios xlii,[1882], Philologus, p. Chaere175). If Dionysius, when twenty-five years old, succeeded
"

acrostic

mon,

who

was

summoned

to Rome he would not

about have live

the been

year

50

to

undertake
in 117 ;

the

education

according to might
Fortunatus divo

Nero, Suidas, he
be
the

of

ninety-two

did

father
verna

and

till that The year. of the poet. teacher


ab
accensus epistulis

marian gram-

Aug.
=

lib.

paternus
curiat.
; and

patron,
cos.

Aug. Vespasiano
CIL,

Uctor 1. ab

OreUi, 3197
the

vi, 1887

viat. honor, his brother

et

dec.

et pr.,

epistuUs in the same haps inscription.[Perhis works. Josephus addressed person H.] His Antiquities appeared in 94 (xx, 11); Autobiography about 103; Against Apio probably later (cp. Paret, Gesch. des jiidischen Krieges, 21-24). T. Flavius MuraAug. 1. Protogenes ab epistulis, Gruter, 586, 5
to whom
=

Epaphroditus Aug.

tori, 901,
tius.

2.

Aug. 1. Epictetus ab epistulis a copis mil. lictor curiaOrelli,2922 ; cp. Henzen, iii, Rhein. Mus., p. 246 (Mommsen, vi, 23) CIL, xiv, 2840.
=

T. Flavius

1 I.e. who Uved ia the period from Nero list o" the learned of that age. mea The latter office, also held by Claudius'

to

Trajan. Suidas

evideatly borrowed

from

_"

physician in ordinary,C. Stertinius Xenophoa


ri"^

Y",y'l'Xl"P""'
heuin
,

'"""

'"i "^'^'^''"'^""'o-i ,^'""''

Bull d. "E\\r,w,Ki"vi.iroKpi.^dTmv,

Con.

eptstults.

be identical with the Greek jooii p. 473), cannot Mommsen [Proas secretariat, vtnces of the Roman Empire, Eng. tr., i,p. 361 n). assumes in receiving ; its duties consisted the Greek deputies and replymg to their requests (cp.Cuq, Consil. principis, 398 and p. authorities there given : CIG, 1625 ; Keil,Syll. imcr. boeot., /ui,, p. 118 ; Josephus, !"1"(. xjv 10, 6 ; Dio, Iv, 27). According to Hirschfeld, VG, 205, 2, it was a branch of the a*

VOL.

I.]

Appendices
=

43

ad

item procurator Aug. 1. Euschemon qui fuit ab epistulis, Orelli, 3345 Judaeorum. capitularia CIL, vi, 8604. ab epistulis [T. Flavius Aug. 1. Hermes Graecis vix. ann. xviii, d. xiii. Orelli, 1727 ; cp. Henzen, iii, m.v. a forgery. CIL, p. 134, vi, 5. 3247*-] T. Flavius

T. Flavius

Aug.
vi, 8610.

I. Ilias ab

Flavius
10
=

Alexander

Aug.
1. Thallus

lib. ab ab

Latinis. Murat., gor, epistulis Latinis. Murat., epistulis

3. 905,
1.

CIL,
Flavius Ub.

T.

Aug.

Latinis, CIL, vi, 891 epistulis


:

Flavius

Abascantus. ab

CIL,
lib. ab

vi, 8598

D.m.L.

Amyro

Abascanti
:

Aug.
Thallo since under

1. epistulis

Domitia

Nereis

Aug. the i) distinguishes contemporary


the
office
a was cognitionibus

Abascanti

lib. epistulis

conjugi optimo ; 8599 Hirschfeld (VG, p. 209,


of

Abascantus

Henzen,
time held two

6524,
quently subsecanti Abas-

certainly at
could have The Flavi
not to
assume

that

included

the ab

and epistulis,

therefore should
T.

have

been
if the

to the
are

latter,
as :

as

we

regarded
runs

identical.

in question (CIL, inscription

vi, 8628)

Diis manibus

Aug.
etc.

lib. Abascanti On the

tionibus cogni-

is a Hesperis conjugi suo, in of the famous charioteer the reign of representation Scorpus, Domitian (Martial,x, 50, 53; xi, i, 15), whose patron Abascantus probably was. Cuq (Le magister Sacrar. cognit.in Bibliolhdquedes icoles frangaises,xxi, p. 163) considers the identification probable, tombstone and the
a

Flavia

to cognitionibus

be

the office last held

by him, consequently

higher than
the second

in Abascanti epistulis. Perhaps the balneum built der Stadt was Rom, regio (Preller, Regionen p. 115)

the

ab

frequent (D.m.T.Fl. Abase), 18073, 18140, Restitutus Tiles with the inscription C. Flavi Abascanti xiv, 2 1 91. d. R., 1886, 286, 1291-3). A Ti. Claudius fee. (Bull.comm. AbascanT. Flavius of Abascantus and Claudia Stratia (CIL, vi, tian., son The inscription in Fabretti (249, 29): Antistia L. f. 2, 14895). Priscilla Abascanti Aug. lib. ab epistuUs 1.1. d.d. is not genuine (CIL, vi, 5, 3060 *). Titinius Cn. Octavius Capito praef. cohortis trib. milit. donat. hasta pura vallari proc. ab epistulis et a patrimonio, iterum corona divi Nervae ornamentis ab epistulis eodem S. C. praetoriis auctore ex ab epistul.tertio imp. Nervae Caesar. (Trajani Aug. Ger. praef.
one name occurrence :

by

of them.

The

T.

Flavius

Abascantus

is of

CIL,

vi,

3,

17975

vigilum
RGDA^,'

Volcano lyg:
est

d.d., Orelli, 8oi


et ab

CIL,

vi, 798.) Mommsen,


nomen more

intellegitur Domitiano

cujus

sohto

et procuratorem fuisse a monio patriepistulis suppressum (cp.Hirschfeld, VG, p; 41, 1) : then ab epp. to Nerva, then in Hermes, to Trajan. See Mommsen, iii,37, 5 : Pliny, Epp., i,

17 ; viii, 12. M. Ulpius M. 2997. M.

Aug.

1. 1.

ab
. . .

Ulpius Aug. Ulpius Aug.


vi, 8607.

verna

(? Verna)
ab

epistulis.Orelli, 1641. ab epistulis latinis.

Orelli,
2
=

1. Eros

Graecis. epistulis
a

Gruter, 587, Fabretti, 539,

CIL,

[loniiAug. 1. ab H.] Acindynus Aug.

epistulis.On
lib. ab

lead

pipe.

60.

lat. epist.

CIL,

vi, 8609.

44
Ulpia Athenais
=

Appendices
Glypti Aug.
Ub. ab

[vol. i.
OreUi, 1641
, . , ~-

epistuUs uxor.

CIL,
The

xiv,

3909.

the office shows that before the time of Hadrian survey from foUows the ; it also for the most was part held by freedmen that at that other ofi"ces held by them mention which inscriptions above

highly thought of. It should also be mentioned, Graecis proc. that certain Bassus was Aug. lib. prox. ab epistul. a CIL, Henzen, 6935 tractus Carthaginiensis (Gruter, 586, 9 his son's of name freedman Claudius, doubt he a no was vi, 8608) ; (cp. Eichhorst, Quaest. epigr.de procuratoribeing Claudius Comon not Claudius usually given to preference was bus, p. 28). As under deviation from the rule. be as a this case regarded freedmen, may is of Titinius similar to the career On the other Capito hand, very of the ab after those of the equestrian presidents officium epistulis
time it
was

not

very

Hadrian.
2.

After

Hadrian.

C. Suetonius ticlavius the office of the with

TranquiUus, son
thirteenth
his

of Suetonius

through
whom Hist,

legion Gemina Clarus patron C. Septicius


appears
to have

Laetus, tribunus angusP.F., probably obtained

{praef. praet. 119),


in

together viii)on
,

TiUemont,
Sabina
he

121 ; cp. des emp., ii, p. 389 ; Suetonius, ed. Roth, praef. p. little respect for the empress too the ground of having shown (Vita Hadriani, 11). Reifferscheid (Sueton.Reliquiae, p. 465)

he

been

dismissed

conjectures that
was

he

wrote

the treatise De the

himself of the

magister epistularumto Hadrian,

(i)because InstitutioneOff. and quence (2)in conseoffices that

organization of

court

by

the

emperor
Suetonius

(Egger, as above, p. 27). magister epistularum, we must


in
use

Because not not


assume

Spartianus
this in

calls

at

that

time

; it does

occur

was expression second the o f inscriptions

century.
Heliodorus, rhetorician, father of the pretenderAviVit. Avid. Cass, i : homine (Casaubon,tamen) novo 6 S^ Avidio Severo : ec t?s genitus [read Syro Sii Kdo-irios 2i)pos /lii' duxerat et post ad Kippov fjv, Dio, Ixxi, 22. H.] qui ordines summas dignitates pervenerat (Dio, ib., rhv t4s iirurToKat atinv should ib.,Ixix, 3, where we [Hadriani] Sia7a76r'Ta, obviously read with Hirschfeld 'AovlSiov rbv rbv airod tStov irphi 'HXiiSupox for irpis in Vita Hadriani, 15, 16). mentioned 'HX., probably the Heliodorus
C. Avidius dius Cassius.

according to the (Syene). Aristides, Or., xxvi, p. Toii t^s Alyiirrov iiripxov J : ^Kei Si /Wi Kai iraph 'SXioSiipov 339 (? eirdpxov) yevo/Uvov ypd/i/MTa "fia toU jSaaiXiKois. Cp. Letronne, Recherches sur I'Egvpte, ff. Archdol. 246 [and Zeitung 1869, p. 123 p. CIL, iii, Heliodonim 2, 6025 : per C. Avidium praef Aeg. Ji.JAmd. ilium. Cass., I : Quadratus. adserit. apudipsumMarcumpraevalidum. nam jam eo imperante perisse fatali morte perhibetur. L. JuUus Vestinus, probably a son of Claudius' of the friend same name (cp. appendix xi). CIG, iii,5900 : 'Apx'fpf''AX"|wSpetas Kal MyiwTov vd"r7]s Provinces (cp. Mommsen, of the Roman Empire, ii, Eng. tr., p. 248, n. 1) Aevxlip OhjarlvifKal iTurriTV ToS fiovo-dov Kal iirl tQv iv 'Viiiiri'pi^i.oSriKC!iv Kal eVi rrji vaiSdas 'ASpiavov
rose

He

to

be

in inscription

prefectof Egypt temple in Assuan

in

the

year

140

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

45

ToO airov airoKpiropos [Suidas : OvrjirTTpos 'loiXtos xpTjiMTlffai tCiv iiriToii-^v "ro0iffT7)s : cp. U.a.y.iplXov yXuiraiSv Borghesi, AdI, 1846, p.

iiTLaTokn

325. ab
=

as H.] Cp. Letronne above, p. epistulis (doubted by Letronne,

231

f.

That

eTrio-roXeiJs simply

nichus, p.
'

379, ' tutor by Letronne Dis manibus Niconi An

ed.

Lobeck.
and

p. 'Btti rrjs iraiSeias,wrongly


=

471)

is shown

by

Phry:

translated

Franz,

a ser.

studiis. librar.
"

CIL,

vi, 9520
fee.

L.
at

Juli

Vestini

^mater

f.

carissimo.

inscriptionfound
4
=

Ephesus (Muratori,
=

453,

2026,

Waddington, Voy. arch., 176

CIL, iii, 431)

3 enumerates

706,

the offices. and dignities of a fourth is lost : Borghesi's opinion {AdI,

The name secretaryof Hadrian. is that the reference 1846, p. 325) to Vestinus cannot be correct possibly (as Hirschfeld observes), since in a Greek inscription on the same (found in Syria ; person Bullet, de corresp. hellSn.,iii, as [1879,] p. 257) iiiovi is found of the The part Ephesian inscriptionruns cognomen. proc. | dioecesin Alexandr. oc. as imp. Caes. Trajani Hadrian | | bibliothecar. Graec. et |Latin, ab epist. Graec. |proc. Lye. I Pamp.
. . . ... ... . . .

Galat.
Asiae
name

Paphl.

Pisid.

Pont.

|proc.
Aug.
was a

heredita lib.

proc. provin

|ciae

|proc.
was

Syriae and lii.iiiv [BiiSa]


have been

|Hermes
he

adjutor ejus. [Perhaps his native of Egypt, where the name

; cp. Benseler, p. v ; appears the beginning of his career I am inclined to would this. with agree with the person in Vita Hadriani, 15 : Eudaenamed identifyhim monem imperii (perhaps in reference to his office as prius conscium

to

common particularly

secretary) ad
in

is menHeliodorus tioned as perduxit, especially same H.] passage. of Celer (Philostratus, i.e. author Vitt. Soph., i, 22, Tex"'oyp'i'"f"os, of rhetoric, ^aaikiKuv iiniTToKGjv d.yadhs Tpo(rTiiT7)s, manual a ib.). to him A speech of Diouysius of Miletus attributed was ; since he of him his contemporary as was speaks Ai.ovva-l(fi (Philostratus held the office (of he may have rbv ix /j-eipaxiov xp^""" Si,"(popov), ah epp. g-yaec.) under Hadrian. It is not quite clear from course he whether stillin office at that time. Or., was xxvi, p. 335 J, Aristides, Aristides says that Plato had appeared to him in a dream and asked (Tol ^aivOfJUit ToO K^Xe/jos iTrto-roKds ; firj(ftavXdrepos him, TQi6s rt?, ^(pTi, cts ; rb Kal T^y ypaiifiaria rbv Sij ei(p-^f/.ei, \iyup ^affiKiKdv. KdyJj, ^(pi)v, fiefiHvra Hffrts el. Perhaps he is identical ire tolovtov (read rotoiSrou) V7\(rdai

egestatem

the

with

the

Greek

{Vita Veri, 2) ;

Caninius Celer, tutor Bibl. Fabricius, Gr., vi, 126. cp.

rhetorician

of Lucius

Verus

L. f. Quir. L. Domitio Dalmat. proc. monetae equ. marito L. alae


I Arauacorum

Rogato pontif.minor, proc. Aug. provinc. Aug. ab epistulisL. Aelii Caesaris praef. trib. mil. leg. VI victric. praef.coh. I FI.
=

velato Domitia Venusta accenso equitataepraef. coh. I Dalmatar. sibi. et CIL, vi, 1607 Orelli, 2153. optimo of the succeeding period are Two freedmen known, perhaps under

Verus, with
L. Aurelius

whom

freedmen 1. Secundinus

had ab

great influence

Aug.

latinis. epistulis

Donati, p.

309, 4M. Aurelius

Alexander

586,

CIL,

vi, 8606.
Stat,
xx

(l)p.p. tabell.

Aug. Ub. ab epistulis graecis. Gruter, p. [The order of his offices was perhaps : ab lat. her.,Henzen, 6568. (2)prox. epist.

46

Appendices
=

[vol.i.

Gab., p. 126 Visconti, Mon. 8606. epp. grace, CIL. vi,

Amongst
Greeks
db

the

the equites.

CIL, xiv, 2815 (lead pipe). (3) ab H.] Cp. VG. p. 255, i" 06 epp. lot., the of course Romans were
. . .

expressly stated. [adlecto in amplissimum] [Ab. epp. Antonini Aug. ab epistu]Iis inter ordinem praetoriosjudici[o imp. A]siae juridico latinis procuratori summarum ratio[num procuratori ? MaceCaesaris Aureli ab procuratori] Alexandreae [M. epistulis Cornelii commentariis pr.]. Henzen, Re[pentini pr. doniae, ab Nuove CIL. vi, 1563. Hirschfeld,VG, memor. d.I..1865, p. 286
epp.
where not gr.. even lat. Quint?]ilio C.f.
=

43,

I-

Curioni

praefect.fab. sacerd. [x]x her. ab proc. Antonini ab [ep]istul. [di]vi Augustorum patrono municipii epistu[l.] 161 and 169). CIL. viii,1174. d.d.p.p.(Thuburbo minus, between Clemens him the in his birthplace T. Varius on (in inscription between 161 and 169, CIL. iii,5215 Celeia, also Gruter, 482, 5 Celeiana. p. 58) is called ab epistulis Seidl, Monum. Augustor. et Germ. Raeliae Maur. Caeutriusque proc. provinciae Belgicae Lusitaniae Ciliciae auxiliorum in Mauret. Tinsar[iensis] praef. gitan. ex Hispania missorum, etc. (the expedition against the Mauri under Antoninus Pius ; Vita, 3, Pausanias, viii,43). A letter from when him, Etniscus, procurator of Mauretania, to M. Valerius legatusof Numidia (152)in the inscriptionon the tunnel at Saldae : Arch. Mommsen, CIL. viii, 2728. He is Zeitung, n.f. iii,1S70 the the Clemens mentioned same as perhaps by Dio (Ixxi, 12, in the (Tillemont, Hist, des emp.. ii,610). year 170) as prefect of Dacia Dio Tarrutenus (Tarrutenius) Paternus. (Ixxi,12) expressly
Sex.
= = =

Caecilio Q. F. Quir. Crescenti Volusiano advocato fisci Romae sacris faciendis

states in

that

he

was

which

year

he

ab epp. lot. to Marcus Antoninus, and before 170, of the Cotini against was appointed commander

the

Marcomanni p. 227 f He
.

(Tillemont,Hist,
had

VG.
or

Commodus

removed
rank His

consular
to

emp.. ii,611) : see Hirschfeld, praef.praet. under M. Antoninus ; from ial him o""ce (183) by raisinghim to senator(Vit.Comm.. 4 ; Dio, Ixxii,5) and then had him
des

alreadybeen

put

death.

successor

was

perhaps {Vit.
at the

Vitruvius

Secundus,
who
was

Comm.,
same

4)
time.

his

qui epistulas imperatorias curabat intimate friend and was put to death
Cassius, with
was

ManiUus,
influence

ab epp. lat. to Avidius (Dio, Ixxii, 7) ; his name


2.

whom

he had

great

ManUius

Pudens

Ixxi, {ib.,

29)
et
a

Hirschfeld, VG, 206,

Ab

Vibianus TertuUus ab epp. gr. Ti. Claudius rationibus Augg. CIL, iii,6574 : see above,

graecis epistulis
p. 34.

Alexander, surnamed UijXoirXdTw;'. Philostratus, Vitt. sophist., ii. P- 57'f JfidSij^e hrh Md/)itou /jivy"p els t4 UaiuviKi. ISifji KaraK^-riffels
"

4Ket ffTpareiovTO! xal ^oo-iX^us

ScSciikStos

airlp rb

^TrurrAXetK

"EXXijffii'.

KAtois ^aalv in ^iittAXoKTa, ol S' 4v 'iTaXifi toS iirurriWfiv. ireiravfUvov Cornelianus, rhetorician,probably the father of the rhetorician
:
1

Ib. p. 575

TekevTTjaaLrbv

ol fiiv tv 'AXi^avSpov

2, 57,

Measorem

Perhaps also, as Cuq,p. 385, 6 observes, the mensor meatioaed xxiii, in the Digest, " I w/is ab efiKtuhs: Divvs Marcus et Lucius imperatores Flaviae Tcrtullae per
llbcrtum
ita

rescnpserunt.

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

47

k.t.X. Metrophanes (Suidas : Mip-po(f"iivri!, KopvriXi.ai'oO priropos, Aej3o5ei/s treatise a ^(.\oAmongst other works he wrote Uepl tHi' -fcapaicT-^puv who his 'BkXoyi; dedicated to Cornelianus, (TTpATov).Phrynichus, M. Antoninus and lived,according to Photius, under Commodus, who therefore the /SomXefsmeant in ed. are Lobeck : Epit. 418

airdvrwsf ^xo^^ct ak Kal Sid, tovto fi^v'ev xaiSe/^ /.UyLffrov "7rpiiiTL"TToy a^iuj/xa (k TTpoKplTWV airuiv. Cp. p. 225: "vo"pav0ivTa iirb tUd ^aiXiwv iwi"rTo\ila and p. 379 : i^eWTjvt^iav ail Sk ^atriKtKbs itriaToKeds iiritftaveis Kai drTiKi^oiu rb ^affiKiKbv Kal 5tdd"TKa\os aiirdbv rwv ov Kadiardiievos is.bvov StKacTTiiptov olov Kal ^XcfipuTos Kal ^uj'^s Kal crxi)/*oTos \iiywv("Wk KoXI) XP^ \iyei.v, jTd"rews. It is uncertain whether, as would appear from this passage, he also held the office a cognitionibus ; Hirschfeld (VG, 209, i)doubts it. See p. 43 above. Mai identified him with Sulpicius Cornelianus, the friend of Fronto, whose home and studies he shared {Epp. ad amicos, i, 4; cp. Epp. Gr., ed. Niebuhr). Adrianus, sophist. Philostratus, Vitt. sophist., ii, 11, p. 256 ed. "irov Si] Kal ire\e"ra, i\p7jipiaaT0 Kayser : vo^roOvTt. Kara ttjv ''PiljfiTjv ^TTftrroXa? o K6/A^oSo$ ^i)vdTToXoyfa tov fxkv rds fiiiKal Odrrov, 6 Sk iTTideiAffa^ fikv rats Sk tAs ^affiXelas e lJidei, MoiStrais, itj(nrep irpoffKvvijffai aiiToii Si\Tov^, TT]v \jjvx"w 6,"j"riKev ^iTa"pl(fi wpbs x/")''''^Me''0 rj Ttfirj Yet Suidas iini iTitrToXuv 'HpwSou Avriypa^eds tuv says ; fiadtjTiis dictator epistularum, Salmasius on Kofiiiidov iyiviro (i.e. Script.Hist. in accordance Aug., ii, 785), an expression employed by Suidas
"

"

6 piiruip, oiwta ao"pur[He is no doubt the 'A5pia;'6s reiav, dXX' Itl tjvviiv tiJBmjBi? mentioned by Galen in De Progn. ad Epig., ed. K. xiv, 627. H.] A Sempronius Aquila ab epp. gr. Aug. is mentioned in an Ancyra date published by Ramsay in Bull, d. corr. fragment of uncertain vii (1883),p. 20 =Oesterreich. ix (1885), hellin., Mittheil., p. 123, 83 : 'PwfiaviL ou 'Pw/xaZajj*, Xefiirpujvia [5^/i] 7rpa[fr]opa [dir]o5"SeLyfiiifov dvydrTjp 'A/ciiXouyepofU[v]ou e-jrl ^rriffroXuv ''BWiJvtKLoy rbu Se/ijrpwpfou 2e/3[a(rToiJ] yXvK"raTov 6,v8pa. In the CIL, x, 4860) [Gabini inscription {IRN, 4618 et Te]r. Aspri pon[tificis] augur[is] [a patrimoni]o ? Augg. nn. graph, [imp. Antoni]ni, etc., Borghesi's suggestion that graph. graphei, i.e. ab epp. gr. is impossible,as already observed by

with

later usage.

Mommsen.
In
"

the third century the following are known : Antipater of Hierapohs, sophist,ab epp. gr. to Severus (Philostratus, Vitt. sophist., ed. tutor of Caracalla and Geta ii,24, p. 265 K.), De ad Pisonem, p. 458, ed. K. xiv, p. 218 : Theriaca (ib.). Galen, iTia-ToXhs airuv OTToTe 0 ras 70CV 'AfTtvarpos, 'EXXijviKhs TrpdTrcii" [read rdTTCiv,cp. Josephus, Vita, 65, Ant. Ju., xx, 8, 9. H.] ireTnareviJ.ivos, Kal dik rb (re/jLi"bv iv ToiS iTjTopiKois Kal Sid Ti]v tou ijSovs hreXTJ watSelajf X6701S /leydXws iiT airuv t"e(ppi,TiK^ (Severus and Caracalla) riiid/ievos, rg Siad^fret ireptTrefftii/, deivai Kal av^KCffravirb tou irddovs ^iraffx^^t d^Uiraivov
Kal Bavixa(TTi)v Toiis (piXovs els rb aii^eaBai ii]virepi "rjrovS-^y, rijv irepl laTpiKT]v (piXoTi/iiav. Marcius Agrippa, rds re BLayviicen xal rets iiruTToXis Sioiidjffas (Dio, to his Ixxviii, over 13) for Caracalla, although the latter handed mother ruiv trdvv Julia t^p rwv ^i^Xiwvrwv re iTnaToXuJv cKaripwv irXiiv 18 ; cp. Ixxviii,4). Mommsen (Stli,ii' ifayKalwv StoiKTjira' (Ixxvi, airSii) eXSov

48
926,
I

Appendices
; the note

[vol.i.
Hirschfeld

is omitted that cp. Marcius

in the

3rd ed.) and


was

(VG,

i) assume 209, ab epistuHs : but

Agrippa
quoted
on

first

then cognitionibus,

[In reference to Caracalla's ignoranassassination, it is stated (Vit. Carac., 6) : non tibus et Marcio classi plerisque praeterea Agrippa, qui praeerat, of"ciaUum. H.] Aspasius of Ravenna (Philostratus, Vitt. sophist.,ii, 33 ; cp. of rhetoric Egger as above, p. 17). He also held the professorship Si ^iv alHf toC /lii at Rome, hipif ynipicrKuv vedlav nh eiSoKipuiTaTos, Cuq
as

p. 43 above.

Philostratus "iroffTTjvai. jSoiiXeo-Sai. of

addressed

letter to him

on

the art

i, p. 56 n.). Apollonius of Tyana (Philostratus, Si koI paaAeluu Ap. Tyan., i,3, 5, ed. K., p. 3, 3) : ii^idiBri iintTToKGiv oStos evSoKi^idv ttjv tpiov^v i, 12, 14 ed. K., p. 7, 7). {ih., Calvisius Statianus ab epistulislatinis Augustor. Veronensis Orelli, Veronense, 116, i CIL, patronus. Maffei, Museum 3907 Uteris bonis the to ', [' consequently belonging probably v, I, 3336 second century. H.]. Numisius Quintianus v.p. ab epistulislatinis Gordiani (239), Grut. 1088. Claudius Diocle2 CJL, vi, Eusthenius, qui 272, tiano ab epistolis fuit. Hist. Aug. Vit. Carini, 18. ab [Eutropius ; cp. Tzschucke, praef.ad Eutrop., p. 9. After epp. Constantini Constantine Orelli, 2352 ; Codinus, De Orig. Constant., p. 51 ; : Libanius, ed. Reiske, iii, JuUan's secretaries Nymphidianus p. 438. Vitt. and Himerius Ckil., {Tzetzes, (Eunapius, Soph.,p. 177 Boiss.) vi, 28). A magister epistular[um]. Bull, trimestr. des antiq. afric, 1885, p. 24, n. 694. Fragment by the vir praetorius, p. 41 above. Forgeries : Orelli, 3567 (cp. Henzen, iii, p. 372) ; Gudius^ 202, 4 ; Doni, vii, 52, 156, viii,37. H.] be definitely shown to have been The cannot officiuma memoria until the time of Caracalla it did not as in existence originate, ; emendation Mommsen thought, in the a studiis. Certainly Lipsius's i, 12, adopted by Roth) in Suetonius, Aug., 79 is very pro(Elect., bable libertus etiam et memoria : a JuUus Marathus, ejus (MSS., In any memoriam). case, as Cuq (p.401) conjectures,the formal

composing

the

Maximus

of

imperial Aegae, author

letters of
a

(see
of

vol.

and

Ufe

"

institution 8618 M. D.m.

of the

office

was

probably

due

to

Hadrian

; the
=

oldest

in which inscription
:

it is mentioned, is Muratori, 892, 11 Ctesiae Aelii Cladei a memoria et cubiculo


a

CIL, vi,

Aug.

ser.
=

Aurelius

Julianus

xiv, 2463. Herodian, Sipojv ipCKraTos,^aros


The
of
same

memoria, CIL, vi, 1596 direXeuIv, 8, 4 : fjvairip (Caracalla) tup ns Si irpoeaTiis. /liv 6vona, Tijs nv/iiiris /SairiXelov
rationibus
et
a

person

appears
:

to Kari

be
toO

Dio

(Ixxviii, 32
identical with
. . .

rif

in the corrupt passage [and is no tapivrov vp6KoiTov)


meant in Vita

doubt
num
.

the Festus
. .

mentioned

Macrini,

Macri-

donatum
an or a

Festo, obviously
statue Festi of

aureis patrocinante sibi conliberto sue imperial freedman. H.]. On the base of a

anuUs

his wife
of the two

daughter
memor
. .

at
.

Tibur, CIL,
Antonini
to

xiv, 3638

Marci
bination com-

[a cubic. ?] et by
Dio

Pii

The [feUcis].

offices

(see Karlowa, Rechtsgesch., i, 545) is also


Hirschfeld's
xal rbv

shown

(Ixxvi,14), according
re

iire-irlffTcvToriv

fiviiiniv (for yvibiiriv) airroS

Koirdva.

emendation: Hist.

Aug.,

Vit.

Pescen.

Nig., 7

PauU

et

Ulpiani praefecturae, qui

50
other
and
to

Appendices
heads into
a

[vol.
preliminary functic
m u

of

departments
The

only

retained
was were

chieflyas
more

examiners. the

result

the

memoria
The

background, and (Hirschfeld, pp.


of
the

driven that they were in inferior be held to


;

210-215

Cuq,
by

p.

473)-

IX.

Order

Offices
from
on

held

Imperial

Freedmen.

The
more

positions at in wh above, p. 266) is best illustrated by certain inscriptions in tl undoubtedly the of"ces held by various persons are specified order. or (ascending descending) proper I cite first the fragments of two to a freedm imperial rescripts named he is rewarded for the satisfacfa Januarius. In the first, performance of his duties as proximus a memoria by a yearly sal" of 40,000 in the is he sesterces second, promoted to the sta ; with insertions of Mommsen the a voluptatum. The fragments, Hirschfeld (CIL, vi, 8619), read as follows : Januario [hb.]salute ministerio officii me]moriae. in q [Functus es per annos mihi laboriose et et ex dis[ciphna mea probe praebui operam u]t indulgentiae meae praerogativam tanto magis cu[ra tua p: tuo baverit, quanto plus amoris [?] min]isterio sit mihi concil arbitratus turn sum [adaequare te] ceteris pro ; ideoque justum mis, qui in aliis stationibus quadragena millia n. [accipiur haec mira videri potest cum indulgentia c]uiquam judicii neque fidei labori sed[ulitati meum tuae optimo jure tri]buia me intel
.

(Vol. I, p. gradual promotion of important duties and

37, 1. 6 freedmen

bottom.) ' the imperial initiative court (cp. Hirschfeld

gatur.
ministerio

Bene

vale.

[Januar]io

lib.

salutem.
es
. .

[Quoniam
et

functus
ac

studio qua

pecul]ia
semper

officii memoriae
.

fides

modestia

et commendatio egisti magistri tui hortantur, ut te ad spleni dam defero tibi officium voluptatum statio[nem promoveam, coUiberti dubito tui, nee insumpturum, ut talem te [in operam esse debet, qui a]d latus principum tarn diu eger praebeas, qualis
. .

Bene I

vale.
next

give
are

the

in inscriptions, lib. Bucolas

which

the

careers

of

imperi

freedmen
I.

Ti.

indicated. Claudius Aug. munerib.


filio et

praegustator

tricliniarc

(s\

a proc. Flaviano

aquar. proc. castrensis Cantabra matre d.d. Sulpicia proc.


p. 95
;

cum.

Q.

Clauc
at

Found

Cae

Henzen, 6337). ',an office filled during t reign of Claudius by the eunuch Halotas, who is said to have assisted poisoninghim (Suetonius, Cto"(i., 44). Other imperialtasters areme tioned in the inscriptions. Orelli, 90 2993 and CIL, vi,602, 9003
Bucolas

(Bull. d.

Inst,

arch., 1840,
his
career

began

'

as

taster

"

(9004 : collegium praegustatorum) x, 6324 (praegustatoret a cubicv Nerorns) ; cp. Nipperdey on Tacitus, Ann., xii, 66 and Marquarc
,

Prl.,i^,147,
mentioned

8. Then he became superintendent of the table,a pc elsewhere in the imperial household ; both (Orelli, 7c
'h'S has already '""''fl"

sity of

./ A fj!:^? Pf' "*

Konigsbcrg {May 12th, 1861

; Acad.

in the Programm appeared Alb. Regim., 1861,

f).

of the Univ

VOL.

I.]
=

Appendices
CIL, vi, 1884
:

51
lib. Phaedimo
'

cp. Henzen, iii, p. 78 Divi Trajani Aug. a

M.

Ulpio Aug.

laguna et tricliniarch. lictori beneficiorum proximo et a comment, [died 117, at the age of twentyeight] and in private houses (Becker-Goll,Charicles,iii, 373). The whom doubt Martial no an freedman, imperial (iv,8) Euphemus, potione
a

item

asks

to hand

copy

of his poems
decima

to

the

emperor

at table meorum,

hora
tunc
was

libellorum

est,Eupheme,
cum

temperat

ambrosias admitte iocos

tua

cura

dapes

probably Domitian's
to be business

of superintendent
of the

table.

Bucolas

was

next

imperial gladiatorial games. manager munerum or (Henzen, explanation of procurator a muneribus che amministrava 6344) given by Borghesi {Bdl, 1830, p. 123) i regali fatti all' imperatore since it is be can correct, hardly connected that there was a special department highly improbable promoted
The
'
"

'

"

with

such

presents.
that
4 ;

Mommsen the reference

formerly
as

held

the

view

(now
On the

doned aban-

by Mm) (SIR, ii', 931,


p. 177 f. P- 43The

is to the waterworks

called

munera

Hirschfeld,

above,

officials who

administered the Atabularius a muneribus


next

167, i). imperial munera


p. in Bull.
comm.

manent perfeld, cp. Hirschd. R., 1881,

office of proc. aquarum,


X,

held
to

: according higher procuratorships


=

CIL,

half of the third 6569 (first


100,000

by Bucolas, is one of the the inscription Orelli, 946 century) it carried with it a
discussed at

salary

of

sesterces.

It

has

been

length by
Both

Hirschfeld that assume Bucolas

(VG,
it
was

p.

and instituted

161)

Lanciani

(Le

acque,

p.

319).
the

by Claudius,

and

give

lists of

(Lanciani puts him in being the first named he became Domitian). Finally, proc. castrinsis, an
mentioned by Marini (Attid. jr. Arv., 1865, p. 207),that conjecture (Neue Jahrbiicher,

officials, reign of
dentally inci-

office

p. 956) ; Eichhorst's this was the manager of the ludi casirenses, is untenable. Hirschfeld has abandoned his earlier view militare in der Kaiserzeit, in Philol. (Das aerarium

Jahrb., 1868,
the

ordinate the subwere p. 690), that the procuratores castrenses of all officials of the chief director of the administration

He castrensis. siders conmilitary funds, the procurator rationis (VG, 196-200) the titles procurator castrensis, procurator rationis castrensis, for one and castrensis to be terms procurator fisci of the same t he director the who ing accordofficial, imperial residence, to the

inscription(Henzen, 6529
proc. On the other
rationis

M.

Aurelius

Basileus

vir

ducenarius
sesterces.

that

the city palace was of the Augustan could


never

castrensis)received a salary of 200,000 hand, Mommsen (StR, ii', 2, 807, 2) observes called dency never castra, and, owing to the tenprincipate to disguise the military government,
been
so

have

called. to

He

considers
after the

the

proc.
"

castrensis to be the vestis castrensis and


a

official

position hardly
been attached

camp sufficient
to it.
as

have
is not

imperial and travelling equipments generally to explain the must importance which of the [The tendency Augustan principate

appointed

look

absolutely decisive
1

to the

nature

of

an

of"ce {CIL,
x,

which 6773).

cannot

M.

Ulpius Fhaedimus

Aug. lib. a cubiculo

52
be shown outside
third to have

Appendices
existed have before
been in

[vol. i.

at first it may

only
the

Rome,

instances

And although of Claudius. the with quarters imperial connected that in the show quoted (VG, p. 198)
the time
the
"

second) century the functions of also to the imperialpalace inside ally especithe proc. castr. extended the festival for May casirensis of the rat. the activity tabularius of the Arval brethren to be held in the imperialpalace in 219. H.] : Henzen, The procuratores casirenses all imperial freedmen 6337, are ; Henzen, Muratori, 901, 1 (UlpiusCrater Aug. lib. proc. castrens.) under be discussed Aug. [Ub.j no. 4), 7419 d; ([Aur)elius 6344 (to (and
most

probably

be identical with to the cast.); he appears in Maffei, Mus. Ver., p. 85, 2 (Saturninus Aug. lib. proc. iii, castrensis) ; Orelli, 4008, cp. Henzen, p. 436 (Aurelius Hennas lib. 1 Aug. proc. k.) ; cp. CIL, vi, 851 sqq. ; CIG, 3888 (M. Ai!p. liS^affTuv dweXe^depovKpiJo'/cei'Ta iirlTpoTrov AovydoOyov TaWiai^^Kal iirirpothe to last TTov According ^pvylasKal itrlTpoTrov inscription KaffTprjtnv. Saturninus Saturninus procur.

procuratiocastrorum appears step to the procuratorship of a


the

to

have
castr. to

been
; since

the the be The


sibi

preliminary
latter
was

province

rarely attained
one

of the

by freedmen, the proc. highest positions accessible


CIL, xiv,
2932
:

must

them. Ub.

regarded as inscription
castrens.

Orelli, 2972,
proc.
suis is

Paean proc.

Aug.
Henzen
:

proc.

hereditat. adds

proc.
:

voluptat.
doubted

Alexandr. M. Aurel.

posterisque

genuine, though Carpo

by
loS

246, (iii,

Hirschfeld
una cum

Fabretti, 689,

cp. 508). Stertinius Carpus

genio Epagatho by Ligorio : Gud.,


2.

d.m. Primiproc. k. patre and Fabretti, 196 : xUv delicio. Aug. 1. proc. f(isci) c(astrensis) Forgery, 37, i ; 60, 10 ; 191, 5. lib. Liberali ' procuratori annonae ad
naves

P.

Aelio

Aug.

Ostiensis.

et procuratoripugillationis

decuriali
mensae

decuriae nummul,

viatoriae consul, f. f. Ost. ornato vici

vagas. tribunicio coUegi magni. decuriali gerulorum. praeposito


ornamentis

decurionatus Castel

col.

Ost.
5
now

patrono (lUustrazione di
CIL,

Laurentium
una

Augustanor.

Henzen,
a

Bdl, 1873, p.
; Porziano)

lapide latina

ritrovata

xiv, 2045.

This
tanus

which decides the positionof the vicus Augusinscription, been has Laurentium, admirably explained by Henzen, from

I take the following. The offices are enumerated ing in descendorder. P. Aelius Liberalis, a freedman of Hadrian, began his cen"al addirector of a bank, established career as ministrat by the Roman of the corn fisci supply at Ostia (mensa nummularia frumentarii in which position he received from its senate Ostiensis), the
of then He entered the corporation insignia of the decurionate. of letters and official documents, geruK (bearers Mommsen, StR, V, 366, 3 and 4),who belonged to the publicapparifores ; next, the

whom

the

chief
the

decuria (consular) office of


a

of

the
'

viatores

{ib., p. 344) ; and


'

tribune of the of the imperial house (collegium


' '

held

great college devoted


' '

then to the cult

larum et imaginum, etc.). magnum By procurator pugillationis and adnares stands underHenzen vagas the procurator of the official of letters delivery {pugillaiio in Sidon. Apol.,Ep., ix, 4 pugillator letter the mail=

carrier) by

CIL, xiv,2178 (Arioia) : Aeliae Saeniae Nigriaae Aelius Liberalis cojug. b.m.f.

VOL.

I.]
stationed
at

Appendices
Ostia.
'

53
Mommsen

boats
2,

On it
seems

the

other
more

hand,

(SIR, ii',
an

1030, official charged with in Latin harbours '. Since

3)

observes

probable to

understand

the

of registration(pugillatio)
who the

ships arriving

Hirschfeld,
from about

(VG,

p.

140) :

'

adds agrees with Mommsen, time of Hadrian to Caracalla


this proc. pugillaof the duties of P.

the proc. partus is replaced tionis et ad naves vagas may the proc. partus, which were

by the proc. annonae, exercised have some


not

included
and

especiallythe
Aelius
of

control became vici

of

in-

procuratioannonae, out-going ships '. Lastly,


at

in the

Liberalis Laurentes

procurator

annanae

Ostia. vicus

As

patronus

the

Augustani (perhaps the

mentioned

by

his Laurentinum) he was honoured by Pliny, Epp., ii, 17 as near with this inscription. them the inscription in ascending order) : CIL, iii, 348 (offices 3. On M. Aur.

Aug.

liber. Marcioni proc.

proximo
summi

rationum

proc.

marmorum

proc.
see

prov.

Britanniae

chorag. proc.
second the cubiculo proc.
or

prov.

Frygiae,
of third
:

Hirschfeld, VG,

183, 2. beginning
of
career

The following inscription (end of resemblance to some century) shows M. AureUo lib. Proseneti a Augg. 4.
rum

Bucolas proc. ordinato

Aug.

thesauroa

proc. Commodo.

patrimoni proc.
in de Kastrense
suo

munerum

vinorum

divo
sarnear

patrono piissimo

liberti benemerenti

cophagum
the
Via

adornaverunt
;

(on

largesarcophagus found
office than
one.

6344). As the procuratio patrimoni was certainlya higher be a descending vinorum, the order must procuratio

Labicana

Henzen,

the

[This is

clear from ordinatus Divo Commodo in kastrense a : especially in Commodus the to a post i.e. (first) appointed by imperialpalace, the lower, non-procuratorial positions are indicated, by which are which, being merely preliminary steps to the procuratorships,

H.] The office the highest of these appointed immediately after


enumerated. where treasuries,
no

of chamberlain held the

(a cubiculo)was by Prosenes, to which he


of the

sequently conwas

administration

doubt valuables of aU kinds were Alex. in thesauris vestem Sev., 40 : Eilly clothing (Vita nunquam est ; cp. the passage nisi annum esse quoted by Salmasius, passus Cod., xi, 14 : privatae vel linteariae vestis magistri, thesaurorum
'
'

imperial kept, especi-

feld, praepositivel baphiorum ac textrinorum procuratores,etc. ; Hirschin the latter passage VG, 193, i). Praepositusthesaurorum of one procurator thes. In the latest period the praep. thes. was the officials sub dispositione comitis sacrarum largitionum (Notitia since in dign. Or., ed. Bocking, i, 82). Bocking prefersthe plural, mentioned. But Notit. Occ, X, i, c. 12 praepositithesaurorum are of which had its these are each thesauri, special provincial intendent, superthere is while in the case of the imperial treasure-houses
=

no

reason

to

assume

that

there

was

more

than

one

administrator.
=

CIL, viii, [The praepositusthesauris dominicis (Henzen, 6871 for is and these instituted officer, thesauri, 1322) an militarypurposes from the others. (cp.Hist. Aug., Gallieni, 3) are to be distinguished H.] of the imperial On the procuratio patrimonii, i.e. the administration The proprivate property cp. Hirschfeld, pp. 23 ; 41, 3.

54
curatio
munerum

Appendices
has been

L'^ol. i.

thf remains There above. discussed of countries Italj Different wine-producing procuratio vinorum. wine tor furnish departmenl to a the special were ; obliged capital chief official was The and funds were appointed in this connexion. called later rationalis vinorum (on the titles procurator and rationalii cp. Hirschfeld, pp. 36-38). Not. Occ, ed. Bocking, ii,i, p. 16,* cp * Cod. Theodos., xiv, 6, 3 {ed.Ritter, v on p. 194 sqq. ; Gothofred. vinahb. 7. epist.95 et area hinc titulus vinarius 210) : Symmacho

ria, id est, ratiociniumhujus praestationisvini. cujus quidem


viuariae Rationalis
aje

arca"

rationes
vinorum

tractabat
ut

pecuUaris Rationalis qui sub notitia docet imperii. Several

p.u.

fuit

passages

vinaria is mentioned. In this the area quoted, in which Aelius lib. and Caes. n. ser. Aug. Eutychus department Erasinus were appointed adjutoresa vinis (Henzen, 6377, 6378 C/L, vi,9092 as Eutychus Caes. n.s 9091). [The latter is perhaps the same 6 vema (where it is wrongl) ped(isequus)a vinis, Muratori, 899, explained) CIL, vi, 8527, according to which as a slave he had held a lower department. H.] See also Jahn; post in the same c. Spec, epigr., 31. died in 217, having embraced Prosenes Christianity (according of De Inscr. Christ.,i,5, to the very Rossi, assumption probable side there is of tiie above On the a griffin, sarcophagus, right p. 9). the following inscription : Prosenes v non. ; receptus ad deum II regrediens in urbe ab exet Extricato is sa nia Praesente The thus conjecturare peditionibus.scripsitAmpelius Ub. gaps Prosenes v non. : [Ma]i ally filled by Mommsen receptus ad deum et Extricato [as](vel [Jul]i[as]) Sa[me in Cephalle]nia Praesente II regrediens in urbe[m] ab expeditionibus, who rightly assumes (againstDe Rossi), that the words scripsitAmpelius Ub. are not with what to be connected precedes. older Several is the inscriptionof Casa Calda, found on a years the Via Appia, now on CIL, vi, magnificent sepulchralmemorial Henzen's exhaustive From 1598. (AdI, 1857, p. 86) commentary I quote the necessary explanations. Nicomedes qui et] Ceionius et Aelius vocitatus est 5. [L.Aurelius L. Caesaris fuit a cubiculo et divi Veri imp. nutr[itor]. divo Antonino Pio [a equo publicoet sac]erdotioCaeniniensi item ab min. eodem exornatus pontif. proc. ad silic. et praef.vehicul. factus et ab imp. Antonino. ^ ei iniunct. hasta [Aug. et divo Vero cura copiarum exercit]us
there
= =
. . , . . .

pura et vexillo Ceionia Laena The

donatus rat. cum, muraU proc. summarum hie situs. uxore sua offices and distinctions all equestrian, and, of Nicomedes are
et
corona

although the insertion of equo publico is doubtful, they are certainly subsequent to his elevation to the equestrian order ; consequently, his career cannot be compared with those of the other imperial
freedmen.
tas
was

But

while
in

in other

cases

freedmen, upon

whom

ingenui-

bestowed,
which Veri

those et divi

positionsfilled by them, ignore involve Ubertinitas,these latter (L. (Siesaris a cubiculo imp. nutritor) are in this instance quite exceptionallj
1

enumerating

the

This line is supplied by Mommsen,

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

55

and decorations Otherwise, all the priesthoods,offices, are equestrian (Mommsen, StR, iii,i, 518, 4). The sacerdotes Caeninenses (Orelli, 96, 2180, 2533, 3349), like the pontiminores, are always of equestrian rank. fices the managers Similarly, of the postal system (pyaefecti known from other sources vehiculorum) all equites are (Hirschfeld, StR, ii',2, 1031), p. 100, 3 ; Mommsen, who after they had risen to the praefectura alae, were appointed and as tion imperial procurators sexagenarii,centenarii, (in combinawith the office a copiis. viam feld, Flaminiam Aug. per ; cp. Hirschthe proc. summarum On rationum see p. loi, i) ducenarii. the on cura 1. Hirschfeld, copiarum, lox, p. 32; 6. The latest inscription to be quoted (time of Alexander Severus) found Corinth and copied by Cyriacus of Ancona near (now CIL, iii.536). is as follows : Theoprepen Aug. lib. proc. domini n. m. Aur. Severi Alexandri Pii Fel. Aug. provinciae Achaiae et Epiri at Thessahae rat. purpurarum proc. ab ephemeride proc. a mandatis proc. at praedia Galliana saltus Domitiani tricliniarcham praepositum a fiblis praeproc. hominem a positum crystallinis incomparabilem Lysander Aug. lib. officiaUs. ^[ij^foyMTi] B[ou\r)sl The of"ces are mentioned in descending order. Theoprepes was, at first superintendentof the imperial crystal vessels accordingly, the valuable then of the buckles or claspson clothes. {i.e. glass-ware), As early as the last days of the republic militarytribunes wore golden in tanclasps: PUny, JVai. Hist., xxxiii, 39 : sed in militia quoque tum adolevit haec luxuria, ut M. Bruti e Philippicis campis epistulae fibulas tribunicias ex auro reperiantur frementis geri. In the second century there was great extravagance in this respect. Hadrian, who without admired for his economy wore jewels, was clasps of the Casaubon and notes Salmasius) ; on the other (Vita,10 ; cp. hand Gallienus wore golden clasps set with precious stones (Gallieni duo, 1 6) AureUan soldiers to wear (Vita, 16)even allowed common had silver ones. whereas worn golden clasps, they previously only Fibula is mentioned as aurea cum a present to a newly gemmis v. Thorignv, ii, 10, in appointed military itribune in 238 (Inschr. The Ber. d. sacks. Ges., 1852, p. 241. Mommsen, fibula in Martial et Idus, fibulasquecensusque) is also to be (v, 41, 5, trabeasque
"

mentioned. of Nicomedes

"

'

'

understood busts of the and adornment

as

distinction show

of the that

tribunes.
were

Numerous the
has

statues for
a

and the

period

cameos

frequently used
of the

of belts and

clasps. Probably
both

linis praepositus crystalbeen

the pr. a thesaurorum. The of


two

were flbulis

subordinates

office of tricUniarcha

praepositus already spoken

of (p. Sof.); after this Theoprepes was appointed administrator Domitianus the saltus VG, Hirschfeld, (cp. imperial domains,

praedia Galliana (saltusGailliani qui cognominantur next ist regio,Pliny, Nat. Hist., iii,116). He he the i.e. became a mandatis, drawing up superintended procurator issued to proconsuls, of the imperial instructions propraetors, and of the provinces (Dio, liii, 15 ; procurators for the administration Instill., in Puchta, often the Ad Digests, 56 Pliny, Trajanum, ; cp. n.). Lucian, Pro Xapsu in Salup. 528, Hirschfeld, VG, p. 206 8 del Trapct ivroKuv tando : t( 6' ; oixl koL iv nf ruv Xa/Hj3a"nX^ws pi^Xltf,
25, 3) and Aquinates the
in

the

56
pdncTe,
As
toOto wparov

Appendices

[vol.i.

airrwn i/Mcripas T-ijs i"jTl Tapiyie\/i.a, rrjs Oyiclas i/ilv

^TrtixeKelffdat ;
like that of the procuratorab ephethis office, was here. meride, is only mentioned [The latter in all probability the Great Alexander of in Alexander Severus imitation created by Alexandrum (Vita, 30, quem praecipue imitatus est ; 64, se Magnum far
as

I know,

day-books were kept to CasauAccording by bon's (dating Augustus, 64), the custom of the from the time of Augustus) of keeping a diary of the events imitated from the (commentarii diurni) was imperial household
videri volebat Eumenes
; cp. FG, Suetonius, conjecture (on ; cp. 31 of Cardia

whose f.),

ephemerides
206,
i.

or

H.J

Macedonian is the
or

court,
reason

which to

had

borrowed

it from

the Persian.

There

more

believe
been the

this, since
model

indirectly

to

have

latter appears of other Roman court

the

directly
tions institu-

diary of Trimalchio (Petronius,30) is perhaps of the imperial diary. Augustus forbade his a and which to could not be daughter granddaughter say anything, inserted in it (Suetonius,Aug., 64) Aurehan's biographermade use of his day-books (ephemerides) written on linen, in which he had had of the day set down the events {Vita,1). On the basis of these daybooks written in diary form, such were biographies of the emperors the ephemerides vitae Gallieni as duo, by Palfurius Sura (Gallieni and the of Turdulus used Gallicanus, 18) ephemeris by Vopiscus in the biography of Probus Their official commentarii, also (Vita, 2). frequently mentioned (Sueton., Domit., 20 ; Tacitus, Hist.,iv, 40; were Trajan ad Plinium, 95 ; Digg., iv, 6, 32), which kept by slaves and different from these freedmen, were (cp. Hirschfeld, VG, 206, I ; CIL, vi, 8623 ; Mommsen, StR, ii',2, 907 f.). The last office held by Theoprepes was the administration of the factories in Achaia, imperial purple (Marquardt, Prl., ii', 514) M. Aur[elii] Epirus, and Thessaly : proc[uratorem] domini n[ostri] Pii Fel[ciis] Severi Alexandri Aug[usti] provinciae Achaiae et Epiri et Thessaliae rat[ionis] Perhaps the ratio purpuraria purpurarum. its origin to Alexander been the to have owes seems Severus, who first to sell purple from the imperial factories VG, (Hirschfeld, 193. !)" (see
p. 59). caricature
.

The

X.

Roman

Names

assumed

by

Pebeobini
1.

and

Freedmen.

Galba's

freedman after

(Vol. I, p. 47, 6.) Icelus, Marciani cognomine


his elevation
to the

ornatus

(Suetonius,
took this

(Tacitus,Hist., i, 13) as a second cognomen (Tacitus, bet (R. Macke, Die romischen Tacitus, Eigennamen ii [Progr. d. Gymn. zu Hadersleben, 1888], p. 18; cp. Mommsen, StR, iii,I, 426, 3.) A similar case (mentioned in Dio, Ixxix, 16) is that of Aurelius Zoticus of Smyrna, the favourite of Elagabalus, who the received of his cognomen imperial master's grandfather
Avitus.
to their Greek

Galba, 14) equestre nomen Hist., i, 46).

equestrian order,

But
make
or

freedmen
use

also
of
a more

appear If the

to

have

been
of such

becoming

cognomen

sometimes mitted perto in addition double the last


names

foreign one.

examples

(PhilerosAequitas, Eros Merula) chiefly belong to the republic and the early empire, the reason is that

days

of

later the freed-

58
XI. The
Friends

Appendices
and

[vol.
of the

Companions p.
to

Emperor.

(Vol. 1,
It will be
seen

70.)
Mommsen's
essay

that,

in

deference

{Die
I have

comi

essei Augusti derfruhern Kaiserzeit in Hermes, iv, 120-131) doubt that views. He beyond ally altered my former proves that tl the comites from proconsular,^ were imperial developed each for the or ex journey were speciallyappointed by emperor no dition, and that consequently there were permanent comites
"

the of

in earlier times. emperors and the identity of comes their


comes

This
amicus

also
was

shows

that

my
As

assumpt
the

chose

travelling companions
was an

from every

wrong. emper the circle of their frien


amicus
was

every
But of

amicus,
statement

but

not

comes

Mommsen's comites correct.

(p.
the

the

and
In

amid

in

i) 124, ceremonial
the

that
of

eastern

sought ori| royal ecu


of the amici the
fn th
am

the

is not

fact, I derived
the

institution
and

the in

party-spirit of
the

republican statesmen,
different

only
even

assumed

development of appeared, the ceremonial


the
custom

forms
courts

under
had

which
more

of oriental

influei

than this
tion

of the
the
case

republican period.
in the

wa.s already Augustus, I think

remark tl If, in my I earliest courts, included that

I may

hold

that
us

'

in the
an

Augustan
all such the
court

disputing the ass state-organization single feature


no

this view

without

minds

of

oriental

court, and
and

it is

characteristic especially
varj
^

it that it avoids relations between

parallels'.
the

But, considering the


East
and

the

frequent

of oriental princes (Mommsen, tome 2 1 6 ff.) seems ,it Zeitschrift, forms and into would he
far

RGDA,^

customs,
were

which
in

not

by no only
of

means

p. 41 f. ; Schurer, Neuti improbable that orien


x state-organization

left the Roman


'

affected, but
way

also

compatible with
the time
'

manners,

made who

th

the

court the

Augustus.
as an

refused sionately

address

domine

insult

Augustus, pi Au (Suetonius,
custom' On
of

53),
hand,
most As to
occurs

have

still less introduce

tolerated the

the
to

adoration

', which
could
I

Caligula attempted
from
a

'barbarous introduce. the


custom

the otl of custo;

East

greeting)
be shoi times,' b of t

intimate
as

friends

with

without kiss,'
men

any
a

violation kiss cannot

know,

the

greeting of
the

with in

have

under

invaluit

amongst Augustus. Lipsius also says maxime, ut opinor, sub Augusto.

existed

Romans

republican ii,6) : qui m (Elect.,


"The first mention

1 Cp. also Mommsen [Die Gardetruppen der romischen Republik und der Katserzeii Hermes, xiv, p. 26) on the ^CKuv iA"j (cohors amicorum praetoria), 500 strong, formed Scipio Africanus in 133 B.C. according to Appian (Hisp.,84) from his clients and frien * Mommsen himself also has essentiallyaltered his view. In his Provinces of Soman he says that the regulations Empire (Eng. tr., of the Parthian and Pers ii, 5), p. to the position of the dynasty empires referring with few abatements recur among Roman Caesars, and are perhaps borrowed in part from those of the older gr monarchy *. 3 Of course, members of the same family and on special occasions (such as thanksgiv festivals, Cicero, Pro Sestio, 52, in) those more distantlyconnected, were in the habil kissing each other (Becker-GoU,Callus,i,89) ; in Greece, on the other hand, it was 1 at the time known even when it was usual in Rome. Dio Chrysostom, Or, 7, p. 11 eyit51 ivalxvritretU, x^ipe, e(iir)v, ScuriSj koX TfioaeKeiiv i^i\ovv avrhf icai iv T erepov ort i^iKovv avTOvs fVeA* fft^ofipa, o_ fie fij/ios tots on eyviav
'
" "

VOL.

I.]
known
on

Appendices
to
me

59
;

custom

is in for

the

year

B.C.

Suetonius with

says

that

Tiberius
ne

verbo
in

departure quidem cuiquam


digressu

his

Rhodes

behaved

great formality,

modum

custom,
to

even

persons
on

xxvi, 3)
feminae veloci times the

adprosequentium reddito paucosque the That (Suetonius, Tib., c. lo). in the time of Tiberius, was almost exclusively limited of distinction, is shown by Pliny's remark (Nat. Hist., the prevalent face eruption : nee id malum sensere exosculatus servitia osculi
were

aut

plebesque
maxime.

transitu

aut media, sed proceres Since, therefore, from republican

humilis

separated into two classes at their reception as above, p. 128), the imperial practice, well attested (Mommsen, intimate friends later, of distinguishing his more by a kiss, may well have The abolition originated under Augustus. by edict of the kiss the daily by Tiberius, apparent unpopularity of this forth drew from Valerius a justification regulation,which Maximus,
' '

amici

make
at custom.

it

probable

that

at
a

that

time kiss

there from
rank

were

number

court, who
It
was

claimed

daily
of

the
to

emperor kiss each


'

of persons by right of other


'

usual the

for Persians it
was

equal

on

the

; at lips

court

the

privilegeof the

kinsmen

to

kiss the

king (Duncker,
the lene had the Great drunk relates

Gesch.
at

reserved that
to
one

for his most


a

d. Alt.,iv*,526, 4),a privilege which Alexander intimate friends. Chares of Mity-

banquet he

offered stood

the up
and

goblet
then

from

which

he
to

king,

did

him

of his friends, who kissed reverence, had omitted


to do
'

and, having drunk

him,
him

lay
was

down
not

again.
allowed

Callisthenes, who
to kiss him

reverence,

p. the

(Plutarch, Alexander, 352). The institution of


Parthian,
to other
*

ders, 54, 2 ; cp. Droysen, Gesch. Alexanfriends ', which to was common Nabataean

Persian, the
from

the

779),and probably
the
the (especially

oriental

(Strabo, xvi, 4, 21, p. courts,^ passed on (to all appearance


courts of

Macedonian Ptolemies and

court) ' to the Seleucidae) :

the

Diadochi

I'^gyple, pp. 58, 314. in which the and the forms conferred under they were "j"L\os Recherches l'6conomie sur politiquede Ptolemies, cp. Lumbroso, in in honoL'architetto Sostrato Comm. also l'6gVpte, pp. 189-195 J Mommseni, (Sostratus rem L'Egitto, p. 32, and pp. 150, 168-175. was 0/Ao! T"v ^aaiXiuy, Strabo, xvii, p. 791 ; cp. Franz, CIG, also 'Apx'M'^S);?, ti} pacn\eT "tvyy(''VS "2"' tai iii, p. 290 ; so 'lipiavi 0/Xos, Plutarch, MarcelL, 14, 7). Cp. also the inscription from
servir and
d

I'histoire de

cp. Letronne, Rech. pour titles avyyeviii On the

Arsinoe

Cyprus of the time of Ptolemy Euergetes IT (Lebasorder As an ib., 2787, 2796, 2821 A. Waddington, 2781 ; avyyev/is, at the of precedence amongst the friends undoubtedly also existed of the Ptolemies court (tuk irpiSmav(pCKuv in an inscription in Lein

1 The also the fAevtffrai/e? ; Athenaeus, iv, p. 152, cp. Cless in SiRE, v, p. i2ocj ; de Delos title Twr amongst the Ajrsacidae ; S. Reinach, Fomlles 4ti\bivis found in Bull. d. corr, heU.,vii,349). * Soada (in Syria) probably of the time of the Fragments of an inscriptionfrom

trpiIiTbiv

Idumaean 3 Diod.

(Lebas-Waddington,2303). kings : fiatriKeiav 5"iAw to health by the physician had been restored Sic. xvii, 31 : after Alexander els Toiii evvovtrrdTOVi KareVafev avjbv Tiju^tras fieyaKoTrptnCis, Philippus, TOI' laTpbl/

6o
tronne,
as

Appendices
p.

[vol.i,
601),they being held
technical
were

58,

at the

cp. Plutarch, De Exilio, 7, p. Persian court, the first place


an

ated graduol 4i"t6s

by

ToC

as Lucian, using "pi\riij,aTos,

apparently
of

expression,
deemed

calls The

those
of

worthy

whom the prophet Alexander his kiss (Lucian, Alexander, that the
custom

Abonuteichos

41).

with a kiss of greetingthe friends ental (which certainly existed at the Persian and probably at other Oriwhile in there known Rome not at times, was republican courts) is evidence of it during the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, justifies fact
the
use

conjecture that
of the

it

was

transferred

from

the East

to Rome.

The

Roman

expressions for

the

Persian

king's friends (Cur-

tius, vi, 5, II : fratremque Darei amicorum; recepitin cohortem cohorte amicorum : 26, ex ib., aliquem ; cp. Miitzell on prima 17
the first

passage)
were

shows

that

during

the

early empire

the

Romans

themselves emperors.

reminded

by

the latter of the friends


cannot

of the Roman

it is to a certain institution of the extent that there is another of Persia and Macedonia: to those Augustan court, also common the keeping of a diary of aU the events of the imperialhousehold

Although

conjecture supported by the fact

this

be

proved,

(see above). anything of


while other

As the

far kind

as

I know, there is not the slightest trace of in the distinguished families of the republic,

distinctions iste Graecis with

preserved
(i.e.the

in

their

family archives
ortus.
were

are

quently fre-

mentioned. says
at
: mos a

Hence

Casaubon

(on Suetonius, Aug., 64)


houses
as

Macedonians)
of noble

Further, if a number
court

of children the

brought up
to have

together
we

been facts
custom
Tois

common,

mentioned,
set

may that in this


;

emperor's children, appears perhaps conjecture, bearing in


case

mind

the

also

the
twv

Persian

and

Egyptian
Duncker,

the

example

Trdj/rej ycip ol

dpiaTwvHepffwv iratSesiwi
3 ;

iratSeiovTai. 9i5/3ois jSaffiWus

(Xenophon, Anab., i, 9,

526-528). Diodorus's description (i,53) of the the same on day as bringing up together of the children bom idea of the corresponding institution at the Sesostris, gives an of the Ptolemies court Recherches, p. 208 (TroiSes ; cp. Lumbroso, \nrb tou iTdvTpo"poL) twv (iraides TLixbiixivtjjv p. 209 ^ai7i\ias). the fire-pan or torch,M. Lastly, ttie fire carried in front (i.e. and still under the Antonines Antoninus, Comment., i, 17), which
Gesch. d. Alt., iv*,
, ' '

later appears been derived

as

of privilege the

from

the emperor and empress, has aheady Persians by Lipsius (Excursus to Tacitus,

Ann., i, 7) : Xenophon, Cyropaed., viii, 3 : Kal irOp 6Trur6ei" to5 lowed dpfmros iir' iffxdpas iJ.syi.'Krii AfSpes etwovTo (pipovres(Cyrus folbehind the chariot). On the other hand, Mommsen (SIR,
i^, 423) refers this custom
extended
to the to the and

by officials 'torch-right possessed


'

(the right of having lightscarried


emperors,
1 right (cp. ii',806, 823). I shall now give a list

before them by night),which was later became their exclusive honorary

of the

imperial friends

and

companions

"It is possible that the Persian custom 424,4: (Curtius,iii,3,9: argenteis altaribus praeferebatur ; Ammian. fluenced Marc, xxiii,6, 34) may have inthe miperial custom, but not probable,in so far it depends upon as the national religion. In my opmion, this connexion might easUy have been in Rome.
Ignis"

i4 Mommsen, S(i?,

ignored

VOL.

I.]
to
me

Appendices
in the Alb. first and second
et comitum.

6i

known
'

Recensio

amicorum

pora
numerous

',in Acad.

Regim., 1873,
Senators.

centuries (cp.the Programm, Caesarum ad Severi temusque is here reprintedwith iv, which

Friends De hortem

additions). ofAugustus.
i :

Clem., i, 10,

Sallustium
ex

primae
B.C.

admissionis

in 37
to

Nerva

accompanied

L. Cocceius Nerva. Seneca, et Cocceios et Dellios et totam coadversariorum castris conscripsit. Maecenas Octavian's ambassador as

Antony : cp. Horace, Sat., i, 5, 28 and Haakh, StRE, ii,p. 473. ad consulatum Rufus, quem Q. Salvidienus provexerat usque condemned to death before entering on Aug., 66), was (Suetonius, office (he was consul designatus for the year 39 b.c.) Haakh, StRE,
vi, p. 720.
consul 37, 28, 27 b.c, cp. e.g. Dio. liv,29. consul died a.d. 11 Paullus, Q. b.c, Nip14. perdey on Tacitus, ^M"., i,5 ; Plutarch, ZJe^aj-yw/., p. 508A ; Phny, Nat. Hist., vii, 150; Quintilian,vi, 3, 52; Henzen, Acta fr. Arv., Fabius Maximus pp. 185, 240. C. Asinius Gallus, consul 8. of Augustus to the inhabitants
a

M.

Vipsanius Agrippa,

B.C.

5 b.c, according to of Cnidus, he was sent there

In

letter
duct con-

to

criminal

Ross, Inscr. better M. Dubois, Lettre de Vempereur Auguste aux in Bull, Cnidiens d. corr. StR, ii',2, 959, i). helUnique, 1883, p. 64 (Mommsen, Cn. Calpurnius Piso, consul Patris sui legatum atque 7 B.C. he is called by Tiberius amicum (Tacitus,Ann., iii,12). Nonius Asprenas. Suetonius, Aug., 56 : cum Asprenas Nonius artius ei junctus causam accusante Cassio Severo, diceret, veneficii,
consuluit
enim si quid officii sui putaret, cunctari se, ne sin deesset, destituere ac praedamsuperesset,eriperelegibus reum, amicum existimaretur. tivI nare Dio, Iv, 4 (9 B.C.): 01\"}i re dlK-q

investigation: TdXKip 'kaiviifrifi ^/tip0/Xif). L. in Philologus,ix, 169) ; ined., 312, 1. 11 (cp. A. Nauck

senatum,

tqvto TposTnKOivdiffas 0ei57OVTt trvve^TiTaffdyj,

ttj
cos.

kolI yepovffiq.,

iKeTv6v

ye ;

iiracre k.t.X. Perhaps

L. Nonius

cp. Teufiel, ifZ.G *, 267, 2 Tacitus, Ann., vi, 39 : Fine anni (a.d. 35) Poppaeus Sabinus. Poppaeus Sabinus concessit vita, modicus originis, principum amicitia consulatum

Asprenas (Eng. tr.).

suff. Kal.

Jul. (a.d. 6)

(a.d.9) ac triumphale decus (a.d.26 ; Attn., iv, annos 47) adeptus maximisque provinciis impositus,nulper xxiv 1am ob exiraiam erat ; artem, sed quod par negotiis neque supra on Ann., i, 80; iv, 46; vi, 39; xiii,45. cp. Nipperdey
D. foret

Junius

Silanus

in

nepti Augusti adulter,


ut amicitia

quamquam from

non

ultra

saevitum,

sibi demonstrari
20

quam intellexit

Caesaris
return

prohiberetur,exilium
exile until
a.d.

(he
:

did not

Ann., iii,24). ; Tac, Knights. Q. Dellius RG, above, and Drumann,


Cornelius infima
suae

cp.

Seneca,
64.

De

Clem., i, 10,

quoted

i, 391,
ad

232

C. 79 ;

praefecturam Aegypti (30 B.C.) ex Aug., 66). In 27 b.c. xUii aetatis provexerat (Suet., interfecit (Jerome) ; cp. Teufiel, RLG *, anno propria se manu (Eng. tr.). Cilnius Maecenas (died 8 B.C.); cp. Marquardt, Hist, eqq., p. *, 220, -6 (Eng. tr.). Teuffel, RLG
Gallus, quem
fortuna

62
C. Proculeius, brother
;

Appendices
of Maecenas' wife

[vol.
Terentia
;

Die, liv,

Tac,
mox

Ann.,

iv, 40

Haakh,
secreta

StRE,

vi,

86.

Sallustius

Crispus (died a.d.


cui

praecipuus

20), incolumi imperatorum

Maecenate proximi inniterentur" -aeb


vim

provecta speciem magis Ann., iii,30).


C. Matins
ex

in amicitia

quam principis

tenuit

(Ta
Hit Hii
16

ordine equestri eques R.


ex

d.

Augnsti amicus
d.

Nat. (Pliny,

xii, 13).
Vedius Pollio amicis

Augusti (Pliny,Naf.
parents, died

ix, 77, Tac,

B Ann., xii, 63). Son (Dio, liv, 23). Borghesi also refers the inscriptionCIL, ix, 15 P. f. Pollio Caesareum In (Beneventum) to him : P. Veidius Colon iae Beneventanae. Caesari et Augusto Lucilius Senators. Friends su of Tiberius. Longus (cos. illi tristium died omnium A.D. socius, 23) laetorumque 7, unusq Rhodii secessus comes e senatoribus (Tac, Ann., iv, 15), Cn. Cornelius Lentulus (Tac, Ann., i, 27, cp. iv, 29). Consul Cp. Nipperdey on Tac, Ann., iv, 44. B.C., died A.D. 25. of the Fulw Sentius Saturninus, husband Jewish prosel3rte Ant. Kalb : TijS^pios ("Troaiiiuilvei Jud., xviii, 3, 5 yb,p Josephus, ir/ iteXei airbv "pi\os 4"ouXou/as iviipiTicyKrf^ei """"'Sarovprnro! t^s 7Wai/C(is) rijs t6 'louSaiVii' Trav (A.D. 19). H. r^s Tw)U?;sd,TF"\adrivai fratri percarum in cohorte S. Vistilius praetorius,quern Druso transtulerat convictu commits suicii suam prohibitus, principis advanced at an age (a.d. 32 ; Tac, Ann., vi, 9). Cn. Calpurnius Piso (seeabove) writes before his death to Tib" ius : et parenti tuo probatus et tibi amicus (Tac, Ann., iii, 16). Sabinus Poppaeus (see above). 18 (Cn. Lentul L. Seius Tubero, brother of Sejanus, consul A.D. et S.T. intimi primores civitatis, ipsius amici, Tac, Ann., iv,2( ii, 20; v, 6). cp. Nipperdey, and M. Cocceius Nerva (son of the friend of Augustus, Haakh, StR, ii,473) Caesari famiharissimus (Pompon., Dig., i, 2, 2, 49) ; uni consulatu functus senator 22) accompanied Tiberius to Caprei (a.d. amicorum (Tac, Ann., iv, 58); proximus (died A.D. 33; Ta( Ann., vi, 26).
"

of freedmen

L.

Salvius

Otho

tam

carus

tamque

non

absimilis

facie Tiber

crederent ex eo principi fuit, ut plerique procreatum (Suetoi Suel succeeded He in the consulship (a.d.33; Otho, i). Galba Galba, 6). Cotta Maximus Messalinus. Nothing appears to 1 his official career 32 (cp. Nipperdey on Tac, Ann., ii, He in 32, but Tiberius accused was defence of him 1 sent a written the senate, repetito inter amicitiae se princip atque Cottam crebrisque ejus officiis commemoratis. StRE, vi, 2, 2356, 10 Henzen, Acta fr. Arv., p. 179. L. Pomponius Flaccus, consul 17, died 33, when legatus propra lore of Syria. Henzen, ib. 195. L. Calpurnius Piso pontifex, consul Aurelius
of

M.

known

died

in 32 biduum

at

the

age

of

15 B.C., city prefect, 17-3 eighty. Henzen, ib., p. 180. Suetoniu

Tiberius, 42
que

: cum

Pomponio Flacco et L. Pisone noctem continmm epulando potandoque consumpsit, quorum alte

VOL.

I.]

Appendices
amicos

63

Syriam provinciam, alteri praefecturam horarum jucundissimos et omnium


Rank uncertain. Sex.

urbis detulit, codicillis quoque professus. H. Marius ditissimus Hispaniarum

Kal wXovTT/iaas xai (Tac, Ann., vi, 39) ; 6 (pl\osairoO Kal dia tovto TOffovTov Svvridels (Dio, Iviii,22) ; defertur incestasse filiam et saxo Tarpeio deicitur (a.d.33 ; Tac, Ann., iv, 36).

tolerabilis poeta, notus Tiberii et et amicitia Julius Montanus frigore (Seneca,Epp., 122, 11) : perhaps the father of the senator Julius Montanus ", (died 56; Tac, Ann., xiii,25). Teuffel, RLG iv, 489, 18. 252. 13 (Eng. tr.) ; SIRE, L. Aelius Knights. Sejanus, praefectus praetorio a.d. 14i Tac, Ann., iv, Sueton., Tiber., 55 ; StRE, ; 31 cp. sq. and 59;

"'. 345.
Avilius
iv Tols

77-

p.

517 Curtius

Flaccus, prefect of Egypt 32-37. CIG, iii, p. 360 : iralpoLiKpidelsrapli, Ti^epiifi Kal"rapi. Philo, Leg. in Gai., M: tSiv itpwruv KpiBils (l"l'\uv irapa Ti^eplipKaljapt, ib., c. 19.
Atticus
to
unus

eques

Romanus

ex

illustribus

who

panied accom-

Capreae (Tac, Ann., iv, 58) ; Marino participi Atticum (ib., Sejanus Curtium vi, 10). oppresserat Vescularius Flaccus cui propior cum Tiberio usus eques Romanus erat (Tac, Ann., ii, 28). Vescularius Flaccus ad mortem ac Julius Marinus aguntur, e vetustissimis Rhodum et secuti famiUarium, apud Capreas individui (a.d. 32 ; Tac, Ann., vi, 10).
Strabo, xiii,2, 3 : (Theophanes of Mytilene) 6v ttjs ^A.ala.siwirpoTov KariaTTjaiiroTe Hop.TT'^top, MdKpov Kal vvv ^JertifeTai tuv Karirap0 ae^aarbs (c. A.D. 18) ii" roh Trpiirois of His the son .same "t"D".uv. illustris, Tipepiov name, eques Romanus died A.D. on Tac, Ann., vi, 19. 33 ; cp. Nipperdey C. Caesius C. Caesio sacrum Niger. CIL, vi, 2169 : Dis manibus

Tiberius

Pompeius
"

Macer.

vlbv

dTrAiTre

Q.f. Nigr.
Caesia C.

ex prima admissione 1. Theoris patrono et sibi. ex

quatuor
Mommsen

decuris says
:

Curio Titulus

Minor
cum

positus sit aetate Augusti vel Tiberii (nam C. Caesar quintam decuriam addidit), hunc Nigrum significatalteri utri fuisse amicum admissionis primae (cp. StRE, ii*, 834, 2). Drusi filiiGermanici, CIL, xiv, 3607.) comes (P. Plautius Pulcher
"

Friends of Gains Caesar. suff. under Tiberius, died Valerium stantia

Senators.
a.d.

Valerius

Asiaticus

cos.

primis amicis sapientis,18, 2).


ex

in

47 habebat

"

(Tac, Ann., xi, 3) ; Asiaticum consularem (Seneca, De Con-

(34) Syriae praepositus (Sueton., Vitell., dare iv toTs tt"vv "f"i\ots ".iiTbv 2). Recalled, ovtus avrov l\e"jjaaro, voixLaBrtvai (Dio, lix, 27) ; cos. ii 34, iii 47, censor 48, died 51,
consulatu
. . .

L. Vitellius

A.

Vitellius

L.

f., afterwards
aleae studium

emperor,

born

15,

Gaio

per

auri-

aliquanto per cos. acceptior (Sueton., Vitell., 48). 4; II 44). Schol. C. Passienus Juv., iv, 81 : Omnium Crispus (cos. sed praecipue [C] Caesaris, quern iter principum gratiam appetivit, iacientem est pedibus (Valla: Thyberium secutus [read Cajum] De schol. iter Caesarem facientem secutus est Matthias, : Alpes per Jtw., p. 26). Sertorius Macro Naevius (cp. Nipperdey on Tac, Knight.

gandi, Claudio

familiaris, sed

Neroni

64
Ann., vi, 15) is reckoned
Claudius.

Appendices
among p. Senators. friends Caligula's
219.

[vol.i.
by
Suetonius wards afterhis

(Calig.,26) ; Friends of

Hirschfeld, VG,

Ser.

SulpiciusGalba,
on

cos. receptusque emperor, 33, gratissimus Claudio Claudius amicorum (Sueton., Galba, 7). Accompanied

in cohortem

in 43. Britain expedition others who Three accompanied to

him

on

this

Hiibner, expedition(see
xvi, [1881,]p. 525) :
Caesar

Das

Heer in Britannien in Hermes, romische the friends of Gaius Valerius Asiaticus (cp.

above).
militia.

Tac,

Ann.,
L.

xi, 3

Asiatici

"

recenti

adversus

Britanniam

Octavia,
4,

to Junius Silanus, great-grandson of Augustus, betrothed Arval died brother Ann., 48, (Tac, praetor xii, 42, 49 3, 8 with Nipperdey's notes). Cn. Pompeius to Antonia, elder daughter of Magnus, betrothed

Claudius.
to

He Rome

and

Silanus

carried Both

the
were

news

of the

tain conquest of Bri-

(Dio, Ix, 21).

put

to

death

by

Claudius

(Suetonius,Claud.,
T. Claudi the Plautius

Plautius) cos.

Seneca, Apocol., 11). 27-29; Silvanus Aelianus (probably a nephew of Anlns suif. I 45 (B.)*, II in a year unknown, legat.et comes
in the

Caesaris

Britannia.

positionof
u",
2,

legaiipro
cos.

Orelli, 750 praetore as

CIL,
comites

xiv, 3608.
cp.

On

Hommsen,

SIR.
Cn.
nobiles

853,

Sentius viros. 5245


:
. .
.

5. Saturninus per

(Britannia)
IRN,
Caesaris ad sel. PauUus
amicum
.

devicta

Cn.

41 according to Eutropius, vii, 13 : Sentium et A. Plautium, illustres ac also refers to


a comes
. . .

(= CIL, ix, 2847)


civ.
. . .

in this expedition

id.
. . .

regi
. .

sac.

flam. ad
. . .

patric. leg.
in Hiberia

pro
. .

Claudi
. . .

in

Britannia
.

ro

pr.

ornamenta

triumph.
cos.

Fabius
meum

Persicus

34.

He

is called nobilissimum
on

virum,
of the
to death

by

Claudius

in his

speech

the

jus

honorum p. 186.

Gauls, col ii,1. 24 ed. Nipp.


Seneca,

Henzen,
as

Acta

fr. arv.,

Apocol.,13
:

names

friends

of consular

rank

put
15

by

Claudius

(Q. Eutetius)

Lusius

Saturninus,
in
a

cos.

sufi. between

and

17

(B.). Pompeius

Pedo

cos.

year

unknown.

Cornelius Lupus cos. Celer cos. Ser. Asinius Lusium Satuminum, 9d. passage. P. Suillius prospere,

suff. 42 kal. Jul. (B.). suff. 44 kal. Jul. (B.) ; cp. SiRE, Cornelium Lupum circumventos
;

i', 1867,
"

Suillio
on

(Rufo) objectabant (Tac, Ann., xiii,43


Eufus
cos.

cp.

Nipperdey
Claudi

the diu

suff.
usus

46

kal.

Jul.(B.).

amicitia

nunquam

bene

{Ann., iv, 31), in

insulas

Baleares

(58 ; Ann., xiii,43). pellitur L. Vitellius (seeabove) formidine


turpe
L.
in servitium mutatus

C. Caesaris, familiaritate

Claudi

Vitellius
on

and

Caecina
to

Claudius

the

journey

(Tac, Ann., vi, 32). Largus (cos. a.d. 42). Accompanied Ostia (a.d. 48 ; Tac, Ann., xi, 33). ejus (consequently before
his acces-

A. Vitellius (seeabove). vetus Petronius con victor


I

Borghesi,Fasti consulates.

66
M. Salvius

Appendices
Otho,
afterwards

[vou

i.

(born 32), flagrantissimus Galba, 19) ; ; Plutarch, Deicitur Otho, locum tenuit inter amicos 2). (Sueton., summum et et comitatu Otho, familiaritate sueta, post congressu provinciae Lusitaniae ; provinciam administravit praeficitur(in 58, Tac, /.;.) (Suet., Otho, 3). quaestorius per decern annos Athenis Nerone Lucanus a M. Annaeus (born 39) revocatus etiam additus quaestura honoratus atque cohortique amicorum Vita Lucani). in Suetonius, tamen non (died ; 55 gratia permansit father of the Montanus Curtius Montanus, tioned poet men(probably and the 28 latter in Tac, Ann., xvi, 33 ; cp. Nipperdey on iUe luxuriam and Juvenal, iv, 136 : noverat p. 68 below). passage imperii veteris noctesque Neronis. Burrus Afranius Knights. praef. praet. from 51 (Tac, Ann., died in Tacitus 62 (Ann., xiv, 51). The xii, 42, cp. 69) ; passage of the city gossip at the time (Ann., xiii, 6), giving the substance
emperor
in

amicitia

Neronis

(Ann., xiii,46, cp.

12

"

when

the

Parthian
:
"

war

was

imminent,
tamen et

shows

that

he

was

one rerum

of the
ex-

friends

of Nero

Burrum
daturum

Senecam

multarum

honestis an secus plane documentum, amicis invidia si pecunioamota uteretur, si ducem egregium, quam et gratia subnixum sum deligeret. per ambitum Sofonius Neronis nactus Tigellinusalendis equis amicitiam (Schol. Juv., i, 155) ; intimis libidinibus adsumptus (Tac, Ann., xiv, 51) ; died 69 ; cp. Hirschfeld, VG, up to 62 praef.vigilum then praetorii,

perientiacognitos

14. p. 221, Senecio Claudius

adolescentulus Otho
took to

decorus,
Nero's in the

liberto

Caesaris Acte
etiam

patre

genitus, in 55 privy with Ann., xiii,12). In 65 he

amour

with

(Tac,
e

part

Pisonian

: conspiracy

praecipua retinens (Ann.,

familiaritate
xv,

Neronis

speciem

amicitiae

turn

50).
amicitia Neronis

Cossinus, eg. R. Hist., xix, 93).


Friends II Galba

principisnotus
Vinius Galbae
Acta. of Galba.

(PUny,
cos.

Nat. with

Senators. T. of Galba. (69)and put to death with him. tum tractus (Tac, Hist., i, 48 ; Henzen, three The also friends following were M.
osculo In of
a

Rufinus
amicitia

in

abrup200).

fr. Arv.,
ut

p.

Salvius

Otho.

Mane

Galbam

salutavit

atque

consueverat,
to the choice

e.^iceptus(Sueton., Otho, 6). addition to Vinius and Laco, Galba


successor,

consulted,
xv,

as

Marius
COS.

Celsus

(cp.Nipperdey
and
cos.

on

Tac, Ann., Nero,

25 ; Hist.,i,71), urbi under

kal.

Jul. 69,

Ducennius
Galba.

Geminus,
Cornelius

under

praefectus

praef. praet. (Tac, Hist., i, 14 ; Plutarch, Galba, 29), although he is nowhere friend : Hirschfeld, p. 221, as expressly a 7. Pompeius Longinus. Tac, Hist., i, 31 : pergunt etiam in castra praetorianorum tribuni Cetrius Severus, Subrius Dexter, Pompeius
Sueton., Galba,
14 ; spoken of

Knights.

Laco

Longinus quia non

"

milites
ordine et

suo principi

manibus Longinum coercent sed Galbae e [provectus], desciscentibus erat. H, suspectus


"

exarmantque,
amicis fidus

militiae

VOL

I.]
e

Appendices
Senators.

6']

Friends oj Otho. Hist.,i, 48 : multos

L. Vitellius, suff. 48. Tac, cos. consularium magistratibus, magnam partem Otho belle (Mommsen, StR, ii*, non aut ministros participes 2, 853, 5), sed comitum specie secum expedire jubet ; in quibus et Lucium Vitellium, eodem cultu, nee ut imperatorisfratrem nee quo ceteros ut hostis. Marium habuit
6 oZ 6^

Celsum

cos.

des.

(seeabove)
"

statim

inter intimos

amicos

(Tac, Hist., i, 71).


Paullinus
cos.

Suetonius
;

suif. k.

Mart.

42, II 66.

Thv K^Xtroi' koX Trepi Licinius the soldiers Vitellius.


or

Ilai'XXti'oi' ^XAws

Plutarch, Otho, i^eiXKovroffvfi^o6\ti)v "vofm.


familiaritate

Knights.
chosen

Proculus succeed Senators.

"

intima
as

Othonis,

by

to

Laco

praef. praetorio (Tac,


Cluvius than Rufus

Hist., i, 46; Hirschfeld, p. 221).


Friends

of

M.
later

(cos.
omissa

under

Caligula, certainly B.) 41. Hispania (in70) comitatui principis adjectusest (Tac, Hist.,ii,65). C. Silius Italicus cos. 68 in amicitia Vitellii (Pliny,Epp., T. Catius him with Flavins Sabinus consulted iii, 7),who in his conversations and Cluvius Rufus (Tac, Hist., iii, 65).
C. Fabius Valens Alienus and
coss. are

Tiberius

A. Caecina
the

kal.
to

Sept. 69 (B.).
as ac

It is clear from

Tac,
variis

Hist.,ii,92 that both

be considered

friends Valens

of Vitellius in obibant
"

specialsense
aut

munia

imperiiCaecina
inclinationibus.

in hunc

ilium

ViteUii

nee

unquam

satis

fida

potentia, ubi nimia est. simul ipsum Vitellium subitis offensis aut contemnebant intempestivis blanditiis mutabilem metuebantque, domos hortos nee eo segnius invaserant imperii. opesque Vibius Crispus (see under a regular Vespasian and Domitian) was of to Vitellius Dio, 2. Ixv, according table-companion Antonius in Friends M. Primus oj Vespasian. Senators. 61 condemned for forgery (Tac, Ann., xiv, 40), in 70 senatorium himself to Vespasian (Hist., ii, ordinem recuperaverat, attached and received the consular (Hist.,iv, 4) ; sed pauUatim 86), insignia in tamen levior viUorque haberi, manente speciem amicitia (Hist., iv, 80). Cp. Martial, x, 23 and, Giese, De personis a Martiale
commemoraiis,
T. Clodius Vibius p. 5 S.. M. Eprius Marcellus reverentia
et

Crispus, nunc principe cum quadam

principes in

Caesaris

amicitia

"

ab

ipso

diliguntur (Tac, Dial., 8) ; both suff. in 61 (Borghesi, CEuvr., iv, 536). were coss. C. Licinius Mucianus ter consul (Borghesi, j6., iv, 345),I before 67, II 70, III 72. Henzen, Acta fr. Arv., p. 190. aed. cur. T. Rutilius Varus com. imperato[r.] q. divi Vespasiani, Orelli, CIL, x, 1258. 3440
"

Knights.
Misenum.
Otacilius

C. Plinius
Distentus

Secundus
"

impeditusque
2004,

79 prefect of the ^amicitia principum in


=

fleet at

(Pliny,

Epp., iii,5).
Sagitta. Murat.,
ad Vanacinorum
meum

Vespasiani

CIL, x, 2, 8038 (Epistula [gentis Corsicanae] magistratus et


2

senatores a. p. C. 72 IIII amicum et procuratorem

id. Octobr. Sagittam : Otacilium scripta) ut testimonium ita vobis praefuisse,

68
vestrum

Appendices
mereatur,
delector. On the document cp.

[vol.i.
Mommsen,

SiR,
Ti.

ii', 1127,

I.

Provinces, Eng. tr., ii, Roman (Mommsen, Julius in the adviser Titus expedition against as 246 n.) accompanied Kal iriye"nv cUvoidv Tipipios'AX^foKre Jerusalem : (plXuv 5i SoKiiulrraTos
Alexander

HTfiaTeviiiTav dpos,vp"Tcpov fiivairbs ttji' MyvvTov dUiroif, rdre Si rwv riji' "pTi riye/iovlav S)V iyeipo/iivriv iSe^iiiaaro iS A^ios irparos "PXWV, Kpidels Bell. (Josephus, iriffTeas t^ rixairpoaiBiTO ^? ad-qXav KoX ixerk Xa/iirpSs

Jud.,

V.

I, 6.

H.).
Titus. None known

Friends

of

except

the

elder

Pliny (cp.

Suetonius, Titus, 7). Friends of Domitian.


venale
:

advisers consulars
in

CEuvr., v, 513 summoned by


:

Senators. from concludes


Domitian

Gioa Borghesi, Annot. that all the Juvenal, iv, 72 (except the two prefects) were

quorum
ac

83, maria
to

proceres quos oderat ille ; ergo in concilium sedebat facie miserae paUor amicitiae ; cp. magnaeque utilior ? ing Accordterras populosque regenti quis comes
vocantur

interestingconjecture (Rhein. Mus., xxxix, 283), of reminiscence a Juvenal's description of this cabinet council was de Chattis bello Germanico Statius' De aUquid tor(147,tanquam visque Sygambris dicturus) of which Valla's scholia to Juvenal, iv, preserved four lines (Jahn, Rhein. Mus., ix, 627 and Biiche94 have The ler as above. (the following took part in the conversation order is as given by Juvenal) : viUcus urbi) qui temporis Vespositus modo Pegasus (attonitae sequently, Conurbi fuit. RLG*, Teuffel, 316, i, Eng. tr. pasiani praefectus for time under the second Domitian. he was city prefect only a prefecture. H.] [Borghesi, CEuvres, ix, p. 269, assumes above and Vibius Borghesi, p. 520). Statius, l.l.: Crispus (see mitis prudentia Crispi. Cp. Veiento. Nestorei M'. Acilius Glabrio cos. perhaps under Claudius or Nero, p. 521 :
Biicheler's
,

Statius, l.l.:
of the
same

et
name

prope
cos. cos.

Caesareae
91.

confinis Acta
521

Acilius

aulae. p. 175.

His

son

Rubrius

Gallus

under

Henzen, Nero, p.
on

fr. Arv.,
ff.
cos.

perhaps T. Junius [Rather (accordingto Nipperdey


Montanus,
of the Curtius Montanus Cn. mentioned

Montanus

Tac,
there

Ann.,

suff. 81, p. 523. xvi, 33) the father

Pompeius, perhaps
unknown,
L.

Pompeius
cos.

Ferox

and in chap. 28. Licinianus cos. ;

H.]
year

p. 524 f. Valerius Messalinus,


cos.

A. Fabricius Veiento, Index Plinianus.


Veiento
"

73 under

and Domitian
; for both
see

sen, MommFabius

Statius

/./.:

prudentia Crispi

et

imter memores ^potentem signat utrumque purpura, therefore fastos, according to whom plerunt nomine Crispus (inhis second Fabius The Mommsen Caesaris

consulship)

and

Veiento

were

colleagues. Biicheler

takes

as an appellative(the prudent). : following are also known


"

Velius

PauUus,
as

under

Domitian
31,

proconsul
cum comes war

of

Bithynia.

See

above the

armis not

; Martial, ix, The Velius, etc.

here

haereret Arctois is the to referred


comes

Sarmatian,
understood

Dacian technical

perhaps, however,
sense.

is not

to be

in the

VOL.

I.]
Arrecinus Clemens

Appendices
(consularem,unum
consul
e

69
familiaribus
et emis-

M.

sariis suis, Sueton.,

Domit., ii) ;

I 73, under

Domitian

II

der J. 68(B.). Hirschfeld, pp. 222, 3. Asbach, Consularfasten 96, in Bonner Jahrbucher, Ixxix (1885),p. 149. Palfurius filius a Vespasiano senatu motus Sura, consularis
"

abusus exercuit Festus. C.

familiaritate

Domitiani in
10 :

(Marius

Maximus

acerbissime Schol. Juv., iv, Caesar

partes

delationis

53).
erat.
cos.

Martial, i, 78,
Rantius
v,

hujus

amicus

Perhaps
sufi.

Calpetanus Borghesi,CEuvres,
nonia

Valerius Quirinalls

Festus

62.

Cp. CIL,

v,

531
216.

leg.Aug.
etc.

71. pr. pr. of Panas

Siudien, 1882, p. (73). Wiener leg.Aug. Tarrac. 79/80, CIL, ii,2477,


p.
110.

Tacitus, Hist., iv, 49.


Asbach

4799,

above,

Cornelius Fuscus Knights. praef. praet. (Hirschfeld, 223, 25) and Crispinus,according to Borghesi (p.573-6) perhaps his colleague. Cp. Hirschfeld, p. 223, 26. L. Verginius Rufus, born Friends of Nerva. 63, 69, 97, 15, cos. end towards incolumem reUquit
1. 3 ; cp.

died

of 97.
Ind.

Caesares, quibus suspectus f uerat,

evasit

optimum

atque

amicissimum both

(Pliny,Epp., ii,
Veiento and Ind.

Mommsen,

Plin.).
Fabricius of Nerva L.

According to Phny were Junius Mauricus Plin.). Friends of Trajan.

(Epp., iv, 22),


friends Senators.
i, ut in

(cp. Mommsen,
Neratius Priscus
sane cos.

83
fuit

(cp.Teuffel, RLG
Trajano
Mommsen id animi

*, 342,
fuisse amicis

Eng. tr.). Frequens


N.P. Hadrianum non hoc consentientibus

opinio
successorem

rehnqueret,multis
on

(Vita Hadr.,4;

CIL, ix, 2454-5). L. Licinius Sura, cos. before 98 (Asbach, p. 158), 102, 107. Dio, Vita. Hadr., 3. Ixiii,15. Victor, Caes., 13, 8. Dio, Ixiii,16. Q. Sosius Senecio cos. 99, 102, 107. A. and Cornelius Palma, cos. Asbach, Consularfasten 99 109. d. J. 96-119, in Bonner ahrbiicher ,hadi (1882), J Inscription p. 13. his statue in the Forum, on CIL, vi, 1386. His statue (as governor of Asia about Anthol. Pal., xvi, 35. 115) set up by the Carians. Frohner, Krit. Analekien (Philologus,Supptband, v, 70). L. PubhUus Celsus II S^ Kal cos. Dio, Ixviii,16: larrja-e 113.
rod
Tuv

^OfTtriov S.\\iai"

tov

re

UdXfiov Kal
:

rod

KAffou

eUdvas.
were

oOrti:

irov

aiiToi'^

That irpocrlnria-e. Vita

the
ut

two

last

shown

a by Hadr., 3 Trajano esse, ab amicis Trajani contemni Palma 4 : in adoptionis sponsionem venit

Sura

Trajan comperit adoptandum se


desiit
et Celso
ac

friends

of

is
a

neglegi ;

cp.

inimicis

semper

suis.

Further,

C. Avidius Nigrinus cos. under Trajan and Lusius Quietus cos. 115, who executed were together with Celsus and Palma

Dio, Ixix, 2)
T.

were

no

doubt

also

friends

of

(Vit.Hadr., Trajan.

7;

consularis Junius OmuUus, according to an inscription of in Vita Alex. mentioned Ser., Nemausus, is no doubt the HomuUus Titius friend of iv, as a 65, 9, 15 wrongly Trajan (in PUny, Epp., Ind. Plin., s.v. HomuUus). Borghesi HomuUus; cp. Mommsen,

7o
CEuvres, viii, 416.

Appendices
(M.
Valerius

[vol.i.
ord. 151 des
;

HomuUus

cos.

cp. CIL.

ii, 3415.
L.

H.)
cos.

Dasumius
to

about

100

(Waddington,
been
and
one

Pastes
him
a

asiatiques, 119,
as

120), may
his will he

have

of

the from

friends
an

of

provinces Trajan,
estate of

according
value

perhaps

received

the

of 6,000,000

sesterces

certainlyleft him

legacy (Test.

RechtsDasum.,l. 85-87 and 125, ed. JiudorS, Zeitschr. J. geschichtl. wiss., xii, 370 G., 389 ff. ; CIL, vi, 10229). Dacicum TraVit.Hadr., 3) ad bellum di Adr., AdI, Jnscr. Onor. Henzen, janum familiaris prosecutus. 1863, 150 (PMlologus, xix, 358) : quaestori imperatoris Trajani et comiti ab eo bis. donato expeditionis Dacicae, donis militaribus Hadrianus

(Dio, Ixix,

i ;

consuli

(CIL, iii,1463 : leg. Aug. pontif.)according to the inscriptionon the great Pyramid the probable reading is : (CIL, iii,21), where
"

D.

Terentius

Gentianus

Scauriauus

Scit

Decimi Gentiani nomen pyramis alta pontificis comitisque tuis,Trajane, triumphis lustra
sex

intra censoris

consulis

esse.

Otherwise

Mommsen,
2.

''.577.
Dacia
him to

sub

rescriptto
be

Ephem. epigr.,iv, 28, but as above in StR, iii, CIL, Cp. (Feb. 17th, no) : sunt in p. 688 Dxxv and D. Terentio xlvii, 21, i (Hadrian's Scauriano, Dj'g'g'., him in 119). Asbach, Consularfasten 96-119, p. 47 takes
also
a son

of the

Terentius

Scaurus

in

Pliny, Epp.,
one

v,

12.

[He

subsequently incurred
he

the

suspicions of

Hadrian,

of whose Pom-

friends

probably

was.

Knights. Pompeius peium Plantam, praefectum


Mommsen,
Ind.

Vit. Hadr., 23. H.] Ad Planta. Plinium, Tra.ja.n,

y.

Aegypti,

amicum

meum

(ib.,10).

Hirschfeld, VG, 270, 3. H. Friends in Vit. Hadr., 15. of Hadrian ; for the most part mentioned Senators. in Vit. Hadr., 8: senatores optimos quosque contubernium adscivit. StR, ii',^91, majestatis Cp. Mommsen,
2.

Plin.

III

Servianus, Hadrian's brother-in-law, cos' II 102, in killed of the Ind. Plin. at 136 134, 90 ; cp. Mommsen, age L. Catilius Severus II 120, cos. Syriae praepositus (Vit.Hadr.,
L.

Julius Ursus

5) praef. u. qui sibi praeparabat imperium, qua re prodita dignitate above. as privatus est; ib., 24; cp. Mommsen L. (Neratius) Maroellus, brother of L. Neratius Priscus, cos. 129, forced by Hadrian to commit suicide (Vit.Hadr., 15) ; Mommsen,
Ind.

Plin.

C. Ummidius

Quadratus,
p.
and
202. cos.

cos.

suff. 118.
later

Mommsen,

ib.

Henzen,
Hadrian and

Acta
A.

fr. Arv.,
Platorius

Nepos,
23
;

sufif. 119,

suspected by
p.

Hadr., 15 (Vit. Sosius Pappus.


T. Atilius nidis
to et

cp. Henzen,
had

Acta been

fr. Arv.,
intimate

194)
with

Both

already
cos.

Hadrian

during Trajan's reign.


Rufus Titianus
est
was

127.

Titianum

ut conscium

argui passus
Pii,

et

proscribi (Vit. Hadr.,


not

Vit. Anton.

7, he

Lebas-Waddington, 1619. He : Lanciani, Le acque, brandini)

condemned till this had villa a at Antium p. 304.

tyran15). According emperor'sreign.


Aldo(Villa

VOL.

I.]
Statius before

Appendices
Quintius Statianus divi Hadriani 150 [B.])
7420a
=

71
Macrinus
comes cos.

T. Caesernius Antoninus Pius

(under
ante

in oriente

quaesturam.
Voconius. amici sui C. Licinius

Henzen,

CIL,
11 :

viii, 7036.
divus Hadrianus
ranlc
cum

Apuleius, Apol.,
poetae
Voconius tumulum

Voconi

versibus raised

muneraretur,
to senatorial

etc.

Perhaps

by Trajan ; Ind. Plin. and Teuffel,RLG*, 346, 5 (Eng. tr.,341, 2). cp'.Mommsen, Hadrian's Attianus, once Knights. guardian and already his friend in Trajan's reign (Vit.Hadr., 4, 5 and 9),with Plotina and Matidia Cum to Rome. Attianum ex conveyed Trajan's remains ornamentis faceret consularibus praefecto praetorii praeditum nihil se conferri posset senatorem, amplius habere quod in eum ostenderit in occisorum necem [ib.,8) ; consularium quattuor consilia Attiani refundebat amicissimos hostium (ib., 9) ; postea loco habuit ut Attianum (ib.,1.5). In 119 he compelled liim to resign when praef. praet. (cp. Hirschfeld, 225, 32). Ti. Claudius Livianus, prefect under Trajan in the first Dacian
" "

Romanus,

war

10

1/2 and
Turbo Pronto
office

Q.
and

Marcius read

Publicius,appointed praef. praet.


in

119,

apparently
"

still in

135. p.

In

Vit. Hadr.,
:

we

should

probably
tempore
tutoris

(with Hirschfeld,
Hadrianus

224)
"

utebatur

amicitia

ex

expeditionis Parthicae Attiani, equestri(ordine)

sui, et Liviani quondam [et] Turbonis. C. SepticiusClarus, in iig appointed to succeed Turbo's colleague Similis as praef.praet., deprived of office 121. Ind. Cp. Mommsen,
Plin. Pius. Senators. M. Valerius Homullus of Antoninus HomuUi multa COS. joca semper patienter accepit (Vit. 151 ; cujus Aurelius Anton. P., 11). He opposed the adoption of Marcus (Vit. See also above. M. Anton., 6). Henzen, Acta fr. Arv., p. 199. Friends Senators. M. Cornelius of the two Augiisti.'friend of Antoninus Fronto, cos. 143, perhaps already a Pius, in any his successor, case although there is no express testimony ; cp. Teuffel, RLG*, (Eng. tr.). 355 P. Salvius Julianus bis consul (ord.148, suff. in the last years of Antoninus or later), (Vit.Did. Jul., i). Salvii praef.u. et ICtus of the Divi in Dig., xxxvii, Fratres Juliani amici nostri (rescript Teuflfel, RLG^, pr.). Cp. (Eng. tr.). 350, 14, 17 1-4 last years, II 162. Q. Junius Rusticus cos. I in Hadrian's Rescriptumdivorumfratrum ad Junium Rusticum amicum nostrum, praef. urbi (Digg., xlix, i, i, 3). Teuffel, RLG^, 358, 3 (Eng. tr.). [M. Pontius Laelianus Larcius Sabinus (cos.163) sodalis Antonidonis militarib. nianus Verianus divi Veri comes Aug. donatus divo Vero ab et bello Armeniaco Parthico Antonino et a imp. Aug. Aug.] Orelli, 3186. The fragment [comes] Antonini Aug. et L. Veri bello Germanic, item comes Imp. Antonini Aug. Germanici Sarmatici has been wrongly combined with the above inscription.
" " " " "

Friends

Cp. Borghesi,AdI,
M.

1855, p.

JalliusM.

f. Bassus

25. Fabius

Valerianus

cos.

leg.Aug. pr. pr.]provinc. Pannoniae


1 Et omavit

inferioris curator

praef. [aer oper. publ.


. . .

Verum quidem Marcus Capuam usque prosecutus amicis comitaatibus additis oMciorum omnium principibus{Vit.M. Anton., 8).
,

seaatu

72

Appendices

[vol.i.

(i6i ; CIL, vi, iiigb) [leg.Augg. pr. pr. prov.] Mysiae inferior, Par-. Augustorum (between i6i and 169; CIL, iii,6169) comes (Alba Helvorum). xii, 2718 CIL, sq. ?]. e]x[peditionis [th]i[c]a[e adfinis ? Aug]ustorum (Marci Pollio T. Vitrasius [cos. II 176 et Commodi) comes [M. Antonini et L. Ver]i Augg. expedi[tionis et Com]modi Augg. expedit. item comes [M. Antonini Germ]anicae donatus donis etc.] s[odalis bis m[ilit. Germ[anicae Sar]maticae Annii Flaviae Fausti]nae (filiae maritus A[nniae Antoninianus] HirschHenzen, Libonis 128 patrui imp. Marci), etc. 5477 ; cos.
"

."

feld, VG,

Julius
two amicum

227. Verus

emperors
suum

Syria. 163/165 per Jul. Verum


leg. pr. pr.
of

street

restored

under

the

impendiis

Abilenorum

leg. pr. pr. provinc. Syr.et (CIL, iii,199).


.

Amicus ICtus. noster Maecianus in L. Volusius Knights. of the Divi Fratres a rescript (Dig.,xxxvii, 14, 17 pr.) Put to death Alexandreae praef. Aegypti or juridious (Vit. by the army 175 when der sacks. Ges., iii, Abhandl. 282. TeufAvid. Cass. 7). Mommsen, fel, RLG *, 360 7 (Eng. tr., 360, 8). Hirschfeld, p. 227. M. Pontius Senators. Laelianus Verus. Friends of Lucius Antoninianus Verianus sodalis Sabinus Larcius cos. comes (163)
"

Armeniaco et Parthico donis militarib. Veri Aug. donatus Aug. et a divo Vero Aug. (OreUi,3186 ; see above). imp. Antonino Aur. Antonino in Oriente gestis E. Napp, De rebus imperatore M. (Bonn, 1879), p. 69. divi Veri Aug. donatus Fronto M. Claudius cos. (c.170 [B.])comes ab imperatore Antonino et Parthico donis militarib. bello Armeniaco murali item vallari item aurea item Aug. et a Divo Vero Aug. corona IIII hastis puris IIII item vexillis Henzen, 5478 CIL, vi, 69, Napp, 5. ; 1377 p. Statius T. Caesernius Quinctianus (son of Quinctius Macedo friend of the same Hadrian's cos. name) co[mes divi Veri] per Orienof the inscription, tem Henzen, ; according to Borghesi's restoration CIL, V, I, 865 ; Napp, p. 75 if. 6502 Tullus of Trajan's friend L. L. Dasumius Tuscus, adopted son and of holder under Antoninus Dasumius, important positions Aurelius. Marcus Borghesi, CEuvres, vi, 429 ; Henzen, 6051 (cp. Tusco P. f. Stel. Tullio 6922 and CIL, iii,i, 4117) : L. Dasumio comiti comiti 1188 Verba etc. cos. : Wilmanns, August, auguri, in Orieucum Aug." postea addita sunt ; fuit fortasse Veri comes, tem proficisceretur. Friends of Marcus Aurelius. Senators. C. Fulvius Bruttius
divi ab bello
=
. . .

"

Praeseus Proculus Commodi Mtircianus

C.f.M'.

Valerius

Maximus

Pompeius
"

L. Valens

Cornelius

cos. Aquilius (153, II 180) socer imp. [Caes. sodalis Antonin[ianus Verianus] Aug. sodalis]HadrianaUs comes impp. Anto[nini et Commodi Augg.] expeditionis Sarmaticae praef. u. ? Henzen, 5488 ; ib.. Acta Jr. Arv., p. 187. C. Aufidius of of Victorinus, son-in-law Fronto, fellow-pupil Marcus Aurelius (Vii. M. Anton., 3), cos. II 183, irAToS Mdp/tou ii" irdvu Tiii7i$el5 Tois (Dio, Ixxii, ii), praef. u., died 186. Henzen, Acta, p. 178. Seius Puscianus, also a fellow-pupil of Marcus Aurelius, cos. II 188 (Vit. Commod., 12),a strict praef. urb. {Vit. Pertinac, 4).

Veiento

74
Kaibel, epigy. Gr., 441
: tidis)
"

Appendices
(second
or

[vol.i.
cent.,
in

third

vico

Trachoni-

4 8

r' iriffTOTiTOV paaiKcvaiv, d/tM/i^Toi6


Ka"rbs ^oiv ^'T8\bs afJ.6fj[,ovos ^acrtXTjos
:

iirdpxov
dirdciii'.

CIL, viii, 597


ano c.
V

(prov. Byzacena)
adlecto inter

iunio

Faustino
nu.

ado
sacerdoti to

Postumi-

COS.

cowites

Augg.
Aurelius

etc. titiali,

"The between of the

person
the

referred
age

to, who

seems

be

/laviali known, entirelyun-

hved
at

of M.

and

Aurelian, probably

the

end

third

century."
Clarissimxjs p. 133, 1.
as a

XII.

The

use

of

Viz

Senatorial

Title.

(Vol. I,
In
an

II.) gradually
rank.
2 : annua sense.

the

course

of the

first

century vir clarissimus


of

became
It
cou-

established whether

official

title

persons

of

senatorial

is
As

doubtful

clarissimi

in Seneca

(Brev. Vit., 8,
to be taken

giariahomines J. N3,udet {De


it first occurs year 3115

clarissimi la noblesse
an

accipiunt)is

in this

chezlesRomains,
are

1863, p.
two in
a

72,

i)has observed,
consulta
of the

as

title in unquestionable
Ber. der sdchs. Ges.,
cos.

senatus

56, which, ; Mommsen,


Geta
was

it is true,

only preserved
clarissimis

singlecopy
=

(Orelli,
x,

1852, p. 272

CIL,
since

Hosidio latest

et L.
at

Vagellio
who

viris) ;

the

1401 ment docu-

found
set up

Herculaneum,

under to be in
a

Vespasian,
document
471,
a

it must have been perhaps ordered the two

prepared
senatus

at

sulta con-

in all the of the

Italian year

(Mommsen, 69 {CIL, x, 7852,


Domitian

cities

p.

276).

larly Simi-

SIR, iii,I,
have

(praef.Silvae, iii, 94) rank) splendidissimum of Naples juvenem,' and (praef.Silvae, iv, 95) Julius Menecrates (son-in-lawof Pollius Felix) who could not have been of higherthan the other on hand, equestrian rank, splendidum juvenem ; Plotius Grypus (who was is a nem.' senator) only majoris gradus juveCertainly he speaks in the following terms of Vettius, Crispinus (alsoa senator) : sic te, clare puer, genitum sibi curia "ensit; but it is clear from Suetonius (Galba, 14 : quosdam claros ex utroque ordine viros) that clarus may be taken merely as a complimentary ad Stertinium epithet. In Martial, praef. ix (a.d.94) epigramma there is clarissimum denote doubt that the words virum, no (cos.92) a title. (In Quintilian,i, 7, 29, where Bonnell reads : et clarissimos et consules littera legimus, the reading is extremely geminata eadem The first writer, who doubtful.) unquestionably so uses it, is the in confidential with an equal communication a Pliny, not younger in rank, but in writing to an inferior (Suetonius) : tribunatum, Neratio a Marcello, clarissimo viro, impetravi tibi (Epp., iii, quem clarissimi consules 8) ; {Epp., vii, 33), in an of"cial address in the senate Murena tribunus ; similarly,et statim : permitto tibi,vir clarissime Veiento, dicere {Epp., ix, 13) and Cornuto pro coUega meo viro TertuUo, clarissimo {Panegyr., 90) ; also, providentissime, domine, fecisti quod praecepisti Calpurnio Macro, clarissimo viro (correspondence with Trajan, epp. 56 and 67, ed. Keil ; 61 and 77 ed. in an of the early years of TraMommsen). Similarly, inscription
senators.

been

2). But even standing title of


Celer

under

13 ; Mommsen, it does not seem to


'

Statius

about

calls Maecius

(of senatorial

'

'

'

"

VOL.

I.]
and Antoni
of and

Appendices
Henzen,
is called 5404
=

75
CIL,
v,

jan's reign,Orelli, 784


pronepos
documents

i, 34,

where

viii,2532)
471, 2) ; called c.i. in the

puer) ; in c.p. (= clarissimus the year 101 {CIL. vi, 1492) under Hadrian {CIL, Antoninus Pius {CIL, v, 532 ; Mommsen, StR, iii, i,
in
=

Felicis

the

juristL.

(=

Fulvius Aburnius Valens clarissimus juvenis), Orelli, 3153


consiiltum de
=

the

year the

118

is
;

CIL,

vi, 1421
year

senatus

nundinis

salius

Begiiensis of

138 {Eph. Epigr.,ii,273


Africanus Hadrian's
her
of
TTiv

CIL,

viii,270), the petitionerLucihus

is called

c.v.

(=

clarissimus also

time)
same

on

the

poetess Julia Balbilla


;
a

vir). An inscription (of (Tauromenium) calls


of senate

\aij.irpoTd.rnv {CIG, 5404)


title to
a

decree

and
the

people

givesthe

family JalliusBassus, cos. before 161 ; Bruzza, Bull, munic. di R., 1883, p. 138 ; cp. Letronne, Rec. des inscr.,u, pp. 350-367). By the side of XafiirpoTaroi, which correctly (at least till the end of the second 1 century) was only used for senators (cp. e.g. CIG, 3499, 3979), was at first in use for both senators and knights.^ Kpina-Tos tSiv Se^aimi;', Knights : CIG, 2790 : r. 'loiXiov H\nnrov (^MTpoirov CIG, d-jrd i-iriTpoirui'. lb., 9233) T^v KpdTiffTOi/ Tar^pa, (rvyK\riTiKov rod 3497 : rbv Lebas-Waddington, MTpowov Se/3a(rToOi KpcLTiffTov "ir6 iirtTpdTOjv. 1385 : T-j)U KpaTiaTrfi/ yuvaiKa tou Kpariarov dovKTjvapiov^ Senators : o-fo t$ KpaHtrTip $X. Lpvavnavip iriryKXT/TiKiJ) (Neubauer, Comment, to the yepovaia epigr. [69],p. 32). In a letter of Hadrian of Ephesus in the year 120 (C. Curtius, Ephes. Insclir. in Hermes, in another and iv, 178 : KopfeXiip11pei(rKcp tw KpaTiffTtp ".v6vTvaTi^', letter of his to Stratonicea-Hadrianopolis in the year 127 {Bull,de corr. Jiell"n.j'xi, 1887) ; t^ KpaTia-TC^ "v6vTrdT(p Sreprti/fy KovapeivtpKal ri^ Cp. the inscriptions iTnTpl)ir\fp.ov Mop.-wrfiif'Leouripif. (date unknown) in ? dvyaripaTi/3,KX. "Bp/ieiou Hermes, iv, p. 194 : 'KKa.uUav 2[w(riirdTpa"']
OiraTiKov Kal AlKlas XletdLdSos Ttjt KpaTiffTTjs vTaTUCTJsddeK^qv Xa/iTrpoTdrou Qeojvidos tQu KparlffTiav KX. ApdKovTos Kai dirbyovov SwertTrdrpas Tt/3. dve^tai' iiraTiKfJov #X[d^(os] Zwn/c6s But after TroXXwy tt)v iSLav Tnx-rptbvLixffav. the third century npirKXTos, to the Latin corresponding egregius, is only found used of knights (Hirschfeld, VG, 273 note). See 81 : Boucherie, 'Eppt.Tjveip.a.Ta, 8ia(nip,iTa.Tos perfectissimus p.
,

certain

JalliaBassa

(belonging to

KpdTHTTosegregius.
clarissimus
was I

In

the

age
c.v.

of

the

Antonines

the
1,2,1;

title vir

evidentlyin general use


in other passages
cum
=

(cp.GeUius,
have fallen Avito
=

i, 22,

5 ;

xviii, 10,

out). Cp. praesente publice dissererem. IRN, 2505 Orelli,3767 CIL, x, 1814 (year 161). later than Orelli, 4040 (deer. mun. Tergest., 161). Orelli, 1632 (year 173). Lucian, Macrobii, i : Xainrpdrare (29, iepuirare) For other evidence of later or unknown KvirriWe. date, inscriptions Naudet above. and as legal sources, see
;

may

also

Apuleius, Apol., 443

LoUiano

c.v.

^ From used to liavebeen this time Xa(it7rpdTaTo?,like occasionally seems clarissimus, in reference to the chief prefectures. Ulpianus Primianus praef.Aegypti in the third is called 6 AafiirptfraTo? year of the reign of Severus Tfyi-itaiv(CIG, 4863) ; Septimius of Arsinoe Heraclitus praef.Aegypti in 215 6 Xa^TrporaTos in a document {as Opellius Macrinus Wilcken, Arsinoilische TempelHirschfeld,VG, 232 and 275. praef.praet., rechnungen in Hermes, kx, 469). ' This was akcady noticed by Marini,Arvali,p. 748, 59, Dessau, Steuertanf von Palmyra ia Hermes, xix{iS8^), p. 5ii, 1,

'jS

Appendices
XIII.
MSNDRAOOBA.

[vol.i.

(Vol. I,
At

p.

174,

1.

4.)
the investigated mandrake. ahresbericht He ancient
municated com-

J Gesellschaft fur vaterl. Cultur (1887, pp. 285-293), from which taken. the are following remarks the manFrom the time of Hippocrates to the first century a.d. dragora The of officinal plant. as an juice the rind was only known used of its root, extracted was as a narcotic by squeezing or boiling, The anaesthetic in surgical operations. or description of the and effects of mandragora Phny in almost the juice in Dioscorides dose words, the exact same being given, leaves no doubt that the of intoxication is to cases reference by atropine, which, although be chemically demonstrated, cannot its existence in the mandragora its presence shows by the effects indicated. Theophrastus had fatal.' already declared that mandragora in too large doses was hint that it was of the ingredients of love He and Dioscorides one it was called Circe-plant (Kipxala, Diosc, Materia potions, whence Medica, iv, 76; Circaeon, Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxv, 147). This use of it seems to be of great antiquity, if the dudaim 0/ Genesis and the Song of Solomon is rightlyinterpreted as love-apples (mandragora berries)by the Septuagint '. The root was usually dug up with strange ceremonies (drawing a and circle round sword it thrice with towards the west). a looking this ; but neither over Theophrastus (Hist,anim., ix, 8) makes merry he nor the later that of knows the story, Pliny only safe method involved sacrifice of the of the it life a procuring dog. Josephus vii,6, 3) ' tells the story of the root Baaras or Battaritis, {Bell. Jiid., Aelian (ATai. KwlxTwaimi or anim., xiv, 24-27) of the root ay\a.o"j"C!"Tis is probably meant). of Dioscorides The MS. the peony (by which written in Constantinople in the fifth century for the emperor's of the transference of daughter Julia Anicia is the earliest evidence A miniature the story to the mandragora. in it represents drawing hand personified Invention (Heuresis),with one handing a root of the mandragora to Dioscorides, with the other holding on a rope the strangled dog, which the root from has drawn the ground. In second Heuresis is a picture describing the root to a painter sitting in front of an easel, who is sketching it on a white, gold-rimmed tablet (Schreiber, Culturhistor. Bilderatlas, Taf. viii,3).^ The still older
ischen
' '

Cohn request, Professor Ferdinand my the traditions to mandragora, or relating of his the results inquiries to the

der schles-

Naples
the
text

Dioscorides
two

MS.

shows called
to

at

the the

same

illustrations

male

passage and female

by

the

side of

unmistakably corresponding Mandragora {M. officinarumBert.) and M. vernalis (the sex of sex differences in antiquity, but the
the
1
'

auiumnalis
names more or

mandragora, Spreng.
not

did

cate indi-

less robust

They dig a trench round about it,tillthe hidden part of the root be very small ; they then tie a dog to it and when the dog tries hard to follow him that tied him, this root is easilyplucked up, but the dog dies immediately, as if it were that instead of the man after this need any one would take the plant away be afraid of taking it into their ; nor hands (Whiston's translation). " AOas 0/ Classical Antiquities, English edition, by W. C. F. Anderson and P. Gardner (1S95)
'

VOL.

I.]
the
root is shown

Appendices
was

77
to

varieties).That
form

supposed

resemble
"

the

human

by (x, 19, semihominis mandragorae) and by a pseudo-Pythagorean treatise on the effects of plants quoted by PUny, in which, according to a glossin the Dioscorides MS.{M.m., called ivSpiarrdtiop^os. iv, 76)it was In the illustrations mentioned, the
M.
As
runa

Columella

autumnalis is shown

resembles

man,

the tenth with

M.

vernalis

woman.
=

by
on

the

translation
soil

of Dudaim the

in

Munich

gloss of the
German

by mandragore century, the mandragora


alruna,
a

alwas

early

spirit and a magic root in human form (Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, Eng. tr. iii, the thirteenth 1202-4, iv, 1673). From century mandragora and alraun real mandragora, which The are always synonymous. is never found been seen beyond the Alps, had scarcely ever by the of Central at that time. peoples Europe
XIV.
The Sportvla
of the

identified

devilish

Cuentes.

(Vol. I,
This difficult

p.

196, 1.
there
must

8.)
exists
our

subject,

on

which

great diversity
information
uncertain
: or

of
so

opinion, scanty and


mann,

deserves

further that

investigation,but
much whom
remain

is

obscure
The

plained. unex-

authorities

I have

Vber die Sportula der Romer (in F. 1821, liolhek,iii, Schneider,^ De Sportula {Progr. pp. 391-409) ; des Gymn. zu Brieg, 1836) ; W. A. Becker, Gallus, ii',164, in the main reproduced by Rein in StRE, vi, 3185, and Becker-GoU, ii, Vber die Clienten unter den ersten rom. Kaisern 204 ; G. Heuermann,

consulted are J. D. Seebode,

P. ButtKrit. Bih-

(Progr. des suchungen

Gymn.

zu

1856), pp. Burgsteinfurt,

14-30,

and

Unter-

1875)
culae and

itber die Sportula der Clienten (progr. of same gymn., in O. Observationum M. Martialem Val. Guttmann, parti; The latest i866), pp. 31-39. {BreslauerDoctordissertation
,

best

discussion

of the
views

subject will
have
in

be

found

in

Marquardt
caused

(Prl.,
me

i^, 207-212), whose

several
the

instances

to to

modify
It is
invite

my

own.

probable that
the client to
time

in earlier times dinner


; ;

patron

was

accustomed

in Horace's

{Epp., i, 7
a

been usual to have this appears even I should also be inclined to regard the

persons

mentioned

in Sat.,ii,7, 36; 8, 41 ; be

Epp., i, 18,

10

as

actual he
'

clients). Whether
time the clients
"

must

substituted equivalent was money left undecided 12 ; in praef. i, 9 and mercenarii salutatores ', their daily visits
'

in

Columella's calls
coti-

dianum
index

tributum
does not

(Seneca,De

as tatio, not sportula, occur

salubrevitate vitae,14, 6, meritoria which Rein says, a word according to Haase's in Seneca). Certainly, at the beginning of

' the client,instead of earlier) reign (and perhaps much presented with a (cena recta)was being invited to a regular dinner Both portion of the food to take away or an equivalentin money. the more common. the called were sportulabeing sportula, money

Domitian's

[Marquardt
Referred

and

Rein

give the

name

as

Schmieden

am

unable

to trace the

treatise.

Te.]
a

Perhaps

to as i and ii. after Nero's introduction

of the

sportulaat the

cenae

(Suetonius, publicae

p, 210, 5), Nero, 16 j^Marquardt,

78
About

Appendices

[vol.i.

reintroduced. recta to clients was the year 87 the cena is the only this time, about of Martial, composed The third book he mentions the new in which arrangement and the abolition one innovations these were nected Both of the money perhaps consportula. at the of the recta reintroduction cena with Domitian's cenae

publicae (instead of
Sueton., Domitian,

the

7) ;
the

for them by sportulae substituted it the also thought patrons perhaps food set before Thus
non

Nero would
"

cheaper, frequent cause

be

since
of Cum
cur

the

clients

was :
"

inferior

complaint.
ad
non

Martial,

iii,60

vocer

cenam,

mihi
tu

ostrea

sumis

eadem, stagno
mitulus
cum non

jam venalis ut ante, datur ? quae tibi,cena saturata Lucrino,


ore

4 9
cur

sugitur inciso
sine te ceno,

mihi

tecum,

Pontice,
to

cenem

?
idem.

sportula quod
the
reason

est,prosit: edamus
a

Further, the clients lost by the exchange


money
a

certain

extent, since
for this
at

Milvian
of

helped sportitla starvelingSpaniard bridge, on hearing

to
on

supply
his way

their
to

wants

(iii, 3) ;
turned

Rome

back

the

the

iii, report (sportularum fabulae, 14)


refers to

its abolition.

The

following epigram (iii, 7)


Centum miselli

the

same

: tiling

"

jam

valete

quadrantes,
lassi,

anteambulonis dividebat quos

congiarium

? quid regissuperbi sportulae recesserunt, nihil stropharum est, jam salarium


'

balneator eUxus. fames amicorum o cogitatis,

dandum

est '.

i, 27 and Gutt(with Heuermann, the at new delight mann, arrangement; expression the last verse, and the two other epigrams, which clearlyindicate the clients' dissatisfaction, forbid such an interpretation. The 'in whose Martial client', says Buttmann name (p. 399), speaks is because the to put him (iii, 7) greatly displeased patronus wants off with empty invitations, and demands Martial a regular salary '.

This

epigram p. 37)

cannot
an

be

taken

as

of

'

himself,
which

who

was

no

doubt would be
to

states dissatisfied,

the

condition
;

under
its fulfilment have

the

innovation

be

acceptable to
from

clients since

but

could
meant

hardly
last book
26
:
"

expected
them. the

patrons,

it would

additional
did not

expense
assumes

long, chieflyowing

In any case, the new ment arrangeto the client's dissatisfaction ; of the money

for

the
;

fourth

reintroduction

tula spor-

thus, iv,

Quod
vis

te mane

domi

toto

non

vidimus

anno,

dicam, quantum, Postume, perdiderim ? tricenos, puto, bis, vicenos ter puto nummos ignosces: togulam, Postume, plurisemo.
The

patron here addressed, who only sixty sesterces for the whole
to be

appears

to

have

paid

his client

waited

upon,

but

gave
"

year, certainlyonly rarelyrequired less for each attendance than the usual
100
=

sportula (25 money the client also when


Baiae, i, 59).

quadrantes accompanied his patron


asses
^

paid 6|- sesterces),


on a

at journey (e.g.

VOL.

I.]
sums were

Appendices
also offered

79
:

Larger

(viii, 42)
ad beatos

Si te
non

sportulamajor Matho,

corruperit, ut solet,licebit,
centiens

de nostro,
X, 27 :

laveris.

Natali, Diodore,
ac

tuo conviva senatus et rarus accubat adhibetur non eques, tua tricenos largitur sportula nummos, tamen natum

nemo

te, Diodore, putat.

Here
mann,

we

should
p.

probably
the

assume

(with Buttmann,
were

36)

that

distinguishedguests
clients ;
: so

distributed

to

perhaps

p. 409 and Guttentertained and moneythe other also vii, 86. On

hand,

in ix,

100

Denaris

tribus invitas

et mane

togatum:
for
the

observare

jubes atria,Basse, tua,


to
was

the

three the

denarii
the offer

appear with the

be

promised
less

long service,

quently conse-

remuneration

than he

ordinary ;
buy
claimed
a

the
new

refuses
with

remark

that

couldn't

poet toga

it.

Wealthy
for the
a

and

distinguished persons
of their clients

apparently
in year
no a

and

paid
pay
of
tors. sena-

services

year

out

the annual member


11

client

228i|-sesterces (about "25) was (The younger Pliny, by no means


in his

great expense

for

senate, left
Less
of

will
100

sum

of

money
;

to

wealthy provide

of the
sesterces

20

apiece annually
well-to-do

for

freedmen

Mommsen,

Hermes,

iii,102).

only exceptionallyrequisitionedthe services regulated partly by the services pay being of course and position of the donor. required,partly by the means Cp. iv, 26 above and ix, 85, where illness in order to deprive a patron shams his chents of the sportula, which their services not given when was not clients were required (Marquardt, 212, 4). Probably many were obliged to earn their pay by this patron one day, by that the of such engagements, in order to a large number next, and needed
persons

clients,the

find

emplojonent

and

facile est tibi perdere somnos, attrita xiv, 125 : (Martial, veniet clients contrived to earn sportula saepe toga). Zealous in 80 than more one one : day (i, sportula sportula. Cane, tibi nocte petita est. occidit, puto, te. Cane, quod una fuit) suprema squared with the sportula in Although the clients as a rule were in kind or ceived rexiii,123),of course (Martial, they sometimes money invitations to the cena recta (Martial,ii,18 ; x, 18 ; cp. xi, But in that case they must frequently have had to 24 ; xii,77, 6) Cp. xii,26, 13 : et put up with scanty fare at the patron's table. nummis ? non Laetorius ut secum cenes viginti inquit. rogat the than not cost i.e. the meal does more famem patron ; ego, malo
. .

pay even si matutinos

for

the

greater part

of

the

year

'

'

20

sesterces

(."' asses). Thus,


is

in the
anno

Acta
cenatum

of the est

Arval
a

brethren

the sin-

cost

per

head

given

hoc

singulisdies

(Henzen, Acta, p. 16; Marquardt, StV, iii", gulos denariis centum Heuermann (ii, 8) and Marquardt 453. 6). So also in iv, 68, which the reference is to a meal : 21 1, 7) refer to the money sportula, i*, {Prl,
Invitas
centum

quadrantibus,

et bene ut

cenas.

ut cenem

Sexte, an invitor,

invideam

8o
Only
that

Appendices
when he has
so

[vol. i.
can

the been

client

dines invited to that

at
arouse

the

patron's table
his envy cannot
; the

he

imagine
than 25

patron dines well,


cost
more

the
asses.

Ghent

badly,

his meal

have

As regards later age than Martial. Juvenal describes a somewhat be no difference there to of cUents seems the payment ; in proper, in the in is distributed Martial the spoHula Juvenal (i, evening, 125) is unimportant. 100 alteration in the morning, but so trifling an the clients with which still the usual bought was sum, quadrantes

clothes, food, and

that in Juvenal, in firing. But it is remarkable of 1. of old even turba men to the clients addition 96), togata (the freedfamily (Trojugenae, 100), praetors and tribunes, well-to-do of posiin sedan-chairs and even women men tion) (consequentlywomen receive the and the themselves to highest sportula, present it has brought how much reckon dignitaries up at the end of the year in (Juvenal, them therefore, perhaps assume i, 117-128). We may, even that rich and distinguishedmen women) at their morning (and visits did disdain not to accept the usual, fee of 100 complimentary they probably gave to their servants; quadrantes (1.120), which the doles (128, Buttmann, to secure that they went round p. 407), in the their clients early morning. (comites, 119), accompanied by fees to their own the acceptAs they in turn visitors, ance paid the same of the trifling could not be considered sum unseemly, so long it was as regarded as a mere formality ; it would only appear so, if it was hinted that importance was attached to it or that it really Becker-GoU much was sought after. (ii, 211) consider that this refers to festivities extraordinary family (cp. Pliny, Ad passage Trajanum, 116). mentions Martial, who 18; x, 10; xii,26) the complimentary (ii, visits of distinguished persons of devoand their abject exhibitions tion, mentions to non-cUents never a sportulapaid to them or ally generto show of bestowing it upon that the custom ; this seems not distinguished visitors was developed until after the death of Domitian. The be said of the morning visits paid by same may earlier of position, which not referred to by Martial women are or

writers.

Lastly,

on

Juvenal, iii,249
Nonue
centum

vides

quanto celebretur convlvae, sequitur sua

sportula fumo
quemque

culina,

the

explanation is certainly correct : pulmentaria secum distributed e (so portant comparata sportula, i.e. the eatables and prepared in Becker-Goll, ii,206) or bought with the sportula, the cook-shop, are carried home by the chents' slaves in a portable kitchen, to prevent their getting cold (soHeuermann, ii, 9 and Marquardt, 211,8). Gifford in Mayor's Juvenal ad loc : How often have I been reminded of the sportula by the firepans and of the suppers it grows with filled Neapohtans ! As soon as the streets are dark, fires about of in heads twinkhng the glancing on every direction
,

scholiast's

"

these

modern

Corbulos,

and

suddenly disappearing as
to

they

enter

with their houses their frugal meal." In later times, the followingreferences

the

sportula(paidon

82
In

Appendices
the will
michi
:

[vol.i.
at

(dated a.d. 175) of a son in Sicily, we Cephaledium (Cefalu)


vale p. In
as

who have
:

died
have

Sirmium,
domine

found

at

michi La

pater,

domine
KoX T" times Yet

pater (OreUi,4359).
tCiv

Letronne,

Statue her

vocale,

244 the

irdyrav "wpoaKivrjiJ.a the


I wife also

koX dSe\(piiii in

tt/s

Kvplas /iyiTpds.
husband

oldest

possiblyaddressed

there is instance, one only know that and endearment, belonging to of flatteryor admixture no addressed another one of members when frequently a family an age VIII Pauluslibro Responsorum : in that manner. Dig., xxiv, i, 57 : donationis causa marito ex ^Ea suo acceperat, a pecuniam quae misit ad eum petenti mihi a te, domine litteras hujusmodi: quum indulgentia tua. carissime, annuerit after Augustus, whenever equals or inferiors are Also in the time so addressed, it is due to the wish to be especiallypolite. In Epicdressed tetus physicians and soothsayers are frequently adphilosophers, who assistance need their those and sir but ', as only by dominus.
'

which

Diss., ii, 7, 9 : Sii toCto koXoIttckSvrbv iraripa Keio roiis /idpreis KXripovo/i-fiirui, nipie, ; "Idufiev, ixev de 64\ei. 12 : vvv ib., ii, Tpip.ovTei ws (TiSip-eda. Nai, Kipie, 17 Tiixv 7, aiirov de6pie8a, TOP ?) dehv iTUcaXoijpLevot dpviddpiovKpaTovfieVj Kai rbv (tus oi WXets t4 rod iirhpefbvjioi e^eXSeip. ib., ii,15, 15 : Kipu, i\i7j(rov Tbv larpbv TrapaKoKetv ; Noirw, Kt!rpie voffovvToi iroLeiv /cat ^o^dyiffbv fiot H ireideffBai act. ib., iii. 10, 1^: tI oSp efidv effrt (TKtf^ai, /i6 Set TTOLelv, KoXaKeOeii rbv tarpdv\ ri \dy"i^; edv frit /caXws ^^w. jfe., iii, ^At/s, Kipie, E/tt^ iv rtvLo^v iffrl t6 AyadiiVj h Toiroi% o^k^cttlv'^ iireLdTj ijp^v, 22, 38 ; ib.,iii,23, II ; Tpuyijv ^Taivedeli irepi-fipxov d77eXe Kai KardtrKOTre. KJ^pie Kai TTOicnv (rwTijplav. ^Xeyes' ri aol ^do^a ; Qavfiaffrbs, KOpte,ttjv 4fi^v [irot] From one ib., iii, 23, 19 : rd Ka\6p, Kvpie, Kai \i6ov KtvrjaatSOvuTot. the that it address was might seem regarded as a proof passage of servile obsequiousness ; iv, i, 56 : SpTma oiv iv' S.Wif KuMJaai iffn Kai dvayKdaaij da^pujp\^ye fiT] eTvai iXeidepov Kai fiTf fioi wdirirovs airoO dXX' "v dfcoiiiTTjs Kai wviiv fij7-ci Kai irpaaiv Kai vpoTrdTTTOvs pXiire, \iyovTos k"p iffwBiv Kai CK StoSeKa Trdtfous, X^ye So^^ov. fid^Sot irpodytaai^ Kijpte Here, however, a slavish temperament is clearly only attributed to sir laiadev Kai ix wddovi. who calls another one Petronius, 57 :
want
to

curry

favour

with

them.

"

'

'

'

'

'

'

unus

ex

conUbertis mei
'

Trimalchionis

'
"

an

tibi

non

domini
tI Ki5pte,

Colloquiascholastica
"

(gloss.Labb.

placent lautitiae ii, 427) : Tdie


',
"

^x^*^ XP^M'^^t^ eiiKatpoGvTa T/ xP^^^p?x^is t^vte ed. Haupt, Srjvdpia. Schol., Xl")"^" Colloq. M"' Ind. led. Berol. hib. 1871 (on entering a house, apparently a senator's) TliSav : x^'pf jSairlXeia Kvpii, X" 'Pf Kvpta, ^ao-iXeC x^'Pfj X^'P^ 'A(pp oSItti, ttCs rd 7rai5(o ; fuiriv IIeXd70us [/iilTC p], Biyarep ' Kai KaXus : Philogelos, ed. Eberhard ^x"'"''"'5, xipif (rxoXacrtKl' ISwv etwcv oTSa rlvos dypbn Spo/xia 144, Ei)T/)(l7reXos XPlif"0 Kijpids pj"v oSros. 208 and /i6. I xiii, 6, 26):" (Cp. 235). Scaevola, Responsorum {Dig.,
Mi)
n
"

iiriTdaaeti ; davetffacrdai ; E; ^Xf

"

"

Quidam
Titius penes
ex

ad

creditorem
tua mutua

litteras Even

area

ejusmodi fecit : decem quae acceperat, salva ratione usurarum


after

Lucius habes

me,

domine.

his

accession

Marcus

Antoninus

J.According to Eberhard this collection was made dotes, in the fifth century ; but these anecis although handed down in a very late form, certainly had their originin part (as shown and perhaps altogether, in^an earlier age : thus in 87, the by their contents), gladiatonal games are supposed to be stilj in existence.
.

VOL.

I.]
to

Appendices
:

83

writes torinus domine

Fronto

vale
ad

ii, 2, p. 98).' Fronto


domine

mi domine magister [E-pp.ad M. Anton., himself calls his son-in-law Auiidius Vicam.,

{Epp.

i, 28), Arrius frater [ib., Pius, mi


meo,

Antoninus

domine heredibus domine


common

Dig., xxxii,
dominulo confidential

41, 4 ab

testamento

i, ii), his friend Squilla Gallicanus of kinsman Antoninus, a younger fili carissime Scaevola, ii, 11). (ib., ita legaverat : Publio Maevio, pueros
meis
down

dari
to

volo.

The

respectful and
De
munit.

address

frater (e.g. Hyginus,


the latest

castr.,

45)

was on

certainly very
a

times.
:

tion Inscripfrater

draughtboard
ludere
X,

(Marquardt, Prl, ii^, 859)


Palladas
"

domine

ilaris semper"

tabula.

(Anthol.Pal.

ed.

Jacobs, ii,

293

cap.

44
av

ed.

Diibner) :
to

y]V
wvia. OVK

iMiq

Tt

KoL^r}, ipp
ravTa ra

Kal yap ede'Au

e o-t p etire priiJ.aT"t. avTap

ijlovov.

iybtye

86p.Lve.

ov

yap

exu

"ofievat.^

of address as were frater,pater, mater, fili Cicero, Verres, iii,3, 66, 155 : volo mi frater fraterculo credas. frater ', pater tuo Horace, Epp., i, 6, 54 : ut ita facetus adde, cuique est aetas, adopta (cp. Sat., ii, quemque also the custom later. was Petronius, 98, 100; ib., I, 12). This mater. Lucian, Lucius, Martial, ix, 65, 7, 3. pr., x, 4, iMijrep. Diss. ,1,26, 15; iv, 13, 18. Juvenal, v, 135. Quintilian, Epictetus, Declam., 321. Gellius, xiii,20, 5 (mi fili).Apuleius, Metam., ix, in amore omnium 181. Vit. M. Anton., 18 : cum imperasset, ab modo modo modo ut aliis filius, frater, cujusque pater, atque aetas Paulus, I. IV ad Vitellium sinebat, et diceretur et amaretur. caritate est, si fraterna xxviii, 5, 58 [56],i) : Qui frater non (Dig.,
course
common

Of

such

modes

at all times.

'

'

'

nomine sub recte cum suo diligitur, appellatione fratris heres infrater in the letter of a Desideri(um ?) pontifex to a Christians: Athenacolleague a.d. 155 (Wilmanns, 312). Among Felix, Octav., 3 ; Cyprianus, Epp. Supplicatio,32 ; Minucius goras,

stituitur.

Celerinus Luciano: haec cum tibi scriberem, domine 21. ib. 3, rogo itaque, domine et peto per dominum nostrum Christum ut ceteris coUegis fratribus tuis, meis dominis
"

frater;

Jesum

carissime Luciane ut omnibus 4, peto ergo domine Celerino domino, sidignus fuero fratribus; Ep., 22 : Lucianus

referas ; meis dominis


vocari of
'

collegain Christos.
her of

The

Gallic

pilgrim, who
'

relates

an

account

holy places (385-388)apparently to the inmates them dominae as (venerabiles)sorores dominae S. Silviae or Aqiiitanae peregrinatio in (Gamurrini, Biblioteca deU'accad. iv, 1887, pp. 39, 55, 75. 105s. storico-giuridica, In the Metamorphoses of Apuleius the hero is sometimes addressed in the Luci iirst as domine iii, by his host (ii, 50), 30; passage of who anxious the to in the second council town are Milo, Hypata, by his anger at a joke which they had played upon him : neque appease Luci tuae v el etiam ignari sumus, dignitatis, prosapiae tuorum journey
a
'

to the
'

convent,

addresses

'

'

* 1 have mi optume Naber (Epp. Graec.,vi, p. 252) reads magister ' for ' tiave mi domine magister ' {Epp. ad M. Cues.,i,6 ed. Niebuhr, p. 31). ^ In that at that time (reignof passing it may be observed that this epigram shows This fact,not noticed by Hermann Arcadius, emp. 395-408) al was pronounced as e. raiione Graecae gnmnuUiaie, p. 52) had alreadybeen pointedout by G. (De emendanda

Voss

Oral.,iv, p. 220). (Instit,

84
domine.
nam

Appendices
et

[vol.i.
familiae Claudi the nobilitas his

provinciam totam
It is
:

inclytae vestrae
remark
eram

complectitur. apology as follows


in consilio ed.

worthy
certus

of

that
"

Apuleius begins
to

equidem
accuser

Maxime

quique

estis, while
This

his

according

Maxime, begun : hunc ego, domine that time even shows at that instituo. persons clearly addressed domine of higher rank as were universally ; by no means it seems that Apuleius, by omitting it when addressing the proconsul, of outspokenness and perhaps of desired to keep up the appearance like an It behaved inferior. while his opponent a certain equality, 563

Flor.)had

quotation (p. reum apud te

facere

cannot

be

learned
once

occurs,

conversations tween beaccident that in the numerous of address in Gellius this form educated never men of which while in politeaddresses, some it is found are
mere

or

seriouslymeant,
avoided
as
'

while
;

others
some

are

ironical.
of the
'

In

any

case,
'

it

was

posely purto

perhaps
The

antiquaries objected
in Gellius
'

it

too

modern.
' '

persons
'

who

appear

call

one

another

i ; iv, i ; xviii,7;xix, 10; xix, 13 ; xx, 10), 'magister magister (iii, optime (xviii, (vi,10),vir bone (xviii, 4 ; xix, 10), vir doctissime 10), philosophe (xix, 10), philosophorum amplissime (i,2), mi Favorine the calls a (xx, i). Favorinus philosopher even of rank mulier Yet the strict ance avoiddomina. woman (xii, 1),not
' ' ' ' ' '

'

'

of domine the

was same

probably

(from by superiorsas an act of special politenessis (apparently of the year 149) to a collegium fabrum
subaedianorum concludes the third
ex :

limited to individual period) of the title being

circles.

An

stance in-

given
found

even

feriors to ina

in

letter
which

Narbonensium mihi.

from
vos

its

patronus
domini

(Henzen-Orelli,7215),
et carissimi

Paulo,
to

From va]lere cupio optimi Nesennius : ApoUinaris Julio 2, 22 century : Dig., xxxv, facto, domine, speciesejusmodi incidit, in which we should

perhaps recognize the


the

address

(to be

mentioned und

later)of
Rechtsschulen

the
,

pupil
31).
2, p.

teacher M.

Bremer,
Grunnii
coce,

Rechtslehrer PorcelH
vitam medio

p.

Testamentum
231, 6) : rogo, vel consobrini

Petronius, (Biicheler,

ed.

domine

peto

p. 232,

15

mei

domini

mei,

qui

in

testamento

interfuistis, jubete
their

signari.
Clients

patrons
client and

in particularwere obligedto show domine. as by addressing them in

The

first mentioned
of the

Martial
'

is because

it is

to their inferiority why this is of just the relationship


reason

patron
title

that

he most
'

King

to

the

frequently touches upon ; patrons is already found


nee

the

cation appli-

in Horace

{Epp., i, 7, 37 : rexque paterque audisti coram in Columella, praef. i, 9. absens) ; similarly

verbo

parcius

Cp. Martial, i, 112;

ii, 32, 8; ii, 68; vi, 88; ix, 92. were But, generallyspeaking, it may be said that superiors
addressed
"

usually
'

alternately calls

by (year 109) and S. mens highly placed friend Servianus S. dominus meus Rechtswiss., (Rudolff,Zeitschr. f. geschichtliche xii, p. 381). Carpophorus, a Christian freedman of Commodus (in Refut. haeres., ix, 12, ed. Duncker, p. 454) addressed Hippoljrtus, Fuscianus, praef. urb. : Siofiai, Avidius ^ouaKiavi. Quietus Kiipie
as

domine

inferiors.

Dasumius

in

his will
'

his

'

(proconsulof
p. 239,
no.

Asia

under

Hadrian 722

860, and

cp. p.

Waddington, Asie Mineure, [Fastes cons., no. 130])in a letter


; see

VOL.

I.]
the
town

Appendices
of Aezani
'

85

about
'

(in Phrygia) to Hesperus, proc. Caesaris, ',and is addressed by Hesperus as Hespere domine Quiete (CIG, iii,3835 Waddington, Asie min., 862). A letter from an Ephesian L. Pompeius ApoUonius to the proconsul L. Mestrius Florus Kal Ovulai, Kipte (Ditten(83/4) begins : Mvarrfpia to berger,Sylloge,390). Septimius, adjutor a rationibus, writes his superior, Cosmus In the inscription on the : rogo, domine.
calls him
'

mi

carissime

tunnel

at

Saldae

under

Antoninus
of

Pius

(Mommsen,
them
as

Arch.

Zeit.,n.f.
the

iii, 1870) the (equestrian) procurators of Mauretania,


may
I,
was

writing to
domine.

Numidia, (senatorial) governors have been a standing title for


I :

address
senators

This

synthesibus
more

the

natural, if the domine,


ubi

Petronius
:

(86) the
rogo,

gaudet eques superior boy from Pergamum


est asturco

dum

generally (Martial,xiv, dominusque senator). It


were

the the

older

man.

In and

asks

panion quaestor's com-

Perhaps pedagogues
:

tutors

were

regularly addressed
tabuUs

in this
3,
100

manner

by pupils (Becker,
et

Callus, ii', 71).

vi, Quintilian,

in an legatointerroganti, Et verus, domine. inquit, 9


:

quas

Propinquus proferebatchirographusesset,

Fulvius

evTvyxdvu x^^s ry Even SeffwSTTjii, 6.iniK\aT6iiriv.^


the
name

in Lucian, Gall., Kipie is certainlymeant Kal ainbv clfbdeLV EiJ/cpdret, iythfi^v TrpoffenrCiv (lifywep
in

later

inscriptionsdominus
to I know

before

In addition (except in addresses) is very rare. ado Postumiano c. v. (quoted above), cos., 597 D. Fl. Severo one example, CIL, ix, 2803 (Aufidena): testimonium marmoream ejus perenne quae meritorum censuit civi ponendam ordo et populus Aufidenatium

CIL, viii,

only

v.p. statuam

loqueretur,
et

patrono.

Assemblies those who

and

corporations

were

honoured

with

this address

by

stood, or pretended to stand, in a dependent relation towards them. Tiberius, addressing the senate, declared that a good of that I have, now in you be the servant as prince must body ; and masters formerly, good, just, well-disposed (Sueton.,Tib., 29).
' '

letter from
et inter

the army

to the

senate

after

the death

of Aurelian

has

referte,sancti domini p.c. (Vit.Aurel., 41). The senate is called sanctus as early as Ennius, Ann., 243 V, and in Virg. Aen., i,426 ; cp. Horace, Odes, iv, 5, 3 ; Cicero, CatiL, i,4, 9 ; Juvenal, xi, 29 (sacer) ; in Greek inscriptions-^ iepa aiyKK-qToi (Keil inN. Rhein. Mus., xx, 543 ; Lebas- Waddington, 519, p. 142). Claudius quently at his deference far the he freso that, pushed gladiatorial games, in humour called the spectators domini to put them a good to gain public favour on (Sueton.,Claud., 21). Artists,who wished who the stage, called the audience '. Nero, gentlemen carefully of cithara-playersto the ways the most imitated detail, trifling his appearance addressed the public on : a Gentlemen, give me ! favourable : 20 Ixi, iptol, e i/ievUs iwO dKoiia-are) Kipioi hearing (Dio, to greet man In Nero's time it was already customary for one think not he could of, as dominus, to avoid name another, whose dressed slaves might be so adimpoliteness(Seneca, Epp., iii,i). Even : ; cp. Martial, v, 57 noli tibi,Cinna, placere. te dominum, Quum voce
' ' '
.

hunc

deos

saepe
1 Ennodius ad domini advocavit

etiam
animi

servum

sic resaluto

tuum.

suininam

venerationeni

(W. Hartel, Analecta, Wiener

significandametiam pluralem substaativi Studien, i88o, p. 232).

86
It their is well

Appendices
known
that De
women were

[vol.i.
called domina
even

by
iii,

Seneca, Jerome natalis celebrandus ejus. Epictetus, domina, vwb tS"v ^tuh Encheiridion, 40 : a! ywatKes eiSds dirb retrffapesKaideKa oiibkv dWo aitrais tin fi^v KaXouvTai. bpuiaat, avSpuJv Kvplat rotyapouv if /cat toTs bk KaWtawii^effOaL jxbt/ov avyKoifiCji/Tai AvSpdai^"pxoVTa.i irpbffsffTi, : et wda-as Ix^iv rks iXTlSas. Dig., xxxii, 41 (Scaevola) uxorem ToiJT"j)

429)

husbands. vocanda

Matrim.

in

(ed. Haase,

filiam

in haec instituit, et uxoris fidei commisit verba uxor. te, domina : peto a Cp. Ovid, Tristia, iv, 3, 9; v, 5, Orelli, Claud., 39 ; I ; Sueton., 2663 ; Renier, Inscr. de I'Alg., 624; : id.ib., 534 ; CIL, v, i, 4438 (Brixia) Wilmanns, ib., 2074 592;
communem

heredes

et

hujus, domne conjuge (sic)

meae

sanctissimae

et amicae-carissimae

etxonjug. carissimae ; CIL, vi, CIL, V, 2, 6039 (Mediol3ni)-:^ominae "^ sanctissimae nn. : ib., xiv, conjux dominae conjugi" 2, 14351, 3358 : Matid[iae] Valeria[nae] domin[ae] optimae ; CIL, xii, 682* et uxori : Philogel. ( Arelate): nn. vibus sibi posuit et nn. dominae
" "

Tjptbra, X^yajtf Kvpla,ri fxe/xureh Christian Inscr. khI auprqarif Christ., 30 (a.d.307) : ry Kvpiij. age, De Rossi, conjugi Tigridi. The paWona ^apKitf. Ib., 78 (344) : dominae
234
;

'O^offrbfj-os Ti]v

yvvoLKa

'

',

also clientes, but only called domina by her regina, of the Martial : as by epigram (x, 64 contigerisregina si forte libellos) addressed to PoUa meos ; Argentaria, Lucan's widow (Colloq.scholast.,Ind. led. Berol. hib. 1871 ; see above), Haupt
was

not

is shown

BafftXeto x^'P^*

Lastly, we
who

must

mention

the

strange

custom

addressed and another as spoke of one partly as a mark of respect or endearment. Augustus partly in jest, of terms the forbade such reason mentioned, already (for p. 81) to be used endearment his children and (blanditiae) children grandby (Sueton.,Aug., 53). Waddington, Asie min., 323/4, nirb, Naturally,the KvplovToS vloO,415, 1. 15, iJ^Td KvplovToS TTaTpbsavTuv. mother
et

of blood-relations, dominus and domina,

CIL, v, i, 1470: dominae matri Henzen, 5571 : dominae Val. Maxentius). Letronne, La statue vocale,p. 244 (in a Synnx) ^ : rb wpoffKvvijfia iravTiav rtov dSeX^uj/Kal ttjs Seneca It also usual brothers and sisters. ixrfTpbs. was amongst Kvplas
was

called and

spoken of

as

domina.
=

matri

incomparabili ; ib.,2826 Maximillae nob. fem.( wife of

calls his brother


to

'

dominus
ad

meus

Gallio
2

Fronto

{Epp.
'

M.

Antonin.,
meus

{Epp., 104, i). In a AureUus and 3) Marcus


',and
in like
manner

'

letter calls
Verus

Lucius
writes of

Verus
of Marcus

dominus Antoninus brother

frater
ad

his

own

(Ammaaedera): domino 6 Syringe Memnonis) : Bovplxios o-xoXoo-tikAs


rb eitrrop-qtra^
"

self himL. Ver.,i, 11) and Fronto {Epp. fratre meo). CIL, viii, 6, 5, domino 333 {ib., fratri rarissimo (in meo CIG, iii, 4 781'' posui ;

too TTpoaKivyjp.a

KVpiov
and
'

/j.ov

(Letronne,
translate

La

slat, vocale, p. 274,


'

nXdTUj'(?) idiLipaaa Tov p.ovdd5\!l"ou ^atrpiKiov wrongly Franz, I.e., p. 1210,


xoi Kal et before toO bene
'

and teacher Kvplov by Orelli, 3007 : Julia Hellas Hygiae Even

insert dominae domine

dSeX^oC).
merenti.
even

sorori

parents called

their

children

and

domina, and

if fill'
to

it is his

only

in

jest
'

that

(Apuleius,Metam., daughter
as
J

Jupiter addresses vi, 124),Symmachus


filia
an
'

domine Cupid as quite seriously writes In

domina

{Epp., vi, 40; vi, 67).

the Hist.

[Suptyfwas

undergrouad .burial vault.]

VOL.

1.]
17, the
:
'

Appendices
King
'

S7

Apol. regis Tyri,


domina dulcis. Maevio lium
; ib., 50 Scaevola,

says to his daughter, bene dicis, domina : Apollonius exclamavit Tharsia, nata L. XVIII Digestorum (Dig., xxxii[iii] 37, 2) : ita cavit dominuia
:
"

substituit

Sempronium

tonfirmavit, quibus

pupillum siium, deinde codicillos cujus in locum partemve ejus Pub"

Sempronium,

meum,

heredem

esse

volo

cp.

5,

PubUo M.a^LfjL(fi Kupiifj Srjvdpiaii6pia irevTaKLax^^ta, ry fiou 41, 4 : dominulo M. de fcriis Frontonem Maevio, meo. Aurelius, Ad febricitantem Alsiensibus, i : domnulam meam repperi. Salvianus,

Epp.,

iv

Ad

socerum

et et

soGrutti.

Ypatio

et

Quietae parentibus
address is
"

Salvianus

Palladia

Auspiciolasalutem

(the

affectus

dilectissimi [carissimi] vel domini advolvor : indulgentissimi) ilia vestris,o parentes carissimi,pedibus, Palladia, vestra ego vestra
domnula cum gracula, vestra ; qua indulgentissima pietate lusistis, quae
fui mater, vocabulum 1am
nunc

his vobis
:

tot

vocabulis varia esset

quondam
nunc unum

per
cum

nomina

avicula,
aliud

nunc

domina

scilicet

generis,
infantulum
:

Vitensis, Persecutio
"

infantiae, tertium dignitatis, Victor ii, g, 30 : conspicimus muliercuVandalorum,


unum

^manu

tenentem
meus.

atque
we

in

his

sermonibus

consolantem

curre,

domne

Hence

also find
ii d.
ann.

sepulchral
:

of inscriptions d.
m.

little

children, as in Fabretti,
"

Inscr. vi
m.

ant., p. 582, 167


xv.

domino

filio Amantio
:

qui

vix.

ann.
"

Inscr.

583 del'Alg.,
14190
the
:

filio et domino Deuterae

meo

vix.
et

ix.

Renier, Cp. CIL,


meae
.

vi,

2,

Macciae

alumnae

dominae

bene
.

merenti. "where the

CIG,

1158
tells

fragment
from

custom

still existed

(Argos) : "Kipn Xi^epLe, xaipe f7;[o-as That us nothing of the age of the deceased. not only by the in Christian times is shown
and the Christian

.,

passage

Salvianus

sepulchralinscriptions

quoted by Fabretti, but also by the passage in the Passion of SS. ed. Ruinart, p. 89, ed. Perpetua and Felicitas,c. 4 (Acta martyrum, The dixit mihi frater Veron. tunc meus : domina soror. 1731) : ? domino of De remark Rossi (Inscr. : Chr., 103, a.d. 348 [filio ?]): appellatio defuncto ipsa inscriptionisdictio (praesertim domini : tributa)saeculum plane quartum sapere videtur," is certainlywrong mode of at least, it is difficult to see so common a why expression in earlier times should have taken so long to find its way into sepulchral inscriptions.
"

XVI.

Endearing

and

Complimentary
AND

names

for

Women

Girls.

(Vol. I,
Fabretti,
also
tores

p. 228,

1.

10.)

Inscr.
;

centi Cusuccia certain Mus.


GeUia

haesit nasfuit, nomen dom., p. 146, 174 : Nome To all CEuvr., iii, appearance p. 502. cp. Borghesi,
above

Glaucopi (for glaucopidi)Veneri


lactanei

the

monument

of her

erected p(uella), Agrippina,c(larissima)

by

nutri-

Aurelia
293,
i
=

Soteris

and

Mussius

Chrysogonus (Maffei,
a

Ver., p.
name use as

CIL,
had

vi, 1424) is
from

that
a

lasted

to be taken as Venus childhood.


women

mentary compliwas

in

common
1

distinguishingtitle
=

of beautiful
A female

and

.^ girls

So perhaps Musa

for female

MUsa,

Kaibel, Epigc, 551

singersand poets, C/L, vi, 3, 24042.

musician

is called Petronia

88
Lucretius, iv,

Appendices

[vol.i.

hoc fallit. nostras (1185, Munro) : nee Veneres 1177 omnium festivissimam puellarum, suam, Seneca, ApocoL, 8 : sororem Schol. [Ind. lect. Venerem vocarent. Haupt, Colloq. omnes quam IliffMv 6 : fiaffiXwro-a xaipe, [wrep] eiyarep hibern. Berolin. 1871), p.

IleXdvous'AtppoShri.Venus
Inscr., 367. Hrjre Bivovs.
, =

as

tne

name

of

slave

Epigr. Gr., 565, CIG, 6278 (Kaibel, KoKKlTiKmP K. 635: CIG, 6215

5) :

Wilmanns, Ex. d ^fii yeivafihri ode Tii/i^os ae/j.vTiv

Latinillae CIL, ii, Venus 4415 : Veneri as an epithet 'A"ppo5iTri. Arabia Firma CIL, vi, 2, 12281 : maritus. Spedius M. Ternianus CIL, ii, : 4382 ; 2, Afra. Venus 5869, an v, as epithet Aphrodite Overbeck, i", Pompeii, 109. 6851, 7104, 7395, 8938 ; vi, 286, 3446. : it CIL, vi,2, 12119-12123 name, Aphrodite alone as a woman's coemeterium of in the Callistus as was even given to Christian women, Meropi Henzen heliadi Die (so 324) Katakomben, (B. Schultze, p. in twice written the which occurs same on Borghesi, as above, p. 510) sister Licinius and of a brother the monuments (Q. Q. fil. on way

^X"

"re,

"

Florus
2

Octavianus

and

Licinia

Lampetia
by
the

give CIL, the pedestal of a on Bull. com. d. R., 1883, p. 230, the sameisfound in -itta statue of honour. Pet-names Livitta). Jahn, (Julitta, Analekta, Hermes, in, 190 ; J. TS\em.,N.Rhein. Mus., xxxi (1876),p. criticisms {Observ.epigr. in Ephem. epigr., 297 ; cp. Mommsen's iv, p. 522) of Klein's list, according to which only Gallitta,Pol(l)itta, Julitta,Livilitta can be regarded as certain : the first three are of the last is only found CIL, viii,6777. common occurrence,
to
an

; Muratori, 1477, 2), also erected to be in the above, appears

Mafiei, Mus. Ver., 293, nutritores laotanei mentioned


unable
vol. vi del

explanation.

According

to

dative, but I am Lanciani, Suppl. al

XVII.

The

Story
OF THE

of

Amor Folktale

and
in

Psyche

and

other

Traces

Antiquity.
bottom.

(Vol. I,
The and classical,

p. 229, the

1. 5 from

j"^

student have from pseudo-classical with less disfavour. time immemorial more or regarded popular poetry Accustomed to consider complete harmony of form and matter and perfection of form as of paramount importance, they are class the of of nature a repelledby poetry which, caringlittleabout fasliion an form and never equally incapable of mastering it, can artistically perfect whole, although able to produce overpowering enable the effects by its instinctive genius. Only reilection can still more
trained classically not mind to

understand

ture literasurprisedto find that even but is mentioned although popular poetry only exceptionally ; we only find in it isolated traces of popular and nursery tales,we not believe with Welcker must Gotterlehre, i, no) that (Griechische the Hellenic of that childlike simphcity, which devoid spiritwas of the German, is the essence Slavonic, and Persian tales,in which while they belie the convictions of reason and the experience of the observer who knows mankind, the motley world of nature and human
'

be

this poetry. Hence in ancient Greek and Roman

we

need

societyappears
1

to

be

mirrored

as

it

were

in

the

eyes

of children

'.

cated Cp. the Progr. Acad, Alb. Regim., i860 I and II. The additions kindlycommunito me R,K. by Reinhold Kohler are marked [The word translated by folktale is volkstndrchen,']
'

90
to

Appendices
the

[vol.l.
to
me as

abyss to the inacceptable country, appears frequent earthquakes vii, 239). The his general explanation of the story [Philologus, as other Platonic myths (Fischer,De mylhis Platonicis, Regim., 1865) I far as can as nothing of the popular tale about them. see, have remain uncertain whether It must professional story-tellers whom Augustus used to send for to talk him to sleep, (fabulatores, told their stories as a rule in pubUc {ina Suetonius, Aug., 78), who Dio Chr., xx, p. 264 M. loToplavrim ^ /lOBovSir/yotj/icvov hippodrome, (Pliny, Epp., ii, 20, i : Lobeck, Aglaoph., p. 1316) for money et accipe auream fabulam),^ also told popular tales. assem para told mentioned the latter are and as Elsewhere, by mothers only * B. children to Schmidt, Griechische nurses (Grimm, ii,p. 469 ; cp. Mdrchen, Sagen,und VolksUeder, [i8yy,]p. 11, 3, and 12, 2-4; Plato, nutricui, 8, aniles fabulae, i, 9, 2, fabulae Rep., 377B ; Quintil., larum al tlt6(xl fiuOovs Julian, Orai., vii, p. 204, kwos ; wffwep for girls amusement an as ; Tacitus, Dial., 29), or at most q.SovTos and historias,quaeso, women (Arnobius, Adv. Gentes, v, 14 : cum textriculas vobis videmini aut tales, nonne puellas audire perlegitis infantibus aut taediosi credulis avomoras operis circumscribentes camenta quaeritantes anus longaevas ; cp. Tibullus, i, 5, 84 : adsideat sedula haec tibi fabellas referat). As a custos anus, semper of men rule they were considered much beneath the notice in as as modern Greece Mdrchen, (J. G. Hahn, Griechische und Albanesische Introd. i, p. 9 ; B. Schmidt as above). This is no doubt the chief little of them. But it has been quite corso reason rectly why we know observed by Haupt (in Hermes, vii,lo) that Persius, who had been brought up amongst women, evidently has in mind the stories him when he mentions heard in the 37) the wishes by (ii, nursery, of the grandmother, and for the nurse aunt, boy in his cradle. May he be a catch for my lord and lady's daughter ! May the for him ! May the ground he walks on turn pretty ladies scramble ! (Conington). The to a rose-bed first and last wish undoubtedly have their origin in nursery tales, and probably the second. Jahn has observed in that the third wish occurs a already Neapolitan which their originto these owe story, and Haupt recalls the names, and similar and wishes Rosentreter those already explainedby Teutonic Rosenlacher ', Grimm, Mythology (Eng. tr., iii, p. iioi) Laura GorR. in Rosenlachter Blumlacher Kohler's note ', [cp. zenbach's Sicilianische Mdrchen, ii, 225]. Aristides (Or,, xlviii, lull leave it that their to must to one nurses J) charges P- 357 says to sleep by telling them tales of a sweet of of river a sea horses, sea,
in

breeding of horses

Lydia,

the

subterranean

in that

"

'

'

'

'

"

'

"

'

'

'

flows marvellous
writer's
own

which

into
are

river, and

the

like ;

but

these

instances

of tlie

V alentinianos

not taken from popular tales, but are due to the imagination, unless in this case (and in TertuUian, Adv. 19 : pueriliadicibula, in mari nasci, in arbore poma
,

1 See E. Rohde, Uber griechische Novellei'idichUmg und ihnn Zusamtnenhang mil dent Orient iQ Verhandlungen der Philologmversammlung Rostock He rightly zu {1875), p. 63. of Greelc stories in the Grecized regards them as disseminators East. 2 [Except where othervrise stated, the references to Grimm the English to are und Hausmirchen translation of his KinderStandard by Margaret Hunt in Bohn's Library, 2 vols., by themselves indicate the number 1S84. Numbers of the tale. Tr.]

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

91

pisces)we
Grimm

to imagine some are story of impossible things as in {The Story of Schlauraffenland,158 ; cp. ii,p. 450). In the tales of antiquity we the make than acquaintance of little more such and Lamia as to ghosts bogeys, (who belonged so essentially of Soli called King Demetrius fable, that Demetrius MuSos, because he had a mistress named Lamia : Plutarch, Demetrius, 27),Gorgon, and the towers Ephialtes Mormolycae (Strabo, i, 2, p. 19 C.) : the of Lamia combs (TertuUian, Adv. Valent., 3),associated with the allusion of the sun' to the an (?),are perhaps stronghold of like in her who German a child-eating fairy-taleslives ogress, in a house of gingerbread. In a modern Greek tale the Lamnissa carries off the King's daughter to her enchanted tower, where she sleeps for forty days and until she is released by forty nights a (Schmidtas above, p. 76, who on p. 226 also refers King's son in TertuUian) In the old Greek to the passage story Lamia, when at home, kept her eyes in a vessel, and thus was she blind ; when them in she their went also said to out, put place again ; she was (Plutarch, De Curiositate, 2 : vvv Sk amrep ev t!Ji ni'iSi^ sing at home otKoi fjUv tous AafilavX^yovffLv d(l)Oa\f/.ods ^8eLV ev tipl dyyct'y Tvr/tXrjv, TTjv Kcd ^^0) 5^ irpoLouffav ^TnrWeaOa.i ix^^f^^v d^oK"i.fMivovs, ^X^ireiv. Cp.
' ' '
.

schol.
s.v.

Aristophanes, Pax,
also
nee

757

;
:

Diod.
nam

Sic,
ego

xx,

41

Suidas,
oculos

Plautus, Mil.
rogo utendos
; cp.

346 glor.,
foris may

quidem
from

meos

habeo
or

be

derived
her

another
to

version

kindred

story

Lucian,

Vera may

Historia, i, 25 referred

above)
into

In

the Greek

tale the monster

by

singinghave

enticed

had lost their way, but castle children who her blindness made In order to pursue it easy for them she to escape. was them, obliged In the old folktale her eyes. the child was to put back pulled out alive from the Lamia's neu belly (Horace, A.l^., 340: pransae vivum extrahat Lamiae alvo, as probably represented in puerum

her

an

and

Atellana,)like the the Seven Kids)


.

kids A

from

the wolf's is away,

belly (Grimm,
seems a

Pomeranian

version

with

Horace similar

while
to

his mother

child

goblin Eng. tr.,ii, p. 514) but goblin so heavy, that


,

Knecht

Ruprecht

(see Grimm,

Wolf entirely is swallowed by a Teutonic Mythology,


to agree

5, The

with the child make the the stones swallowed he falls down and the child jumps out of his

mouth Manias

unharmed.
to

In

antiquity, the

Manducus

bears
Mania

the

nearest

resemblance
"

Knecht

Ruprecht

like

Lamia,

(Festus :

minitantur pueris parvulis)and other bogeys quas nutrices have (Munk, De Atellanis, p. 39), he may passed from the nursery tale into the Atellana. Lamia, v/ho also plays an important part in modern Greek popular tales (Hahn, as above, p. 331) is mentioned

by Dionysius
passage, where

of he

Halicarnassus is

(De Thucydide Judicium, 6)


of the

in

: speaking vi.Tra\.iIk Ka.1 vatdas iv fiAais KO-l \aiiiai Tivas 7^5 dnefUvas, itrropoSi'Tcs Kal Sia TreXdYODSvqxop.iva,s xdl fu^dSripas, iK raprdpijiy ili,(l"i.^iovs i^ioiicras Kal ra"ras eh ofuXiav 6.v6p-JiTois trvvepxo^vas (justlike the beautiful of modern .^ Acco Melusine Greek and the Nereides popular belief)

fables

of earlier historians

P^amia occurs

twice

ia the

Vulgate
and

; Isaiah,xxxiv, 14,

and Lamenialiojis

iv. 3
a

(where
Lamia

Septuagint has oKoKevraupoi in Afchdol. Zeitung, 1SS5, p.


is
on represented

the

: cp. also M. Spafoi-Tes respectively Mayer, Lamia

the

vase

R. K.] But it is at least doubtful 119. there discussed {Taf.,vii,2),

whether

92
and

Appendices

[vol.i.

Alphito also belong to the goblins of old Greek nursery tales De Stoic, repug., 15, p. 1040 B. : t^s 'AkkoOs Kal t^s 'AX^itoOs (Plutarch, and perhaps al ymniiKesivelpyov(Tu"), toS KaKoaxohav Si S"v to. iraiSipia mentioned and Lesbos of in by told Sappho the child-stealing Gello,
where read TeXXoCs 3 : TcXXiii 7rai5o0iXwr^/ja, (Zenobius, Paroem., iii, and Suidas s.v.). p. 608, according to cod. Coisl. in Montfaucon, Gello of fear in Wachsmuth, ; anxious cp. Even parents go to-day im neuen Das alte Grieohenland (1864) p. 77 ff. Cp. Fix in the Paris Volksl. d. NeuB. Schmidt, and TeXXci edition of Stephanus under griechen,139 (Gillound die Gillouden).^ The
a name

of Acco, of
a

like that

goblin, but

mirror, took
reminds
'

her
of

foolish woman, the from dress Leutsch

of Gello, is used proverbially, not of talked to her reflection in a who

loom

half

finished

and

put

it

on

(Zenob., i, 53,
us

ed. Clever

asleep,cut I myself or said, Am not. Similarly, other


when
half
'

Schneidewin, i, p. 21). This Elsie (Grimm, 34) and Catherine (59), who, when she woke to pieces,and her clothes up, convinced that she was not ? ', being finally
and

foolish

men

and
the

women

may
;

have

made

their

way
V.

from

the

popular tale into

proverb
"

Morychus

bius, (Zeno"

el Mupi^xou. 08x1; ^ Tra/uoi/tla 'KiyeTai irapa 13 : iMiipbrepos \iyeTa.i di oiiras Toh SifceXtirais iirl, r"v Siairpaaaoiiivav eirjSh n KdOriTai), fiupdrepo!el Mupixov, Ss ri, li"Sov d0eis l^a rijs oUlas

Ibycus, Coroebus, Meletides, Amphistides (Diogen., v, i2),Mamma(Didymus on Aristophanes,Ranae, 991), Praxilla cythus, Butalion (Etym. Mag., 367, 21 ; Appendix Pro(Diogen., i, i), Charixena in Leutsch, ParoemiographiGraeci, ii, verbiorum 82) Macco and Lamo Thesaurus 62 s.v. : /toK/codu Stephanus, (schol. Aristoph. Equites, cp. EusSuetonio et and L. Cohn, De Aristophane Byzantio Tranquillo lathii auctoribus in Neue 1881, supptbnd, fiirPhilologie, Jahrbiicher what the beautiful thing, when most asked was Praxilla, p. 350). i.e. sweet The as sun answered, andfigs ', things ; Coroebus sugar of the waves the sea that he tried to count was so (Zenobius, silly could iv, 58, Kopotpov ri\i8u!iTfpos) only learn to count ; Meletides
, '

his wife, for he was touched married, he never up to five ; when ' fear she might complain to her mother ; Amphistides did not Other of his father he was born his mother. know whether or their and of tales also have made events popular way may persons into
and

expressions,for instance. Pases, proverbial


who
as

the

mighty
and

ter, enchan-

could

call up
cause

suddenly

at will them

lonius, iv, 25, where


and

the

silver

plate,attendants

attendants, magnificent banquet disappear (cp. Philostratus, Apolbanquet of an Empusa disappears, gold and all) he also possessed a half-obol ;
a

to

to him after he had piece, which always returned paid it away (Suidas, s.v. Ilda-jjs, Apostol., xvii, 6, rb nityriTos "^/uiiD^iXioi' redivivus Juvenal, vi, 363, ac velut exhausta puUulet area nummus et e pleno semper tollatur acervo, of a is certainly reminiscence a or story of the lucky penny wishing-purse. Perhaps Cissamis of in a folktale. Cos was He originallya character was a wealthy
"

V,

[On GilluorGyllu (riWov, TvWov), see also K. N. Sathas, MeTouui'iKii BiiaAioeijiir) R. K.] ' Told of Margites in Photius and cl6ws Hesychius (Uapyirn^, [1}]m fiStpo^ tls avrdi' ) ; cp, Sueton. m Eustathius p-i^t-v yuvij TrpoTpenrjTai 1669, 43. yvvatKO^, Kav
572-578.
,

VOL.

I.]
of whose flocks,
to

Appendices
finest it.

93
off every
in

owner

sheep

was

carried

eel.

ordered

a appeared neglected to do so, and perished with all his family (Zenobius, iv, 64, Klra-aixisKijjos). Some verbial-so proin Roman be also cences reminisexpressions poetry may of popular tales. In Martial, xiii, 2, 1 : nasus, qualem noluerit ferre rogatus Atlas, Grimm of a story, in (ii, p. 422) is reminded which a man's to after he has eaten nose an enormous length grows certain fruit or vegetable. Plautus, Trinummus, a : 1023 quorum cursori current! solum allude to a story like unus surripuerit may that of the Masterthief (Grimm, 192) ; Petronius, 45 : milvo volant:

Cissamis
him

killed the

eel,which
Cissamis

to him

year dream

by

an

and

bury

ungues
off
a

resecare,

cp. 129), of whom

galloping
on a

like that of the Three Brothers (Grimm, 124, one the barber shaves a running hare, the smith pulls horse's shoes and fastens them on again ; the line
to in

found
et

column

Pompeii

moram

si

quaeris,sparge
190), to
the

milium task

colUge (so in popular tales ; see frequently mentioned below) of separating or picking up different kinds of seeds, usually performed by animals si tu obicias formicis (Plautus, Trin., 410 : quam papaverem). The expression in Petronius (45) si tu aliubi fueris dices hie porcos
Bull. (Zangemeister, d. I., 1865, p.
,

coctos

ambulare,
;

is

no

doubt

derived
of

from money in

story
the

of

Schlauraffen

land
Greek

the and

proverbial measuring Latin) was certainlycommon

by popular

bushel tales

(in both

(Xenophon,

rd Hellenica, iii,2, 27 fieSiinviiJ Trarpis diro/xerpriaciffdat TrapA tov metiretur ut dives nuramos ; apyipLov. Horace, Sat., i, i, 96: medio metitur Simeli Grimm, Petronius, 37, nummos ; cp. 142, Mountain in L. Gonzenbach's Sicil.Mdrchen, ii,251]) ; ; [R. Kohler also the equally proverbial carbonem so ', Phaedrus, pro thesauro Schneidewin's note with i Cent., Zenobius, ii, 6, (Grimm, c, V, 6, the of little coal into and back the 182, gold people, changed presents
'

again

; B.

Schmidt,
one

Volksleben he has

der

Neugriechen, 192,
of
'

5, any

one

who

tells any

that
the
aureos
'

dreamt
mountains colunt

treasure, finds coal instead);

perhaps also
divitiis modo

golden
montes auri

(Plautus,Aulul., iv, 8,
Terence, Phormio, i,

pici
18
:

qui

2,

poUicens ; Apuleius, ApoL, p. 437 : nee montibus auri satiabitur Persius, iii,67), although ; cp. Jahn on here the allusion may montes be to Persarum (Lucretius,ii,44, in Nonius, p. 379 ; montes Varro see mariaque poUiceri in Sallust, to promise boundless Catilina, 23, 3 wealth). The expression allusion coicere be to a in rutae folium an (Petronius,37) may and tale of Thumbling 45),who, (Tom Thumb) (such as Grimm, 37 while creeping among the weeds, is swallowed by a grazing cow, known Greek as (Grimm, i, p. 392). especially Thumblings are in Zur Cermania, viii, 384, compares [C. Schenkl, Ddumlingssage the child Hermes and his tricks in the Homeric hymns ; cp. also Gaston Ourse, Paris, 1875, pp. 21 Paris, Le Petit Poucet et la Grande and 39. R. K.] 803 (ed. Lorenz) : nonpotuit InPlautus.ilfi/. g'/o*-., of the stories, have one si ipsiSoli quaerundas dares,we may reperire, of something in which to disclose the whereabouts the sun is asked The of too that is hidden. 432 : Varro, Menip., fragment {Sat. 200: Bucheler's P"'0"jfitteMs/Jifi"' ChrysoPetronius,ed.min., p. X(in
non

montes

'

'

'

'

sandalos

locat

sibi amiculam

de lacte et

cera

Tarentina,

quam

apes

94
ex coegerint sine puram pilis pelle,

Appendices
omnibus

[vol.i.
osse

Milesiae

putam

floribus libantes, sine candidam proceram of


a

et

nervis,sin
formo-

teneram

contain sam) may of wings growth

the popular tale ; similarly, Aves, root (Aristophanes, after eating a certain lirecrBov Perhaps the iirTcpwfi^vio). 8 SiaTpaybvT'' 654 : la-ri ydp n ^i^i-ov, here : Nais mentioned be story in Ovid (Metam., iv, 49) should also ut cantu an nimiumque potentibusherbis Verterit in tacitos juveniha
a

reminiscence

est. passa pisces,donee idem books the magician Pases, and Apio in his De Mago mentioned which fabulous traditions, on magic undoubtedly often contained is shown as scientific works, in by Pliny'saccount found even a place and The stones. of virtues animals, of the wonderful magic plants, and can herbs of Asclepiades, rivers, dry up seas by whose aid man and procure to flight, that is shut, put hostile armies open everytliing of fairy miraculous resemble the in gifts abundance, everything is of the fourth marvel and The second tales. frequent occurrence,

corpora

first in the
'

story

of the
as

Six

Servants,

one

of whom
'

drinks

up

the

sea,

(Grimm, 134), the third dry as a meadow and tions the the Horn) and its variain Grimm, Hat, 54 [The Knapsack, calls forth great (i,p. 409),in which tapping on a knapsack The which armies and cannon, wonder-working nothing can resist. herb Osiritis in Egjrpt was moly : according to Apio the Homeric die at bound who it to once (Lehrs, Quaestt. dug up was any one 18). This quality of the epicae,p. 26; Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxx, of obtaining it without alraun danger root, as well as the manner known to Teutonic 1202) was iii, tr., Mythology, Eng, (Grimm, p. Baaras to at Josephus (Bell.Jud., vii,6. 3), antiquity. According
so

that

it becomes

near

Machaerus
same name

on

the

East

of

the

Dead

Sea

there

grew

root

of

Compendium, p. 305 D. in (according to Cedrenus' is called where it Battaritis,near Lobeck, Aglaophamus, 904 u, which shines at evening a light forth, making it Caesarea), from does so immediately impossible to approach it, since any one who it and dies. a Accordingly, a trench is dug round dog tied to the falls down dead. root ; the dog pullsit out and The root is used to demons. This root heal those possessed with later identified was with the mandragora, which again was brought into connexion with the German soil (cp. Grimm above alrune on as ; Rohde, and Griechische Both ancient Roman, appendix XIII). 230, 1 ; and German method of procuring popular belief prescribedthe same the springwurzel (explosive root) : the of a woodpecker is nest closed with a wooden the who knows where find to it, bird, bung ;
the fetches

it and Teut.

holds

it before

the

bung,

which

at

once

springsout

des kl. Myth., Eng. tr., iii, p. 973 ; Keller, Thiere A Iterthums, p. 285) It was beheved that who had one anciently any eaten bound a to the truth (Petronius, dog's tongue was speak 43 : dicam verum qui linguam caninam comedi). The language of birds and beasts in the German generally,which story was acquired by or a eating a white snake dragon's or bird's heart (Grimm, 17 ; cp. i,p. 357) had been learnt by ApoUonius of Tyana [from the Arabs according to Philostratus, i, 20, who themselves learn it "nTovp.evoi T"v ing 5pa,KbvTuv oi nkv KapSiav tpaalv, oi ii ^irap. R. K.] AccordDe to Abstinentia, iii,3 (p. 220 Porphyry. de ed Rhoer),
.

(Grimm,

VOL.

I.]
heard
an ass one

Appendices
swallow
laden all
over

95
to

ApoUonius
the
corn was

tell another
corn

hurry

to

the

gate

of

city,for

with the

had

fallen down

there, and

the

where to find ground. Birds know treasures the (Aristophanes, Aves, 6oi). They also know another future, and speak about it to one (cp. the story of Faithful 6). 'Erat pos di iiij,uv John, Grimm, i^riyurb ns, continues Porphyry, oIk^tov evTVX7i^o.i-7rato6s, 6s irdi^Ta ^wrj (read ^vi^iei) to. ipd^yfiararuv hidden

scattered

"pvl6(iiv Kal rjv irdvTa fxaifTtKcL Kal tou fier dXiyov fj.^\\ovTos dyyeXriKti' 5^ t}iv atji/eaiv, rijs d^atpc^^i'at f/.7}Tp6t p.}} "0\a^T]6el(7i]$ 5Q"povairbv ^(nnXei
'

also popularly It was cfovpTja-do'Tjt. of of the animals and knowledge language prophetic inspirationcould be acquired by allowing snakes to lick out th" ear, but lost by spitting into the mouth, as in the tales Kal ir^pLipetev
,

Ka$ei!idovros it that

ra

Cjrt

believed

in Greece

of

Melampus,
we

Glaucus

and German

Cassandra.^ upon

traces of a widespread agreement popular belief ; but in particularthe larity popular mythology of antiquity exhibits the most surprising simiof the with the popular traditions north-European peasants, is clearlyshown tigations invesas by the valuable results of the exhaustive of Mannhardt und This larity simiFeldkulte, (Wald1877). the extends vidual indito popular traditions, tales, and usages ; deal with the traditions same are subjects as ours, and and find repeated identical with them in range matter. There we of the death of the wood-spirit (= death of the popular traditions of the great Pan), of the fettering intoxicated wood-spirits,of the of the man self-chastisement who morphoses damages a tree, of the metaof and of the fairies the (= story Thetis), disappearance of the change of the sun into a.sun-iiower she waited as god's beloved the road, of the change of the woman on riding on the whirlwind Also stories of the change of treasures our (Harpy) into a horse. of gold,"of the dwarfs into coal, of the dragon watching over a hoard visible as soon their hat or cap is knocked or as goblins who become ancient

Thus between

ever5rwhere come
and

'

off,must
was,

have its

been

well

known.^

The
a

story
of find

of the

Teumessian

fox

in

unmutilated

form,
There also

variant
we

Grimm,
like

Kinderthat of

und
the

Hausmdrchen,
home,
harvest

60).*

stories

the dragon-slayer (Peleus) ; lastly,

may-pole, harvest-may,
the leaf-man

harvest

festival, harvest-race,
bonfire

Green), the

summer-solstice

(Jack-in-thether, Hirpi Sorani). Fur(Palilia,

find the same we mythical personifications, directly created by a primitive religious feelingfrom the material supplied by the We in of nature. find, contemplation entirely analogous forms, the fljdngwoman the wild huntsman the Boreades), (Harpy), (Zetes, the moss-folk and wood-maidens (Cyclopes, (Dryades), the wild men the bull-formed Centaurs, Pans, Satyrs), the water- witch (Thetis), river-spirit' (Mannhardt, ii, 349).

Griech. Myth., ii3, 472-480, esp. 473, i, Pliny, Nat. Hist.,x, 137 : vel Cp. Preller, confuso sanguine serpens aves Democritus gignatur tradit,nominando quarum sit avium coUoquia. quern quisquis ederit intellecturus ^ ii, Paulus, p. 67 : Artemidorus, Onirocr., 13 ; Phaedrus, iv, 20, 3 ; B^ Schmidt, Volhsl, d. Neugr., i,192, 4. 3 Petronius, 38 Rom, Myth., ii3, 105, i, ; Preller, 4 Mani^hardt, ii, 58,
^

quae

96
The varied

Appendices

[vol. i.

Myth., i^,655, Tarnkappe), Tmt.Myth., Eng i, 44, 158 ; cp. Preller, i*, 344 ; Grimm, off., Lucullus Plutarch, Pliny, Epp., vii,27; tr., iii, p. 974), ghosts (e.g. at cockcrow their disappearance (B I ; Lucian, Philopseudes) and i, Caihemerina, Prudentius, Griech. 37; Mdrchen, Schmidt, 244; (Grimm, Teut. Myth., Eng. tr., iii, Lucian, Philops., 14I), witches mice (whose place in [ib.,1093). That 1036), and were-wolves unknown modern popular behef has been taken by rats which were und Hausthiere*. to antiquity ; cp. Hehn, p. 380) Kulturpflanzen Ad Att., ix, 14 ; Aelian, Hist. desert houses before they fall (Cicero, reads inscriptionson tombstones, he An., vi, 41) ; that if a man Teut. De Grimm, 21 Myth., iii, loses his memory ; sen., 7, p. (Cic, is in the he who ears has being talked about 1 811) ; that a ringing elsewhere Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxviii, 24; (Grimm, ib., p. 1117; Statius, Silvae, iv, 4, 26 ; Anthol. Lat., ed. Riese, 452) ; that when wish well, it is effective to pinch to whom we thinking of any one in believed the thumb H.N., xxviii, 24, 25) all this was (Plin., belief in symcases to-day. The modern pathetic antiquity, as in many in with the old the of has many ; cures agreement points have taken the murdered former executed criminals men) place (and of the gladiators, whose blood was supposed to cure epUepsy (PUny, Der deutsche Volksaberglaubeder Nat. Hist., xvii, 28, 4 ; Wuttke, W. Kaden to (Skizzen und KulGegenwart ", 120). According Res turbilder Italien, 1882), a notched rust., 160, split) aus (in Cato,
De
"

lar popuextent of this agreement in ancient and modern to belief antiquity (common traditions is further shown by the Preller, k wtj, the of in ("Ai'Sos and modern invisibility times) cap the divining or wishing rod (Cicero, Gr.

reed

is considered of the

cure as

for in

warts

in

Calabria,

and

urine

flammatio for in-

eyesight. One Cato, 157, and enchantment on (on which against recognized remedies the evil eye, see Jahn, Vber den Aberglauben des bosen Blicks bei den Alien in Ber. d. sdchs. Ges., 1855, esp. p. 82 ; Marquardt, Prl., in antiquity, was as i', 84 ; Wuttke, pp. 153, 155) now, spitting (Wuttke, 171). Further, there appears to be a general agreement in ancient and modern between the superstitionsof the nursery times. Mannhardt's to probable assumption According very the function of the dea Candelifera ii, 125, i),it was (WFK, ler, (Prelleft burning by the cradle RM, ii',208) to see that a lightwas of new-born in the houses children of German (a practice still common the the dwarfs and subterranean peasants) to prevent powers, Venus calls like, from changing it ; in Apuleius (Met., v, 28),where succubam formae succuba be to meae a ', Psyche ling changeappears (Petronius,63 ; Grimm, Teut. Myth., Eng. tr., ii, 468; iii, 1421). There of the conceptions and doubt that a large number seems no forms of popular belief found well as modern a as place in ancient tales. of The witches in the two popular story Apuleius (Metam., j),who cut out the heart of the faithless lover of one of them and in its place, is exactly like some stuff in a sponge witchServian
eyes, of the
,
'

10, for dim

According

this is perhaps connected the with flint and steel,

(Wuttke,

Der

the clang of brass or Iron scares ghosts. With belief that they cannot of sparks endure the striking beating of pots and pans, the clank of the scythe, and so forth deutsche Volhsaberglnube der Gegenwarf, ed, 2, p. 453I.

to

Lucian, Philops., 15,


the modern

98
the other,
may down be
to
a

Appendices
common

[vol.i.
everything she touches
her
nose,

wishes prostitute,
to follow
'

that

obliged
the

her

she

blows

and

draws

it of

ground.

common

of wandering Indo-Germanic
the

Generally gods form part of (Rohde, myths


'

speaking,the
the
Der

tales

of the

tainment enter-

oldest

storehouse

griecMsche Roman,

508 note).
between tales folkinvestigation of the connexion portance is also of the greatest imheroes of gods and and the sagas Elements of folktale. for the knowledge of the ancient the in elements and folktale, in the myth, the folktale mythical in instances, out especially have been by the pointed many already to their tales Grimm in the notes brothers (see also Welcker, Grieund and Religion Mythologie chische Gotterlehre, i, 107 ; Hartung, of the the I mention der Griechen, i, 144). similarity SiS5T)hus may bling GrM, ii',76) and the story of Spielhansl or Gamlegend (Preller, death in both and the 82 Hansel i, 442) gods ; (Grimm, ; cp. p. craft. Emmanuel overcome of the undenvorld are by (the devil) Cosquin (in his excellent work, Contes populairesde la Lorraine, et des pays compares avec les contes des autres provinces de France la des contes et d'un essai et sur propagation I'origine Strangers pricidi to the in parallels 37, Chatte populaires europiens, 1886, ii,p. 28, of the myth of Jason blanche, p. 12) has pointed out the relationship I'air d'un du bien conte reste and Medea a populaire) with a (qui is ordered class of tales in which man a by an evil being to young which he does by the aid of perform apparently impossibletasks, a maiden (usuallythe daughter of the evil being) ; they flee together, the reaches his and man pursuit by magic. When young escape succeeds in making home he forgets the maiden, who nevertheless him remember her. As this last feature is altered beyond recognition in in the Jason myth, we Aeson's dismemberment recognize may and which return to life the recurs displacement of a motive in a number of similar stories : in these it is always the maiden allows who herself to be cut to pieces,in order able to to be assist has that her lover Mannhardt shown the myth (p. 25). of Thetis Peleus and is identical with an elf-saga and a But further

Siegfried saga,

the

latter

of

which

is the

foundation
'

of

several of folktales

of the two tales, especially that brothers, that the assertion, against Benfey's argument
a

an

incontestable

materials

entirely of comparatively late


are

Buddhist
also

origin, and period' (Wald- und


B.

Europe at Feldkulte, ii, 78 ; cp.


reached Griechische

53. p.

57.

68,
'

151

note

Schmidt,
and

Mdrchen,

15).

The

identity of the stories


in the
same a

adventure
several
on a

of Peleus is features combined the of the

unmistakably

legends referred to with the shown by the agreement of

mountain,
of

acquisitionof

(contestwith a monster victory-givingmagic sword at

order

the moment

in

proof

of the

fight, cutting out of the tongues, their production the scene on of the contest) ship victory,sleeping ; the relationtraditions is most shown in the Tristan clearly saga
'

chief features of the old Peleis are repeated ii and north European traditions : the fairy (Thetis) and other forms, to escape Changing herself into animal her hero suitor ; her refusal to speak while Uving with him ; her sudden

(p. 51).

All the

modern

Greek

VOL.

I.]
when
other and

Appendices
reviled

99
some

disappearance
Rohde
note

by

him
to

(or for

other

reason).

has made of the

relations
:

the dead
in

virtues

our knowledge Roman, p. 125 popular tale (Der griechische story of the metamorphosis of Glaucus by a magic plant, of which became known to him through the revival of

contributions

of the mutual

myth

fishes that

were

80, i] [Cosquin, ii,


a

it ; cp. Grimm, 16 and i, p. 356 like Hero and Danae life of maidens ; the solitary
i

laid upon the

tower,' p. 134,
are

father's

love
der

for his and

own

daughter, p.
; cp. also

420, I,

all favourite sardinischen

motives

of both
von

saga

fairy tale
out the

Rohde, Mus.,
of

Die
XXXV,

Sagen [1880], 157) ; he p.

in Neunschldfern,

N.

Rhein.

has

also

pointed

insertion

in the romance of Achilles Tatius fairy tale elements (Der gr. Rom., 484, i). Hahn's important work on Greek and Albanian tales is the first step towards a comprehensive comparison of kindred of the story of Amor and folktales and Psyche the myths relationship ; with a myth (Zeus and Semele) has already,to my mind, been convincingly shown B. Schmidt in his Griechische Mdrby Felix Liebrecht. has shown in particular the frequent chen, Sagen, und Volkslieder (1877) of the ancient into the modern admission of elements myth popular tale by numerous and interesting examples ; cp. especiallypp. 224, the fairytalesrecorded, the 226 f.,229, 231, 236 f., 238, 248. Among home in the island of Zacynthus, no. of which have their majority in relation to the Theseus its the seven-headed snake, legend 23, in which affords an especiallyinstructive insight into the manner Greek different ancient elements are amalgamated in the modern sometimes remodelled popular tale,and shows how curiouslythey are diversified is the combination and how (p.238). R. Kohler {Uber in the Weimarer die europdischen Volksmdrchen Beitrdge zur Litterahas indicated the following tales und tur Kunst, 1865, p. 187) other in antiquity, as recorded recurring amongst peoples : the stories of Polyphemus (Servian, Hungarian, Esthonian, Finnish, Gaelic),King Midas (Servian,Breton, Irish, Mongolian), the Egjrptian Rhampsinitus (Greek [Trophonius],German, Danish, Gaelic), another and (Zeitschrift Egyptian tale in Mannhardt filr deutsche und Sittenkunde, iv, 232). Mythologie contains so The by Apuleius into his romance story admitted lishments, foreign ingredients and is so disfiguredby unsuitable embelmany
' '

that

its real nature

although misunderstandings
which ciades human
have

the brothers
are

Grimm
of

frequently been misunderstood, long ago explainedit correctly. These


has
to

chieflydue
the
consider the

the

names

Amor
from

led

most to

commentators

Psyche, Fulgentiu".Planrelation
and of the
as

and

downwards

embellished

soul to the Platonic by the writer,


The

allegory of the extended Eros, arbitrarily


real foundation Psyche being related
as

of

the

ally fantastic-

the

Apuleian
lovers
of is

story.

idea

of Eros

and

two

first found who B.C.), works

clearlyexpressedin the poems it as already known. assumes


of art,

of

Meleager (last century


motive the
ous numer-

It is the

perhaps produced

or

prompted by

younger

the 1 du picheur,ii, In the parallels to l^ fits p. 80) Cosquin shows p. 66 (cp.especially of the Perseus myth with a certain class of popular tales. [C". E. S, close relationship Hartland, The Ligmd ot Perseus,1894-6. Tr.]

100

Appendices
school, the
and
sorrows
cause

[vol.i.
reunion,
torments

Attic
the which

subject
of the

of which

joys they

pair of
As

separationand the lovers, but especially


is the

each
not
a

other.

Jahn
an

remarks

in

his

exhaustive

legendproduct in poetic originating allegory, creating power became the property of the people, but reflection ; hence it never circles {Obey einige auf Eros educated remained unknown outside in Ber, d. sdchs. Ges., 1851, p. 156). Kunstwerke und Psyche beziigliche of the story in Apuleius will soon But an impartial consideration to the allegory. it bears convince that us only slight resemblance for which of Two one lovers, made unhappy by a long separation them is responsible, are joined together in an everlastingand finally is doubt the reason blissful reunion and this no why Apuleius ; the hero and heroine of his and the Amor to of names Psyche gave
discussion,it was

myth,

the unconscious

of the

of the

people, but

narrative.

But but

here the resemblance

ceases.

Psyche bringssorrow

for his unintentionally; if she suffers torments upon his knowledge. we If, notwithstanding, sake, it is without attempt to interpretthe entire narrative according to the allegoryupon which it is supposed to be based, we shall be obUged to have to recourse

Amor,

the

most

violent

explanations,and
and

even

then

there

wiU

remain

utterly impossibleto Hildebrand instance, according to explain desires ; (Apuleius,i,Prol. p. xxxii) the sisters of Psyche are fleshly hence and attractive, are they are exceedingly beautiful sought in marriage by numerous suitors and finallyhappily wedded, but and forth. to men so (?), worthy of their wantonness According to follows Fulgentius (cp.Apuleius, Creuzer, who Psyche,ed. Jahn, p. 64), the three daughters are the flesh, free will, and the spirit; unconsciousness, according to Cams, world-consciousness, and
many characters

incidents, which

it is

allegorically.For

self-consciousness of nature

Others

even mor

take und

them

to

be

the

three

doms king-

Psyche Jahrbucher view fiir Philologie,xc, 202). Similarly, Krahner's (Eros und ous. Psyche, second ed., 1861) must be considered fundamentally erroneInstead
no was

(Stadelmann, A

in Neue

of

restoration

of the
a

longer
'

possible,he

attempts

mjrth,which is perhaps the object of which remodelling,


tion anticipa-

ancient

had have

of salvation in the garb of certain truths ' is convinced '. The author that the ancient myth for its foundation certain profound ideas, and must at to

clothe

certainly
one

time that
it

existed age
in
am

in

much
was

the down I the

of

Apuleius

purer neither '. the


in

and

more

consistent

form,
nor

but

able

to

understand

to

hand

this nobler

form with
to

unacquainted subject, referred


and

the

majority of the older discussions of Stuttgart Realencyclopddie, vi, i,

The most recent contribution i', 880. to the already literature known to me is a treatise by J. A. Hartung, der Seele und von des Marchens Auslegung des Mdrchens der von schonen Lilie ('Exposition of the tale of the soul and of the tale of the beautiful which also contains brief natural lily'), a history of the popular tale in general (Programm des Gymnasiums zu Erfurt,

rye

note

extensive

in regarding the story as Easter, 1866). Hartung agrees with me but further rightly a popular tale, lays stress on the fact that Apuleius

also had

in view

'

of the morally purifying glorification influ-

VOL.

I.]
of those the who
'

Appendices
mysteries '.
has offer
to

loi

ence

which of

Psyche

go themselves
a

wanderings through, resemble


for initiation

'

The

and the
;

dangerous tasks preliminary trials the name Psyche


.

morally religious proves feehng is at the bottom of the story into is read it rather, (or by Apuleius) Certainly, Hartung goes too far in his ingenious attempt to interpret every important incident in the narrative symbolically. In particular, it seems to me that the frequentuse of the number three, a standing feature of popular tales, cannot be possibly regarded as an allusion to the mysteries. Friedrich Pressel's interpretation, in the Erlduterungen to his free translation of the story (Psyche.Ein allegorisches nach dem Mdrchen des Apuleius, Ulm, Lateinischen 1864, kindly to notice by Reinhold the truth. nearer brought Kohler), is much my He certainlystarts deliberately from the wrong principle, that the folktale of art was known un(mdrchen) as a distinct genre '^ways to classical antiquity '. For he assumes the separation of the
'

itself (soul)

that

natural
of the
'

and
to

divine escape
of
were

in the from the

power

consciousness, and, as the result, the endeavour world the barren, miserable by means still more Greeks, and imagination. The
'

the when in
an

Romans,

unacquainted with
consciousness went
a

poetry

of

yearning '. Only


the belief

the ancient

astray

in itself and

consciousness necessity,did the new of the age (which in expression Neoplatonism) produce class of poetry, the artificial and a new allegorical story, not the tion, naive popular tale '. Yet Pressel, altogether contrary to his deducbe revision of the fiction Or : can on a an Apuleian ally origingoes tale ? I confess because I that this is my think naive opinion, became its found
'

invisible world

that, if
seems

distinction
can

be

made

between

the

invention

and

the

cution, exe-

I
to
not

me,

could

have

The invention, it perceive a very great diiierence. in whose head is too good ; the man, it originated, of taste, which been guilty of the errors have crept
in the narrative of of

in here

and of

there

Apuleius '.

Leaving
intentions These has

entirely out

consideration
the

Apuleius

and

of his narrative, I propose show that it belongs to a been described


Kinderund

the moral and religious ments mythological and allegoricaleleto discuss only its essential features. character large class of tales,whose Grimm

by

the

brothers

(Vber dcis

Wesen

Mdrchen,

Hausmdrchen,
'

Grimm, Schriftenvon Wilhelm While p. 351. R. K.]) as follows :


folktale is a relations and another told
four
or

Berlin, 1819, p. xlv [= ed. G. Hinrichs, Berlin, bd.


its idea

der Kleinere

i, 1881,
the same, different

always

remains

five times, in each case in that form it can so circumstances, and


innocent

under be

good story. The youngest, is promised to a


she

regarded as daughter, generally the


of she
.

necessity,or
endures she has
love to

monster by her father under stress voluntarily gives herself up to it. Patiently

her lot,frequently troubled


atone

by

human
at

by

severe

penalties;

weaknesses, for which last,however, she falls in


off his

with

at once the monster, who and as a lion, frog) appears

throws

beautiful faultlessly Indians French

story, which
with

is

common

amongst
and

the

Roman

Psyche

and

Parthenopex

and

Amor of tales Enthralment Meliure, signifies

the Old

ugly form (hedgehog, youth. This and is obviously connected


and

by the

102

Appendices
and
out

[vol. i.

Redemption by Love. Step by step the pure works its is worldly misery and development interrupted, ; way off by the contact be thrown the rush and in, sorrow earthly can only folktale formulae Of the of souls, by their recognition in love'. laid down Freya by Hahn (as above, p. 45), it is certainlyto the and formula that the tale of Amor essentiallybelongs ; Psyche The wife of or this formula are : for the fundamental features (i) her on that account. abandons is missing and the husband betrothed and reconhim. in search of ciliation. She wanders about (3) Recovery (2) in ing wanderthe the fact that this But from case also, apart is not the most are important element, features and motives Indeed, speaking generally, frequently adopted from other forms. of its for the popular tale is indebted the apparent abundance of number of to creations admixture mental fundaa a kaleidoscopic forms by no means large (Benfey, Pantschatantra, praef. xxvi ; Hahn, p. 43) exhibits If the of the course story in Apuleius in the main Earthly
if the
' '
.

the

characteristics
most

indicated different but that

above,
in its

and

its

outlines that

recur

in
not

the vented in-

tales of the

peoples, it

is evident

it

was

it is one of the originalform tales to numerous and common Aryan non-Aryan peoples, which became Apuleius acquainted with as a Roman (or perhaps Greek) ^ popular tale, and adapted and altered in his own Although way. it is certainlydisfiguredby his additions, omissions, and alterations,

by Apuleius,

with

the

aid

of

similar of

German

tales

alone

we

can

still effect

original.' At the beginning, not only the matter, but also the manner is In there lived certain and a once a partly preserved. city king ful queen' (cp.Perseus, ii,37 ; p. 90 above). They had three beautidaughters, but the youngest was by far the most beautiful ; her so beauty was great and magnificent, that it could not be expressed in words.' But while the two eldest were married to kings, the into the power of a monster. The youngest had to be given over motive in the story appears of this turn be to to me correctly stated by BoUe (Apuleius ah Lecture fiir die unterste Siufe eines oder einer Realschule. und Gymnasiums Frogr. des Gymnasiums der Realschule zu Celle,Easter, 1877, p. 13).* A king's son, whose in Little Snow-white)is jealous of her reputamother the queen (like tion for being the most beautiful in the world, and is also woman
'

probable

restoration

the

an
"

enchantiess, falls in love

with

the youngest

of the three

daughters

Fulgeatius Planciacles (Jahn, Apulcii Greek Psyche d Cupido, p. 63, 27) mentions a ; libris qui Dysarestia nuncupantur, Aristophontes Athenaeus in hanc fabulam circuitu discere cupieatibus prodidit. M. Zink ingeati verborum {Der Mylhologe Fulgentius: ein Beitrag zur rom. IJtt.-Gesoh.undzur GrammaiikdesiifrikmischenLaiei Wiireburg, 1 867, p. 89) does not regard the quotation as an invention (since tliecontents of the story are admirably suited to a book On Discontent ; Rohde, fication p. 345, 4 without justiconjectures Avo-epuTiifa for the title), but thinlts that Fulgentius had the seen of the author name m an oblique case, and that it was reallyAristophon. Aristophontes, a as however, occurs in Plautus, CapHvi (Teu'ffcl, personal name Studien, 45r). B. Schmidt {Griech. Marchen, p. 14 note) states that he was crediblyassured in the island of Zacynthus (Zante) that a very similar tale was current the people amongst
version
"

My
A

attempt
young

at

woman

restoration was beautiful as

first
as a

expressed
i

His

words m (Grimm, 166, StrongHans). idea o( adaptingApuleius for school

published in the Morgenblatt (rSsS no. 37 f ). picture; nay, so beautiful, that it cannot be

readingalso

seems

worthy

of atteatioa.

VOL.

I.]
king.
His

Appendices
mother,

103
is

of

surpassed by son princess, pursues to punish him for loving her. After the lovers the of Amor names and bound the to be made was Psyche, Venus mother of the king's son. In a modern variant of the tale Greek of Snow-white the goddess of love (the mother of Erotas) also takes the place of the beautiful wicked queen.^ B. Schmidt (Griechische des Erotas) : und die Mutter There Mdrchen, 17, Maroula was once far who a the beautiful of all the most king's daughter, was by beauty
and

the

seeing that
her with

her

that

of the

hatred

her bewitches had received

'

women

in the world. endure

When
woman

the

to

that
'

she conceived

any the idea

mother should be

of Erotas
more

heard

of it,unable than

beautiful '.

herself,
observes

of

the maiden killing

B. Schmidt

Erotas' mother's hatred of the maiden who (p. 233) : surpasses her in beauty ; the sufferings which she inflicts upon her ; and her final pacificationcertainly remind of the story of Amor and us Psyche : and I believe that, in view of the existinganalogies,we in assuming that Apuleius found the motive of jealousy are justified
'

in the

popular tale which he made use of. In this tale we that the enchanted prince may suppose been changed into a monster) met the father of the beautiful

(who had princess,

him perhaps out hunting, and, by threatening to kill him, made promise to give her up. Apuleius, however, represents her parents do induced as to so being by an oracle of Apollo. But from the which the beautiful at point king'sdaughter, dressed in grave-clothes, is escorted by her weeping relatives in melancholy procession to the he has again followed she is abandoned, top of a steep rock, where the tale. A passage in Grimm's Two Brothers (60)is exactly parallel : entered the youngest, accompanied which a city, by his animals, all covered The huntsman asked the host why with crape. was the garb of mourning. the city wore Because, repliedthe host, our the city is is die Outside to to-morrow. king's only daughter whom maiden dwells to whereon a high mountain, a dragon, a pure
'
. . . . .
.

must

be

offered is
none

every to-morrow

year

otherwise,
The

he

Now

there up

left but

the '.

king's daughter,
Greek
Twin which

ravages and

the she

country.
must

be

given
all the

to him

Brothers
a

i, 170) corresponds to the German

story, in

springs
once a

and

prevents
a

except

daughter daughter
manner, with

is
in since

year, when victim.

the inhabitants from maiden is offered to the

Certainly,

the

ancient tale cannot the story of the two it is


for that

have

exposure been introduced


has
no

(Hahn, 22, guards drawing water, him ; the king's of the king's
monster in

this larity simi-

brothers
the

further of the

it ; and

just as possiblethat

escort

maiden,

apparently
in several

destined In

tales,as

other three

tales.

Grimm

to the top of a mountain, occurred sacrifice, individual features from Apuleius borrowed (88, The Singing, Soaring Lark) a father of

daughters falls into the power of a lion by promising him the first thing which
home
;

and

can

only
meet

save on

self himhis This

should

him

return

and
occurs

this proves
in the

to

be

his

story, which
1

most

varied

youngest daughter. different forms amongst


case
'

Sicilian tale the son of the mother (inthis ' daughter-in-lawis called lu Re d'Amuri, the King of love

la

kindred

an

who ogress)

hates

her

(Cosquin,Conta

populaires

de la

Lorraine,ii, 237).

104

Appendices
'

[vol.i.

that correspondsmost closely peoples (Grimm, ii, p. 378), is the one is put the heart theme : of Apuleius, at least in its main to that at falls the evil to the proof and away everything earthly and {ib., 381). recognition of pure love'
The ancient he

monster,
tale
was

to whom

the

maiden I

is had

surrendered,

was

also in the
it

enchanted probable an man. long thought acquainted with changed into a dragon, before I became the following kindred ture. completely confirm my conjectales, which husband of the destined calls the the oracle when Certainly, monster snake-like (saevum atque ferum king's daughter a cruel, cence vipereumqae malum, Metam., iv, 33),we have perhaps only a reminisof Sappho's descriptionof love as a bitter-sweet, unruly snake although Fulgentius (ed. Afiixifov 6pir"Tov), {yXvKiiinKpciv Jahn, p. 62) says : jubetur puella pennato serpenti sponsa desBut the sisters of Psyche also assert that they have tinari. seen that him in this form, and this is the reason shows why he never him himself to her. as a They describe huge snake, gUding along with in many coils, enormous jaws, dropping poison, and remind which foretold her marriage to a horrible monster her of the oracle said to have are (trucisbestiae). Many peasants and huntsmen from return the in the his on ming seen feeding dragon, evening, swimof river the waters a neighbouring across {Met., v, 17, cp. 20 : intrahens sulcatos culjiJe solitum gressus postquam conscenderit) the spell was evidently broken, and the enchanted Only at'nigEt resumed his one form, that of a beautiful youth, in which proper that
' ' ' '
"

he
are

visited

his wife.
to
resume

In

numerous

kindred

stories

the

enchanted

permitted
or

their

true

form
tale

weeks,
form the

months.

Probably
when

the
the

used

during by Apuleius
certain
one

hours, days,
also
to
tained con-

the

feature, that

enchanted

returned

human

no would him, which ray of lightmight fall upon only increase and it last longer. This is the case make strength of the charm in the story already compared (Grimm, 88), in which the lion, to the whom be surrendered, is a king's son ; youngest daughter must enchanted with him were during the night he and his people who their natural form. But when the ray from a burning candle resume falls upon him, he is changed into a dove, and is obUged to flywith the doves seven when long ; this happens to him once a years hair falls broader than no him a crack in the ray through a upon door ; immediately he is transformed into a white and flies dove

away.

At

least

we

are

here

reminded

of

Amor,

who,

when

the

hght of Psyche's lamp falls upon him, awakes from sleepand without flies away and then addresses her from uttering a word the top of So a tall cypress also Grimm {Met.,v, 23). (ii, p. 381) : Our story also agrees with it in this, that and that hght brings misJEortune all bonds, always dissolves loosens night, which the spell'. Also, in the Greek tale of Golden Wand, to be mentioned below (Hahn, the is 7) king's son changed into a dove and in consequence of the of the secret is wounded discovery by the sisters. So then the king's daughter is left alone on the top of a rock to
'

be
the she

married

to

such

timid
sees a

maiden grove

husband. down into a with clear a


a

gentle breath

of

wind

wafts

flowery valley where, and spring of water

refreshed,
a

palace

lo6

Appendices

1. [vol.

of the expected child (Grimm, ii,p. 364). The frequent mention the constancy of the mother of the influence which in Apuleius, and its nature, is supposed to exercise permits us to conjecture upon the child, if over tale the spellalso had that in the ancient power

the

mother

did

not

stand
same

firm,
form

and

into the world

in the

as

that it was its enchanted

destined
father.

to The

come

latter

impresses
one

upon
the

her that misfortune

she may
that in

from

preserve threatens

him, herself and her little firm them, if she remains

tries the result of her curiosity, her the river bears to bank. the safely ; and in search of her lost husband, about comes She then wanders husband of her of is the to a certain country, the king of which one sisters. The latter allows herself to be deceived by the story that

(v, 13). The king'sdaughter,


herself,but

despair at

to drown

in vain

the husband

desires her

for his wife to

(Psyche) ; she hastens formerly wafted Psyche, but


In the
In
same manner

the

hurls

who is repuone diated whence the wind west rock, herself headlong down to death.

instead

of the

the other
mahce

sister is deceived

by

the

youngest

and

punished
the

cuiming. adapted by Apuleius the repentant she atones for her evidently reaches the place where
tale

for her

and

wanderer
error

now

by
who

hard
her has

service,
beloved.

severe

tasks the the work

and

renewed

stedfastness,
the husband has
to

and

redeems

In

Hanoverian

brought
comes

about
a

story separation from her


woman,

king's daughter, by her carelessness,


serve

to to do

wicked
the

whom maids

she

for

seven

years

and

In some of (Grimm, ii, p. 380) follow that husband. the tales this hostile being is the mother of the This was undoubtedly the case in the tale used by Apuleius ; Venus takes the place of the enchantress, who has transformed her son and her hated which to severe tests, daughter-in-law finally bring put about deliverance. But instead of the king's daughter seeking out her mother-in-law, with whom she at first expects to find her husband Venus seek her ; she at (cp. Met., vi, 5), Apuleius makes first hides herself from but finally her, fearing discovery, voluntarily The for sole object of aU this is to make room gives herself up. in ornamental and the writer with of the taste episodes, harmony his contemporaries, who probably regarded them as great improvements to the too simple narrative, while to us they rather seem on it. When disfigure Psyche attempts suicide, Apuleius has already inserted a Pan totally unnecessary episode about (v, 24) ; then follows the account Venus how learns of her son's (v, 28-vi, 10) Ceres and marriage and violently reproaches him ; how Juno in vain her : how in vain attempt to appease Psyche implores them to protect and her how for her Venus searches a grant refuge ; everywhere, whereupon Psyche gives herself up and is handed over to the servants of Venus, Anxiety and Sorrow, to be tortured and scourged. This mythological padding is in part affected and frigid allegory,in part downright burlesque. Venus as speaks to Amor in comedy an addresses enraged mother dissolute son, Ceres and a Juno like two old gossips ; the marriage with Psyche is said to be nvaUd, because it took place at a country house without witnesses ; Mercury as public crier of the gods, offers a reward of seven kisses of
seven

VOL.

I.]
Venus reminded
of to the

Appendices
finder
of

I07

from
are

Psyche.

of the

popular
arranges about and

the

temple scythes that tales good

Ceres

In one we passage, certainly, where the wandering princess in tale, in order the sheaves, garlands, and
in

Similarly,in German during women, wanderings often in desolate soUtudes, often, without called lend a helping being upon hand and the thanks of kindly spirits. thereby earn From these unedifying episodes we return again to the story, out it from as elaborate formal were an stepping garden of the rococo period into the natural free life of the forest. The princess,
were

lying

confusion.

maidens

their

her husband, has to she has to sort out a heap of accomplish First, and beans before evenwheat, millet,poppy seeds,peas, lentils, barley, ing ; ants Next, she has to fetch wool from perform the task for her. spiteful, sheep with golden fleeces ; in despair she is about savage herself into the river, when to throw a reed whispers to her to wait
error

to

atone

for

her

and

to

release

three difficult tasks.

till the able


to

sheep

rub

their wool

off

on

to

the

trees

then

she

will

be

Lastly, she has to fetch water from a spring (in called flows in a fearful, inaccessible Stygian), which Apuleius is guarded by dragons ; an ravine and eagle fills her crystal vessel
with
The The the desired water. first task is exactly the
her
recurs same as

collect it.

that

imposed
doves

(Grimm, 21) by
second and

stepmother,
in the in

in

which

task

Indian German

tale of the tales.


have of
to

assistance. woodcutter's ter, daughThe have

upon render

Cinderella

frequently also
all the
if suitors
:

In

White
to of these
over

Snake

(Grimm, 17)
three

of the

king's daughter
die. seed
millet

perform
sisted con-

tasks
in

the and sunset sunrise this task between also is ; performed by grass, thousands of ants. These tasks are of characteristic the especially Bride- wager class ',in which the suitors stake their heads againstthe can bride, who only be won by the accomplishment of difiicult tasks
'

they cannot, they picking up ten sackfuls

One

scattered

(Hahn,
Son loads

horseking's son maize, all mixed together,in half a not day. I am acquainted with an exact analogy to the second task ; I will return to the third The have later. princess may who earned the gratitude of the animals assist her, as in so many tales (including the Indian), by taking pity on them or rendering assistance them formula The -p. 57). Animals, (in Hahn Grateful 32, that have it his narrative better omitted this suits Apuleius may ; all nature should of the god of love. assist the chosen Perhaps it ' in the tale ; did not occur assist the unhappy the animals may the inanimate maiden out of compassion, and similarly beings, the

p. 54 ; cp. ii,p. and the Beardless Man of wheat,

323).
ants

Also sort

in the out

Greek

tale of The four

King's

for the

and barley,spelt,

reed down.
them
as

and
'

the tower, (later)


'The

from

which

she

intends

to throw all distress

herself

nature, spiritual

the the and stars sun, moon, and when they speak to those which deliver them
out

above
in

a possess and give

presents

divine
1

beings,objects of
considers done the have
a

trouble, they appear worship (quorum opibus aperte juvantur,


of their
in the originaltale rendered assistance

Cosquin, who

Psyche must her,supposes

animals

de la L., ii, {Cont.j}op. p. 230) tliat for the a good turn to account

Buddhist

version.

io8
Caesar, B.G., vi, 21),as
Germans.
are over

Appendices
in

[vol.i.
to the
was

ancient life.

times

they actually were


of

Trees

and

springs, whose
with
'

also instinct

The

worship spring, which


not

the

stones,

warns

the children

to

drink in
the

long leaps sparkling of it ; if they do


Roman
'

ance, continu-

they
What what the

will be

transformed the
?

(Grimm).

Thus
to

tale the

spring guarded by
are

dragon
Have

you
do in

doing

cries out ! What a care


'

the

princess
do you
;

Begone

you

lake

! Flee, else you the tale of The

will die !

(vi,14

Seven-headed

? want Mind the of warning cp. Snake, B. Schmidt, Gr. The up


may

Mdrchen,

119).
a

succeeds To these three tasks now into the underworld has to descend
ointment of from the

fourth.
and

king'sdaughter
a

fetch This

little

goddess

of the dead.

be

beautytion only a varia-

of the the

tale, for

fairytale
this like
us case

by Apuleius from another version naturally only expect three tasks, according to precedent ; it is also possible that the fourth task was in
third

task, borrowed

we

added, exceptionally

as

last, most
water of of

difScult
the

task, aggravated
reminds

by three temptations. The the beauty-ointment (i.e. a means


of hfe
a.s

Stygian spring,
tales

renewing youth)
in German

of the water

mentioned frequently which the

(Grimm,
the old

97). Just
tale intends
she well in the

the

tower, from
a an

king's daughter in
'

to throw

desires,so does
court

to obtain what herself down, instructs her how dwarf in the German tale : It springsfrom a

of

enchanted

castle,but you
and
on

cannot two

make

your

wide if but in a loaf to each they will be quiet ; then open ; you throw hasten and fetch some of the water of life, before it strikes twelve, else the door will close and you will be shut in '. The prince does he is told, but, finding as in a room a beautiful newly-made bed, he
cannot to So he lay down and help lying down upon it to rest. sleep; when he awoke, it was strikinga quarter to twelve.
'

thither, unless I give you an iron rod way bread. With the rod strike three times wiU and it castle, spring open ; inside he two

small iron

loaves of

the

gate of the
mouths

lions,with

went

Then

he sprang in a cup to the well, drew water some up in alarm, ran stood which hard by, and hurried ofi. But when he was going out of the iron gate it struck twelve, and the door shut so violently that it took ancient
off
a

tale

piece of dangers

of the

Exactly in and temptations stand and exactly in undertaking,

his heel '.

the
the

same

manner

in the

in the
same

way

manner,

of the formance perat the

last moment, after the greatest difficulty has been surmounted, the is threatened with failure. of the to the palace On her way attempt of the dead the king's daughter has to take in each hand a cake god and two barley meal, honey and wine, and in her mouth copper coins. Three times she is tempted to let the cake fall ; if she does, she will have to remain in the underworld she will be ; for then unable to quiet Cerberus, when in and She first out.

going

coming

meets her

the
out out

On

lame laden with wood, whose ass driver, also lame, begs to Uft up the logs of wood that have fallen off. WhUe crossing river of the dead himself (when Charon has to take the coins of her mouth) a dead old man swims after the boat, stretching his putrefiedhands and that he may be taken on board. entreating the opposite shore are seated some old women at the loom, who
a

VOL.

I.]

Appendices
She the she
overcomes successfully

109
all these
to take

beg her to leiid them a hand. temptations. She is invited by in a sumptuous banquet ; but
but
a

goddess

of the

dead
to

is forbidden

take

piece of bread, which she is obliged to eat sitting on obtains what she desires and makes her way back without any accident ; but when she reaches the upper world, although forbidden to do so, she cannot resist the temptation of opening the box, from which narcotic and ascends a plunges her into a deathlike vapour
She

part anything the ground.

sleep.
hurries The

But up

her

lover, now

set

free
to

by

her

loyalty and

stedfastness,

and

brings

her

back

life.

and marriage of Amor Psyche is of low example comedy (Met.;vi, 22-24). Psyche bears a daughter Voluptas. Here also it is clearly shown that Apuleius in his narrative has amalgamated geneous heterotwo elements, allegoryand popular tale ; for where the expected child is mentioned it is repeatedly spoken of as a boy (v, 12, 13), in accordance with the fact evidently certainly a fairy tale forgotten by Apuleius. It can hardly be accidental that there are no ancient works of art celebrated
"

the conclusion, in which in heaven, is another

which

illustrate

classical

poetry,

the narrative of disdained to borrow

Apuleius.^
its
the

Classical
from

art, like
the

subjects

it might Certainly into

have

done

so, after

mentioned
at that extinct. motives

by Apuleius (the date by Fulgentius Planciades appears to be unknown) ; but of plastic art was time the productive power practically If any needed that the folktale is rich in proof were admirably adapted for representations,Raphael would
it in the

literature

tale. folktale had been introduced of the Aristophontes

and in another Thorvaldsen also has extremely gracefulrepresentations cycle ; in a number the chief scenes of sketches to be seen in represented his museum at Copenhagen. of

have

furnished

frescoes of the villa Faruesina

In my that
a

the opinion,

evidence forms

from the

German basis
of

genuine

folktale

parallels clearlyshows the Apuleian narrative.


this

(ii, p. 381) is the Dutch unknown the Swedish to me {Wodana, 3) (Giimm, ii, ; I did not become acquainted with p. 509) is only distantlyrelated. the others until I had completed my As attempt at reconstruction. in the they in all essentials confirm it (most of them especially is changed into a feature that the lover or husband of the heroine snake) I shall give their contents so far as it is necessary, in order to differences show the thorough generalagreement in spiteof manifold in points of detail. due to that jumbling together These differences are of features and motives is peculiar from different tales which
,

Experts will doubtless be able to make complete. Of the kindred stories mentioned

evidence

more

in Grimm

to

the

composition of

the

folktale.

Heydemann {Eros und Psyche in the Archdol. Zeitung, i86g, taf. 10) considers tlie which perhaps depends upon the same source as the narrative sarcophagus there represented, I am of Apuleius,to be older than the latter. not acquainted with the carved stones there mentioned. I have been unable to consult M. Colhgnon's Essai sur les monuments au relatifs mytliePsycM (Paris, 1877),where two carved stones are represented grecs et romams said to be are (according to Cosquin, Contes,ii, p. 224), the subjects of which borrowed from the narrative or Apuleius : Psyche sorting the grains with the directly the eagle. assistance of the ants and receivingthe water of the Styx from

no

Appendices
Several stories in the Pentamerone
woos a

[vol.i.
are

15 {The three tasks performed having Snake), considered which were impossible is perforceaccepted by the father in the bridal-chamber, the king While the pair are as a son-in-law. transformed into a the snake looks through the keyhole and sees of Basile akin.
a

In

snake

princess,and

handsome

the snake's skin that in and burns man ; he breaks young But the man is lying on the floor. changes himself into a young while flyingthrough its head dove (seeabove, p. 104),which injures about in search of her The the window. king's daughter wanders

husband.
one telling

She

learns
:

from that

fox

what

the
had

birds
been

in

the

forest

are a

another
seven

the
a

king's son
; that

changed
almost

into

snake when

for

years

by

witch

this

periodwas

over,

he was of the snake's skin being burnt in consequence changed he had his himself into dove that a so during flight injured again ; the he death that near was only remedy ; severely that very
was

to besmear

his wounds with that

with of the

the blood fox.


The

of the birds fox

who

the the is

story and

king's daughter, who kills the fox by cunning She then and second. repairs to her sick husband

procures and

had told the first for

obtains the heals him, and

happily
In the

reunited

to

him.

(19) the youngest of the three daughters of a poor the wife of an enchanted mother becomes prince ; her envious sisters persuade her to disobey his commands, whereupon he repudiates her. She wanders birth brings about, till she bears a boy, whose
Padlock

about finds wedded


of
a

her

husband's
the into

disenchantment.
of the

Parmetella,
her
to
a

youngest
a

three

way

subterranean
at When at

(44) daughters of a poor gardener, enchanted palace, where she is


his
time

In

the

Golden

Root

Moor,
her has

who

night
the

assumes

proper

form, that
him her in this that his

beautiful
drives

youth.
been

Parmetella
same

form, he
enchantment

away,

spies upon telUng

prolonged for seven through her years Parmetella who her advice and meets a curiosity. fairy, gives the means of protection during her years of wandering. After
seven

years,

when
a

her iron shoes

are

in

holes, she arrives


seven

at

house,

wherein the

daughters spinning, fairy'sadvice saves her from being eaten, but she is again threatened fate, by the same unless she is able to perform three difficult tasks imposed upon her. Her husband, however, takes pity At his her and assists her. upon command ants sort out mixed a heap of various seeds, and birds
mother
and

dwells

man-eating

witch

with

sisters of her

husband.

The

fiU twelve
to

bed- ticks her

with feathers. sister to fetch musical in


a

Lastly, the
instruments be

witch

sends

metella ParHer

for the

marriage
; with second a

festival of her son, husband gives her


the

realitythat

little loaf, a

first she horse which

quiets a dog, which her, with the and with the stone she keeps a trample on her, door steady which is always banging to and fro. She escapes all dangers and obtains the instruments, but on her way back is unable to refrain from opening the box which contains them ; whereupon all into the air. they fly Finally, however, she is reunited to her
would

may bundle of would eat

she

put
and

to death.
a

hay,

stone

husband,
and the

who

daughter

reconciles her with his seven sisters ; the old witches of the second who is intended for his bride perish.

VOL.

I.]

Appendices
of the from Comtesse

in

Amongst the tales (thegreen dragon) is an features adopted many


A

d'Aulnoy,

Le

Serpentin vert

kindred originally

story,which, however, has iii, Apuleius (Cabinetdes fies, 174-227).

king
a a

has
number

two

by

wicked

fairyand

after

manner,

of whom has been enchanted daughters, one retires into She and solitude, terribly ugly. of adventures detailed at great length in the authoress's marries she has never a king whom seen ; she agrees is that she
over

tv/in

to the condition

will
;
as

never a

attempt

to

see

him

until to

the read

time the

of his atonement

is oath
a

warning
and

she

is

obliged
on a

story
her

of

Psyche.
her

But

her mother and


to spy

when sister,
her husband she

visit,induce
She been

to break

upon

dragon by immediately disappears. She then falls into the power of the wicked her ; she makes fairy who has enchanted her put on tight iron shoes and sets her to perform three difficult tasks. She has to spin off a distaff full of cobwebs, to plaitfishing with nets of the web, and to climb a mountain millstone a lastly,
green which terrified,
now

recognizes in

him

which

had

by night. formerly

round
a

her neck, to fill a

basket

with

four-leaved

clover, and

to draw

from fountain water a pitcher of marvellous guarded by giants in a deep valley. She all with the aid of these tasks accomplishes the her After and she has water restores a kindly fairy beauty.

descended she Cab.


to be d. with

to

the

underworld with her

is released

iio fetch the water In Le husband.

of life from

pine, ProserRam
so

Mouton

/.,iii, 431) compared


the
to into

by

Grimm three and

youngest
She
a ram. on a

of his

(ii, p. 493) a daughters that


lives

(the king is
he

;
raged en-

orders

her
is

put

death.

is saved writer

with

prince, who
denoument.
ram, who

changed The princess, while of grief. Gracieuse


since

The

has

invented

the

visit to her Percinet


to

father, forgetsher

dies

only be mentioned, (ii, p. 5) need perform three dif"cult tasks for a stepmother. In L'Oiseau who bleu (ii, has been p. 67) the king's son, with knives through the agency changed into a blue bird, is wounded of hostile beings, and to be an believes his innocent sweetheart and the crime. After difficult to a dangerous journey, accessory from she finds and marries after his him, having bought permission to approach him. to be allowed betrothed, by wonderful gifts, In the Magyar tale of the Snake-prince (Gaal,p. 364) it is predicted in a snake's to the prince, who into the world has come skin, that he will be able to put it off on his wedding night for the first time and he must night afterwards put it on again every ; but every he curses wife it while His he is burns asleep,whereupon morning.
et

the

heroine

has

her and
may not

prays leaves the

that

her shoes
a

bring

forth

not may child until he after

fall from has

her feet and that she reconciled to her. become


at
an

He

then

marries first
sun,

long wandering arrives fivesunhappily with but king's daughter,


her, and
wanders
moon,

island,
while Mean;

her. of him then

his first wife


comes

about who

the

world

in search of

she

to

the

knows

nothing

him,

to

the

and

lastlyto
to since allow he

of

gold,which

the sun, is

her to him. conducts the wind. Who By presents she and wind have her, persuades given moon, her

the queen
purpose,

draught.

At

last, a

king twice at night, but to no by a soporific always in a deep sleep caused the faithful servant draught sleeping changes
access

to

the

112

Appendices
; the

[vol.i.

for another beautiful Kindred which In her


an

king
are

becomes
into

reconciled the world

boy,

who

comes

tales

also found

amongst

bears a his wife, who six aged years. and the Greek Albanian,
to

exhibit Golden has


a

equally
Wand

remarkable

agreement
,

with

the

German.

The

India

three golden wand

trading with (Hahn 7, from Epirus) a merchant him whom to bring of the begs youngest daughters,
thence. Now Golden Wand is the
name

of

letter, a ring, and a a prince, who gives the merchant When she fills the basin with for his youngest daughter. the ring into it, and cries three times, Come, come, water, throws ', he comes fijdng in the form of a dove, golden wand come, my The sisters play washes in the water, and is changed into a man.
Indian basin
'

the

spy and become dove, but does not

jealousof
notice

the

youngest.
is
a

The

eldest

calls the

that

there

knife

which

journeys

the dove cuts itselfand then flies off. The the way to India to find her lover ; on and
a

basin, with youngest sister now


she with She
In hears
an

in the

from ointment

bird of prey must which prepares


the

dove

that he

can

only
the

be healed birds.

be made

from

the flesh of both heals

shoots Filek

them,
Chelebi

ointment, and
at

king's son.

Crete) the youngest of three poor sisters marries a into a handsome man. Moor, night is transformed young of her the sisters she On the advice him in plays spy and surprises to her that her curiosityhas put off his disthis form enchantmen ; he declares which She is obliged to have three at hand. was near pairs of iron shoes and three golden apples made, to ascend three her way to mountains, and, roUing the apples before her, to make (Hahn
73, from
who

the

sisters of Filek her


to her

Chelebi she
who

who is

live

at

the

summit

after world

she has and is

finished united

wanderings,
husband,
the

brings
now

her
set

child

into

the
his The

free from similar.

Zi, Ba,
to the The

Achmet

Chelebi island tale

(71)
also to

is very

enchantment. Snake-Prince

from (Albanian, Magyar

(and

of Poros, Hahn, 100) corresponds and a Wallachian a Servian

exactly

(Hahn,

ii, p. 311).
down by an Englishman from communicated Benares, was by him xxxvii Asiatic to the Journal, (1842), p. 114;* a German translation in Ausland (February, 1843) appeared in H. Brockhaus's Die Mdrchensammlung des Somadeva Kashmir Bhaita aus igr(ii, it in the stillsurvives mouth of the 211). Although people,Benfey considers it to be very old (Pantschatantra, ii,p. 255). In a certain Eastern named Nurkingdom there lived a poor man Singh, who supported himself and his wife and daughter Tulisa by beautiful and of an wood-cutting. Tulisa, who was age to marry, into went the forest to gather wood to a dilapidated ; she came

following Indian
of
a

tale, taken
at

the

mouth

washerwoman

called her by name and asked a voice, which be my wife ? ' The question was repeated three times. At last she answered tremblinglythat only her father could decide ; whereupon the voice bade her summon him, Nur-Singh and persuaded by the promise of obeyed the summons, wealth,
'

well, from which her, Wilt thou

issued

great

consented
1

to his

daughter's marriage.

When

the

wedding day

drew

[This is
a

time ;

translated from the Gennan, the original Englishnot being available at the few alterations have since been made after consisting it. Tr.]

114

Appendices
his head
'

[vol. i.
shoulders
on were

repeating his entreaty until only


When At the she
same

and

visible.
Dau !
'

still persisted, he
moment sank
a

cried out, My name snake's head appeared


stream. old

is Basnak the

surface

of the

water

and

into

the

TuUsa
old
ness,

stood her

hut. but

Their not

again parents were complaints


much heard that wife
as

in her

ragged clothes, the palace


poor
and
as

had
in

appeared, distheir

still living,as and


own remorse

before,
her for

reproachesincreased

unhappiall that when

so

her

longing
From she

she

had
she

lost.
up learned had mortal

Once
she

she fell
two

asleep while
mother
snakes

gatheringwood, and
their

she woke
since he

talking. squirrels
had
to ask of the be her
; but

tion conversa-

her

husband's

lost all her

strength,
recover

become

king
could

that

would
name

it,if his
had been

persuaded

him

his

; this

confederate, Sarkasukis, accomplished by of an old woman. whom Tulisa had saved The squirrel of restoringhis power if there were to Basnak no means other wander must eastwards, until answered, TuUsa
'

in the

form asked The


comes

then Dau.
she
across

to
on

wide

river, which
side seek

is full of snakes for the nest

she must bird

swim

and
one

the

other

of the

Huma,

and

lay

of its eggs in her bosom Then until it is hatched. offer to she must in the palace of the queen her mother-in-law there serve ; heavy she perform them imposed upon her, and if she cannot will be devoured But when the egg is "hatched, the bird, by snakes. who brings kingly power to all who possess it,will peck out the eyes of the green is always coiled round the queen's neck. snake, which Basnak Then his kingdom Dau will recover and become reconciled to tasks will be

his wife.'

her dangers, boldly entered upon with snakes. She had swarming earthen bamboos provided herself with some jars and, tying some laid a quantity of with twigs and across together, she laced them the top. Using this as a raft, she crossed in safety to grass upon the other side ; some before her. her to encourage squirrels sprang She was then guided by squirrels and bees to the Huma's nest, from

Tulisa, undeterred

by

these

journey, and

reached

the

river

which to the

she
her

took

an

egg

and She

laid it in her
was

bosom.
to

At her

last she

came

found neck. time would

and queen's palace. presence, soft cushions, with the green snake round her lying on The agreed to take her into her service, at the same queen she tellingher that if she could not perform her commands have to die. She gave Tulisa a crystalvase, and told her to conducted
scent of
a

collect in it the

thousand

flowers

in

paved

court

rounded sur-

A swarm of bees came by high walls. flyingalong, each On bringinga little bag with scent, which it dropped into the vase. the next she was day, given a large pitcher full of seeds and told to make a splendid ornament from them. A large number of squirrels and put precious stones into the pitcher, came and took out the same number of grains. TuUsa also heard from the squirrels that their common in the neighbourhood, and Sarkasukis, was enemy, that he could only be prevented from entering the castle by burning certain herbs. The squirrels, be obUged to retire, however, would and she have would to her depend upon own vigilance. Tulisa

burnt herbs

as incessantly

she

had

been

told, until the young

Huma

VOL.

I.]
forth flew from
on

Appendices
to

115

came

snake's cried

eyes.

its egg. It grew denly sudup with incredible rapidity, the queen's shoulder, and the out picked green The at an end, knowing that her power was queen,

fell to the

aloud : Sarkasukis, in his true form as an ugly demon, and snakes ground, and long processionsof genii, squirrels, escorted their rightfulmaster into the palace. Tulisa, now queen of a kingdom for ever of spirits, reunited to him was ; her parents out recovered A

their

former

wealth.
with the
name

Bessarabian

story also,connected
the

of the emperor

Trajan
us

(of whom
on

inhabitants

tell all kinds


out

of A.

reminds stories),
von

of the Danube
rode

popular tale,as already pointed


the internal
a

by
loved

Haxthausen
'

in his studies the


on

condition

of Russia

460) (ii,
a

Beyond
lived
.

lived

king

named

Trajan, who

this side of the river, named


over

queen Bielayakeyina (the white

who

princess)

He

to her

princess wanted neighed before the some day she ordered to forgot neigh. But
the like smoke.

But every evening, and left her before sunrise. him horse to see His always by dayUght. sun as a signalfor his departure. One rose, and
oats to be
sun

thrown
rose,

in front

of the rider

horse,

who

when

the

horse

and

disappeared

to the story in Apuleius being necessarily My list of parallels I would plete cominadequate, expressed the hope that some specialist consented Kuhn it, and Professor Adalbert (died 1881) kindly to do
so.

I have

made
me,

no

alteration
as

in

the
a

communication of the

with

which
to

especially only by him. I begin by remarking that I have confined myself only to two in order to of related that used to tales, by Apuleius, closely groups of the of show that it is more use a popular a clearly only question into mal, anitale. In both groups have we a man, an usually changed to a young wedded form, maiden, who in spite of his terrifying In the first group the betrayal in her affection. remains constant of the secret postpones his release from enchantment, and brings
me are

he

favoured

few

tales known

referred

to

about of the

fresh trial of the of the

patienceand
means

directlyfurnishes
manner

love ; in the second, as a rule it The of release. introductory accounts


or

betrothal

of the
not

originof
essential.

the

change

of form

they are (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish in particular to Apuleius ; the akin are decidedly most in I first the most essential features. will give a list of the agrees tales used by me. 1. I. Danish, in Grundtvig's Gamle Danske : Minder, i, 100-115 Den lille hvide hund little white (the dog). and 2. Swedish, in Hylten-Cavallius Stephens, Svenska folksagor vid Ijus och dfventyr, i, 2, p. 323 : Jungfrun som sag pit sin kdraste who her beloved with a light[candle,lamp]). looked on (the maiden SodermanThree versions : A. ; from Ulfprinsen (the wolf-prince and land, with three variants from Smaland Finland). B. Prins with Smaland Halt under jorden (Prince Hat under the earth ; from lame hunden C. Den halde from variant a (the Vestergotland)
may the Scandinavian
.

be

disregarded,since

In the first group Icelandic)recensions

dog;

from

Smaland,

with

variant

from

the

same

province).

ii6
3.

Appendices
Norwegian,
no. II :

[vol.i.

Asbjornsen and Moe, Norwegische Volksmarchen ii,102, of the Sun and West of the Moon. Islenzkar thjddsogur og aefintfri, 4. Icelandic, in J6n Arnason ii, 334: Sigurdr Kdngsson (Siegfriedthe king's son). Sagen, p. 385, no. 5. Holsteinish, in Mullenhoff, Schleswig-holst. Der weisse white : Wolf (the wolf). 3
in

East

6.

Bohemian,
Bar

in

Waldau,

Bohmisches

Mdrchenbuch,

p.

160

Der

weisse

(the white bear). alban. Griech. und Mdrchen, ii,67, no. 7. Greek, in J. G. Hahn, Filek of the takes Chelebi (a Moor the place animal).' 73 ; 8. Albanian A. ib., ii, 116, no. Das 100 : : Schlangenkind (the and B. ib.,ii,130, no. 102 : Taubendiebe snake-child), (dovethieve.s). further C, ib.,i, 97, no. 7. Cp.
9.

Wallachian,

in

Schott, Wallachische

Mdhrchen,

no.

23

Tranda-

(a pumpkin takes the place of the animal). 10. Neapolitan, in Basile, Fentamerone, i,19, p. 246 : agreeing mostly with no. 7 ; cp. also ib.,ii, i68, no.
smauto.
11.

firu

The 43

Padlock,
:

Pinto-

Servian,

in

Wuk,
.

Serbische

Mdrchen,

no.

10,

p. 82

(another
p. 228,

snake-bridegroom) 12. Transylvanian,


no.

43
13.

Borstenkind in
in the und

in Haltrich, Siebenbiirgische Mdrchen, (bristle-child).


:

Indian,

Benfey, Pdnischaidntra, i, 255

Tulisa.
tale 7. Kohler in

14. Kalmuck,
15. 16.

Gaelic, in

Kalmukische Mdrchen, p. 39, Jiilg, from extract Campbell, given by R.

Benfey's Orient
Red Bull

Occident,

no.

iii, 2,

114

and

no.

xii, 2, 126.

(first ed.), p. 75, The of Norroway, in the third ed. with the variant of the Glass Mountain, on according to R. Kohler Campbell {loc. cit, xii.). The in A. Harz, 17. Ey, Harzmdrchen, p. 9. The Lark in Grimm (88),already compared (p. 103),is not further
cited II. here.
I.

Scotch, in Chambers's

Popular Rhymes

C.

kesklanken
2.

and T. Colshorn, Mdrchen,^. Lowesblatt (cp. 3).


139,
no.

64,

no.

20:

Vom

klin-

Ib., p.
Miiller

32

Der

verwunschene

Frosch

(the enchanted

frog).
p.

Niedersdchsische Schambach, Sagen und Mdrchen, 265, no. 5 : Das klingende singende Blatt (theringing,singingleaf). 4. Ib., p. 263, no. (the rose). 4 : Die Rose ii: Vom 5. Holsteinish, Miillenhoff, p. 384, no. goldenen Klin3.
,

and

gelklangel (cp. 3).


6.

Suabian

Rosen

auf einem in Tirolese 7.

in Meier, Schwdbische Stiel (three roses

Mdrchen,
on one

p. 202,

no.

57

Drei Rose

stem).
30
:

Zingerle, i, p. 182,
173
: :

no.

Die

singende

(the singing rose).


8. Ib., ii, p.
9.
10.

Die Bar

Ib., p.
Flemish
rose

391
:

Der

Schlange (the snake). (the bear).


Wodana, ii,61
;

in

Wolf,

Roosken

zander

doormen

(the

without

thorns).
Krebs

1 B. Schmidt, Griechischs Marchen, 9 : Prim (the most beautiful maiden) may be added.

(PrinceCrab)and

10

Die SdiSnste

VOL.

I.]
Servian
:

Appendices
in Wut,
in
:

117

Snake-bridegroom. 9 : The p. 77, no. Orient und Occident,ii,539, from AfanaBenfey, sieflE'scollection, communicated by Schiefner. : Pantschatantra, i, 8, in Benfey, ii,144 : The enchanted 13. Indian
11.
12.

Russian

Brahmin' I will of
'

son.

now

compare and
a

the

individual

features

with

the

narrative

Apuleius.
A

king
the
'

(merchant, peasant, etc.)have three daughters, queen and of whom is the beautiful the most most youngest

amiable

ii,i, 2, ii,3, 4, 5, ii,7, 9 ; cp. Swedish, i, 2 B ; German, Greek, 7, 8 C ; Flemish, ii,10 ; Gaelic, i, 15. Owing to the special of the story in the Icelandic elaboration four version there are (i, the in The elder sisters are 4) Norwegian many daughters (i, 3)
:
,
.

proud
the

and

haughty
wicked.
'

Tirolese
and

(Swedish, i C, Scotch, i, 16). Conversely, in story (ii,9) the eldest sister is good, the younger
recalls the former elder daughters are married to kings,the youngest the eldest (or animal) '. Cp. Swedish (i C), where The end of
the tale

proud
to
a

ii,

contrast. monster

The

desires for her husband


one

king
In

with

golden
while

hair and

with

silver hair
lame

and

beard,
form
13, of

the

beard, the second to youngest is content

obtain the
2

only a youngest

dog.
the

nearly
an

all the

tales the The

bridegroom
B. Schmidt

of

takes

animal.
the

Swedish

story, i,

ii,11, i, 11, (variant),

Mdrchen,
immanis The

10), mention
in which

the the

snake

coluber, multimodis
manner

(Gy. dragon (vipereum malum, voluminibus serpens). bride is handed to the promised over
or

ii,13, i,8 A, ii, 8, and

bridegroom is nearly always different in the above from that in the fetches away Apuleius : in the first group the animal himself bride (onlyin a Swedish version, i,2, B, the king leads her out under
the hazel
a no

bush
similar

amidst

the

lamentations
is very

of her
common

companions)
in

where Elseneeds

leading

out

tales

and

further

proof.
to the

wind, by dropped out her being taken to the top of the rock was automatically, when once omitted. In place of this the animal and the maiden, after they have entered thick forest, suddenly sink into the depths of the earth a ravine to a mountain hole in the earth 2 A) or a (i,i),or come (i, 2 A, variant i ; i, 2 B, variant) (i, a ; in i, 3 the bear knocks upon As soon as they enter, a splendid palace appears, rock, which opens. in which gold and silver (i,2 A, B, C ; everything is of glittering i, I, 3, 10, ii,6), and the table sumptuously spread with food and who wine (i, handmaids perform i, 3, 10, 17, ii,4, 6) ; the invisible in i, 3, where the bear gives the maiden all Psyche's wishes, appear she only has to ring and immediately everything a silver bell,which
an

Equally unknown being wafted down

cycle of

tales

compared
which

is the

heroine's

the

incident

she desires is before her. In the majority of the tales

compared
form

the

bride

is forbidden 7, 8

to

reveal the change of her husband's is persuaded by her sisters to do so her to

; in 6, the (inii,

i, 2 C,

C,

10

she
the
10

elder sister

persuades
;

also jealousy is as a rule another ; here infringe prohibition) in in i, 2 B, 4, The cause. Apuleius occurs tripletemptation maternal as feelingsto entice Apuleius utilizes the awakening

her

ii8
to

Appendices
in i, 2 B the
wife at
on

[vol. i.
the
are

so infringethe prohibition,

young
infantis

this her weak nutrimenta

stepmother attacks who the cliildren, side, by praising


:

playing

their mother's

aurei
hon

feet. Apuleius has laetabunt ! qui si

nos

beatas, quas
ut

parentum,

oportet,
Swedish

pulchritudini responderet, prorsus


tale
:

Cupido
braddes

nascetur

; in the

sitt fademe, och att uppa Prins Hat mande (she added that vara en mycket fager ungersveim they no doubt took after their father and that Prince Hat must be with the exception beautiful a youth). The northern group, very

tillade,at de sackert

wife is advised the young to look at her lover by a lightwhile he is asleep; this she does, like Psyche in Apuleius, and wakes him, forgettingall warnings through a wax or the heavenly sight. While i, i A, B and 3 introduce loved which snuff falls the tallow candle, from a drop or one, upon of the

Icelandic, contain

the

feature, that

about by the in succession. The landic Icenights young the kiudUng of a light, of tale speaks swinging But the kindling of the light is the sleeper's head. stone over a in the Neapolitan (i,10), where, however, the story is somefound what worked out. differently of the above tales take a different turn from From this point most of Apuleius. commonest The variation is that the the narrative wife wanders abandoned through the world in search of her vanished
in

i, 2 C

it is the

wife

lamp, but looking at him instead of (1,4),

the

catastropheis brought

for three

husband and when


he

and

arrives

at

three

different

stages, where

her lover ; having found celebrating his marriage to a fresh bride, she persuades in her her with giftsto allow her to pass three nights in succession in lover's chamber. succeeds Finally, she recaUing the past to his is reunited The Danish to him. and story (i,i), on the memory other hand, agrees throughout with Apuleius, Eis will be seen from the following extract. assistance
is

she finds pathy symagain, at the moment

Now be separmust her lover awakes, he says to her : we ated for a long time ; you forth must amd leave (tliee) go your children behind. You will be allowed to visit them, but you may '. A moment them afterwards not play with she was standing alone in a dark forest, in which she found her three children in three little When houses. them he rolls On while
a

'

of

reaching the first and second, she quietly looks on at to the third and they are playing ; but when she comes her, she is unable to resist the tempgolden apple towards tation At once it back. the little white dog appears, and rolling
must

tells her she

the old witch who lives at the edge go and serve of the forest. She does so, and the witch, who is about to marry, sends her to her sister in the underworld, to fetch some musicians in a box. The and advice now her dog again gives ; she appears is to go straighton tillshe comes to a bridge, on which she is to put a loose plank in its place and then cross over ; after this, she is to

properly which swings on a singlehinge, and will when she the she come to underworld go through, ; in the court will see a dog barking round a firkin of butter which is turned upside she must set right ; the witch will offer her cake and down, which
wine, but
she is she
must

hang

the

little door

neither

eat

told,and

when

the witch

She does everythingas goes to fetch the musicians, she hides


nor

drink.

VOL.

I.]
pours the
'

Appendices
{mave
' ' =

II9
'

the cake and and


mave woman

offered her in her wallet

wallet

and

'

stomach

')

asks,
',and
now

wine herself. over When returns the old woman ' aft thou ? the cake Cake, where repHes, Itt the girl's the wine cries out old '. The the girl Right down her the box and it tells her not to open gives ; when
'

calls upon the dog, the little door, and and her into the water, but they push squeeze So she gets back refuse, since the girlhas done them a kindness. to the wood without she is overcome accident, when by the desire gone the

the

girlhas

the

witch

plank

to bite and

know whether there really can be musicians in the box ; she lifts up the Ud a little, but the little out, they fly dog comes up and in again. She takes them sends them to the witch, who Now says,
to
'

shall prepare witch for the wedding '. The then gives her a of black wool, wlaich is to be washed linen to white, and some wash, amongst which is her lover's shirt with the three grease-spots. In the first and second tasks she is assisted by the little white dog. you
card

The

witch, in her rage, bursts into


becomes of the echo into
a

thousand number

the pieces,
so on.

little white
set

dog again
Thus three order the As

handsome
in

prince, and
in the

the Danish instead


:

story differs
four

of the tasks

(only
and
can

however,
an

recognize
in

Apuleius), and also in their nature in the washing of the white wool black we of the gold wool in Apuleius. of the collecting
the

But

descent
for

underworld
is

affords
a

some

striking parallels.
fetch the

Apuleius Psyche
Venus,
so

given

box

(pyxis) to

beauty-

is sent with a box to the for the wedding. witch's sister in the underworld, to fetch musicians with The the be polenta may quieting of Cerberus compared with the propitiation of the dog by setting up the firkin that has fallen
down

ointment

the

deserted

wife

down.
nor

to

Apuleius the tower partake of the sumptuous


In

warns

tale the little sumere), in tile Danish As Psyche on her return is unable to against taking cake or wine. which restrain her curiosityand opens the box, from a stupefying ascends, which wraps her in Stygian sleep,from which she vapour is awakened cians by Cupid, so here the wife opens the box, the musithe Uttle and back are brought by dog. flyaway, Two variants In
woman,

Psyche neither to sit banquet (prandium opipare white dog gives a warning

of the Swedish
var.

tale wife
on

are

attached and
two

to the

Danish
an

sion. ver-

i, 2 A
to
a

3
a

the

her

wanderings
hams.
over a

meets

old
of

who She

givesher
then She
comes

a cushion, ring,

One
and

of these enters

she her

gives

bear, who
has

water.

to

in return takes her the palace of the

large piece

evil witch

the floor till it is as white first to sweep as in return to whom snow ; in this she is assisted by the wolf-prince, sister to hear sent to the witch's she gives the ring ; she is next her The tales (for at hora sagor). good advice : princeagain gives service. she must and the

give the
second Thus she second

cushion ham
to

pieces.
As

not squeeze to the lattice that it may her, her to not tear the dogs, that they may all dangers, returns in safety, and the escapes

takes place. of i,2 C, the editors state that it agrees variant the princess with the text except in the conclusion, which, where second with the her for husband, agrees makes part ready to search

prince's deliverance
to the

"V

il6
of 4 B

Appendices
(The King's Son
,
.

1. [vol.

and the Princess Singorra) In this tale,which variants in two is found (of which A is entitled The King's Son and Messeria) a prince,like the princessin our tales, falls into the hands to perform difficult tasks, which sets him of a lady of the sea, who or Singorra). In he does with the aid of her daughter (Messeria white and white black ; (2)to black yarn 14 A he has (i)to wash which, are mixed of rye barrel of wheat and barrel a separate a After he has of oxen. 100 formed pertogether ; (3)to cleanse an ox-stall these tasks by the aid of Messeria, he is told to choose one of
1

to return thesea ; he will then be allowed But Messeria has told him that the daughters of the lady of the animals, and that she would be changed into different would sea selects the So he become right one ; the lady of the sea a Uttle cat. to fetch the wedding dress for the young then sends him to her sister, Messeria bride. again advises him how to escape the dangers that tale recurs of the Danish him threaten ; two ; here the lattice-gate take the he with of must which place vultures, quiet pieces meat, he is forbidden to eat or drink anything from of the dogs ; similarly,

thedaughtersof theladyof
home.

the sister's hands.

He

escapes

all

obtains perils, which


so on.

it,when
with In the
no.

shower assistance B

of
the

sparks shoots out, of Thumblings, and


three

the box and he fastens up

opens

again

tasks are different,the dangers which while fetchingthe wedding things identical or similar. threaten him a Thus, he divides two cakes that he has taken with him between wolf which seats threaten but to gobble him bear and a only up, himself on a particular (black)chair belonging to the witch, whereas 14 sit only on the ground, touches nothing that conceals them in the Danish tale. as Consequently,in this case we have, in addition to the WEishing the yarn white. Psyche's first tsisk, the separation of certain grains,

Psyche

is advised her

to

is offered

and

then

the choice

quieting of
of
a

the

warders

of the

underworld

with food

etc., calces,
and drink.

the

seat particular and

and

from abstaining
recur.

Finally,the
Thus
we

box find

its

opening

essential features of the second part of the in the four tasks Scandinavian of the preserved group ; almost and at least is akin to that in Apuleius, one two are identical, the last,not to to me yet referred to, the third in Apuleius,seems have left its traces in the Icelandic tale. fetch water to has Psyche very Roman
tale

Stygian rock, but its enormous height and et inaccessa slipperiness(saxum immani magnitudine procerum salebritate lubricum),the wUd and fierce dragons,make rock-springs her shrink back in terror ; then the eagle of Zeus flies up and fetches her in the water. wife the Icelandic the Similarly, tale, young arrives at the third stage, an enormous mountain, whose steep ascent is as smooth as glass(theglass-mountain of other tales) Her helper furnishes her with frostnails for chmbing and winds a cloth round her head, to prevent her seeing or hearing the marvels and horrors of the place. In this manner she successfully ther, Furattains her end. in a Polish tale in Lewestam (p.117),a student is carried on to of glass by a hawk, which the mountain and takes him for dead into him ; Qaktideva in Kathasaritsagara sticks its claws 26, 30) (p. is carried aloft by a bird to the golden cityof the Vidjadharas, and
in
an urn

from

the

122

Appendices
in
an

i. t^oL. of the

ployed everywhere
tale.
case

equal degree
rather

as

motives

popular

Perhaps
of each
are

we

should

individual

expect the opposite,since in the people they are connected with other ideas

pecuhar to it alone. peoples But the points of agreement in the tales of so many lastly, and substantial, that they can of Asia and Europe are so numerous and Benorigin, only be explainedby the assumption of a common has from for the come India, that most rightly they part fey'sview, been widely accepted.^
which
It is true
recurrence are

that would
found
can

customs
seem

and
to have be

ideas, of

so

a singular

kind

that
were

their
ferred, trans-

in countries
never

in different been

impossible parts of
communication
can

unless

they

which

there

the earth, between Volker(Peschel,


more

hunde, pp. 22"27).


individual stocks

This

fact, however,
in

do

no

than
most

strikingsimilarities

the

fictions of the

make different

but cannot explain the appeaur spontaneous,* motives and their combination, in the principal examined. and Asiatic tales hitherto Zulu tale in a Thus, certain similarities between

thorough agreement of the European

and
the

the

tale of Amor

and
latter

Psyche
were

do not

Lang (p. IxxvUi) justifythe conclusion, that


to

elements
an a

of the
state

common

the
a
'

whole

human

race

in
to

earher distant

of

society.
After
an

girlundertakes
of the

place.
reaches is

adventure Man,

dangerous journey swallowing (Kronos)


be wedded her
;

class ',she

the

kraal, where
The

she

is to
on

but

the

bridegroom
the

missing.

young

whom
a

heart The

is set,
mains girlre-

youngest
there.
an

prince,had
Meat
unseen

disappeared when
a

child.
are

and

beer, placed in her hut,


matter

consumed

at

night by night he
without

being (as
face girl's

of fact the lost


and

prince).

One

feels the
her

in the

dark

retires in the

him, since having seen On the following night he allows slippery,so that her hands cannot
him

her to make a her to touch his person ; had grasp it. His mother he forbade
a

morning, Ught.
it is
sewn

up

in

boa's
the

skin when
world

he

was

child, in order
'

to

protect him
of various tried to he is set

against the jealousy of


kinds into
out

her rivals,who had brought animals his elder brothers also had ;
'

kill him free

of

jealousy.
and

Now

that

he

has

become

man,

by

the

love girl's wiU

placed

upon

the

throne.

Lastly,I
und

quote

from
und

F. Liebrecht's

Amor

Semele, Pururavas

Urvofi

(in Kuhn's

xviii,p. 56) the chief gleichendeSprachforschung, view there set forth, that the myth of Zeus and Semele rests on the of foundation the that sequently contales and and same as Tulisa, Psyche all three are only different versions of one and the same
'

Psyche, Zeus Zeitschrift fiir verarguments for the


und

incident.
see

him know
1

in his proper

should Zeus, like Amor, is unwiUing that his beloved form, just as Basnak Dau does not wish TuUsa
name

to
W

his

Zeus

and

Basnak

Dau

gratifythe curiosityof

in Weimarer Cp. R. Kohler, Uber die mrop. Volksmdrchm Beitragezur Litteratur ur.d mil (1865),p. 189 ; Rohde, Uber grieckische Novellistik und ihren Zusammmhang dem Orient iaJV erhandlungen der Rostocker PhiloJogmversamrnhmg(1875), p. 56; G. Meyer, Essays und Studien (1885),p. 222. in Deutscks Rundsckau, October, i887,fp.96. .^' Cp.my essay, Grieckische Mythologie Kunst

VOL.

I.]
and Tulisa with

Appendices
the
to

123
mother
assumes

Semele

greatest unwillingness. The


Hera
;
as

of Basnak Dau the form of the

corresponds
nurse

exactly to

the latter

Beroe Dau's of
an

request,
lover his

so

Basnak form

Tulisa in the

her foolish persuade Semele to make mother's accompUce, Sarkasukis, visits old woman and persuades her to ask her shows self him-

aware (like follow the granting of the request, can Amor) that only misfortune Basnak Dau although Zeus feels himself compelled by his oath ^p.6. it. by a higher power to grant Consequently, Semele, Psyche, and of their lovers, and Tuhsa act contrary to the wish or command all three have to undergo punishment, but only for a while ; when it is over, Semele and to Oljrmpus, Tulisa becomes Psyche ascend We may here and is reunited to her lover as Psyche to Amor. queen inquire whether, in the older version of the Psyche myth. Psyche's like Semele's not death search, punishment was ; her long life and

it as unwillingly Zeus name as ; he pronounces in his proper of them form to Semele, for both are

in the the the

course

of which

Another

this '. may the Urva9i-myth forms series of myths or tales (to which is also discussed, in which the wife or beloved appears distransition)

underworld,

herself has to go down perhaps contain a hint of

she

to

Proserpina in

from of her of the my

the

prohibition ;
subject

her (naked) in spite since he desires to see but its consideration, as any further prosecution in the domain of comparative mythology, is beside
man,

and purpose, indebted [I am


"

beyond
to Dr.

my Andrew

range.^ Lang

for the

cation. followingcommunito objections most

Tr.
not
sure

am

that

I understand

my view sundered

that close resemblances


in space, speech, and of human nature, and

Dr. Friedlander's in the Mdrchen of races


are

widely

civilisation of human

the result of the uniformity in certain a s superstitions,


refer to my to the

nuptial taboos.
the

For

Cupid
and

and

Psyche
The
are

subject
and and

in Custom and Asia and Maori

Myth.

I may close

resemblances

essay on in the tales of

construction

plotsof
;

Mdrchen
in

not

confined

Europe century
Samoan,
more excursus

they
are

extend
common

to those

of the

Egypt

of the fifteenth

B.C.,

North

and
these

Central

American,

Mdrchen. Since

To

derive

than

hazardous.
was

the date

(1888)when
have

last from India is Dr. Friedlander's made


to in
our so

written, great additions

been

knowledge in closely,
remains

of savage Mdrchen. But the question as to how several cases, resemble those of Europe and Asia A.

they

plot,

obscure.

Lang.]
and

XVIII.

The

usual

Age

of

Girls

at

Betrothal

Marriage.

(Vol. I,
Betrothal
16
1

p.

232,

1.

27.)

frequently took
Psyche und
Eroi
:

tiv^s (Is 5'oty^piiptj

place long before marriage. Dio, Hv, tAs /j^^v iyyvibfievoi, ti/acls twv yeya/jLTiKQTOjv iKapund Auffassung ein milesisches Mdrchen, in der Darstellung seinen mythologischen Zusammenhang, Gekalt und Ursprung which have views radicallydifierent from my own, upon

Zinzow's

des

Apuleiusbeleuchiet und auf

zuruckgefuhrt(i88i) is based failed to convince me, entirely

124
ri TToCi'TO, Sk

Appendices

[vol.

firiSe/dav iyyihiv irpoaiTa^e ipyov airrav oi jrapelxovro, SeKiriv ir"VTW Tovriin, Tis, /xeS'^v oiSh Smiv iraiv yafiiicrci. taxiei-v, rais duSena xSpaLS es aw' yap 6.-n-o\ai(TOVTa, rSv n a"rijs yi iyyvaa-dai Ivi, erai j/o/tff 7 and ;cp. /coffdirep eiwov, rijvTov ydfiovlipav^TT) 7rXi}pi;, in xxiii, i, Digg:, Modestinus, 14 : Suetonius, Augustus, 34.

sponsalibus contrahendis
in

aetas et
a

contrahentium

finita aetatis

non

est, ut

matrimoniis

quapropter
fieri ub

primordio

sponsalia efSci

id est, si intelligatur, utraque persona possunt, But annis. apparently, during sint minores septem non quam when still even the early empire, girlswere frequentlybetrothed Vipsania Agrippina,daughter of Agrippa and Pomponia, younger. old she two before was to Tiberius betrothed (Nepos, years was who to death was put Atticus, 19). One of Sejanus' daughters, si modo
after of
were

his fall

by
who

decree
a

of the

senate,

was was

betrothed choked

to

Drusus,
pear

son

Claudius,

few

days

afterwards

by

; both

11 (iTacitus, still children Ann., v, 9 ; Dio, Iviii, ; between the difference On Tiberius, 61 and Claudius, 27.

Suetonius,
destinare

Nipperdey on Tacitus, Ann., iv, 7). Claudius (bom in 43) to Lucius Silanus daughter Octavia Nero in to c. and {ib., 19). OreUi, 2647 : 49 (Tac, Ann., xii, 3), Villi vixit annos M. f. Fortunatae Valeriae Dis manibus (not VIII VIII dies XVIIII M. Valerius Anicemenses to Hirschfeld) according In the XX fuit in vix. iii, tus Juvenal, ann. spon(sus) ejus. qui still in his father-in-law's house. to be living sponsus levis appears not till the end of the Although the proper marriageable age was twelfth year and puberty did as a rule not begin till the fourteenth in Somn. Comm. from Macrobius, quoted below (cp. the passage married sometimes arch, Pluteven were younger. Scip.,i, 6, 70), girls Comp., 4. 2 ; tIx)v5k 'ViopLalwvSwdeKaerets Lycuvgi et Numae
and

despondere

see

first betrothed

his

Kai

^KdiddvTwv vetoT^pas Kai "0iktov

'

oihoj ycLp

ftc

Kadapbv
become minorem quum
ad

iiri Ttp

yafiovvn

Kal rb pLdKitTTa yeviffSau But

trwfia

Kal rh

^dos
not
mained re-

they

did

regular
sponsae.
annis

wives
duodecim

till the

twelfth
tunc

year;

till then

they

Pomponius,

/. iii ad

nuptam

Sabin., Digg.. xxiii,2, 4 : fore, legitimam uxorem

apud
Sabin.,

virum

explesset duodecim
uxorem

annos.

Ulpianus, /.

xxxiii

habuerit, i, 32 " 27 : si quis sponsam donationes non an duxerit, quum liceret, tractat factae valeant, videamus. Et Julijinus quasi in sponsalibus in minore duodecim hanc Eumis, si in domum quasi quaestionem

Digg., xxiv,

deinde

eandem

mariti
non

immatura sit deducta hanc etsi uxor esse ; ait enim sponsam sit. Ulpianus, I. ii de adulteriis, xlviii, Digg., 5, 13 " 8 : si minor duodecim annis in domum deducta adulterium commiserit,

excesserit coeperitque aetatem esse apud eum poterit uxor, non jure viri accusari ex eo adulterio quod ante aetatem nupta (?nupaccusari ex Rescripto tiarum) commisit, sed vel quasi sponsa poterit Divi Severi,quod supra relatum est. Octavia, daughter of Claudius
mox

and she

Messalina, (a.d.62 ; Tac,


married of which
the

was

in

her

twentieth

year

when

she
was

was

murdered
eleven when

she Ann., xiv, 64) ; consequently,

sixteen-year-oldNero
of such

(a.d.53
also
at

Tac,
in Inscr.

Ann., xii,

58). Examples
some

marriages
collected
a

are

have

been
on

by
died

found Fabretti. the age

inscriptions,
dom.

586
had

(at Rome,

epitaph

wife, who

of 22, and

VOL.

I.]
married
II
annos

Appendices
12
i

125
a

been

years, 30

days) : 586
26
annos

(epitaphon

wife who

died

aged
vixit

month, years, xxxxii tulit

days

"

^sched.

lii, Venice).

Barb.) : 325 H (cum qua A ten-year-old wife in

CIL,
Ac.
XX

V,

i, 630.
quae

Jahn, Spec, epigr., p. 84


suae

(?)conjugis
m.
V

vixit

D. m. Sabinae : Carpus fecit cunvixit cum incomparabili ann. quem vi. an. m. xxx Anihologia latina, ed. Meyer,
xi

1370 (Muratori, p. deducta jam ad C. tibus Luciae

1689) : JuUa C. 1. Aphe virguncula annorum JuUum Apollonidam pia et sancta suo et vixit annos^ xv. [Murat., 1368,9 (= Orelli, 2653) : N. Cassicius Phoebus Redemptae vixit annis xxxxv
benemerenti
cum

parenD. m. fecit
=

conjugi

Orelli, 2654 qua the of at CIL, vi, 3, 18412 (marriage eleven). CIL, iii, i, 3572 age
ann.

vixit

xxxviii.

Fortunati

(Aquincum) : hie conjux

sita de

sum

matrona

genus
nata ter

nomenque
novenos

patre Veturio,

Veturia, (misera) et
=

unicuba, unijuga, quae post sex nupta bis octo per annos, partus Bull, di Roma, uno comun. superstite obii. 1877, p. 174, 158 CIL, vi, 3, 21273 : Dis m. L. Licinius Lucrio Telesphoridi conjugi carisimae bene fecit cum vixit xiii. merent. Vixit an. {sic) quua xxiii. Vitoriae Urbice ann. 1020 : CIL, ix, 900 IRN, (Luceria) vixit. a. xxxxi con a. lb., 3710 (Marruvium) : que conjuge xxx
=
"

vixit
1, 155

ann.
=

xxxi

IRN,

months,
3011

having

xxiii m. xi. lb., x, qua vixit ann. of died the at 38 years and 9 (Potentia) age 404 been married and months. 11 CIL, ix, 27 years
m.

vi NN.

cum

(Ortona):
3

married

at

the

age

of

11

years

and

months.

Oesterreich. Mittheil.,viii, 1884, p.

11,

Gruter, 710,
Helvia

(where
correct. We at

Salvia also an

(Rome) : Ti. Claudio and b. m. Muratori, 1357, conjugi suo. 788, 8 is mentioned) cannot eleven-year-old husband
=

at *io years. : 24 (Salona) xi fecit vix. an. Chrysanthio 4

be

may

assume as

fourteen
is

to

have

been

the

average

age

of

girls
40
:

marriage,

expressly stated by Epictetus,Encheiridion,

al ywoLKes 6ti opdjffai

eidis BXKo

iT"v 6,irb TecrffapeffKalSeKO,

aiJrats ptiv oiSh dcS/jdffic, dpxovTat KaWwTrl^eaBai..

Kvpltu KoXouvTai. TOiyapoOv S^ Toh fibvov ffvyKotfjuiivTai irpdffeaTt,


We
must

also

certainlyassume

that as boys institutions up

{pueri alimentarii)were

hving,! so the old of a husband. The institution enough to claim the care founded for the support at Terracina was by Caecilia Macrina of boys up to the age of 16, of girlsup to 13 (Bdl, 1869, p. 153 Licinius CiL, x, 6328) ; that of a certain Publius Papiria=

supported in the charitable the able to to their earn they were age when till girls[puellae alimentaiiae) were kept they were

1863, 177 ; Henzen, Bdl, from 3 to 15 and girls from fixed the age for boys at 18, and for girls at 14, which confirmed was by Caracalla (imperator noster in Ulpianus /. ii Fideicommissorum, bigg., xxxiv, i, 14 " i). Literature suppUes
nus

at

Sicca

Veneria

pp. 140, 231 Hadrian 3 to 13.


=

about a.d. (Africa, CIL, viii, 1641),for boys

different periods of these examples from marriages. Agrippina,Nero's mother, born

early
on

and

even

earher

16, married
years
1

Cn.

Domitius

Ahenobarbus

the 6th of November, in 28, when hardly twelve

old

(Preuner, StRE,
no

i", 613) ; Augustus' daughter


of [ages
men

JuUa,
marriage

These

by regulations

means

contradict the higher average

at

assumed

in vol, i, p. 233.

126
l.orn

Appendices
in 39
b c

[vol.

i.

married

M.

(Hock, R.G., i, 343, 347). to Tacitus during his consulship (76)and gave her to him in marria,ge collocavit,Tacitus, Agric, in the followingyear (ac post consulatum while born was was Agricola quaestor in Asia (65 ; cp. Tacitus, 9), hardly have been ed. Haase, ; consequently,she can 1855, p. viii) Minucius of FundaThe than daughter more 13 at her marriage). died before she had completed her thirteenth year, shortlybefore nus bands husIn 33 Tiberius, after long consideration, found her marriage. of the Germanicus, and for Julia postDrusilla, daughters bora was vi, Julia aetas Ann., 15). instabat (Tac, virginum quam thus about in 18 (Ann., ii,54), and was 15 years of age ; Drusilla older Suetonius, Ca/i^., 7). Aemi ii, two MM., 41 ; (."4 perhaps years of the daughter Augustus' grandlia Lepida (born 2 B.C.) was daughter when who thus had married 15 (MommJulia(born 18 B.C.), i,57) : cp. Ausonius, Epitaph.,32, in tumulum epigr., sen, Ephem. who had died a mother. sedecennis Quiutilian'swife matronae,
-

in 25, in her fourteenth year betrothed he whom Agricola'sdaughter, Marcellus

died

nondum

expleto aetatds

undevicesimo

anno

duos

enixa

filios

not twins minor, ib.,6) ; (filius Or., vi, prooem. 4), who were (Inst. than the time of her at been she have cannot more 17 consequently marriage. the age of 'women in which of inscriptions, follow a number Here ing be arrived at by deductat marriage is either directlystated, or can of Ufe. from those their of the years their marriage They are cated nearly all from Italy,and a large proportion have been communiinvestigated who have Nissen and Messrs. Hirschfeld, specially by the

matter.!

Maidens
of 12

who

and to

19

died between the ages and 10 months 11

,,

There

is

no

reason

assume

that
No
as

larger collection

would

different essentially
of the
women

results.
are

doubt

who

recorded been

if not the many, when married having

give majority,
than

more

eighteen years Naturally, the


in their
on a woman

old, had
earlier

marriages
as

epitaphs:
at the
women

who time
of these

died at the

that before already married age. would tioned only be exceptionally menCIL, v, 2, 7453 (Vardagate) : epitaph had been twice married, age of 36, who It must also and
more

the

second

age of sixteen.'

be

remembered lower

tliat most whose

belonged
a case

to the

middle be

classes,

poverty,

want

of

dowry, etc.,would
of the

to postpone likely

marriage marriage soon

than
after

in the

the

completion

upper of the

classes, amongst whom


twelfth year
was

pro-

1 are not given here, but only the results ; [The references to the actual inscriptions the references will be found in the sixth edition of the original work, vol. i,p. 566. TR.] 2 set up by widowers to their wives earlier marriages are sometimes, In the inscriptions mentioned but rarely, (CIL, vi,3, 1548S,201 16, 20564).

VOL.

I.]
the rule.
If
we

Appendices
may in her age draw any
at

127
as a we
'

bably

conclusion

to

the

Roman
woman

practice from
is described
assume a as

Terence, Eunuchus,

ii,3, 27, where sixteen,


times.
earlier

young
must

being

prime

later average and


jo

for the

In modern

certainly Italy

the age
for

of

marriage, accordingto
months but

23 years the

man.

risen to a six years' estimate, has for the woman, and 30 years and 7 months Marriages before the end of the fifteenth year take

place
1000

even

now,

only
-02

in

the
1000

minimal for the

proportion
male
sex.

of

i'29

per

for

the

occur chiefly

per and in Sicily the

female,

Further, they
the
,

southern
'

where provinces,

figure

rises to about 2 and -03 per 1000 Ital. Landeskunde (Nissen, p. 411). I am in acquainted with very few epitaphs from the provinces, the years of marriage are in which those of life. to addition given Unless
I
am

with mistaken, the only Spanish inscription

statement
an.

Egypt there are exceptions, might probably be assumed. ^ Of course Inscr. de I'Algirie, CIL, viii, 9686 (Cartenna): Varia Hono3863 obiit toros. vixit et inuocens, que novos rata, virgo decora prope xxi. Mauret. ann. CIL, viii,9638 (Zuccabar, Caesar.): tradita de I'Alg.in Inscr. marito xviii. Also the following from annorum anni mariti which ages are given : 321 (Lambaesis quinto decimo marita an. xvi). 528 {ib. [read -ae] nomen accepit. 322 {ib. fihe mater d.m. Clodiae Antonia a. an. fecit v. a. v. xvii). Ligose xxviii m. cum sue x v. a. 564 {ib. d.m.s. Julia Fortunata sponso an. xii). 727 (ib. died at the age of 16 years and 2 days). 815 an. (Thibilismatr[ona] (ib. ^vix. an. L mecu[m] xxx). 2616 h. s. e.). 3868 V. a. XV CIL, viii,9670 (Cartenna,a wife of 17 brevi ne quidem impleto biennii 19 days, quae years, 3 months, vinculo mortis interventu maritali disjuncta est). tempore crudo to CIL, viii), Ephem. epigr.(additamenta p. 568, 1323 (Ammaedera) : vix. mensLucilla xiiii m. ann. v, ex quo tempore v(ix) ter senum marito couple of cum (um) in diem mortis suae egit. A married vix. D. Harnes an. xx Eastern : m. : origin (Orelli, Rome) q. 4720 Of sibi. the vix. et viii Bariammas b. f. an. m. cum conjugi qua the cemetery edited by Garrucci, mostly from Jewish inscriptions in Vigna Randanini degliantichi Ebrei, etc., Rome, 1862, (Cimitero and Dissertazioni ii [1865], p. 150) only three give the archeologiche, of time of the their at women marriage. Cimitero, p. 32 : Beyeage (menses) xv, (annorum) xvii e/iou (?fix's) ij.ricn.s pu"ra avpuv IJ-a.p'-Tovs xviii dies vixit annis ib.,p. 50 : Sabine cojugi benemerenti que " iii Germanus benemerenti fecit cum virginiun sun que vixit coiigi annis iii dies iii (Jerome on Joel, i, 8 : vir pubertatis,sive ut LXX transtulerunt wai'$emK6s, quem vulgo virgineum vocant, eo ivBdBe florem ; ib., p. 60 : quod primus virginitatisabstulerit) toO Kelre Mapiapira (sic avii^lov : Margarita), ^tis ii,'r](Tev Iti)lO, ixcto, The following (ib., 8 (?). iv lpi)vjj aov. aiiTTii irri p. 58) also i]KoLfOja-ls
a riage mar=
"
" " " " " " "

of age is CIL, ii, 2752 L. Fab. Sigerus. For

(Segovia):
Africa and

Herenniae

nurui Paternae still earlier age

xiv

of

"^ 1 in north Africa (at On the marriage of Moorish, Berber, Arab, and Jewish women the age of 12-15, sometimes see Schwarz, Algerien(1881), earlier), p. 36r ; Hesse- Wartegg, von Afrika (1868),i,251 ; iii, Tunis, pp. 101, 165 ; Maltzan, Drei Jahre im Nordwesten

4+. 240.
3

X.e. fecit cum

virgmio

suo

vixit

conjugio.

128
deserves without We may mention mention
assume :

Appendices
k6.

[vol. i.
"

irri iJTLs l^r)(Tev

AouXkit/o dvyirripivedriKo. McXiriij) firirpi yXvKVTdTri AouX/"Ti'a /xcWovi/i^Tioccurs p. 69, (A irapSivoi

of

age.)
same

and Greek Asia for Greece for Italy, without to the earlier custom (in Xenoas going counter not wife is the yet 15 years old ; the phon, Oecon., vii, 5, young Aristotle recommendations of Hesiod, Plato, and [Rein, StRE, iv, 1648] prove nothing as to the actual practice). In Longus' romance

the

age

limits

beginning of the narrative are respectively 16 and 14 years of age ; there 13, at their marriage at most 15 and are specialreasons why the daughters of the Messaliote Zenothemis and of Germanos Toxaris, (Procopius,Anecdota, 5) 24) (Lucian, at eighteen. No unmarried were doubt, however, marriages at this and later at a uncommon were even (a nineteenby no means age who year-old wife in Lebas-Waddington, v, 116 [Teos] ; a maiden died Greek at ii, give 85 [Crommyon]). physicians 15, 14 as T. the age at which menstruation (Ein Brief Gomperz begins. Soranus E-picurs in Hermes, v, 393, i) quotes the followingfrom of Ephesus, De muliebribus ed. Ermerins, affectibus, p. 20, 10 : 4,

Daphnis

and

Chloe

at the

rh 5^ rb

TXeiffTov l)T" Kal


a

^tos Kara, rb irpwrov iwLffiaiveTaL ^fjifi7]Vov ireplrb reaffapesKaiSiKaTov rb ij^av Kai rb StoyKovadai Toiii juaffroiSs : cp. p. 41,

15 and

very

similar

passage

from
:
rais

Paulus

Aegineta (reign of

Con-

i) KaBapais ^Ii/etoi Pogonatus, 668"685) repl rb 5k datra-QV,Karci Tpi.tKa.i5eKa.Tov ^ ^os, 6\lyaK T"(T(rapesKaiSiKaTov irwv sect. 60, biab^KaTov, biiK dXiyais 5k ^pdSiovtCiv 5eKaT"(Ta-dpu)v (iii, Basle edition, p. 113, 44). The statementof Soranus, who practised at Rome under and Hadrian (Ermerins' Trajan praef, v) : ev"j"vCis dirb St.aKeTa'Oa.t irevTeKatSeKaerovt St)Tpbt aiW-q-^iv ^Xtxias a-qpAiitJTeov Ta.$
rXelarais

stantine

inscriptional they frequently may married considerable time a two years) before puberty, just (often the Roman of whom Macrobius as women, expresslysays (Comm. in Somn. bis Scip., i, 6, 70) : post annos purgatio septem de feminarum tamen festinationem votorum (tutela) propter maturius biennio absolvuntur. Girls in modern Greece frequently at an Fahrenheid durch Griechenequally early age. marry {Reise
Yet,
from
and

T"ff(TapaKovTa"Tovs applied to other women

^ws

Kara,

rd irXeiarov

(p.43, 4),would
that
were

certainlyhave

besides

Greek.

other

evidence,

we

assume

"

"

land

breast.
at

of 13 with wives children at the [1841], p. 24) saw young The the known to me. following are specifications age maiden CIG, 3118 Kaibel, Epigr. 227 (epitaphon a 14-year-old
=

St) IXaxov ir%a toS' Jacobs, ii,5 (epigram of Perses, VI


:

Teos)
of

dvri
"

yi/iov. Anthol.
than

Graeca, ed.
"

older

Meleager

on

the

before her marriage) ; ii,p. 175 (Leonidas Nero, VII) : ypTjw lyn/ie*iXr"os,St' tjv vkosfather mournii,p. 182 {ib., ing a XXXVIII, for his daughter) : Kar^a-Tei/e 5' oix "T/ievato), dW 'AlSq, vup4ia.i" 5w5eKiTi.v KaTiyav. FHG, According to Phlegon, Mirabilia (Miiller, of 13 years, shortly before her iii, 618) in the year 45 a maiden
a

death

girl of

14

under Alexandrinus, AwSeKiTiv. ijylKairpiapvt,

marriage, changed

into

man.

Ephem. epigr., v,

p. 29,

51

(Ancyra

in Galatia, second half of the second century) : conjugi b.m. ann. dieb. xviii quae partu primo post diem XV mens, v xvi relicto filio Oester. Mitth., viii (1884), decessit. p. 11, 24 (near Kustendje):

130
1678, 1710 21). A
;

Appendices
number

[vol. i.

to

461
course

at Aquileia ; age at marriage 16 (Christianinscriptions of Christian inscriptions(Boldetti,p. 385, 417, 12 married, but of Fabretti, 269, 130) show that girisunder not regarded as legitimate \vives until after the completion were

of their twelfth

year.

Here

may

be

mentioned

the
castae

tion inscrip-

from doni
cum

(p.
qua the

Rossi, Inscr. 18) : Constantiae


fecit annis
viii que
vi kal. Decenbres note.
"

De

Christ., 107,
vicsit

benemerenti annis Limenio

wrongly Birginius
xviiii
menses

doubted

by Caveconpari

viiii dies xvii,


conss.

(a.d.349) ; Augustine, Confessions, vi, 13, 23 : jam matre petebam (uxorem Mediolani), jam promittebatur, maxime dante salutaris accime conjugatum jam baptismus operam, quo minor ferme biennio aetas peret" puella petebatur cujus quam nubiUs erat ; et quia ea placebat, exspectabatur ; ib.,ix, 9, 19 : (Monnica) ubi plenis annis nubilis facta est tradita viro servivit velut domino. St. Agnes is said to have suffered martjrrdom at the of 12 (Ambrose, De Virginibus,2, 7) or 13 (Augustine, Serm^. de age diversis, loi). I append two Silentiarius epigrams by Agathias and PauUus (both under w hich the results for the Eastern same give Justinian), Roman empire. Agathias, 94 {Anth. Pal, iii, p. 68) :
ibit in pace
et Catullino

cp.

editor's

"

'EtttA

XvKa^avTas ^;tou(raP SalfiuVj d."p7ipirac" "^viiovvriv AiSifiif TrwrplQdXeio TCKev.


lie

Sis

oi

Paullus

els 'T/jAvaiov fiivyhp yovhs fie ya/irjXi.oi' yttAXoK Hyeiv,arvyepoO S' els Xx^povTos iprjv. Silentiarius,83 (ib., ^s Smpa Svyarpl, p. 102 : iwl ry ISlq.
: MaKTjSovia)

A^Krpa

ydp.ui'eiriTiii^ia, trdpSepeKoipt), vevdaKiai.s yevirai. iarbpeaavTraXd/xais


"roi "re y^p fwlpa, MaKTjSovlT], KaXvirrei,

ivrl

SioSeKiriv

Anth.

IjOeffi oirXoT^prjv, yrjpaX^Tjv. Pal., iv, 278 ep. 729* (of uncertain date) : ris air^, ypifi/iara MapK^XKijs Ta(pos elfilXi^ei. etKoinv oS(r' eriuv. dprlyafios Koiprj
"

KaWeatv

I may

further

mention

that
of

in Petrarch's

De

obedientia

et fideuxoria

looth in Boccaccio's canter Denovella myihologia (a Walter the margrave one), the daughter of Griseldis, whom allows to come his supposed bride, is 12 as Basle years old (Opera, edition, p. 604). Charlemagrie's wife Hildegard,mother of Rotrud, had been married to him in her thirteenth Paulus (Dahn, year Diaconus, p. 47). Lucrezia Giovanni Borgia, born 1480, married the Sforza
the in

translation

Colonna twelve-year-old Mar' Antonio to the ten-year-old Orsina Peretti (Hiibner, Sixtus V, ii,176). According to Galateo de Lecce (a friend of Pontanus) girls in Terra di Otranto used to be married at 12 (Gothein, Culturentwicklung Suditaliens, Melanchthon married p. 390). Anna Georg Sabinus, the first rector

Fifth

1493 married

Lucrezia (Gregorovius, the

Borgia, i, 36, 49).

Sixtus

of the

of Konigsberg, at 14 (Programm university

der Universitat

VOL.

I.]

Appendices
de

131

in 1686

1673, married third lundi, ed., Paris, 1858, iii, 58); Henrietta Herz, born 1764, married in 1779 (Furst,HenrietteHerz, lad of 13 p. 25). By the law of the 20th of September, 1792, every and every girlof 13 in France were to contract empowered marriage
du

Konigsberg, 1874, p. 6). Madame (Sainte-Beuve,Causeries

Caylus, born

Geschichte (Sybel,
281 ii,

der Revoluiionszeit,iv, 10). Sadler (Law in Quetelet'sPhysique socials (1869, i, 181), in


of to

of Population,
a

survey

of the
at

marriages
age of
12

English peeresses,

gives

32

marriages concluded

which born ; in a were 15, from 141 children of the births in the principal charitable institutions of don, Lonsurvey 16 and between and children. marriages 13 74 376 years, se Quetelet himself remarks (p. 381) : en Belgique les femmes marient d6jk entre 14 et 16 ans.

the

XIX.

The

Use

of

Homeric Appellatives.

Personal

Names

for

(Vol. I,

p.

248,

1.

17.)

for husband, lover. Menelaus, Helena, Paris wife, and Cicero, Ad sacris M. Memmius suis Nam Luculli uxorem Alt., i, 18, 5 :

initiavit.
ille tam

Menelaus Idaeus

pastor
i, 62,

aegre Menelaum

id passus solum
secuta 9

divortium liberum
reUcto

fecit.
hie

Quamquam
noster

contempserat,
non

Paris tial, Mar-

Menelaum
5
:

quam

Agamemnonem

putavit.

juvenemque

conjuge Penelope venit,

abit

Helene.

Lucillus, epig. "E^u

(Anthol.,ed.

Jacobs, iii,30

(ris

: ypa^fiwriKhvKepa,ff"p6pov)

itaicA Kal iroiSeiieis IlapiSos

MeveXaou,

hSov

ix'^" To\\otis
5
:

ari^

'EX^xjjs IlapiSas.
licet
esse

(Penelope. Martial, xi, 7, "Nerva.) Deiphobus. lb., iii,85 :


"

Penelope

tibi sub

principe

Quis

tibi hac

persuasitnares
est

abscindere

moecho

non peccatum ? nihil hie tibi perdidituxor, stulte,quid egisti cum

parte, marite, tibi.

sit salva

tui mentula

Deiphobi.
gined imacum

is (cp.Virgil,Aen., vi, 494, where also the deceived husband De Orat., ii, 265 : as Menelaus). (Cassandra. Cicero, esse S. Titius se Cassandram diceret, multos, inquit Antonius,
tuos

sum pos-

Ajaces

Oileos

his wife, iv, 65 : itur ad Atriden mediter victi cautus Atrides Pontica ib.,vi, 660: si praegustabit camina regis. Talthybius. Seneca, Apocol. 13 : inicit illimanum Roscio Amer., 35, Automedon. Cicero, Pro Talthybius deorum. collocat Automedontem ilium, sui in curru suis manibus 98 : non Varro, 5a/. sceleris acerbissimi ; nefariaeque victoriae nuntium

Of Domitian nominare.) Atrides. who murdered of the husband, ;

Juv.,

Menip.,

257

Biicheler

Automedo

mens,

dum torem bubulcitarat, erili dolori non lora tenebat nam puer Automedon, pervolataxe citato Flaminiam amoris dicar Automedon et 8 ego ; ipse; Ovid, A. ant., i, : Tiphys meditibi cum Martial, ii,16, 3 : Quid cp. i,3, ii,738. Machaan. Podalirius. Ovid, Rented. Am., Machaonas omnes. cis ? dimitte

quod apud Plotium defuit ; Juvenal, i, 60 :

rhe-

132
313
:

Appendices
Curabar

[vol. i.
;

Martial, x, 56, 7 : De Matemus, ; CallioMedicorum ib., : 25 ; Math., vii,24 genlturae ; Ovid, Tristia, iii, 7, 42 : picorum musicorum geniturae. Irus. Irus at est subito, qui modo erat ; Martial, xii, 32, 9, Irus Croesus

propriisaeger
fertur

Podalirius

herbis

Enterocelarum

Podalirius

Hermes Podaliriorum

Firmicus

tuorura

temporum;
Nestor.

so

in

Vita

Gordianorum,
noa

19

Priamus
est

sui tem-

Fam., ix, 14 : dignitate poris. tua, quod ipsi Agamemnoni, regi, fuit honestum, habere regum in some as Although aliquem in consiliis capiendis Nestorem. of the is not of the other the following use name cases purely mention its use in the sense of old man ', appellative, I may although it was probably usual : cp. Juvenal, xU, 128 : vivat vel Nestora Prometheus. totum. Pacuvius, Juvenal, quaeso, Prometheus, iv, 133 : debetur patinae subitusque Lynceus. magnus Cicero, Ad Fam., ix, 2, 2 : quis est tam Lynceus, qui in tantis incurrat tenebris nihil ofiendat, nusquam ? Endymion. Juv., tuus matronae. 318 : Sed End5Tnion dilectae fiet adulter X, Ucalegon. Ib., iii,198 : jam poscit aquam, jam frivola transfert A Ucalegon (Virgil, en., ii, 311). Cicero, Ad
'

aUenum

XX.

Roman

Finds

in

the

North.

(Vol. I, By
A
VERY

p.

3IO,

1.

7.)
the Romans and northern

Dr.
was

Otto

Tischler, of Konigsberg.
on

brisk trade

carried

between south
less

Europe (north Germany, Denmark, part of Norway). Numerous


especiallymetallic
be

Sweden,

and

the southernmost

manufactures
from

of Roman
to

origin,
are

vessels,^and,
this

frequently, statuettes
Hanover the

to

found

throughout
in East of Prussia
two

region

Vistula,
and

whereas Some the

fragments
enamelled Danube.

up to the present only a Roman tin-platedsilver dishes have been such


a as

stewpan

discovered.

of the ornaments,

articles

point to

direct

various buckles, and, later, dress-pins, importation,that is to say, from

provinces of the Roman empire on the Rhine and the The have manufactured in been majority, however, imitation of Roman models in the north itself, and difierent districts show different local types. Therefore, in addition to direct importation
also take into consideration influence the Roman these which all important throughmodels, was impliedby out certainly and the north materially encouraged the artistic skill of the northern We can barbarians, which is generally rated far too low. t he about the vessels of the accurately distinguish early empire (to end of the second The former are century) from those of later date.
we

frontier

must

partiy
which

far
recur

more

in

decorated and often artistically at Italy,especially Pompeii.*

bear While

trade-marks,

glassvessels

" These finds (up to 1880) are described In I. Undset, Das in Nordeuropa (German edition,Hamburg, 1882).

erste

Auftretm des Eisms


other

On

the

Roman

stamps

and

on inscriptions

metal

vessels and

articles in the

north, see Undset, Iscrizioni latinc ritrovate nella Scandinavia in Bullaino dell' Islilvto diCorrapondenzaarcheologica {Roma, 1SS3, pp. 33^-236). The difference was first clearly pouited out by Sophus MUller : En Tidsadskillelse mtUen fundene ha den atldre Jemaldtr i Danemarh ia Aarboeget for -nordisk Oldkyndighed (Copenhagen 1874)

VOL.

I.]
earlier Centuries beads
can

Appendices
of the

153
though rarely,in
and the in In
in the

of the forms the

empire

occur,

north, glass
which

of this

be

period are found in abundance, accuratelyclassified as to date, but occur,


Caucasus known and
to
a

lutely abso-

identical, in the
north

from

Egypt
ancients

to

France.
were

they

are

certainly imported articles,as


world
as

they
;

greatest part of also they have Egypt.i Hence


routes,

the been

imported
afford

they

as especially

south central source, probably in little information to the comus as mercial could be they easily transported into from

the

in the

distant countries, as the most Africa. of Central But received On


works it is not

at the

present day
of

to the savage

peoples
Romans

in have

yet clear exchange from

what

kind

productions the
south and and
v.

the

trade

the At the age

second the time of

concerned with Etruscan trade. especially these publications appeared (1867, 1874, 1877), when archaeologicalrelations of northern Europe and the pre-classical

between written been which is of

the north. the peoples of the

the

north

by Wiberg,^ Genthe,'

Sadowski,*

Italy were
in the

not

so

well
were now

understood entered On

as

now

hence doubt

found
at least

north
are

in the

catalogues as

icles artmany Etruscan


as

which importations,
or on

recognized beyond
finds thus

native,

unsafe

productions. incorrectly judged, and historical foundations, a system of commercial linguistic has been in many routes constructed, which respects is
to tlie results of modern
cases

northern

opposed
has
a

research. roads

Sadowski, in particular,

in many
on

assumed
;

the
much
are

priori grounds
false.
In

he

foundations
all three in

goes that

for eastern into details, but

Europe only
bases his

on

clusions con-

works to

to

amber
not

reference

all uncertain, and sometimes lutely absomuch is attached importance trade. For in the north undoubtedly
far too

metal imported articles,particularly but


west met
so

vessels, are
as

much of

in the amber

countries
on

in other

coast

Jutland) ;

while

the

other

of

the

Prussian with at all in East amber production. We


as

Samland,
must the

hand the chief modern


assume so

frequently found, the regions (e.g. they are hardly


centre

accordingly
metal

tions produccommon

of another kind, which in the north, we extensive tracts over There

return
can

for gifts
not

articles

trace

of northern

only radially to Germany.

the coast, but times


the
was

greatly
Yet
we

is in

no

doubt, however,

request

(see the

at different that amber evidence collected by von

Helbig).'
ian Ital-

during the peoples (Etruscans, Romans) from

find that

the Greeks

classical about

period and
onwards

400

showed

1 O. Tischler, der phyAbriss einer Geschichte des Emails, reprinted from Schriftfin sikalisch-o/tonomisehen Gesellschaft zu Konigsberg, xxvii {1886),Verhandlungen, p. 49. * durch C. F. Wiberg, Der Einfluss der hlassischen V other auf deii Norden den Handflsv^rkchr (Germaa edition, Hamburg, 1882). 3 H. Genthe, Uber den ctruskischen Tauschhandel nach dem Norden (new ed.,Erlangen,

1874). * (German edition, J. N. von Sadowski, Die Handelsstrassen der Griechen und Romer Der Bernstein im Alterthum 1883) is in Jena, 1877),with which F. Waldmann, (Stettin, For the imported articles in north Germany, see Undset,_p._52l_. complete agreement. s W. dell' ambrain Atti delV Ace, del Lincei, von Helbig, Osservaxioni sopra it commercio pp. 415-435. 3rd ser., Memorie, classe stor.,1 (1877),

134

Appendices

[vol.i.

much sought after, little desire for it, although northern gold was the Apennines, w^ere before that date, both north and south of even in graves in enormous, varying,quanit is found tities. though somewhat the to Etrilria from with belong The proper spouts jugs in southern numerous fourth extraordinarily century ; they are

Germany
for

as

far

as

central

Germany

and

Champagne,

but

not

on

the

reached the north in exchange have Baltic coast, so that they cannot commercial relations. brisk of evidences but rather are amber, is found amber In the last four centuries throughout Germany B.C., cannot much less frequently than France and before, so that we for it during this period. It was not increased market assume an till the beginning of the imperialperiod that north European gold

again came only the


valuable

greatly into
west

favour

in
'

Italy.
had

But

while the

in earUer south
East

coast

of

Jutland
now

furnished

with

times this

material, it
which

was

chiefly supplied from


Roman
to

Prussian

Samland,
from Carnuntum

in the

era pre-christian

imported hardly anjrthing


knight of investigatethe
enormous so

Italy.
was

During
sent

the a reign of Nero shores eastern to these he the

discovered Eldorado,' whence of amber. But it reached quantities

newly

brought
Romans

home
not

much
has

directlyas through the trade themselves by the Germans


been north
said been

between
as

various
as

tribes,being brought

far

Pannonia. with
Roman

Nothing

found

to

show

how

far Roman
; a

merchants
a

penetrated to
has

the

by
to

way

have

of Bohemia been found


as

cinerary urn
Massel
urn

inscription,

at

in

which Silesia,
a

regarded
doubtful.'

the The

than
from

cinerary most important


the March off to been

of

Roman Roman into and


so

frequently knight, is more


trade
route
ran

Carnuntum
where
route

Oder,
Rhine

up it branched
cannot

valley
the Elbe

the the

district

of the The Vistula. for


east

have

nearly

important
or

Germany
ranges often
and

and

the amber

trade.

Wide the

between depressions
the

mountain

river

valleys, largenavigable rivers


marshes,

dry, gently sloping

ground, leadinground rising


been the most different
numerous

somewhat exaggerated, had been natural channels of communication Hence


in such and

risks of which have from time immemorial and trade between


are more

peoples.

districts the inhabitants has

The

manner

more prosperous. in which Sadowski

development
is incorrect.
40

of trade For
at

from

the

coins

the

period before

conjecturedthe chronological occurringin eastern Europe the empire a supposed find of


was

Greek

coins the

Schubin

(in Posen)

the

cause

of much of the
coast

fusion, con-

until absolute
*

of Julius investigations of this find and the unimportance relations Greek between
on

Friedlaender baselessness Baltic Black the


east

proved

the

thesis hypoand

of commercial

the

the Greece, especially


"

colonies

Sea.

V. Mullenhoff, Deutsche Allerthumskunde, ii (Berlin, 1870-1883), p. 476. a Undsct, Pliny,Nat. Hist., ixxvii,45. p. 62. * First in Abhatidlungen i. Berliner Ah. d. Wiss.,1833, put forward by C. von Levezow J. Friedlaender's refutation in Markische p. 181. Forschungen, iii;Zeitschriftfir NumismiUih, v, p. 213 ; Zeitschrift fur Ethnohgie, xiii (Berlin, 1881), p. 234; where he shows that these coins are an artificial mixture of different finds, and that their provenance is probably northern Greece. He further shows that they are for the most part Athenian coins,while Sadowski derives them from Olbia (Handekstrassen, them p. 72) and regards
"

C.

VOL.

I.]
the found in
such

Appendices
Roman
be
no

135
coins, both
silver and northern the amber

For

imperialperiod also, the


enormous

bronze,

quantities throughout
must accounted for

East Europe, especially above trade.


a

Prussia,
this

ently; quite differ-

all, they appear

to have

had

connexion
must

with
have

Consequently, at
part, as
one

period amber

subordinate

of the

it is just in the modern


are occur

amber

articles of many district that the better

played only exchange. For


Roman articles

scarcelyfound at all,with the exception of the glassbeads which everywhere, while they appear in ever increasingquantities
the in Vistula
to

from

Mecklenburg
with the back be

and

Denmark.^
of the the the

Now

these

cles, arti-

conformity certainly have been


the both
assume

nature

carrying trade, might


tribes

kept
would

centre

but

their

occurrence

amongst just in
difficult to
to that

livingnearer
lying between
we are

to

districts
whole

amber
a

coasts

explain,unless
the also

to many, Gerto

general trade, comprehending


however
of Roman them
; in

of northern

not

restricted the coins in East

limit, but
of Gotland.

extending

Sweden The
as

and
finds

especiallyto

island

large numbers

in northern

already mentioned, play


to

ascribed

quite a different part from that the amber Prussia, especially,

Germany,' formerly country,

which, as regards the first four Christian centuries, has been more thoroughly investigated than any other district of Europe outside the Roman empire, their presence can be most clearly explained; ' it late date has been proved that they arrived in the district at a tolerably after the of the amber trade. The coins found long beginning single of bronze, are for the most here and there, the majority of them far from and the even are part sepulchral,* extremely numerous, But they only occur in a certain class of graves, mostly of coast. the third century (some at the end of the second at the earliest) For although in the graves of this period coins of the earlier emperors (Trajan, Hadrian) are found, as a rule they are those of the Antonines and the two similar Faustinas, and in addition, amid precisely
,
.

as

the chief argument

for trade relations

between

Olbia and

the lowlands

of the Vistula.

admixtures of native and foreignarticles) statuette and are a Greek forgeries [i.e. Greek the chapel of St. Peter coins from at Koltzen the gulf of Riga, published in on Their spuriousnessis established F. C. H. Knise, Necrolivonica {heft 21) and elsewhere. almost bisher unbekannbeyond doubt by C. A. Berkholz, Des Grafen Ludwig August MeUin ier OriginalbericM uber das angebliche an der livlandischen Meereskuste Griechengrab (Riga, 1875). Greek coins seem reallyto have been found here and there in the north {Listheir number is extremely smalL sauer, p. 57). But 1 In Undset, as above the of the several chapters. contents ; cp. 2 The relation of these coins to Sweden is clearly explained in O. Montelius,Die CuUur Schwedens in vorchristticher Zeit (German tr, by Appel, Berlin, 1885). On the Roman coins occurringin Scandinavia,especially in Gotland, see O. Montelius,Remains from the iron age of Scandinavia Prussia : A. Lissauer, Die prd' (Stockholm, i86g). For West kistorischen Denkmdler For Pomerania: der Provinz Weslpreussen (Leipzig, 1887),p. 134. Di^ in Pommern Kiihne, gemachten romischen u.s.w. Mdnzfunde, in Ballische Studien, 27 On the finds in other districts of northern Germany : Veltmann, (Stettin, 1877),p. 203. Funde Romermwizen im freienGermanien von (Osnabriick, 1886). For East Prussia,a Geld-und MUnzwesens brief summary in Bender, Beitrdgezur Geschichte des preussischen des (Braunsberg, 187S ; reprinted from Zeitschrift fur Geschichte und AUerthumskunde Ermlands, v, 52r). 3 O. GesellDas Grdberfeld der physikalischohonomischen von Tischler, Oberhof : Schriften zu schaft Konigsberg,xxix (1888),Verhandtungen, p. 19. * [Variousobjects, such as clothes, jewellery, implements and tools, arms, agricultural of the toilet articles, food and drink, and coins were for the use placed in the tomb deceased in another world. Tr.] Similar

136
objects,coins
the
are

Appendices
of Alexander it is these Severus later

[vol.i.
Pius, down
not to
so

and

Gordianus

Arab

; and

coins, which

by their Hence must we recentlyin circulation. finds in the them the of as basis take our as reckoning, especially of the presouth establish the fact that during a considerable part ceding of the side in such coins not were By period placed graves. or isolated, large finds sepulchralcoins, found in smaller numbers silver coins (more than of bronze, but chiefly have been discovered be regarded as directlyimported. in one 1000 place),which may onwards found from the of Nero time in are older coins Although the end of the but these hoards, the latter aU extend second, to mostly that in addition to the beginning of the third century ; hence we see coins quite a number of older ones entered recent the to the more which makes it that of the Roman coins found none probable country,
common, yet fairly that they were stamp,

that show

Philip frequent well-preserved particularly


although

most

in

East

Prussia
to the

made

shortly before.
as

Hence
these

their way it would have

thither be

till after
to the draw

200

or

at

most

course shifting

wrong of trade from


no

sions concluspecific of the the east

nature

coins.^ Baltic

Consequently,
amber
north

coins

connexion time
the

with

trade

that

began
in

about

the
are

by
however,
In any mannic

the fact that


than
are

they

found

of Nero, which in larger numbers

is also confirmed in graves

of Memel

Samland,
not

amber

district proper,

where,

they
case

tolerablyfrequent.
reach the north
as

the coins did which


may

tillafter the Marco-

war,

be looked At

migration

of the

nations.

upon that time


the

the the

beginning

of the

peoples of
who

the

nofSt

grea*^

in greater numbers forced their way maintained relations with permanent in the country. Hence, aU the masses to the
no

into

the Roman inhabitants


now

empire
their

J^T
wiiy

remained

of coins

made

north,
was

as

far

as

Sweden,
a

Gotland especially
or

(where
as

certiirily
Sea,
those
try. coun-

amber

took that

found) to the especially in the form place


were

; and

more

less

complete alteration,painting
as

south-east and those

of

Europe
were

far

the

Black both
in the

decoration

of ornamental

wares,

imported

and

that

manufactured

finds of this period, with altered forms of Splendid sepulchral metal vessels and vessels of numerous a new glass style,have been in graves discovered in Scandinavia far as Seeland as (Zealand) and

Scania,
and be

further

north

Mecklenburg," Thuringia, Silesia,'east Galicia, These were Hungary.* originallysupposed to graves


Roman
most graves,

in

genuine
barbaric The

whereas

the that

admixture
we

of to do

and

articles

clearlyshows

have

late Roman with native


at SackraU

graves.

brilliant find of this kind

is the grave

Hence Sadowski's the aad in particular attempt must be regarded as unsuccessful, chronologicaldating of brooches according to finds of coins {Handelsstrassm, p. 178) as absolutelyfalse. " G. C. F. Lisch, Romergraber in Mecklenburg (Jahrb. d. Vereins fur MeciUnburg. Geschtchte und Allerthumskunde, Schwerin, 1870). The assumption is false ; they are not Roman, but German Bibliography of these graves in Mecklenburg and Scangraves. dinavia in Undset.

Grempler, Der Fund von Sackrau (Brandenburg-Berlin, 1887). 4 Amongst other places, at Osztropatakain Hungary : J. Hampel, Der Goldfund in Mtklas Nagy Szmt (Buda-Pesth, r885), in which work extremely important aspects of the middle and later Roman empire are elucidated.

138
an.

Appendices
the first word
was
"

[vol. i.
not

1852 (Hanover, 1885),p. 251, that but scil,so that the line ran :
Scit
nomen

sit,

Decimi
was

Gentiani

pyramis
or

alta.

Perhaps
Mommsen

the
has

name

carved

above

below

the

inscription.
to

shown his

{CIL, iii, p. 967)

that

it refers

Terentius

CIL, iii, 1463, from Sarmizegetusa) : inscription militum trib. Gentiano quaestori trib. pi. pr. leg. (Te)rentio colonia Ulpia Trajan. provinc. Maced. Aug. consuli pontif.cens.
Gentianus
. . .

(from

this it is clear that the Sarmizegetusa patrono. From Une 6 in Hirschfeld, (Mommsen, (= censitoris) of the text the The and probable following is myself) is correct. : inscription

Aug.

Dae.

alteration

censoris

"

Vidi pyramidas sine te, dulcissime frater, hie maesta et tibi quod potui lacrimas profudi, luctus banc sculpo querelam. et nostri memorem Gentiani Sclt nomen Decimi pyramis alta,

comitisque tuis,Trajane, triumphis pontificis


lustra
sex

intra

censoris
2.

consulis

esse.

Cp. Mommsen,
Odes, iii,11,

StR, i", 577,


50
:

Line
Omine

i secundo

3 is a reminiscence et nostri memorem

of

Horace,

sepulcro

Scalpe querellam.
XXII.

The

Use

of

the

Word

Romantic

as

applied

to

Natural

Scenery. p 395,
1.

(Vol. I,
I
AM

19.)
for word
not of
a

indebted he about

to

H.

A.
out

J.

Munro

(died 1886)
England
the

communication,
'

in which used

points

that

in

romantic

'

was

the middle

of the seventeenth

in Evelyn's Diary, 23rd of {e.g. of Sweden), but also of natural


'

century September, 1680,


scenery, wonder and and

only Queen

of persons

Christina
sense :

in the

modern
'.

that

which

fills the
tmcommon

mind which
"

with with show

delight,by uniting the


or

strange and
nature

the

beautiful

grand
age

The

very-

interesting passages

the

of that feeling

in

regard to

to

the following : are Pepys's Diary, 26th of February, 1665 (describinghis first visit Windsor This being done, to the king's house and to Castle) :
'

observe is the
terrace

the
most

neatness

and

contrivance balcone

romantique
that is in the
are

Ceistle that

the house is in the world.

of

and But

gates
Lord

it

prospect
the
what
a

in the

queene's
of the

lodgings,and
:

! the the
'

and

walk
sure

strange things to consider, beeing the best in

world,

'

Evelyn's Diary, 27th


stupendous
the town nature to
me was

June, 1654
rock

But

appeared
to

most

little distance
of the

from

the (Bristol), I have

of St. Vincent, precipicewhereof is

in the most seen confragose river ordinary extrabetween them at an Alps, gliding There is the also horrid side of this on depth. Alp a seat ' ; ib.,3rd of August, 1654 : Hence to Sir Guy's very romantic and died. grot (near Warwick) where, they say, he did his penances 'Tis a squalid den made in the rock, crowned venerable yet with
cataracts the
. . .

equal

anything

of that

'

VOL.

I.]
and

Appendices
so

139
were a

oaks

might be, 'twere pleasant place '.


In IllsRemarks says Marseilles mountains is of the wild and the
'

looking on a goodly stream, capable of being


on

as,

it

made

most

improved romantiq

as

it

and

several

etc., in parts of Italy,


the little harbour
to

country Genoa), where


end of her
so

near

1701-1703, of Cassis

Addison

(between
lene Magdaand

according
sorrow scene a

spent

life in

the amidst

legend Mary

rocks solitary

It is

romantic chimerical idea of

that '.

it has Here

always probably
the word the other
no
'

givenoccasion
used

to such
as an

relations

tic' roman-

entirelyobjective designationof
pleasure.
On the SsasoMS the romantic

wild

and the
that

fantastic, without
use

of the word

any in Thomson's

hand,
doubt

(1729) leaves
nature

the

poet feels attracted by Spring (1025) the lover

of the

scenery.

In

restless runs To glimmering shades and sympathetic glooms Where the dun umbrage o'er the falling stream Romantic hangs ;

Autumn

(789):

"

High
Sees

and here awhile the Muse hovering o'er the broad cerulean scene Caledonia in romantic view.
' '

is fond of the word romantic : to the quotations in vol. i,p. 404 add the letter to Pope (istof April, romantic writer ; he I no as a 1717) : longer look on Theocritus has only given a plain image of the way of Ufa amongst the peasants

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu


'

country '. According to Breitinger,Classisch und 1885, no. 5, p. 71, the English romantic for roman. World In Philips's New romant romantick is styleda neologism. Up to the word French only knew romanesque
of
' ' '

his

Romantisch
is derived

in
from

Gegenwart,
the form

'

(London, 1706) eighteenth century the (Diet, de I'Acad., 1694 ; Madame de S6vign6 : je vous etc. : quitientdu roman, romanesque bord ecris romanesquement d'une S aussure and Diderot au rivifere). of
the the use realit6
same

Worlds

word

c'est

une

quelque part (Salon


and

vue romanesque, de Tannic 1767 :

dont

on

suppose from

la

CEuvres, ed. Naigeon,

xiv, 188). Marmontel

Rousseau
the

have

romantique
made

the into
in

English. Evidently
German. drei

the form

romanisch

was

first that

its way

Neues

Dictionarium ausfiihrliches
und

oder

Worterbuch

Sprachen ; Teutsch, Franzosisch, Englisch (Geneva, 1695) ; : fabelhaft, romanisch above). Romanesque (cp. Breitinger as and Rosenkranz's Kant this form only. Although in Schubert uses edition (xi, is given in a note on Cervantes, I am i, 224) romantisch

convinced
wrote

by
und

an

examination
In

of the his

MS. original

that

Kant

edly undoubt-

romanisch.
'

Beobachtungen

iiber das

Gefiihldes

dle Erhabenen (1764) Kant speaks of the knights of the MidAbenheroischer eine seltsame Art Phantasten, welche Ages as Handromanische teuer aufsuchen, Turniere, Zweikampfe und Schonen

lungen
he says

'

(Werke, iv, 461-463) ; in a note to When : sublimity or beauty exceeds


'

this treatise the

(iv,407)

recognizeimean.

r40
it is
'

Appendices
the

[vol.l.
Anthropologie des Stimmung
read
roman-

usually called romanisch '. Consequently, in romantischer (der Spanier ist) von 254) : (vii'",
das

Geistes. wie
ischey.

Stiergefecht
.

beweist
. .

',we

should

According to Ludwig Hirzel {Romantisch,in Haupt's Zeitschrifi first occurs by the deutsches Alt.,xxvi, 1882, p. 192) romantisch fiir buted) contriwhich Haller the in Berne side of romanisch Spectaieur (to
Historie '. In this called of 1734 in an essay anonymous of introducing something fond the historici axe the writer says from romanische sentiments borrows that Curtius and romaniisches, writer authors of the same mances roRomanes others. In an by essay sometimes Romantisten. called Romanisten, sometimes are In Haupt's Zeitschrift, xxxii, 1888, pp. 223-226) Hirzel also refers
to
'

(a discourse on the Heidegger's Mythoscopia Romantica word which the romantisch so-called romance Ziirich, 1698) in ; and romanzisch, though much more mon com(by the side of romanisch natural to than not occurs scenery). (but applied these)already
Gotthard
time to the at which been

The
of

in fact the
That

have
form

the word the end

its different assumed and of the seventeenth

forms

appears

the

beginning
'

eighteenth century.
romantisch
'

found

by the following (died 1877) : the help of Tobler and Hildebrand, As far as I can ascertain with in which the word the earliest passage literature) (in German In romantisch dates from occurs J. J. F ortsetzung Breitinger's 1740. der Kritischen Dichtkunst, we find (p. 283) : Je mehr dergleichen Beiworter in einer Redensart desto schoner und sind, wahrhaftig through
communication
'

is Switzerland from S. Hirzel

its way from confirmed also


"

England
"

to

many Ger-

"

romantisch

ist sie auch." the

In

Goethe
"

the

word

occurs

in

letter

Ihr kleines Stvibgen, das Wenn Leipzig period : der oft Trunkenheit diese liebe so war wenn Zeuge unsrer seeligen romantische Hohle auch nun kiinftigden Schauplatz der Freuden eines neuen Liebhabers abgibt (SchoU, Briefe und Aufsdtze, 25).

belonging to

"

It is not improbable that Goethe became acquainted with the from Tobler's translation of Thomson's Seasons (Zurich,1765), " where it first occurred to look to me for it. Thomson's Where " the dun umbrage o'er the falling romantic is stream lated transhangs Tobler Wo die schwarz-braune : by tisch romanUmlaubung word
"

'

liber den

fallenden

Strom

hangt

".

Brookes in

in his translation Summer The word have


known

(1744) gives

(459)and
occurs

romanisch. In the passages Autumn Tobler also uses (880)

Thomson's
to

romantisch.
seem

in

that
But

the word

Adelung (1777),although he does not of English origin, but connects was


'.

it with

the French

romanesque
even as

mainly
may
um

the

have
was

perhaps

became naturaUzed in German literature of translations of Thomson, individual writers borrowed it directlyfrom the English. One of these Georg Forster, who is fond of the word, e.g. in his Reise
result in den
:

if the

word

die Welt

Jahren 1772-1775
'

Brockhaus,
die Schonheit volkommen

1843)
'.

Der wilden

bezaubemde
romantischen

dieses

(published ^Tji), i, 136 (ed. Gesang (der Vogel) machte Flecks (in New Zealand)

VOL.

I.]
XXIII.
On
the

Appendices
Meaning
op the

141
VIOLA

Names HYACINTHUS.

(tov),

ANEMONE,

NARCISSUS,
p. 425, 1. 9

(Vol. I,
By
Apart
down
names

from

bottom.)
of Breslau. that
to

Prof.

Ferdinand

Cohn the
have

from
to
us,

the the

incompletenessof
chief
reason

information

has

come

why
writers

of

plants

in ancient

for every kind of it and plant, appropriate distinguish exclusively all others ; and it from the language of science did not attain even this exactness until the time of Linnaeus. The language of ordinary life does not hesitate to give entirely different names to the same different at in different times, or countries, or, vice versa, plant
a

science

use results, is the inaccurate endeavours to establish

previous attempts tory produced such unsatisfacof words. Only the language of

refer the

specialname

which

shall be

to

to entirelydifferent name give the same plants. Thus, for the German chestnut example, the name (like kastanie)is given to and Aesculus two totally different trees, Castanea Hippocasvesca, Indian the is the is a fig,Ficus tanum cactus a fig ; ; sycamore a Sycomorus, or more commonly maple, Acer pseudo-plantanus ; while the trees called by Americans and Australians oak, cedar, in pine, etc., are quite different from those bearing these names in the same ancient times, especially in the poets, Europe. It was cies who always abused their licence to perpetrate all kinds of inaccurain with the of the has common botany hardly anything ; poets latter in the that of the natural even philosphers. But, antiquity, to

had

no

clear ideas

of the relation about

of genus

and

; species

stillless did

they

relation in nomenclature of and Dioscorides alone can as in modern terminology ; Theophrastus their to rule tlmt attached we as a they plant-names definite suppose themselves acquainted. conceptionsof plants,with which they were trouble themselves
not Certainly,we must out singlequotationsat

expressingthis

be
our

content,
own

as

is

usually
to

the
draw

case,

to

pick
clusions con-

discretion,and
collect and much all the
them

hasty

from

them with
cases
we

we a

must

passages

in ancient

authors, which
compare in numerous This
I.

refer to
one

plant, arrange
with
be

and systematically, If this be

them

another
of

nature.

done,

shall

able to

is

true especially

the

identifythe plant in question. viola). disputed violae (iov,

the ornamental lop under plants (o-rcTheophrastus discusses for which rule are used as a making garlands), (paviiiMTa, plants hence treated of and are immediately after shrubby ((ppvyaviKo) Hist. Plant., vi).' they are woody (JuXtiSas, trees, since like them few such as roses Most shrubs cultivated, a wild, being only grow

and The

violets

(vi, i, i) ;
violets
are

the

latter

are

propagated

from

seeds

6, II). (vi,
also called white they i^ovt6 Xeu/cip); root but no leaves ; the {iwiKav\i(i"vKKov), for a considerable time roots are woody (vi,6, ii) ; they bloom varieties of them are especially ; they vary 8, 3). There many (vi, there the lily(Kplvov), of which as in colour, although not so much

shrubby
on

have

leaves

the

stem

Plantarutn.

[Unless otherwise Tr.]

the refereaces specified,

to

Theophrastus are

to

the Historia

142
are

Appendices
said to be

[vol.i.
The
it life of the

also

purple

varieties

6, 3). (vi,
when old

violet

produces plant ; years here and The flowers. quoted agree paler (XevKirfpa) passages the earliest the by given perfectly with already interpretation is the stock, violet of the that white Theophrastus commentators, Germans. of Matthiola the incana, the Levkoje But Theophrastus is also acquainted with a black violet (tov t6 it the wliite by the fact that liiMv). This is distinguished from ornamental but is not herbaceous a (ppvyaifQSes), shrubby (oli TroiCides, only root leaves vi, 6, i) ; it has plant (are"f"a.vaTuibv but stems branches no are or ; its leaves {S.kXoi') (7r/)offpif()0u\\os), broad {"n-Xari^ivWoi') growing close to the ground (e77"40i;AXoi') ; also leaves be to the {aapKi^vWov are vi, 6, alleged fleshy but as PUny (Hist.Nat., xxi, 27) in the 7) ; this is uninteUigible, speaks of a fleshy root, probably aapK6ppt.^ov parallel passage
is three {/3ios liovMs)
, ,

smaller

should
bulbous

be

read.

The

roots

of the

black

violet

are

numerous

and

and ^ov(ra.pi^ay, Kf^aXoppifa), (TToXXiji'

enable

it to survive;

wild and thrives on poor soil (De Causis it grows Plant., vi, 20, 2} : like the rose cultivated oix 'Ijf^pov as a rule it is not [dypiov, Kadairep cultivated in a particular if it is T" piSov,De Causis vi, PL, 20, i) ; it is said to bloom throughout the year (vi, 8, 2) : manner, lis Si
(foi Tivis "/"a(Ti
tovtq

bwajxhri

Si

SKov

Bepaireirirai, ScparcLas Tvyxdvcv (Sia/t^vei).


In the black

^ikvISiov "v

^x^'-"^^

^^

ipipav rb "v8os, iiv rplnriprail 5i' iviavTov ^V M^^^''toy


, , .

violet also the flowers


one

alone

are

sweet
as

smelling ;
in the
case

there
of the
one

is,however,
white flower There
'

only

kind,
of the

not

6, 3) ; yet double (vi,


in the is
no

many flowers black

varieties
are

found, which
of

contain is

centre

other the

(i,15, 2).
violet third

doubt

that

Theophrastus

our

L. violet ', Viola odorata But knows Theophrastus not

of yet

does it

call it loy t6 climates of it first of the flowers spring, in warmer blooms in winter ; it has a little bulb, like bolbine,kyi,sisyrineven chion. This is evidently a kind of snowflake or snowdrop, probably which the Leucojum vernum is found not only in Central, but also

however

violet, also white ; he XcvkSv, like the stock, but XevKd'Coy ;


a

is the

in Southern the
to

Europe.
leaves

Elsewhere
on

Xei/xiioj'has

the

stem

certainly Theophrastus states can vii,8, 3) which only (


,

that refer

the stock. Perhaps the text is wrong, in distinguishing and XeuKiiw Xov tA

or

he

has

not at

been

tent consis-

\cvKby.

great length ; to the (vi)of his Causae Plantarum of the violet have philosophy of perfumes. Only the blossoms a smell (vi,2), the other parts have sweet none (Caus. Plant., vi, 11, 4) ; their smell is pleasanter at a distance than near (C. PI., vi, 17,
he

Theophrastus
has devoted

describes whole

the

smell

of his violets

book

1) ;

in time

the

smell

becomes
are

pungent
that

and

unpleasant

; it does

not

last when

the

blossoms

dry, like

of the rose,

which

certainly

be smelt so far off as when fresh (C. PL, vi, 14, li). districts the smell of violets and roses is not nearly so pleasant (vi,8, 6). In a very dry and poor soil,and when the air is hot and dry, the violet loses its smell (C. PL, vi, 20, 2) ; violets from Cyrene smell the sweetest 6, 5),while the blossoms are (vi,

when dry cannot In mountainous

VOL.

I.]
as a

Appendices
to

143

said also

be scentless in Egypt (vi,8, 5) ; in that country violets are said to blossom earlier than months two in Greece last ; nevertheless, they as long or longer (ib.). of the viola is for the most from Pliny's account part borrowed
roses

rule
and

Theophrastus
seeds

viola alba ; it is reared from to the viola simply what {Nat. Hist., xxi, 27) Theophrastus says of the smell of the white violet ; and, on the other hand, the long period of bloom and the three years' duration to the viola alba, which consequently is to be understood the as stock.
; but he

; he also

the distinguishes

ascribes

Theophrastus' black
by iropcpupoSv
interest

violet is called

viola

purpurea by Pliny, iov

is not without contemporary of of the colours. Violet-blue history designation clothes are called vestis ianthina (xxi,27 ; in xxi, 45 this chief colour is described of which as amethystinus, the undertone passes from violet into purple and violet-blue : amethystinus qui a viola et ipse in purpureum ianthinum {sc.trahitur),quemque appellavimus) xxi, According to Pliny the purple violet grows wild (silvestre, macris locis et The xxi, sponte apricis proveniunt, 130; 27). to ever-blooming and double violets of Theophrastus are unknown

his

Dioscorides, which

for the

him. Dioscorides the leaves

gives a good descriptionof (cxvii)


compares smellinglittle blossoms
he

of which

with

those

the purple of the ivy, and the

violets,
of the centre

pleasant very of the root on


On he
not

that

spring from
the white

long
hand
a

the other that

stalks. Dioscorides
also

(xxi)calls

says

it is

universally known
i^i his
famous

shrub, which

violet XeuKAioK ; however does

always
Matthiolus

bear

white, but

blue, purple-red,

(1554)

that the blue stock is not observes is perhaps corrupt ; that the other and that
women are

or yellow flowers. Dioscorides on commentary known in Italy and that the text

kinds

are

fond

of

keeping
varieties

very them
of

common

outside

in dens, gardows the win-

stock also are pots. known the us (in Germany) ; yellow variety is generally among the stock which is sometimes yellow (Matthiolaochroleuca) perhaps found in Italy. unknown phrastus to TheoPliny also speaks of a yellow violet {viola luted)
,

in

White

and

violet

the

; it is reared

from violets

seed.
are

Since
used

state

that

the

yeUow

Pliny and Dioscorides both in medicine especially (e sativis

that they are assume may their but from of the statements cannot same we plant ; speaking the with this what is, nor certainty plant meaning of the gather other kinds of violets mentioned Tusculana, and by Pliny maxima, in the scentless Calatiana the latter flowers the others autumn, ;

maxima

auctoritas

luteis,xxi, 27), we

"

in the

spring (munus
is the the
same

autumni,
viola

ceterae

veris); perhaps

the

viola
to be

Calatiana
a

deep red,
The

the as liveliest of the

serotina,\ihose colour is said

commentators

conchylia colours (xxi, 46). usually identifythe yeUow XevKb'iov of

corides Dios-

Cheiri

shown

the viola lutea of Plinywith the wall-flower ,1Cheiranthus be It is nearly akin to the stock, and can of the botanists. since the fifteenth century in southern to have been cultivated and
1

Qer, Goldlackf G?lbvei!chen. Gflbviole,

144

Appendices

i[vol.

ornamental Europe, and on the further side of the Alps as a common met and in it is also in with, frequently gardens e.g. in pots ; plant ruined in the Rhine castles,apparvalley,on old masonry, especially ently wild, of vanished a wild, but probably in reality relic,run duced introthat the wall-flower was castle gardens. It is also possible while in der's Alexanof the at into Rome the beginning empire, time it
was

it

was

known

to

in the points to its

not yet cultivated by which ; however, the name the physicians of the Middle cealed Ages and which is conbut is not Linnaean Greek Arabic, and Cheiranthus,
an

being colleagueSchmolder, but is probably of latter language it is


'

oriental importation. According to my late used in Arabic, Cheiri or rather Chairi is certainly of Sanskrit Persian rather or origin ; in the
'

written Gairi and means tains growing in the mounblack varieties ; in the Persian lexicon,yellow, white, violet and of Chairi are it is clear that Chairi is mentioned, from which identical with tov and viola ; the rocket dame's violet {Hesperis or

matronalis) is
The ancient

also

called

authorities of their

Chairi contain violae.

or

Hairi.
statements interesting
as

to the

flowering period
translated
for

PUny
it in

(Nat. Hist., xxi, 64) has

the passage
:
"

referringto

Theophrastus

almost

word

word

eOOiis tov Kiirrepos


TToXl)

rb XeUKiiw, "irov /niv 0 drjp /t^c irpurrov iKtl"aiV"Tai /.laXakoX fi/io5^ Tcp tc{j rb n xei/iuji^os ^ fiLKpby iffTCpov rb S"y ol ravra KoXoOfievop tp\6yLvov "yptoP ffT""pavTjTr\6K0t xp^^Tat^ yap
. . , '

Toil' i,v8uv rb

iKTp^X^t TWV

AWwr.
ver

Florum etiam
ume

prima

nuntiantium

viola alba, ion

hieme flammeum

emicat.

postea quae

tepidioribusvero appellator et purpurea,


silvestre dumtaxat.

locis prox-

quod phlox vocatur,

Consequently
as

in this passage, Pliny by the viola alba does not, the stock but the suowflake elsewhere, mean ; ^\6yipor (" flammeum) be identified ; it is certainly cannot not the same the "p\6( as

of

Theophrastus, which

is

cultivated scentless,

ornamental

flower

vi, 6, 2, 11 ; cp. PUny, Nat. Hist., xxi, 59). "otrpiOv, {"TTc"pavuTiKbi' Therefore or not the wall-flower phlox is certainly {viola flammeum which has sweet smell. a lutea), after the cyclaAmongst the plants that bloom in the late spring, men, narcissus,Hly, and oenanthe, Theophrastus again mentions the black violet (to n4\av tov, vi, 8, i). Here the text is evidently corrupt, since this flower is one of the earUest spring flowers after the snowflake. In Phny (xxi, 65) the passage runs : sequitur oenanthe melanthium ac melanion vv. (Sillig, II., melan; meUanthum,
some thium) ; certainly is The following the The meaning of Uv can

other result
and

flower
of
our

is meant.

investigations.
is uncertain, and

viola

by themselves

from the context only be determined the Romans, : among however, according to Phny tov was applied to Viola odorata alone (Nat. Hist., xxi, 27). On the other hand where violaria (violetgardens and beds) are mentioned, the stock is certainly meant, which alone (and not the purple violet) to have been appears cultivated in gardens amongst the Romans. "loK Tb liiXav of Theophrastus, viola purpurea of tov iropibvpovr Pliny, of Dioscorides, is the violet (Viola odorata).

1^6
root
;

Appendices
vii,8, 3)and

[vol.i.
.

He says after the flowers (vii, soon 7, 3) cultivated in gardens. nothing of an anemone the wild distinguish the other On hand, Pliny and Dioscorides et in cultis nascens) ; the the cultivated and anemone (silvestris

sprout

wild

has

scarlet

flowers (phoeniceus)

and

is mistaken

for

the

wild

poppies (papaver, rhoeas, argemone), from which, however, by its earlier flowering,the absence of milky juice distinguished for garlands (anemone is used the cultivated, which and calyx ; milk-white flowers, the first being coronaria) has scarlet, purple,or
be

it is to

the

the wild variety, like leaves than It has smaller apium or coriander, and rarely grows higher than half a foot {Nat. ate accur(C, clxxii)gives a more Hist., xxi, 164, 165). Dioscorides difficult is to it detailed explanation. However, and say which

commonest.

of

vated meant are anemone by the wild and culticoronaria is of the ancients ; certainly Anemone of which A adorn all also and hortensis included, probably pavonina,
the many of species
anemones
.

European gardens. in Theophrastus is the same No/3fc"r(ros toCt-o, 0! 5^ ixewov KaXovji). The leaves similar to those an oilygloss (Xiirapoi),
south

as
are

6, (vi, \elpiov
numerous,

oi

/iiv

narrow,

with

of the

broader, like those


leaves the

of the

Kpivuima

"

(vii, 13, i).


is

The

leaves

of the

all bulbous narcissus

asphodel,yet much plants have narrow


grow
on

the

ground,

and bears only a single leafless, grass-green {-rrodSris), flower-stalks flower the at 6, 9) ; only are top (vi, produced from the fleshy,large, round root (bulb; vi, 6, 9; vii,13, 2 ; C. PI., i, 4, i) ; first the flower-stalks are developed, and then later the
stem

leaves, the flower


into
sweet

monopetalous, united below, only divided above angular segments (Airo0i)"r"s (i,13, 2) ; it has a yoniiSets) smell ; it forms large black seeds in membranous capsules.

is

kinds of narcissus ; one flowers in spring soon There two after are violets (jierA Si TaCro 6 other xai t6 the [fa] vapKuram [? ^] Xclpiov ; time as the saffron (KpbKOi) at the same in autumn Si rb fuerdTupov the
2, 3) S^iox Si a"f"6Spa fieri, yhp ipxrovpovical \elpiov rh irepov (viii, 6, 9). liTijiiepiav (vi, wepl
"

highly probable that Theophrastus is here speaking of however, cannot speciesof the genus Narcissus ; the species,
determined, since
autumn
no

It is

two be

colour

is

given

the

kind

that

flowers

in the

be Narcissus serotinus L., which flowers in the district may and the islands in Naples neighbouring September, or Narcissus flowers from in Tuscany, elegans,which September to November of and Naples, Sicily, serini and November and N. Tazetta and Corsica. In

GibelU, among

winter

last till January, Pseudonarcissus of the

Italiana of Cesati, Paswhich narcissi, begin to flower in Narcissus unicolor,siculus, Bioniae

the

Flora

(December-April) are

poeticus and

Pliny'saccount
borrowed the
from

mentioned the other hand ; on flower in the spring near Naples. narcissus is confused, except where it is kind that is of of

often purple lily,

calyx herbabe N. Tazetta {Nat. Hist., xxi, 25) ; calyx ceus (grass-green) may to mean the inner crown or appears paracoroUa) of the nar^ (tube

it is a with double stalk (Theophrastus mentions flore candido Kplvov). Alterum genus calyce purpureo Narcissus tertio poeticus ; generi cetera eadem,

Theophrastus ; according to him,

tainly cer-

VOL.

I.]

Appendices

147

cissus.
;

Pliny's
in
et

statements

as

to

its
the Italia

flowering
violets

period (seriores
rosam

are

dictory contra-

Greece lilium
:

they
trans
omnes

flower

after
in

supradictis
64)
et
;

narcissus another

maria,

post
arcturum the

(xxi,
florent

in per of

passage

serotini,

post
In

aequinoctium Theophrastus
Dioscorides

autumnum different describes of

(xxi,
varieties N.

25).
are

parallel

passages

distinguished.
very

poeiicus
to

distinctly (pp.
42, also N.. of

in

the

walland

paintings
Pseudonarcissus narcissus In for is
the

Pompeii
are

according represented
calyx
is
the

Comes
:

43)
,

N.

poeticiis

Comes

identifies

Pliny's

with

grass-green
mxivBos

with latest

Pseudonarcissus.
the the

Theophrastus
garlands
;

spring
rose,
are

flowers grows

used

it
blooms

flowers for

immediately
a

before its blooms called who


in

wild,
like

cultivated,

long

time,
is also

coloured,

Phrygian
does
not

mnaracus,

which
us

pathos
the

(vii,

8,

1-3).

This

tell

much.

Pliny,

parallel

passage

(Nat.

Hist.,
a

xxi,
bulb

67)

distinguishes
170)
to
;

pothos
veins
a on

from the of of

amaracus,

gives
show for

the

hyacinthus
letters

(xxi,

the fable
Uke

flower

the

Greek

AI,

according
; ;

the

sign

mourning

Ajax

or

Hyacinthus
a

this

description,
the latter
or occurs

that in

Dioscorides

(iv, 63)
also
under

suits the

gladiolus

yet

Pliny

(xxv,

137)

name

xiphion
;

(^i"f"iov
iv,
on

(pi"j-ya.iioi" in Bissinger,
also

Theophrastus,
who of has
an

vi,

8;

vii,
collected

12,

13 all

Dioscorides,
the literature
zu

20).
iaKivffos,

recently
iris

thinks

{Programm
also appears of from

der

Studienanstalt
to be

Erlangen,

1880). (Dioscorides,

Delphinium
iii, i, 32)

Ajacis 77).

called

hyacinthus
laena,

[Hyacinthinus
be derived

colour

(hyacinthina
stofle

Persius,

is
Nat.

to

the

precious

called

hyacinthus

(Pliny,

Hist.,

xxxvii,

125.]

VOL.
XXIV. Three
Inscriptions

II
on

Charioteers.

(Vol. II,
The
2,

p. 23,

1.

15.)
charioteers

two

most
=

comprehensive inscriptionson
and
=

{CIL, vi,

detailed Gniter, 337) 10048 difSculties which treatment for two reasons numerous : (i)the they all be can removed, which, however, although in nearly present, of details the manifold chariot-driving, part only by conjecture ; (2) 10047

Orelli,2593

deserve

which which

by

In the second learn from them. some we inscription, parts at I had understood have been not or all, explained wrongly the inscription the charioteer on : third, recently discovered

Crescens, published with


telli in the BuUettino

commentary
della
been

by

the

Countess

Ersilia Lova-

commissione

(1878), p. 164, which iv, pp. 247-252), O.


der {Festschrift Idum
I.

has

Hirschfeld

archeologica comunale, iv used Mommsen by {Ephem. epigr., (Arch, epigr.Mitth., ii,188) and myself
zum

d. arch. The of

Konigsb. Inst., p. 7) to

Vniversitdt elucidate 10047

funfzigjdhrigen Jubithe Wil-

CIL, vi, 2, inscription


the

Gruter, 337. (" Orelli, 2593), is from

MS.
manns,

Einsiedlensis, fol. 75''and Anonymus inscr. lat.,2600 (ii, Exempla p. 181) :


"

7"". Cp.

Anon.

Einsiedl.
Via P.

fol.

75'".
"

In

Ipsa
I.

Flaminea. mari his vici in af. Ix

aelius

rogati
factione silvano
5.
et

fil. gutta
veneta
r.

calpurnianus equis

geminatore^
cv m.

n.

af. Ixxxxii
saxone
n.

af.

nitid. gil.af. lii

vici

praemia
Item

T. i.
In

xl

ix

xxx

xvii

Ibidem

Ipso

Monumento.

3.

Ex

numero

palmaru
albata

vici in factione
a

scriptaru 00 cxxvii supra ii xxx cii remissus i xl 1

pompa binaru vii Ternaru


10.

iiii equor.

i singularu Ixxxiii anagonu ii. In factione vici russata


xxx

Ixxiix.

Remissus

semel

[quaternarii

iii xxxii Ternaru i] singularu xlii Binaru vici quaternaru semel. In factione veneta dbcxxiii xxx xviii sejuge i xTviii 1 i

a_pompa
15.
XX

xxxv

Trigas
anagonu

xv

ii

Triga

vi.*

Equor.

i sacro,
error or a

" The MS. has germinatore, which appears to me an Geminator being so exactly suited to a circus horse,
a

the coiruption,

name

Mommsen, l,c., p. aji*

: xxv

i.
148

VOL.

II.]

Appendices
fol.

149

76*.
i Remissus

quinquennalis certaminis
gularu
Ixv
xl
20.

semel. i vi

sin-

cccxxxiiii

Binaru

clxxxiv

Ternaru
xxx

in factione ii

prasina pedibus ad quadriga


cxvi Binaru
monumentum Item
2.

vici xxxlxiv
Ix ii
a

pompa

singularu
Ixiiii. Hoc

clxxxiiii vivvs

Ternaru
feci.

In P.

Ipso Monuiiito
aelius mari

rogati fil. gutta calpumianus milli (sic) palmas coplevi. in factione prasina equis his danao
25.
b.

af. xix

oceano

n.

ccviiii victore vici

r.

ccccxxix

vindice
xl iii
xxx

b. clvii et iii.

pmia
that the

majora
The mention monk he the
as

of the has has

siedeln
whether and

not
even

palmae supra scriptae(6) shows copied all the inscriptions on


omitted contained those
the most

the

Ein;

probably
Reds,
latter

important.
victories
and

memorial It is doubtful Whites

memorial well
as

lists of the Blues

of the

Mommsen

the

fragments
appears
avvenute

Greens. Perhaps, as the former since were at the time thinks, omitted, only valued. In addition, on the site of the memorial, were of a large circus relief have recentlybeen discovered, which

of the

to have

belonged

to it

(Viscontie Vespignani,Dalle scoperte


Flaminia, in
Bull. d. commiss.

per

archeol. Mommsen
d. sacks.

comun.,

la demolizione della Porta iii [1877], p. 201). had

Acad.
on some

remarks the inscription on {Ber. I had it in the Programm discussed Gesch., 1850, p. 312) ; Albert. however I was mistaken Regimont., 1886, ii,where essential points.
a

published some

The

during
Marius from
than

is memorial lifetime his

Rogatus,
his
the
career

on as a

erected to himself sepulchral monument (21), Publius Gutta Aelius of by Calpurnianus, son the Via Flaminia, probably after his retirement charioteer.
as

second
to

century,
have been in

which
should mention must been

(cp.Aelia

appears gens
rather of the

by equally common
From
or

The is shown

cannot inscription

be

earlier

StRE, i', 339).


it to the

Publius name AeUus, in the time of the Severi the horse's name Saxo we

the

ascribe Saxons

third
and to
an

fourth

century.
11

The
;

earliest but

is in
horses
was

Ptolemy, ii,11,
intercourse
have

and

31

they
have

have

been

long known,
for

with

them

must

considerable,
after
was

named Gutta thousand

them
one

(Saxo
of the

been African

charioteers, who
miliarius
:

victories

(a so-called

imported from them or horse). had than a gained more 5, 6, 23, 24). According

to 6, he had gained 1127 prizes(not identical with the praemia of 5). the 1127 victories are 6 to 21 From classified;although those amount to short of the total,this may enumerated 10 apparently for by the omission of a figure (in a place which, as be accounted

be will be seen, can The victories 1127

specified).
are

classified
as

again according
I

according to the they were gained in


he, p.
250
:

four factions,subdivided of four, contests


-

Mommsea,

Ixi,

150
eight,twelve,
unusual
contests
or

Appendices
sixteen

[vol.ii.
races,
or

chariots, in ordinary
I will

in certain

named. specially

deal with

the subdivisions

the inscriptions offering least difficulty. It is clear from of four chariots, i.e. one to be expected, the contest that, as was each faction from by (certamina singularum sc. quadrigarum) was Diodes on the far the most common inscription according to ; one {CIL, vi, 10048) the victory in this must have been considered

first, as

of the

most

honourable.

Contests

of two

chariots
were

from

each

tion, fac-

that
; of

is, eight
three
the

in

all

(certamina binarum)
in

quent tolerably fre-

from
that

each, that is,twelve


is, sixteen
all

of four
rare.

from Of

each,

rare ; (ternarura), (quaternarum) extremely

in all

the 1462 gained Marquardt, StV, iii,513, i). Now, according to the Einsiedlensis, Gutta gained the following Anonymus and

1127 victories of Gutta not one of Diodes was

only

one,

of the 47 of Crescens in the last named (cp.


text

of the
:
"

victories

92

78

583

364
tween behas

The

above

totals the

this and

difference The give a grand total of 1117. shows that x total above, grand 1127 given It
can

fallen out somewhere. first total.


A

be

shown

that

it has

done

so

in the

glanceat
the
names

the numbers
of the and four doubtful

which

upon

factions
or

in 7, lo, 13, 18 follow immediately arrived at shows that they are

by

addition

incorrect

figures can

be

checked

by

comparison.
the

albata cii (prizes) are tioned, men7, in factione in the have fallen to make must out the lo wanted total up list of the White victories,where addition only gives 92 : probably should read xvii for vii in 9. meration, enuwe According to the same the Red victories are 78 ; consequently, in lo, Ixxiix be read instead of Ixxii tiiem
x.

Since, in

should
The

numbers

following these

four

sums
are

are

consequently not
intended which
to

to

be added included This

togetherwith
victories in
sums.

prominence
makes

; they only kinds of races, exceptional

bring into are already


Ix, which

in those it

probable that

the numbers

xxx,

xl, 1 and

in 7, 10, 13, 18, 19 follow the totals in the enumeration of the special of This is rendered contests. classes, also indicate classes conjecture certain by other inscriptions. In the inscription of Diodes, it is said
ad

of another charioteer urbis conditae (line17) : primus omnium 1 vicit vii : of three others (18): [qui]ad HS HS 1 vicissent xi ; himself (21) : 1 vicit x, be, i. It is clear that the amounts of Diodes doubt No xl, 1, Ix denote the value of the prizes contested. xxx, sestertia is to be HS
in [i.e.
a race

supplied, so
for
a

that

e.g. vicit

xxx

vicit ad It

stake

of 30,000

semel. sesterces)

triginta maybe

supposed that only the most experienceddrivers were allowed to take part in these contests, which probably presented specialdifficulties. in the inscription Marcus Aurelius Polynices (Henon Similarly,

VOL.

II.]
6179
=

Appendices
-

151
of
;

zen,

CIL, vi,

2,

victories
viii dec. of 30,000,

according to
n.

factions
xxxx

10049), after the (Red, 655


n.

classification
;

his 739
12 n.

Green, 55
pura
n.

Blue,

White, 17) : praemia


viiii

iii

xxx

xxvi

xi

octojug.

i.e. three prizes of 40,000 sejug.n. iii, sesterces, 26 11 {i.e. simple, perhaps also those of 15,000 in the pure of Diocles and Gutta). The and ten in hand inscriptions six, eight, such were the races of the prize amount perhaps always prize races, fixed for all, so that they were once not being perhaps specially stated. tors, Probably such races brought the largestincome to the vicwent to the faction funds. although part of the prize money Such a victory is no doubt referred to in Martial, x, 74, 5 :
"

Cuin Scorpus una quindecim graves ferventis auri victor auferat saccos.

hora

If

now

the
i

of Polynices inscription

shows
cases

that be

in that

of

Gutta

figures written

(ad xxx 7, xxx it is further clear that


30,000,

together HS semel), xl
must

in

many be
f. the
won

i must

written numbers

in 5 and

stated.

40,000, and 50,000 The in 5 is probably m

25 sesterces

in separated {e.g. for xxxi and xli); of the praemia of and Greens
are

in the

Blues

nothing

but

majora, possibly ntilia

(HS).
The

praemia majora
are

Blues,

at

variance
as

in 5 and 25, won by Gutta for the Greens and with the correspondingfiguresin the central

section. But all emendations of the The


catus

it is

impossible to
won

ascertain

where

the

error

lies,

of individual varieties

praemia majora
other
=

figuresare worthless, and the amount remain doubtful. by Gutta must


offer
=

mentioned

no

difiiculty. Remissiis
"

dently evi-

the

CIL, vi, 10,055 (Orelli, 2594 ii). The meaning is clear from Ovid {Amores, iii, 2, 73),where of in he is the of charioteer the whom despairing victory poet,
revocatus
:
"

vicit ii,revo-

interested, exclaims
favimus
et date

ignavo. sad enim revocate, Quirites, jactatis undique signa togis.

75
77

en

revocant.

jamque patent

iterum reserato carcere postes. evolat admissis discolor agmen equis. saltern supera, spatioque insurge patenti ; nunc
sunt

sint mea, sint dominae fac rata vota meae. dominae rata vota vota meae supersunt. ; mea ille tenet palmam, palma petenda mihi est.
race,

Evidently a
again
victor
at the

which of the Varus

had

wish

was interrupted, by napkins or togas people,signified or was


.

been

undecided

run

the

in this

repeated contest
10 :

revocatus
. .

or
.

remissus.
. .

Controv., i,3,
ne

Quintilius
seutentiam
et ante

dixit

Seneca, incestam, (dii)


multa

cito

supplicium transcurreret,
dixit in hanc ?
nam

revocaverunt.
:

Cestius

contumeliose

rigas
haec
were

revocaverunt de
rare carcere

exierat.
that

The

sic,inquit,quomodo quadposuistisimilitudinem, quia et figures show, that such repetitions

at

time.

A that

pompa.
a

Bianconi denotes the


a

{Descr.de' cerchi, p. xxxviii) conjectures

pompa
near

the door

victory in which the charioteer started from central or processionalgate. But (to say nothing

152

Appendices

[vol.II.

of the singularityof such nomenclature) this is improbable, since this was evidently an advantage, while in other cases only obstacles enhanced the and dif"culties are stated, the overcoming of which which the first of the denotes race, glory victory. Perhaps a pompa directlyfollowed the procession, permission to enter for which may
have
race

been also if
'

an

honour both been

charioteers. granted only to experienced

This

cession.' exposed for hours to the fatiguesof the proeines romischen Jockeys, G(ustav) F(reytag),Sportbericht in Grenzboten (1869), ii,p. 451. had Of course horses which a victory with Equorum anagonum. honourable. never before, was run especially Sejuge and triga or trigasneed no explanation. Consequently, while victory with the biga was only an honour for novices, experts the prizeswere smaller competed for that with the triga; of course than in the six-in-hand Whether the prize in 15 was races. 20,000 former sesterces the Gutta received it six or case times, (in 25,000 be decided. in the latter once) cannot Sacro quinquennalis certaminis. No doubt victory in the agon When is the monument was Capitolinus meant (see last section). in Rome. erected, it must have been the only quinquennale certamen Pedibus ad quadrigam. which, as According to this specification, far as I know, only occurs of racing described by Dionyhere, the kmd sius of HaUcarnassus
Twp vol

put they had

horses

and

drivers

to the

severest

test,

ally especi-

73)was (vii,
a

still

common

brav

yi,pt4Xos

o!
.

twiroiv

Toit Tivtoxot-s
"

dwd twv ol wapoxou/ie' diroiTTjSwvres "fxtX\aL Xd^oivrat, apfidrwn (TTaSiaiov afjuWCjifTcu Thus avTol irpbs Tov dpdfiov dXXiJXous.

double and the victory (by the runner Pedibus ad quadrigam, therefore, does not that Gutta mean but gained a victory in this manner (i.e. running), it indicates the variety of the race, in which the rest he gained in as
case

in

this

to charioteer)

there was be won.

do not agree with in Mommsen number Ixi to tiie number of victories won in this class of contest, since it must have been very rare, to judge from the total absence of it. I beUeve of further mention that the copyisthas of combined the value the prize(60,000 sesterces) with the wrongly
a

I victory by chariot-driving.

the referring

number The

of victories won i.e. semel) : accordingly I read (i, list of Gutta's victories was accordinglyas follows

Ix i.
:
"

154
apart quite
from
erroneous

Appendices
all other

[vol.ri.
to

considerations, this conjecture is shown


the addition
Whites Reds and
"

be

by
,,

of

the

undoubtedly
102

correct
=

totals.

Victories

for the
"

Greens, Blues,

+ +

78

364 583

466
661

The
are

which 814 vary so greatly from these figures, 309 and that taken this be have if the union to place, supposed required idea. such be sufficient to exclude fact alone would Freytag any (asabove, p. 455) who takes the 1123 victories to include all Gutta's numbers
,

victories

except
assumes

four which that


' '

were

named,
sina
the
2.
'

in factione

(24)only
to

mean

that the

gained by the two four-in-hands in factione pra(3) and first four horses belong to his earlier,
not

veneta

'

'

latter

his later
from
:"

period

'.

cannot

admit
=

this

assumption.
z,

The

charioteer
known

Diodes
an

of Gruter, 327

CIL,

further

of inscription

Praeneste
^

10,048 (Gruter, 76, 4

vi,

is
=

C7L,

xiv, 2884)

C.

Appuleio

DiocU
fact.

^^^^
^^
,

agitator! pnmo
russat.

'

natione

Hispano

^^
-nume

^^

Fortunae C.

Primigeniae
d. d.

Appuleius Nymphidianus et Nymphidia fiUi.

" '

This

refer to the later lifetime of Diodes, who, inscription may the dangers fortune, had abandoned having realized a considerable
'

exertions and monument The

of the

Circus

for the
=

retirement

of Praeneste.

also his
in stone
an

erected
career
as

by
a

was Gruter, 337 CJL, yi, 2, 10,04:8) his admirers after he had OT"Sup|)orters,

perhaps
given
up

chariot-driver, while still in the prime of hfe. The has long been lost,but we possess the text of the inscription admirable is shown by Smetius, whose accuracy by the copy
all the
are

figureswhich can be checked by comparison with contain Although the text of Smetius may for it is foundation a some trifling perfectly satisfactory errors, elucidation. With the exception of the insertions to supply the and few emendations mentioned in their place, a unimportant gaps I give it as it stands, only that the figuresindicating the amounts
fact that each other
correct.

of the omitted
1. 2.

are prizes

in all

cases

marked

with

stroke

above

(frequently

3.

Ex. Inscr., 2601. Gruter) : cp. Wilmanns, C. Appu]leius Diodes factionis russatae. agitator Lusitanus xxxxii annorum mens, nat]ione Hispanus prijmum agitavit in factione alb. Acilio Aviola
cos.

in

vii d. xxiii. et CoreUio

Pansa
4.

(a.d. 122).

M'. AciUo Glabrione C. Belprimu]m vicit in factione eadem Torquato cos. (a.d. 124). 5. p]rimum agitavit in factione prasina Torquato Asprenate ii Libone et Annio cos. vicit (a.d. 128) primum ^ 6. in faction]erussata Laenate Pontiano et Antonio Rufino cos. : quadriga agitavit annis (A.D. 131) summa xxiii. missus ostio iiil licio cclvii
'

Smetius

Anoio ; cp. Wilmaans, Ex., ii, p. 183, 5 ; Henzea, 6996.

VOL.

II.]
00

Appendices
siugularum xxxii, ex his
vicit
oo

155
Ixiiii.inde
xxxx

7. vicit

praemia xxviii,
8.
ex

a ccc]clxii. pompacx. majora vicit Ixxxxii xxx

sejuges iii ;

his

inde septejuge i ; Tx sejuge]s? ii; 1 xxviiii,

i ii binarum

vicit cccxxxxvii. venit frustra inde


10.
CO
.

trigasad

HS

xv

iiii. ternarum

vicit Ii.ad honorem

9. tuht

s]ecundas
00

dccclxi.
venetum ii

tertias

dlxxvi.
x.

quartas
albatum

ad

exit

cccli. ad xxxii

vicit

ad

i. HS " vicit Ixxxxi.

ad

HS

(xxx
i,ad

?)
ccclviii Ixiii
cxx.

retulit

quaest]unl HS

praeterea bigas.

M-

vicit iii, ad albatu et vicit Ixvii.


11.

prasinu

ii.occupavit et vicit dcccxv.


variis

successit xxxxii.

praemisit et vici]t? xxxvi. et vicit dii. prasinis ccxvi. eripuit


centenarios
12.

generibus
ccv.

vie.

venetis
i

albatis

Ixxxi. equos

fecit

n.

viiii et

ducenar.
to
'

insigniaejus.
exstitit
suae

13 victor tionis rimum 14


centum

bis. bis, eripuit omnium vicit


consecutus

primum

sibi,quo anno primum quadrigis Teren faccontinetur, Avilium vicisse co xi, ex quibus anno uno pluactis at

vincendo victorias augens


in
.

singularum
gloriam
factione
at

adhuc

Diodes an]no primum quo victor ciii, est, singularum vicit bcxxiii. factionis suae, tituli sui praecessitThallum
....

qui primus
15.
. .

russata

agitatorum eminentissimus, quo Dio]cles omnium alieno principio victor cxxxiiii, singularum vicit cxviii ; quo anno titulo praecessit omnium factionum agitatores,qui umquam omnium ludorum "16. certaminibus ci]rcensium interfuerunt. alieno principio admiratione merito notatum anno est, quod uno vicit Ixxxxviiii Ix i 1 iiii duobus et introjugisCotyno Pompeiano,
xl i
xxx

ii.

17. nn. conditae tribus


18.

fact]ionisprasinae,victor 1 vicit vii. Diodes ad HS

xxV,

primus

omnium

urbis

praecedens eum

introjugis

I vicit viii. Parato Abigeio Lucido Venustum Epaphroditum, tres (sic) praecedens C]omnunem 1 vicissent xi, HS factionis venetae, [qui] ad agitatores miUarios 1 vicit duobus Diodes et Lucido introjugis Pompeiano victor xii ? factionis " nn.] prasinae xxv_et Flavius Scorpus, 19. tres agitaiii dlviiii, victor tores victor u xlviii et Pompeius Musclosus
victores
20.

vi

dcxxxii,
omnium

ad

HS

I vicerunt

xxviii,
victor
co

at

Diodes

agitatorum
victore

emi]nentissimus,
nitet,
cum

vicit xxviiii. cccclxii,!


tus

nobiUssimo

titulo Diodes Tusco


_

Fortuna1. vicit

factionis

prasinae, in

victor

ccclxxxvi.

ix. Diodes
21
.

in

Pompeiano
HS

bus

et numquam

Tvicit x, Ix i. novis coactionivictore victo]r clii, die Diodes titulis scriptis eminet, quod una ante
bis, utrasque victor eminuit

sejuges ad
22

3d missus

atque ampHus
ante

suisque septem
1

equis

in
aunos

se
. "

junctis,numquam
.

Bormana

[piaemiodato

aa]to sibi.

156
hoc
nuraero

Appendices
equorum
et sine

[vol.ii.
HS H3
esset 1 in
xxx

eminuit,
23.

spectato, certamiiie alJs certaminibus fla'gello


?
cum

ad ad

Abigeio victor
novitatibus locum

vicit ;

adque
est

prim]um^

visus

his

dupliciornatus
obtinere
24.

gloria,inter

miliarios

agitatores primum
factionis Diodes

Pontius videtur Epaphroditus qui temporibus imp. nostri Anto]nini Aug. vicit dccccxi. ad

venetae,
Pii solus victor
co

cccclxvii, singularum

cccclxii inter singulares (read : inter victor 00 vicit 00, Ixiiii. isdem temporibus Pontius Epaphroditus eripuit]et vicit cccclxvii: 25. vicit cxxvii vicit dii. Diodes agitatorquo anno eripuitet inter Lucido Pompeiano introjugis tribus victor ciii)
26

praecedens eum, has singularum) '


Diodes

(Abigeio

inter Pontius

eiii]inentes agitat

res

Afris plurimum introjugis


venetae

vicerunt

Epaphroditus
Musclosus

factionis

(in Bubalo

vicit

cxxxiiii)Pompeius vicit] cxv). Pompeiano 27. (in vicit cxxxxiiii. tituUs victor clii, suis, ampUatis singularum Cotyno Galata Abigeio Lucido Pompeiano introjugis quinque 28. victor singularum vicit ccclxxxxvii. ccccxxxxv,
. . .

factionis prasinae Diodes superatis eis, in

Notes.

Diodes, probably while still very young, 122 year (3), gained a victory for appeared for the first time in the Whites for the Greens for the first time in 128 in 124 (line4), drove them a victory for the Reds (probablyat his first appearance) (line5) won
1-6. In

the

he appears remained to have in 131 (line attached from 6), to whom 216 victories for the Greens, that time. According to 11 he had won ; the remaining 960 victories 205 for the Blues, 81 for the Whites
were

consequently won

for the

Reds.

'

When

the

monument

was

erected, he was 42 years, 7 months, 23 days old victories 1462 (20). Now, since 100 victories in very glorious (14) and, in addition, Diodes
of
a

(2) and
a

had
were

won sidered con-

year

in his first years

driving cannot

of

course

have

won

nearly
were

as

many
for

victories distributed

as

at

later date, his last 1400 victories the years 130-146. He drove the he

probably

over

as

began

his

career

must

Then the
6.

have been Diodes was

(6); 24 years in 122, the memorial, as Hirschfeld observes, after erected 146, or at the earliest in that year. in 104 and born at began driving four-in-hands
same

four-in-hand

Crescens did the age of 18, whereas Summa : quadriga agitavit annis vicit
00

when

only
missus

13.

xxiiii.

ostio

iiii.

cclvii.
7.

cccjclxii. a
Hirschfeld 2599, 1. 16
:

pompa

ex.

as Summa, cp. Wilmanns,

observes, stands

for

summa

summarum

sum(ma)

meaning of missus ostio : miss(us) ost(io) dclxxxvi vicit xxxvii. being equivalent to taking part in the racing,iiiicclvii
Crescens, 13
1
"

vii.

The

sum(marum) is shown by

vic(it) quadri(ga) the inscription on


Ostio missus is the number

Mommsen autem : duabus q]um ; Hirschfeld : cum primus omni]um. Perhaps inter singulares[i.e. missus) is correct, or inter singiUarum, as in the inscription of Crescens (15). 3 A charioteer named Musclosus had gained 682 victories ; 672 for the Reds, 3 for the Whites, 5 for the Greens,2 for the Blues : CIL, vi, 2, 10063.

VOL.

II.]
races

Appendices
in which
won

157
followed

of all the number

Diodes

took

part

; this was

by
are a

the still

of

victories that

(1462), the
restoration

preserved, so
see

the

above.

these

Here it is only difficult and honourable included there is


no

last figures of which of line 7 is certain. On stated how often Diodes took
races,

the

number

of which

pompa part in (no) is


races ful. success-

consequently

in

that

of

the how

total
many

number times with


he

of
was

his

(4257);
The 7.
XXX

but

indication

enumeration

of the
vicit
00

victories

begins

"

singularum
xxxii,
ex ex

Ixiiii ; inde
xxxx

praemia majora
xxviii,

vicit Ixxxxii.

his

sejuges iii ;

inde septejugei ; be iii. binarum sejuge]s ? ii ; flxxviiii, vicit cccxxxxvii. iiii. ternarum vicit li. xv trigas ad HS The total number tion Diodes' of victories was 1462 ; and the addiof the three first numbers gives this total. 8. his

(ia certaminibus)
,1 ,,

singularum
binarum ternarum

(quadrigarum) 1064
"

times
,,
"

347 51

"

T462
These which figures, of
more races can one

be

proved correct, again


at
a

show that

the
races

ponderance preof

of

team

time, and

also

than

three

teams in
a

at

that 9) ; and finally, included be already


races

the

were a time extremely rare remaining victories mentioned the In the 1064 larger sums.

(cp. also hne


here
must

victories

in

of

one

team

at Of

time

Diodes
there
were

also
:
"

won

praemia majora
sesterces sesterces
'

to the

number

of 92.
32

these

prizes of

(amongst

sesterces = 30,000 them three for races sesterces


=

960,000
with six
or

six-in-hands).
seven-in-hands).
sesterces

28 prizes of 40,000

1,120,000 1,450,000

for races with two (amongst them of sesterces 50,000 29 prizes (amongst them one for a race 3 prizesof 60,000 sesterces
92

with
=

seven-in-hand).
sesterces

180,000
3,710,000

sesterces.

Also, 4 prizesof
two

of in races three-in-hands at a time 15,000

60,000
3,770,000

"

Grand It is easy the races

total of the praemia

majora
which
than

sesterces.

to understand

that
in the
;
,

it

was

in the

certamina
24 16 horses horses

binarum

that

with

trigaetook
less
room

place, in
course

(in 8

chariots)

had

not

much

(in4 chariots)
these victories seven-in-hands.

in the
were

certamina
lower

much Diodes

singularum (ad HS xv) deducting


obtain

also, that
those

the
with
won

prizesfor
six and
on

than

As

to (according

line the

10) had
amount

the

sesterces, after
we (3,770,000), prizes. In

of the
as

35,863,120 extraordinary prizes


ary of the ordinhas

whole

32,093,120 with accordance

sesterces

the amount

this, Mommsen

attempted
races.

to

ascertain

the

for the prizes


^

different classes of
also meatioaed
in line

ordinary
so.

From

These

are

158
the

Appendices
of Martial

[vol.ii.
he
a

passage

quoted above
of

(p. 151)

assumes

that

the
were

races (which a ordinary certainly smaller than the lowest extraordinary prize of 30,000 This is not improbable, to 15,000 sesterces. sesterces)amounted there himself Mommsen are so as possibihties but, observes, many of be made with that such calculations cannot degree certainty. any 00". 9. tulit 8. ad honorem venit s]ecundas dccclxi. tertias

first

prizesin

fouf-in-hand

at

time

dlxxvi. vicit
10. X.

quartas
ad

ad

HS

00

i.

frustra

exit

co

cccli.

ad

venetum

albatum
^

vicit Ixxxxi. HS
ccclviii

inde
Ixiii

ad
cxx.

HS

retuUt vicit iii, ad With


are

quaest]um
albatu included
those

(xxx ii ?). praeterea bigas M


in any
here
case merated enu-

xxxii

i, ad
in

prasinu ii.
certain
the

the

exceptionof

victories
had

(line9), which
the
races

already
are

larger numbers,
Diocles

in which
none

received

only second,
of these
number

third

and
to

fourth the
total
races

or prizes,

at all. took

Hence

the addition

totals

of the with

victories Diocles
"

(1462) must
part.

give
The

the

all the 4251


to

in which
:

(4257) of followingsum gives


1,462
86r

start

Victories Second prizes Third prizes Fourth prize


No

576
i 2

prizes

i,35r 4.251

question Hirschfeld missing races. venit vi'in thought of reading ad honorem 8, against which Borobserves mann (CIL, vi, 10,048) : at titulo infra 10,055 videturproad honorem bari, agitatorem dictum venisse, quotienscumque non
now are

The

is, which
'

the

tertias vel secundas tulerit. The the followinglist : vie. inscription (Orelli, 2594) contains 10,055 tertias cxlvi. bigas vie. viii secundas quadri. xlvii secund. cxx
. . .

frustra

exierit,sed vel vicerit

vel

adgente quadrig. (pedibus ad quadrigam ?) vicit ii ii instauratiam revocatus die ?) tertias i ad honore(m) (instauratitio veni(t)ccchiii. If the figureof the second prizes be restored by the of xi, the addition addition of all the prizes won actually gives the If then total 354. ad honorem venit means gained prizesof kind or other ',in line 8 (ofthe Diocles inscription) some these words have been followed by 00 oo dccc, since Diocles had must only failed in 1351 and 6 are races, included in line 10. apparently specially The only objection to Bormann's proposal to place the required
' ' '

iix

iix terti(as)

number

after
an error

'

ad

honorem

venit
at

'

is, that
end

the hue

assumption
where there

of is

so no

serious
vacant

in the

copy

the

of

is space Mommsen and

suspicious.
Bormann
are

right in looking for the six missing

races

inline may,

10

We the
1

with

ad albatu praeterea bigas 5ftvicit iii, i, ad prasinu ii. Mommsen, take M to mean i.e.races in which miliarias,
: 1000

prize was
This

sesterces.

Mommsen

understands

'

ad

albatum

restoration is sliown to be correct by the Crescens Unless the last of four chariots exceptionally obtained a

races,

although

of very
a

inscription (line10). there must have been prize,


part. Philo, De

rare

AtnmU., 58, mentions

seven-chariot

occurrence, in which five chariots took race in Alexandria.

VOL.

II.]
'

Appendices
in which

159
charioteers, but
' '

vicit

of

race

Diodes
with

defeated It
seems

two

was

himself in which

defeated he have
two
ran a

by

the White. heat

better to understand

a race

hardly
case

the

the White, otherwise vicit would been admissible. It is uncertain in such whether a victorious charioteers received first or second prizes;

dead

the

latter
'

is

more

Diodes which the

{with the
ad albatum

probable. In any case, four-in-hand) ad venetum vicit (9)with the same,


' '

the

lo

races,

in

which
91, in of

vicit
are

',and

included

the in

one

earlier totals. If all the figuresin lo are correct, after 3 full victories the with of incomplete two-in-hand, an equal number victories in enumerated are in which he was not all, 6 races unsuccessful. The number of races Diodes in which took part (4257) in 24 years gives about 177 a year, while on the whole in each year, reckoning on each, 800 took place, conseonly 50 circus days with 16 races quently In realitycertainlymuch In ten years Crescens more. only
"

took

part
10.

in 686

races

with

the

four-in-hand. Srj
67

occupavit
successit

et vicit dcccxv et vicit ? xxxvi

et vicit Ixvii

11.

praemisit

36
42

variis generibus vie. eripuitet vicit dii prasinisccxvi


,

xxxxii

venetis ccv albatis Ixxxi

502

1,462
The total shows
issues

that
of the

here and
races.

again
that

etc., are
various
are

enumerated,
the total in

victories with quadrigae all Diodes' classified according to the they are
'

The

sums

in

albatis prasinis the addition Elter

venetis

'

parts of
has

'

eripuitet
observed

vicit

'

as (502),

shows.
has

This

already been

by

Anton

{Die

Gladiatoren-

this on tesseren, in Rhein. Mus., xli [1886],p. 537), who of the passage : as rightly corrected my interpretation whom from the victory was snatched some one
'

ground
', the
'

plies imeripuit
one won

who

to have struggle '. From 25 this appears been the most honourable victory of all. Elter's explanation of occupavit et vicit ', ea.sily gained agrees in the main with my in which the victor took the lead from the outset own : a victory, and in carceribus kept it. Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii, 160 : excusso auriga albati (equi) Corace (Jan : (equo) occupavere, primatum prima turn, Sillig) optinuere, opponentes, efiundentes, omniaque contra aemulos debuissent auriga insistente faperitissimo quae the other hand, the meaning of cientes. On praemisitet vicit ',
'
' ' '

critical moment after a hard difi"culty,

at the

was

must next, eripuit

mean

with

and
'

of

'

successit lead

kept

the

(probably was second at first ; Elter's I had plained exbrilliantlyis improbable) is doubtful.
et vicit
'

'

'

'

the former

of

competitors a objects that


'

considerable such

his the victor had allowed victory,in which start (a handicap) ; to this Elter rightly
which not

exceptionalcases,
they occurred,
the
rest '.
'

alter the lead


to
a

character

of

the

if competition,

could

terminology,

which

adapted itself to

Praemisit,'therefore,probably

i6o
'

Appendices
:

[vol.
let

ii.

means

ahead

get from the resulting victory explanation others coming to grief, refusing to race, or otherwise retiringfrom For admitting that the contest to me ', appears quite untenable.
at first

(purposelydropping behind)
'
"

the

others

'.

But

Elter's

'

allowed

to

come

in front the victor


'

'

would drives
'

be

suitable
over
'

expressionfor
course

tory vicno

in which
means

'

alone

the
'

', it by

tion inscripthe original praemissus vicit was form. Rather, on the analogy of the other expressionsand the written praemissit (CIL, vi, 2, 10,053), praemissit et vicit fully
follows
from

praemissus vicit

(15) in the

Crescens

{CIL, vi, 2, 10,050) that


'

'

i, ioi2 ; cp. QuinCIL, vi, 2, 14,338 supplied (missit, tilian,i, 20, 7 ; Corssen, Aussprache und Vocalismus, i, 2, p. 282). But and that praemisit in the language of the turf is the same as be believed who derived from believes one can by only praemissus from tesserae to be derived the spectavit of the gladiatorial spectatus, which I look upon not only not proved, but as absolutelyimpossias ble. A transference from the falling charioteer to his of praemissit who to get ahead follower allowed was (so Meier, Die Gladiatortome as incredible as an entesseren, p. 6, 6) appears abrupt change of praemissus into praemisit.
should
be
= ' ' , ' '

fecit n. centenarios equos fecit of course tenarios, ducenarios


II.

viiii et
means

ducenar.
:

i. equos
100,
: 200

cen-

he

won

tories vicn.

with

them. vicit

Two

centenarii
secund. cxiiii. tuHt

in

Gruter, 338,
Ixxxviii tulit

cxxx. Aquilonis. pinus u. Aquilonis vicit

Aquilo 5 ter. tul. xxxvii.


Ivi tert.

k.

secundas

Hirtul. xxxvi.

victor

The The
most

Insignia ejus. anno ]to sibi, quo primum quadrigis exstitit bis, eripuit bis. restoration of the beginning of the hne is uncertain (seeabove).
two

first victories of Diodes with four-in-hands also the were difficult to obtain (eripuitet vicit). Avil. Teren factionis suae 13. actis continetur primum omnium vicisse oo xi ex quibus anno vincendo vicit. uno plurimum
.

14. victorias Avilius


occurs

siugularum
est
no

...

at

Diodes

quo with

an]no primum
vicit

centum

consecutus

(victorciii), singularum
identical
'

Ixxxiii. whose
name

Teres
'

is

doubt

the

Teres

the
He

in the very fragAientary CIL, vi,2, 10,054 (whether inscription words Neronis refer to him, is at least doubtful). 1:emporibus
was a

fr'eedman, if

not

of the
'

same

man,

at

least of the
AvilU

same

family, one of whose ser(vus)', mentioned


of

slaves below. dominus

was

Thallus

agitatorL.
', to

Plantae master

The the

patron of Teres
russatae

and

the

Thallus

'

was

factionis

which

Thallus
"

belonged.

"'-'" "CIL, vi, 10,077 inscription L. Avilio Galatae fact. russ. Mb. item JuhaeC. 1.Ampliatae,etc.and Diodes russatae. 10,069 : L. Avill(io) Dionysio cond(itori) gr(egis) is thus

This

is shown

by

first with previous charioteers of his own party, line 17 with those of the other. We for cannot tain cersay in what acta the loii victories of Teres were since recorded, evidently the factions also kept acta, from which the precisestatements

compared

then

from

made
of former

here and charioteers

in the Teres
are no

as inscription

to the

performances

doubt

derived. at

importance attached

to circus

it is affairs,

considering the least possiblethat the


But

62
carried
the scis
me

Appendices
the colours.
to win charioteer But

[vol.ii.

horses, which
of the

highest (14) is no doubt (praetor ait :


'

excellence

with

have been evidence ThaUus near-horse. a strange mentioned by Martial, iv, 67, 5 it must

to

the

inscriptionset
on

quoted
L. 16. alieno

Avilius

line 14, Planta. admiratione omnium

). According Scorpo Thalloque daturum in and a.d. himself Thallus 90 by up in slave of was a occurs 19) Scorpus (whose name
merito
notatum

est, quod
et

uno

anno

principio,duobus
xxx

introjugis Cotyno
ii,i.e. he
"

Pompeiano
in the
for

vicit

IxxxxviiiiTx il iiiilcl i

was race

victorious
for
a

manner
terces, ses-

specified 99
17. nn. conditae

times

in

one

year
in

in

one

prizeof 60,000
30,000.

in four

for 50,000,

one

for

40,000,
00

in two

fact]ionis prasinae,victor
ad

HS

1 vicit vii.
Parato

tribus, Abigeio Lucido


in these

urbis primus omnium Diodes praecedens eum, introjugis See above, p. 1 58. Con1 vicit viii. sequently,
xxv,

difficult contests with rival,


ran as

Diodes
same

had

won

more

victories
of which

than
on

the each

unknown

the

three

horses,

two

inlrojugi. 18. praecedens C]omnunem Venustum (read Communem) Epafactionis miliarios tres venetae, [qui]ad HS phroditum, agitatores
Tvisissent xi. Diodes

occasion

Pompeiano
restorations

et Lucido

duobus xii

f vicit introjugis
is

(19) [xii?].
The obvious.
et Flavins do nn.] factionis prasinae, victor xxv, Scorpus victor IT xlviii et Pompeius Musclosus, victor iii dlviiii, tres agitatores xxviii ; (20)[atDiodes victores vi dcxxxii, ad HST vicerunt omnium 19.

need

for the

qui and

(or a largernumber)

agitatorum emi]nentissimus, victor inferior was Consequently, Diodes


in the

00

cccclxii,1
two
was

vicit

xxviiii. eers chariot-

to the

last-named

superior in that he alone in racing had won times for while they had only sesterces, 29 50,000 the whole been victorious 28 times together with a third miliaon unknown rius. The driver of the Greens l^etKe (in hne 17) cannot of line 20, who Fortunatus with his horse Tuscus had already Gained for 50,000 sesterces alone in racing,whereas 9 victories the^river whose is had name missing only won (according ;to 17). 7 times
Addition shows the
correctness of the numbers of the

number

of his

victories,but

vjjatories.
r,025

Victories
" "

of the unlcnown of Flavins Scorpus ' of Pompeius Musclosus

2,048
3,559
'

6,632
20.

uobilissimo
in

titulo Tusco

Diodes victor

nitet,

cum

Fortunatus

factionis

prasinae in [Pompeiano
with
\vith
X

victore

victo]rchi.Tvicit victories had only won 386


victore
racer

ccclxxxvi, 1 vicit ix. Diodes (21) ix i. Thus, while Fortunatus, x,


9 times

for 152

50,000

sesterces

the

victorious

Tuscus, Diodes,
"

with

victories, had

Miirtial (x,53, 3) says of Scorpus:

invida quem Laohesis raptum trieteride nona, diun numerat pataas,credidit esse senem.

VOL.

II.]
times 10 for 50,000, restoration is clear novis coactionibus

Appendices
once

163
with

won

(the
21.

from
et

for 60,000 sesterces line 21). numquam


ante

Pompeianus

titulis

Diodes scriptis

die sejuges ad HS eminet, quod una eminuit, adque amplius (22)


se

xl

missus

bis, utrasque victor suisque septem equis in

junctis, numquam
HSl eminuit,
? the
cum

ante et sine

ad

equorum spectato, certamine ad HS alis certaminibus xxx flagello (23)


numero

hoc

adque [vicit,
ornatus est

prim]um

visus
not

asset

his

novitatibus, duplici general


sense

gloria.
restorations word
of
are

Although
clear. theatre collected such have
The

certain, the

is

only
it

doubtful
com.

meaning
d.

is coactiones

a (coactor

Marcelliano that them


can

(?): Bull.
'

however,

mean

revenues receipts,

R., 1886, p. 310, 1336) ; I believe, ',so far as the victors


furnished
no
'

from

the

factions, which
we

the
'

stakes
as

for such

prize-contests.Certainly
Mommsen's for know

have that
to
me

information factions I

to

stakes, but

assertion

the

would

never

given
the

money little we
the
causae

prizes,
about he

seems

very games. Gains

ing hazardous, considerdo certainly (iv, 15 : causae that the coactiones


successes

the

circus
from

not
concan

believe

that

passage
suae

quotes

quasi jectio
mean

in breve victoriarum.
was

coactio) proves
Further,
the

comparationes
here
be

of

of

Diodes could
were

recorded, it
'

not

described
for

as

new races

',but
with could
;
a

offered be

two

that sesterces 40,000 that fact two such only prizes six-in-hands on one day ; Diodes the number
was

prize of

conquered
chariot in
se

in both.

Nor
new

the

of

seven

horses
were

to

one

anything

the

juncti,i.e. without

novelty yoke.

that locum

they

put

to

agitatoresprimum 23. inter miUarios Pontius Epaphroditus factionis venetae,


nostri

obtinere

videtur

Anto]nini Aug.
ad

Pii solus

victor

00

(24) [qui temporibus imp. cccclxvii, singularum vicit

victor 00 cccclxii,inter sinpraecedens eum Ixiv. vicit isdem inter has 00 singularum) temporibus gulares (read vicit cccclxvii Diodes et ; (25) [Pontius Epaphroditus eripuit] eripuit et vicit dii. of the past, the greatest of Here, after the greatest charioteers the present is compared with Diodes. Although he had gained five victories than Diodes, the latter gained a far greater number more most of those that were highly prized (singularum and eripuitet dccccxi. Diodes

vicit). The
and 25.
II.

in figures

these

two

classes

are

the

same

as

in lines 7

Pomvicit cxxvii (AbigeioLucido agitatorquo anno victor tribus i nter [interem]iciii) (26) peiano introjugis nentes EpaintrojugisAfris plurimum vicerunt Pontius agitatores vicit factionis Bubalo venetae cxxxiiii) Pompeius (in pliroditus Diodes factionis prasinae (27) [in Musclosus vicit]cxv. cxxxxiiii. vicit superatiseis in Pompeiano, victor clii,singularum Pompeiano Abigeio Lucido ampliatis titulis suis, Cotyno Galata vicit ccclxxxxvii. victor singularum ccccxxxxv, introjugis quinque (28) Diodes In the
out.

main

there is
number

no

doubt of
a

as

to

the

sense

of what

has

fallen

In
a

45 the
certain

127 in

year

must

have

the certain class of victories amongst been given, e.g. ' inter [has singu-

164
larum which vicit

Appendices
ex]
with the '.
In

[vol.

h.

27 the number that

name

of the horse

Pompeius
of

had the

gained
has

charioteer

115 of his victories fallen


out

was mentioned, with victories, possibly also a third

with
cannot

one

horse. be

The

length
As
was

part
matter

accurately

determined. for the considered is clear, that it of to have as gained a large number great an honour the same with one chief horse. as Only the inirojugi,
of this last

section, this much

victories with last named

five

introjugiwere

evidently
of
more

not

always put
with six
or

to

at

the

same time, since so large a number hands is inconceivable ; it is much the victories with these five 445

races

seven-in-

may

be 3. The

probable that Diodes won introjugi alternately. The same in 24. said of the three introjugi Crescens like others of frequently mentioned inscription,
kind,
was

the

same

found
as

near an as

the

stadium

rightly interpreted
Countess Lovatelli. Crescens factionis natione
annorum

honorary
follows
:
"

Domitian, inscription by
of

and

is hence

its editress.

It is

agit(ator) ven{etae)
Maurus xxii.

5.

quadriga primum
vicit divi L.

Vipstanio
cos.

(8th
xxiiii

of

November,

115)

Messalla

natale

Nervae his
:

miss(u)

equis
10.
ex onem

Circio, Accepin Glabriin natale

tore, Delicato, Cotyno.


Messalla
cos.

(loth

of

May,

124)

divi 15. inter

Claudi

miss(us) ost(io)

dclxxxvi

vicit xxxxvii.

xix binar{um) sing(ularum)vic(it) xxiii, tern(arum) v ; praemiss(it) i, occup(avit)viii,eripuitxxxviii.

secund(as) quaest(um)
20.

tulit

cxi. tert(ias) HS "xv Iviii ret(ulit)


cxxx

cccxxxxvi.

only mistake made miss(us)in 16. Mommsen


the kind

The

by

the editress

is in the restoration

prae-

following perfects and


lead
we us

i.e. alius aurigae,but gives praemiss(u), the standing form in expressions of this there Consequently,
see

to

expect praemisit.
read

is Uttle doubt

that

should

praemiss(it) ;
XXV.

above,

p.

160.

DlVERSIUM. p. 31, Alb. line

(Vol. II, (See


The
strove
or

7.) Caper (De Orthographia,

the
race

Programm
mentioned

Acad.

Regimont., 1872, ii.)


in which

kind

of

by

Flavius p.

GL,vu,
very

p. 104, 12; cp. to outdo each other

similar to, the

the charioteers versis pannis, was the same evidently as, diversium of Constantinople. It has bten

above

161)

VOL.

II.]

Appendices
18

165

shown by G. Kaibel {De monumeniorum bus, Bonner Doctordissertation,1871, p.


the

epigram

on

the
=

famous

charioteer

Jacobs; Anthol. 340 the of his statue at base on preserved The horses of the four-in-hands of Porphyrins there {Anth. Plan.,
v,

carminiGraecorum aliquot that ; Epigr. Gr., p. 3;'(8) Porphyrins {4"a.KTtov6.pLos) Gr., iii, vi),^ partly 239 p. refers to it. Constantinople,
,

represented are

Nicopolemus, Radiatus, Pyrrhus, Euthynicus


Cynagus,
The Pelorius is
as

Halieus, Anthypatus,

Aristides, Palaestiniarches, Pyrrhus, Radiatus.


follows
:
"

epigram

"AXXots

iravaaiiivounv deflXfiioxn
,

5^

jxaivif

TouTo ^offiKsOs Hoptpvpic^i

54SojK"

yipas.

TToXXdt/ci viKiiaai yap kvdev


ws

eois irbpev (iff^cts 'iTirovi, 5' dj'TiTrdXwi' Kol TrdXic ^(tt^^eto. XA^ero

^tjvUpaffivots ^pis"(nreToi, ^vdcv Avrij.


Kal Tlpaaivovs. Bex'^Tous, T^p\[/7}j Kolpavey

That the De

epigram refers to the quoted by Kaibel passage


Cerimoniis Aulae

this

diversium
from

Constantino

is clear from (h^ipcriov) Porphyrogenitus edition.'


at

Byzantinae, i,69,

' obscure passage exchange of colours and teams, although not and Blues, on the one Greens place between

this somewhat

p. 336 Bonn it appears that

that

From time the took and

Reds,
which
the
one

on were

the other.
not

I do not and

understand
were

greatlyin vogue, hand, and Whites what is meant by the


two

aKcini
In

exchanged.

the

servants

There assistants

kinds with

of diversia.

remained

the

charioteers

over

the other with the team, that is to say, they went the of the other the charioteer party. In the latter case the prizes in the faction with whose received victorious charioteers At the end of team ; in the former, in their own. they had won the teams to be mentioned, in which the passage a third kind appears of their
to

party, in

ran

without

the

charioteers
on

(who by

had

gone
and

over

to

the

opposite
down
to

probably urged party),


The the in victory won whose by party,

by

the shouts

whips
alone

of the assistants.
was

trained. Although in the they were * without team driver was still time of Claudius a victory a a won by it conceivable in times circus is that later as wonderful, quite jjegarded
horses
1

this manner charioteers

the horses

put

were

trained

for this kind

of race,

as

is

suggested by

the

following

des Porphyrius, in Mitth. d. deutschen archdol. lustiiuts Mordtmann, Das Dmkmal He places the erection of the memorial shortly Athen, v, 1880, pp. 295-308, Taf, xvi. before the accession of Anastasius or the beginning of his reign (491-518) : Porphyrius which was received the title 6 evSoKt/xo?, given to charioteers at Constantinople. " The so-called of the pedestalof the statue of Porphyrius the N.W. side on ^opf^rtKoi ko-X 5ij8ep"Tto is as follows (Mordtmann, p. 304) : oAouy ""5e,oAous eset Sevrepov MoVos 6 evSo'"t^os2b pCyKa^ITo'pi^vpi. Il6p4"vpi^ "viKri"r" 3 Quoted in full in the German text (ed.6). * Claudi Caesaris circensibus in carceribus auriga albati saecularium ludorum excusso primatum obtinuere opponentes, effundentes omniaque contra occupavere, equo Corace aemulos cum auriga insistente facientes, puderet hominum quae debuissent peritissimo ad cretam ab equis vinci,peracto legitimo cursu stetere (Pliny,Nat. Hist.,viii, artes in cursus sollicitationem ita ut i6( ) ; equi destituti ab auriga tendebant quasi per forte post se qui sequebantenerent stadii, ne liaeam directe currentes expedite medium loco ubi multi gyri tur, praevenientes praecederent excederentque circulum ; eo vero ut vertentes obviabant aliis; perpendendo illud quoque sese aguntur apte commodeque videlicet gyrus sinistra existente, a cum ne circulum propius contingeret temo equo ei qui post veniebat et ceteris (Philo, De Animamajoris periodilargitudinem relinqueret libus, 58). in
" " "

"

66
told

Appendices

[vol.ii.

by Libanius (ed.Reiske, iv, p. 150, repeatedin Tzetzes, BS,ttov iirl Semvov Trapia-iros Kk-qSeU ^ovXdfievos Chiliades, vii, 23) : oMav rod els 'iwoy 'Ka^"vi^ iTwoSpd/iov KeKXrjKliTOs. 9jK6ep t^v ATravT^iTat, 6 elvai rbv ^wfibv 5^ ^v trpb ttjsaiXeias 66pas, vofdtyasS^ Kit]XTrTbv ^u)fibs iSecwvos rbv vapaairov IwTos Ixaii^pe Kal crvnapTiaas iirTiyayeKai pielvas rb Sk toi5tois iavrbv ib. "fipT)Bei ol/tai jrpotravvAXei. Tin ia-Tepalg. p. 154: dTreiSar Tots irepi rhs A/ilXXasKal rods dp6p,ovs dfTKOU/ieVois, BopvpoivTaiii
anecdote
TU3V

6earwv

dwdpLei avvTelvetv kavToiis els rdxos. AKovtacrtf "jroLtrrj

The tunicae

Tavta

(panni)exchanged by
cp. the tenth

the charioteers
on

are

no

doubt

the

Porphyrius {Anthol. ; epigram Kal ed. ir4ir'\oiS Graeca, aviineri^aWe rixas, Jacobs, iii, 240)" x/Jii/nao-t the diversium. The which Kaibel to (p. 25) rightly refers the who made between the charioteers exchange {e.g. agreement is alluded to in the not to damage the other party'schariot wilfully) third epigram on Porphyrius :
themselves
" "

8s Kal koi/st-mrovs

Kal

bfibtppov
of the

os

7/1/iox^os
diversium
in

ef kriptaver^povsalkv
It

dfiet^bfievos.
vogue
at

is uncertain

whether in

the forms
the Roman

circus-games of the early whether the It is clear not PUny in the following empire. younger {Epp., ix, 6, 2) is speaking of a fact or only assuming a passage aut velocitate equorum aut hominum arte possible case : si tamen

Constantinople existed

traherentuur,
amant,
hue et

esset

ratio
cursu

nonnulla

nunc

favent
hie et

si in

ipso

medioque

certamine

panno, color

pannum

illuc,ille

illos,equos

transferatur, studium favorque transibit illos, quos procul noscitant, quorum


to

clamitant

repente agitatores nomina,

relinquent. According
di-iersium
on

took

passage place in the

the

from

Constantine
;

afternoon the Roman

cp. also

Pbrphyrogenitus tKe the 50th epigr^


ed.
and

the

charioteer
who

Constantinus

{Anthol. Graeca,

Jacobs, iii,' p.
afterwards
21

250),
with

gained 25 victories in In the exchanged horses.


for
a

morning,
circus

probably been a pomeridianum


at noon,

long time divided into an spectaculum (Augustine, Conf.,viii,6) by


or

also the show aniemeridianum


an

had and
val inter'

after the first ten


' '

twelve

races

; the

passage
'

in Cicero

{Orator,
meridianas

47,

et postposmeridianas quadrigas quam 137 : libentius dixerim, already read by Velius Longus, De

Orthographiain GL., vii, 79


and

refers to this.

Hence

there is

no

culty, diffi-

the
.

alteration

of Doderlein is

cellen, progr

des

Vitzthumsehen

(cp. Fleckeisen, Krit. Misinserts Gymn., 1864, p. 48), who


no

quadrijugas
XXVI.

after

postmeridianas
of

improvement.^
(and 17.)
monuments
;

Representations
IN

Gladiators
or

Vesatores)

Works

Art. line

(Vol. II,
I HAVE
no

p.

51,

idea
most

of

giving

complete
the

list of such
known to

only
aid

intention

is to illustrate

different

classes
me.

of them

by

my the

of the

important examples

1 [See also article by PoUak in Pauly-Wissowa's Realeitcyclopadie der classischm Aliaumswissenschafi, v, pt. i (1905). Tr.]
.*

Vol.

II.]

Appendices
Borgh., p.
82.

1^7

of gladiators, Lamps. On these, as is well known, representations owing to their being intended for graves, are very frequent : Konzen,

Expl.

mus.

Cp.

BttU.

Nap., ii,p.

139

Lucerne

Ercolanesi, tav. 8 ; Jahn, Alterthumer von Vindonissa, p. 16, taf. 2 ; Revue arch6ol., xvi, 371 (lamp from Constantine) ; Hiibner, Antiken von scribed Madrid, p. 621 (lamp ; a venator fightingwith four boars ; inSAECUL the serie secular
i, ; for similar

lamps, intended
Rossi, Bull,

for illuminations

at

festival

of

248,

cp. De

1870, p. 87). Lamps, resembling a form, are frequent (P. J.Meier, Gladiatorendarstelhmgen etc., Westdeutsche Zeitschr. f. G. it. K., i, p. 165).
,

di archeol. crist., ii, helmet in gladiator's in

Earthen in

vessels.
the

On

red

ones,

and arch., ix, p. 71) retiarii,

shows
;

{Rev. according to Leemans are frequently repregenerally, sented


cp.

itrusqueset rom., ii,2056, 2099 ed. by the Academy (i888, heft

Janssen, Monuments grecs Denkm. in Baiern, rom. ; Sammlung earthen An at vase ii,taf. 5 and 7) Colchester with a bear-baiting,tame deer, a hare and a dog, and : together with the inscriptions picturesof a secutor and a retiarius, in lower and Memnon sacviiii (?) xxx Valentinu(s) legionis (erected ning Germany by Trajan ; the writing is of the end of the first or beginLeyden
museum
.

of the Feb.

second

century); Hubner,
above
'

Monatsber.

der Berl. Akad-, dal


'

3, 1868. Glasses. See i.

in pocuUs (Petronius, 52) had From the cod. (so Tragur.). pugnas with the combat names a gladiatorial Pompeian graffito, representing Atti di soc. Prudes and Tetraites inscribed Pontan., iii, (Avellino,

toldi, tav.
Hermerotis

Henzen as Trimalchio
et

and

Veiri raccolti

cav.

Bar-

Petraitis

for Petconjectured Tetraitus in the Vienna vessel The same recur on names a green glass scene : museum (Arneth,Kameen, taf. 22, 5), also on a gladiatorial two on Prudes Calamus glass (CIL, iii, 2, 6014, 2), and (Tetr)aites ColumPrudes, Spiculus, vessels, found near Chambery (Tetraites, Rev. F. Hermes: Lenormant, bu(s), Gamus, Merops, Calamus, in and La taf. xx C/L,xii, 5696, 32) archM., 1865, pp. 305-310, and TerreVendue (Hiibner, Eph. Epigr.,iv, p. 209 ; cp. AUmer the Cimetidre But in at Lillebonne, basse, Inscr. de Vienne, iii, 220) p. romain du Catillon a vessel of greenish glass has been found, with a and which the names Petrahes in relief, combat on are gladiatorial Prudes (Cochet,Rev. arcMol., xvi, 1867, p. 151) ; and the epitaph in Lycia runs of a retiarius at Makri : 'Ep/ieX XlaiT/jaelrTjs (Telmissus) in Reise Lykien, i, tuv (TvyKeWaplav (Benndorf-Niemann, /lera Petraites as confirms the form This men cogno(IleTpoeiTjjs 157). 41, of the god Men: 668,676; cp. CIA, Lebas-Waddington, iii, 73),of which Petrahites and Petrahes may have been vulgar byforms Biicheler, Rhein. Mus., 1872, p. 474. : cp. dell' Gems. See e.g. Lippert's Dactyliothec ; cp. also Impr. gemm. 112. Bdl, Inst., vi, 79 ; 1839, p. usually called Reliefs. At Pompeii, of stucco, on the monument of Scaurus the monument (Nissen,Pomp. Stud., 392 ; Mus. Borb., of marble (16 palms wide, si high) from the tav. 27). Another XV, Near Aeclanum tav. i) rial (memoiv, marittima {Bull. Nap., necropoli

p. 194 raitus

CIL,

iv, 538), I had

'

'

'

'

"

of

certain

Celsus): IRN.,

1194

CIL, ix, 1037.

At

Abella

i6S
IRN,
a

Appendices
1952
=

it. [vol.

CIL,
a
=

X,

1211.

At

Venafrum

Cassius

and

Julius, the
X,

combatants
In beasts

(6 pairs,belonging to indicated by V and M :

Torlonia regard to the Roman tav. d. iii, Inst., 38), contests {Mon. that it comes Henzen (AdI, xiv, p. 12) conjectures with probability of Marcellus the theatre from 1853, p. 130 ; 163, p. 67 ; cp. Bdl, lamp). figurettes, (terracottareUef, bronze shows of exhibiting in public picturesof gladiatorial The custom did so being a certain dates from the time of the republic ; the first who nemus L. (?C.) Terentius Lucanus, who set up his picture in the as above, p. 15). Dianae 52 : Henzen, (PUny, Nat. Hist., xxxv, in a group of whose name appears Perhaps this is the same person according to frequently occurring silver and copper coins, which the seventh d. to Mommsen Milnzw., r. belong 164) (Gesch. p. 554, the than the sixth. rather large During empire, when century dently evievents were generally in favour, it was paintingsof remarkable

IRN,

4649

CIL,

relief with

with

4920. wild

'

'

very I439
was
=

common

cp. O.

MuUer of
a

as

above,
munus

211,

2.

In

IRN,
which

C/L,

ix, 1666,
in
a

exhibited

amphitheatre at ed. 4, p. 181).


Mosaics.
The

picture porticus at Beneventum. Pompeii are well known


Musaico Massimi

the

is

mentioned,

paintings in the (Overbeck-Mau, Pompeii,


The Atti

jr. Arv., p. at Barcelona {Mon. In., i, 197) is now 165) edited by Winckelmann crist., von Madrid, p. 196) ; De Rossi (Bull, v, (Hiibner, Antiken the fourth since the editor of the it to (the giver 87) assigns century, The most important is the Borshow) is a certain Symmachus. villa (Canina, Bdl, 1834, pp. ghese, from the floor of a Tusculan Henzen dell' Acad, ed. di Roma, xii, (Diss, by pontef. 1852) ; 9-96), De it is fourth work. also In to a Rossi, Germany century according there are also circus games at Augsburg, on which a mosaic (Gruter, Villa 336). Further, that at Nennig (von Wilmowsky, Die rom. which editor und ihr the Mosaik, zu i, ii, 13) Nennig 1864, 1865), (i, endeavours back the time without sufficient reason of to to put Denkm. Forsch. Hadrian; u. (1854), p. 434 and cp. also Gerhard, Revue arcMol., xii (p.106) with illustrations. In England, at Bignor in Sussex Britan., xviii,i, p. 203). In France, discovered (Archaeol. in i860 at Rheims : Desjardins, Bdl, 1861, no. 6 (chieflyvenaCaracalla tiones ; between and Constantine); Loriquet, Mosaique de Reims, 1861 (not procurable). See further appendix xxix.

(cp. Marini,

XXVII.

The

Gladiatorial

Tesserae?-

(Vol. II,
RiTSCHL,
in his treatise the at

p.

57.) gladiatoriaeder
were

Die
that

Tesserae these solution


six served

Romer
for

(1864),
bravery,
in

expressed
which claims

opinion
the
same

tesserae
as

medals

also
for

time

documentary
as

evidence
was

untenable vit
was
1

pensions. by the discoveryof


His
in

of

SP

spectatus

proved
spectaways

written
See my

full,which
on

has

genuine tesserae on been explained in

which

various

discussioa

the games

in Marquardt's StV, iii, 560, 6-8.

170
xlii,1886, p. 122) thinks

Appendices
that Elter's
'

li, [vol.

conjecture is only tenable if with his own. X combined The sentence populus) (in this case and the emphasized ', strongly object being spectavit gladiatorem to rise the grammatical subject, gave gradually becoming logically of the tesserae are the sentence gladiator spectavit '. The dates
'

those

of the

first
he

pubKc

appearance

of the

recruits.

7. F.
means

Haug
'

1888, p. 763) : spectavit {Berliner philol.Wochenschrifi, the has tested, examined ',and gladiator previously
but the examiner Bericht iiber rom. he
.

is not the examinee, standing in the nominative this Meier, (against p. 1004). Cp. also Haug, in Bursian, Ivi, 1888, p. 106, where Epigraphik, ii,4963 Wilmanns, 2823 (Celer Borea[e] dedit) in support of his view.
=
. . . . .

refers

to

CIL,

muneris

tessera[m]
insufficient

These
to solve

various

the

explanationsare problem. I confess


less hazardous
was

proof that
that

our

data

are

more or upon examination an

necessary

to me to be based seem they suppositions. The assumption that to acquire the right of practising the

all

for more than is impossible At reasons one. gladiatorial profession, obtained without time when the most a ination examimportant posts were the to teachers, physicians, advocates), right (officials, dishonourable could have been not calling dependent practise a But it is well an examination, if voluntarily entered upon. upon known that the

combatants

were

slaves

or

Uttle better, and

no

cials offi-

had the right to instruct their owners (or the contractors)as make the should of to use them, provided that no breach of they the law committed. was
Is it to be believed that

all the

owners

of

for the

(at only approved should to have case we gladiators to appear (in which rules of examination) ? For the glaassume equally unanimous diators, have owed thpir (Cena, 45) would spoken of by Petronius certificates to an excessive leniency on the part of the examination commissary '. Nor can I beheve, with Meier (p.16) that there ever existed a guild of gladiators.
combats
' ' ' '
"

least in

Italy) had

gladiatorsand agreed to allow

contractors
'

XXVIII.

SuMMA

AND

Skcunda Palus.

Rud/S;

Pruws

and

Secundl's

(Vol. II,
MoMMSEN

p. 57,

line

15.)

rudis and secunda sutnma [Hermes, xxi, 269) understands of those gladiatorswho had been exempted from service by the bestowal in of the rudis ; they acted as first and second inspectors a division and hke the lanistae or troop, (Passio Perpet. et Felic, ferens virgam quasi lanista ') carried as a badge a staff also 10 : Lab. called rudis (Gloss. : rudis fidpSos iinaTaTuiv tuv /lopo/jdx'^'')' r) twv which on monuments Rhein. always appears Mus., xlii, (Meier, also the the of Flavins Sigerius: summa tomb on inscription 134 : cp. rudis, vixit annis sexaginta : CIL, viii, 10,983). Of course only a
'

few

freed from service Suetonius, Gloss. became Tibef.,7 ; dvoTn^a/ievoi Lab.) inspectors.They might
were

of

those

who

{rudiarii,

VOL.

II.]
be

Appendices
(doctores), although
this
can

171
hardly
have been

also the On

instructors

rule.
the

other hand, primus and secundus palus can only refer to The former is clearly formed gladiators on active service. the on of in primus pilus {TrpoirdiraXos Dio, Ixxii, 23 supposes analogy a by-form primopalus as well as primopilus) the latter being of later origin. As the analogous formation impliesan analogous meaning, the the best, at the can mean primus palus only gladiator who was o" his class combination head with the genitive plural (Vita ; the Commodi,i5,S : palus primus secutorum ') is the original one, and that with the nom. abbreviation. of The the an sing, origin expression is obscure. had become who of masters Although the combatants their class of course continued their exercises, they certainly did not make of the palus, which use was only suitable for beginners. Hence it is inconceivable, that primus and secundus palus should
, '

have

been

names

for the

two

'

exercise

classes ', into which

all the

divided the assumption gladiators (except recruits) were ; and that and veteranus secundus primus palus palus spectatus (Meier, Glad. Rom., p. 54 ; Rhein. Mus., xlii, 136) is equally improbable and arbitrary.
=
=

XXIX.

Costume

and

Arms p.

of

the

Gladiators.

(Vol. II,
The this very
in
numerous

60.)

modern is a

times

that have been covered disfigured representations have greatly increased our knowledge of Henzen's admirable
I have des

subject,to

which

elucidation been

of

the
to

Bor-

ghesimosaic
Olenine's

specialcontribution.
le costume

unable

obtain

gladiateurs. Lastly, P. J. Meier has discussed the subject in a number of writings : De gladiatura selectae romana quaestiones (Bonn, 1881, pp. 13"46 : de gladiatorum armaturis) ; Gladiatorendarstellungenauf rheinischen Mqnumenten in Westdeutsche Gesch. u. Kunst, i, 153-177 Zeitschr.f. ; Gladiatorenin xl des Berliner Museums Archaol. Zeil., (1882),p. 147, taf. reliefs in 6, I ; Dei monumenti BdJ, 1884, pp. rappresentanti gladiatori known I shall only mention to me 157-160. Of the monuments those which in any are or informing. respect remarkable Since this class of gladiators cannot I. Retiarii. possibly be with information in regard to it is most confused other, our any exact. remarkable Caylus [Rec. d'ant.,iii, pi.24, 2 and 2 : clay-figure, referred to above for the galerus. The mosaics (p. 168) : Monum. Winckelmann, ined., i, 197 (musaico Massimi). Arch. Britan. xi, p. 49 (cp.Rev. arcMol., ix, p. 183) ; xviii,p. 203 (mosaic from ponteBignor ; cp. Rev. arch., v, p. 562) ; Atli dell' accademia ficia, 1852, xii (the Borghese mosaic) ; Archaeol. Brit., xix, p. 70 of the malus oculus, repeated by Jahn in Ber. d. sacks, G., (relief Mus. of monument taf. Borb., xv, tav. 27 (so-called iii,i) ; 1855, Ruines Bull. de Scaurus PompH, pi. 32) ; Nap. n. s. ; cp. Mazois, e bassirilievi pompejani), ii (1854), t. (1853),i, t. 7 (Dipintigraffiti 21 (bone statuette); Rev. archiol.,viii,pi.169 (gladiatorial 9, 20 and of retiarii) ; Garrucci, ; cp. p. 147) ; ix, pi. 183 (reliefs weapons

treatise Sur

172

Appendices

[vol.II.

and retiarius a xii (combat between a di Pompei, tav. Graffiti BenndorfE(the same) ; Samnis) ; Stevenson, Bdl, 1883, p. ro2 Raise in Lykien, i (grave of a retiarius). Niemann, retiarii were the only gladiators who The appeared without a for the head (Suetonius, Claud., 34 ; Juvenal, viii,200covering short tunic Juvenal, a (Suetonius, Calig.,30; 206). They wore above the ii, 142 ; vii, 207) or a simple suhligaculum (a short apron With Mus. the monuments white). Borgh. as (in usually on hips), the exception of some bandages round the legs,their defensive arms sleeve on the and a to the broad Umited belly-band (balteus) were
left arm, the left with
a

kind
to

of leather

or

metal
the

above shoulder-piece, rising


shield. Bignor mosaic This and shoulder-

shoulder,

supply

the

place of the

looks like piece (which is especiallylarge on called galerus, as Henzen a (Mus. Borgh., p. 113) has wing) was the schohast on Juvenal, viii, 208 (ed. Jahn) : recognized from impositus gladiatoris (cp. Bdl, 1853, p. 130). galerus est umero
' '

So
not has

unsuitable

a a

name

evidently recognized
103

technical the

if it were arouse suspicion, certainly in later times Garrucci also expression. in the {Bull. Nap., n. s., galerus shoulder-pieces would
such

i,p. loi,

galerifound in Pompeii are represented the grave-stone of a ; cp. Rev. ArcMol., v, 8, pi. 165). On Glaucus the third retiarius named (CIL, v, i, 3466) found at Verona of and side the which Mommsen the was trident, dagger object by unable to explain, is in all probability the galerus. In the passage of Juvenal, viii, 207 :
tav.

7, where

Credamus

tunicae, de faucibus
fastened string

aurea

cum

se

porrigatet
Garrucci
on

longo jacteturspiragalero,
a on one

explains spiraas
other the
to

side to the the

galerus,
former

the

the
of

rope
the

of the

net,

so

that

it fell from
:

round

breast citius Meier

retiarius.
funem

Scholiast
vel

[spira] hujusmo^
retium

aUquid, quo According to

sparsum

jactatum
'
"

(De gladiaiuraromana, p. 30) the spirais rau^r M the circular coiled up (Festus,p. 330 : spira funis nauticus in he orbem convolutus the retiarius,when ') rope of the net, which the wishes the left shoulder which is to throw, must to on guide fastened to the balteus, but in such galerus ; probably the spira was
a manner

colUger^jjp"

that

in

case

of need

it could may

be

detached. also have


no

A
or

head-band,

described

by Galen,
:

been

especially
Galen, De
Sira

exclusively used

who by retiarii,
t4

wore

helmet.

fasciis, 32,
ovTdts

xviii a, 797

ri, Ko^oifieva ir poir'Ka^br iiiitpp6iipiov

iTtdelrat. 5' iJTOL ^^ fiovofiax^^^^ dvofidt^erai. eOirpewda^X^P'-^ ^ X'^P^ ^ttI Ttvhs Tov y LyveffSai KetpaXijt ffvpurTih/iaTOS rrjs KpdTitixa Tpoa-fxnrov dW el fxh eiTperelat Ivexa iirihioiTO /Spax^a efcoi Set ravrra IxeBoSevoiiivov Ko.i iv ^iat^ Tip fi"Tti}ir(p oOrta "v Terdx^at. yb,p ttjv ifi^^peiav wpbs rh ^^ov The retiarius on a Pompeian relief (Bull.Nap., iv, tav. i ; diroo-ii^i. such band. Meier, Glad, rom., p. 29) wears a
"

of the retiarius were in the first place the weapons which in Winckelmann (jaculum), (Man. ined., 197) appears so to cover the figure of his opponent. It large as almost entirely net

The

offensive

also appears p. 203, and

in Rev. arch.,vol. ix. pi. 183, 2 ; Archaeol. Brit.,xviii, Gori, Inscr.,iii, p. 99, represented in Bull. Nap., 1853,

VOL.

II.]
vii, 12). The
reason

Appendices
of its
rare

173
on

tav.
it

occurrence

monuments
It

is is not

probably that

the retiarii carried assumed carry

it folded
;

together,before they flung


occulte

(Isidorus, Origines, xviii, 54

ferebat
and

rete).
that

probable,as did not always


the clever
of

by

Meier

(p. 32)

Henzen,

handling
the combats in

the weapon after which they were of which have must constituted
in

the retiarii named and chief interest

the

which

they
had

took

part.

their aim
throw

they retired,until they


were a

made

the net

they missed ready for another


If

and

is hkened Gloss.

positionto attack again ; hence Artemidorus ii, 3) to by [Oneirocritica,


retiamus

the
a woman

retiarius
/cai

Kol fifffra "^iAyd5a

: rif Pov\o^i,h(f wXriffid^ovaav cp. Juvenal, viii,204 ; : SiK-rvo^Spos c. Siktuo^AXos. His other weapons the were trident, the tunny-fish harpoon and the of the Maximus, i, 7, 8 and most (Juscina) dagger (Valerius The figure in Rev. arch., v, 562, taken by Letronne monuments). in Rev. arch., for a dimachaerus is correctlyexplained by Chabouillet viii,416, as a retiarius with dagger and trident : cp. Garrucci, Bull. Nap., 1865, p. 134. The throwing of the net may have been an old method of fighting, Alte on an Denkmaler, antique (Welcker, paste represented occurring in the duel between Phrynon and 2, tafel 16, 32) and

Lab.,

Pittacus

(Diog. Laert., i, 74 ; Polyaenus, i, 25 ; cp. also used the Tjrrians tridents and Sic, xvii, 43, according to whom
nets

Diod.

ing fish-

against
see

their

Macedonian

p. 600
s.v.

account

above) has duel in order, like the Roman archaeologists(Festus, make this the to tiarii engagement prototype of the reretiarius),
:

Welcker

i, 38, besiegers). Strabo (xiii, evidentlyadded the trident in his

of the

combats. reallyborrowed

Whether from

the

gladiatorialnet

and

harpoon

were

to bound were fishing or not, such weapons the of idea Adv. 12 : cum vi, fishing. (Arnobius, genies, suggest certafuscina rex maris, tamquamilU pugnasitgladiatorii obeunda tridens minis ; Martial, v, 24, 12 : aequoreus Aequoreus, name ; at Pompeii, of a retiarius,CIL, x, 1927. One of the galeri found and Bull. Nap., 1853, n. s. i, tav. vii, 2, contains a crab, a dolphin, Pedo Orat.,vi, 3, 61 : an anchor). In the joke told by Quintilian{Inst. de mirmillone feriebat, Vivom, qui retiarium consequebatur nee the method of seems only possible making sense inqUit,capere volt), 82 de retiario to be the conjecture of Leemans arch., ix, p. : (ifeu. then the joke is very poor. although even qui mirmillonem, etc.),

The Gain

on fought those of other gladiators(Meier,p. 36, 3). The satirical song of the te peto, piscem peto, quid me retiarii to the mirmillones : non fugi ', Meineke des Galle ? consists, as observed Joachimsth. by (Progr. similar (perhaps even a Gymn., 1851), of lonici a majore. From of address be derived the mode the same) poem ( ww-) may 16 mentioned Galle mortue : Martial, viii, by 75,
"

fish,which is said and mirmillones,

to have who

been

attached
the

to the

helmets

of the

with

is also retiarii,

found

^w

"

'

'

hie mihi de multis dici cui merito

'

unus, mortue

Lucane, videtur, Galle potest.


'

These

satirical songs
and

were

movement

to

the

cal probably sung with appropriaterhythmihas been of music. It, accompaniment

174
observed
that
not

Appendices
music
was

[vol.ii.
But of be
course

played during
to time

the combats.
; this

they
in

could

according fight

would
'

sham (36) says : fights. Of these Petronius scissor et ad syniphoniam ita gesticulatuslaceravit

possible statim processit


only
obsonium,
the
ut

putares see below).


From
the

essedarium fact that

hydraule

cantante

pugnare

(on

essedarii

the retiarii had


most

no

covering
all the

for the face

viii,200) and
that to
2.

were

lightlyarmed,

Henzen

they
were

were

the most

despisedof

nal, (Juvecludes (p. 113) conlar gladiators. Simi-

them

the
'

armed with anooseinsteadofacasting-net. Laquearii,who were in mentioned are Isidorus, Origines,xviii,56 : quorum only They ludo homines in injectolaqueo impeditos conerat, fugientes pugna umbone '. amictos pelliceo According to secutosque prosternere, representations(on a gem and a clay-relief in Meier, p. 44) they also other defensive the galerus,but had no wore weapons. The retiarii also fought in troops (gregatim ; Suetonius, Calig., but against the Galli} against one another, 30) but evidently never Albinovanus in Quinmurmillmies (ValeriusMaximus, i,7, 8 ; Pedo of the retiarii occur as tilian,vi, 3, 61), Samnites (who opponents and and also the of that on on Borghese mosaics, Bignor especially the Samnis for a murmillo) editor erroneously takes Nennig, whose
,

and
to
are a

secutores.

The

combats

of the

retiarii with The

gladiatorial circles) 2616 Wilmanns, contraretiarius] (Henzen, 6174 [i.e. written by CIL, vi, 2, 10,180) ; this is also the meaning of " RET the side of six names of gladiatorsin CIL, vi, i, 636 (a.d. 177). mentioned in First Suetonius, Calig., 30 ; on 3. Secutores. Victorius' ioi secuiorum conjecture in Cicero, ad Alt., vii, 14, 2 chief the of the were scutorum, cp. Meier, p. 19. They opponents ab insequendo retiarium retiarii (Isidorus, xviii, 56 : secutor Orig., dictus,id yap Siiiicfi, says Artemidorus, Oneirocr. as above). Their
contrareie
= =
"

(Meier, p. 22). very in also represented liy the term (originating


late date

the latter continued opponents of the retiarii

'

The latter is sword, shield,visored helmet, and a greave. iwl t^s oUlas Philogelos (ed.Eberhard, 87) : (rxoXao-riitds i^iratfe*'. d^vu 64 ..Tivos diraYyei'XavTos ai5rvttjv \a^tjjv treKoijTUjpos axvf^ t6 StXov, ^\ue ttiv KVTifuSa.tpddcravTos S^ rod toG Trarpds, Trapovffiay /ii^as "^^^ Dio, i TtffTTJvai, jSijSXioc airrip ^x^^ irepiKeipaXaiav Trarpbt dveyivtotrKe, of Commodus when a secutor as : Ixxii, 19, says oOs i^l\a fighting : GALEA Siairtp (Xxe Sih, tov Kpdvovs; schol. Juv. vi, 108 : ATTRITUS fuisse ; on secutorem the apparet eum shape of the helmet, see With this agrees the monument of a certain UrbiMeier, p. 25. in cus secutor, poorly reproduced Muratori, 617, i, more accurately
arms were

evident

from

described

by Cavedoni {Bdl, 1846, p. 190) and Meier (Gl.rom., p. 21) ; cp. also AdI, 1850, p. 125 (lamp from Salona). Isidorus telligible (I.e.) gives them cuspidem et massam plumbeam ',which is uninet magnum ; Leemans' conjecture cassidem clypeum be supported. {Rev. arch., ix, p. 80) cannot The secutores were armed in exactly the same the manner as
' ' '

4.
'

Samnites

(according to Meier,

p.

14,

the

oldest

class). As

It is hazardous to conclude from lack of evidence (withMeier, Westd. Ztschr., i,161), that the combats between retiarii and mwmilUmes ceased in the second century.

VOL.

II.]
are

Appendices
by Horace,
of the
occurs

175
(pp. 19-25) conjectures
the
name

they
of

last mentioned the


first

Meier

tliat later, as

opponents

retiarii, they received

Caligula (Suetonius,Calig., of oplomachi. The equipment of the Samnite what somewas by Livy (ix, 40) modified in the case of the gladiators named after them. Their characteristic were : the large oblong shield, often weapons somewhat concave on ined., 199), but which (Winckelmann, Mon. the is only exceptionally (as in Livy's description) monuments at the bottom than at the top (soaccording to O. Hirschnarrower in the relief from in feld's communication Cavillargues mentioned the note 6 and in the described Gurlitt in on 1 i gravestone ii, by 30) ;
as

secutores, which

under

opponents

of the Thraeces, that soldiers as described

Antike the
the
same

Denkmdler, Epigr. archdol. Mitth. i,100) ; the sleeve on the rightarm

aus common

Oesierreich,i, 7
to all

cp.

the visored helmet the left leg,the girdle, on greave with and crest other classes, Meier, by p. 18), very and short sword. These arms a (Varro,Ling. Lat., ii,11),

gladiators, (worn also long plume


are

called

by Juvenal, vi, 256


dimidium
. . .

balteus

et manicae

et

tegimen. According to Cicero ante Samnitium, quibus in pugqui vibrant hastas pugnam, in nando nihil utuntur) they carried lances only sham fights; later, perhaps also in serious combat according to the monuments, (Meier, The was spongia pectori tegumentum (Livy) dispensed p. 34).
' '

sinistri crurisque : Orat.,ii, {De prolusio 325

cristae

left unprotected gladiator'sbreast was instructive (Meier,p. 17). Cp. Henzen (p.107) and the particularly the of Samnite from o f the tion colleca figure Campana representation Henzen this to has shown the Samnites (tav.7, i). According the Borghese mosaic as on just opponents of the retiarii (secutores), the Bignor mosaic the other hand, contending on as they appear ; on Lucernae with Thraeces (oplomachi)in 'Bartdii, sepp., i,22, Overbeck182 the breastwall of the arena) and (pictureon Mau, Pompeji*, p. Boissieu, Inscr. de Lyon, p. 464 (terracotta vase). Other representations of Samnites : Guattani, Mon. ined., 1787, tav. 3 (repeated in Clarac, Mus. de Sculpt., pi. 866) ; Bdl, 1850, p. 167 ; Bursian, in Anzeiger fiir schweizerische Zwei Bronzestatuetten Avenches aus

with, since

as

rule

the

Geschichte

und

Alterthumskunde,

First mentioned 5. Thraeces. Prov. Cons., 9 ; last in Ausonius,

Juvenal, viii, 201

Meier, p.

vii,17; Toll. ; schol. Technopaeg., p. 488 They carried the small shield 33.

1865, no. i. in Cicero, Phil., vi, 13;

(parma),with
armed
'

which the

with

they w^re opposed to the Samnites, who were large shield (scutum). According to Pliny (Nat.
the
'

Hist., xxxiii, 129)

parma
concava

was

round

and

somewhat
the

concave an

plurimumque
More

refert

sint
so

(specula)et poculi modo,


monument

parmae Scaurus. Uke

Thraecidicae
scutum

round, square, of the Priscus Thraex e.g. the monuments Exochus Col. (Fabretti, (Mus. Veron., 444, 2) and of M. Antonius monument On the of a Thraex, CIL, vi, 10,194). Traj., 256 described Nap., i, p. 95) the shield is grande e by Borghesi (Bull. ricurvo (largeand bent round). The parma must also have been Martial (xiv, otherwise 213) could not have spoken of it as square,
the
;
see
= ' '

it appears on it is not however, frequently,


;

and

of

but

capable of being used

as

scutum

by

dwarf.

Their

characteristic

176
offensive Val.
ed. Goetz

Appendices
weapon and
'

[vol.ii.
of the Thracians,
Glossar.

was

the sica short


'

(the national
curved sword.

weapon

Max.,

iii,2, 12), a
called

Corp.
sica

Gundermann,
falx

ii, p.
'

iSs*":

Latin., Qpq.KiKbv Ji^os

It is iiri.Kafi.ir^s.

boars'

tusks, dentium is the shape of the sica on reUef in the amphitheatre of Nlmes, a Descr. and a Samnis between (Pelet, a Thraex representing a combat de I'amph. de N., pi. iii, f. i). But more frequentlythe blade is about ment not curved, but forms an halfway down, as on the monuangle the of Exochus trophies (Overbeck-Mau, Pompeji*-, p. 182),on in the gladiators' school at Pompeii (Bull. of gladiatorial weapons Nap., 1853, tav. vii, 13 and 14 ; cp. also p. 114). The want of the complete equipment; compensated by a more large shield was
hence Like

201), and supina by Juvenal (viii, This Hist., xviii,2). sicae,' by Pliny (Nat.

Artemidorus other

attributes

to

them

rb

iaKe-ndaBai

tois

SjtXois.

ever, the Samnites (from whom, howgladiators, particularly the to addition in are parma having, by distinguished they the visor and the sleeve and sica, greaves on both legs), they wear Mus. the right arm on Borgh., p. 112, Bull. Nap., i, ; cp. Henzen, of Scaurus, whom the monument this the Thraeces on By p. 95. be from de takes Mazois Samnites, (Ruines PompH, pi. 32) may Haase's tion emendaIn Seneca identified. (Quaest.Nat., iv, praef. 8) habeas compositi [Thraeciscum] Thraece quamvis staturam nani staturam" like is impossible; the sense something requires these '. It natural that Thraece was cum heavily-armed compositi of great stature ; from men combatants should generallybe recruited but in Petronius ',SchefaUcujus flaturaefuit Thraex (45) : unus fer's conjecture staturae is to be rejected. On monuments parmati also seen with lances and straightswords are (Meier,p. 34 ; Pacho, Voyage dans le Cyrinaique, p. 53) ; on the other hand, a scutatus with a sica in a Pompeian graffito (Avellino, Osservazioni) In regard tribute be observed that it would be idle to attempt to disto this it must classes all the representations of gladiators amongst the For in the first place they had to us. known no regular uniforms, fications but their equipments were undoubtedly subject to countless modiin the second that varied according to time and place ; and place the representations are certainly not always true. The another Thraeces also fought with one ments), (according to the monu' '

"

'

and

with
were

the the

murmillones

(Meier,p. 33).

But

their chief

opponents
6.

Oplomachi (the usual form in inscriptions and a later Meier, p. 22, 4). Lipsiussupposed that it was
Samnites

good
name

MSS.

for the

of occurrence (taken from their scutum [iTKov]).The Samnis together with oplomachus in the list IRN,, 737 (= CIL, ix, for 466) may be explainedby the assumption that the former name the opponents of the retiarii had the not been yet superseded by later secutor, whereas the opponents of the Thraeces were already called oplomachi (see above) In the Pompeian list (CIL, vi, 2508) they appear not only as opponents of the Thraeces, but also of the murmillones and dimachaeri (Meier, pp. 22-25). and 8. Murmillones (apparently the only inscriptional 7. Gain Meier, p. 35, i). According to Festus, p. 285 M (murmilform;
.

Idnicum

genus

armaturae

Gallicum

est

ipsique murmillones

ante

178
diator On
:

Appendices
equipped with scutum, sword,
the

[vol.ii.
(theSamnite
there is
trement). accouan

and

greave

other read

hand,

in Garrucci

(p. 13)

scription inferet

Veneri parmam provocator victor Bdl, 1865, p. 79). Garrucci, palmam ; (unless cp. of a prov(ocator spat(arius) From the inscription (= CIL, vi, 7659) armed Garrucci a assumes special class of provocatores who were De with the (Vegetius, re mil., gladiiminores, quos spatas vocant Meier and Wilmanns 2609, (Bdl, 1884, p. 158 I., i) (E. ii, 15). for be mistake to consider a spect '. spat." note) Essedarii Fam., vii, 10), probably introduced 12. (Cicero, Ad No doubt as closely as possible the they imitated by Caesar. in thus described British (De Bell. chariots, by Caesar fighters mobihtatem stabilitatem Gall., iv, 33) : peditum in praeequitum, liis praestant ; ac tantum usu quotidiano et exercitio eificiunt ut
Mansuetus
we

should

'

'

'

'

in declivi
ac

ac

loco praecipiti

incitatos equos

sustinere, et brevi moderari

se in this Burmann citissime currus quotes passage laceravit and Seneca, Epp., 29, on Petronius, 36 : ita gesticulatus from obsonium, ut putares essedarium hydraule cantante pugnare,

et per temonem flectere,

percurrere consueverint. recipere

inde etinjugoinsistereet

which
movements

it is clear that in

the essedarii sometimes

carried

out

their axtistic

time. cluded conLipsius (Saturn.,ii, 12) rightly (Calig., 35), where the essedarius Porius sets ob prosperam his slaves free ', that on every chariot (as pugnam the driver well as the combatant. there was a as Britons) amongst of a mention in Petronius The muher essedaria be (45) cannot musical
'

from

Suetonius

'

'

accidental. the result


women

The

essedarii
wars

may

have under

come

into especially and in


se

of the

in Britain have

Claudius

Nero battle

as vogue British ;

appear

to

frequently
curra

taken

part

(Tacitus,
"

Ann.,

xiv, 35) :
Britannis

Boudicca,
feminarum

quidem in (darius)
M. Gl. rom., 13.

filias prae ductu bellare

vehens

soUtum Essenamed

testabatur).
an

the list CIL, ix,466. on Inscription in Garrucci, Graffiti, Bostorius 66 CIL, ; p. p. 43.
'

essedarius
;

vi, 631

cp. Meier,

Cicero mentioned in are gladiatorum CIL, ix, 465 ; eq. vet. lud. mag. (Pro Sestio,59, 126) ; IRN, 736 (CIL, vi, 10,167) ; Artemidorus, I.e.; Galen, De Comp. med. p. gen.,

Equites.

Equi

'

2 iii,

ed. Kuehn,
Ivwiav.

xiii,p.

601

KoKovfiivav

Isidorus

Beaadfievosyap riva xviii, 53) (Origines,


:

^^ fwvofii.x^'^
:

genera

torum gladia-

plura, quorum primus ludus equestrium. duo enim equites orientis alter a porta praecedentibus prius signis militaribus, unus ab occidentis procedebant in equis albis cum aureis galeisrainoribus et habilioribus armis, sicque atroci perseverantia pro virtute sua inibant The horsemen fighting with one another on the pugnam.
mail, small round shields, on right arm, tunics, visor-hehnets, and spears ; cp. also Meier in Westd. i, 165. Zeitschrift, Occurs in Cicero 14. Andabatae. (Ad Fam., vii, 10) ; also the of Varro's title of one satires (Petronius, ed. Biicheler', p. 165). the gloss in Mai From Auct., vii,551) : andabetae (Class. gens quaethe dam and mention of d^dpa^irai {ivSa^irat?) amongst the
monument of Scaurus

have

long coats

of

brassards

the

legionary soldiers
that

they were

Lydas (De Magistratibus, i,46) Meier conjectures Uke the Samnites, Galli, who, and Thraeces gladiators

in

VOL.

II.]
their that
a

Appendices
national
visor
armour.

179
further
able to

appeared in them except

Nothing

is known i.e.

of

probably

being see, they eye-holes (Jerome, Adv. Jovin.,i, combat Rufin.,3, p. ioia 37, Adv. Helvid., 3, p. 3A, Contra ; cp. the a I'aveuglette in Lacroix, Mceurs, etc., au dge, p. 236). moyen took for horsemen, them reason a, 12) without Lipsius (Sat., chiefly the fTTTreiis because, according to Artemidorus means {I.e.) ywaiKa from to conclude ^pivas oiK (x"^""-" I'litit is quite inadmissible not that the horsemen the andabatae could but that not this, only see, and identical. Turnebus equiteswere {Adv., ii, 20) with as little identified andabates with the Greek reason iva^iriis, according to which he fought from a chariot. What Orelli (2569) says is correct. and by no on or They are rarely mentioned monuments, inscriptions writer of the imperial period (Jerome probably only draws from of fighting fell into disuse at the Varro) ; so perhaps this method
wore

they fought
without

without

'

'

'"

end

of

the

repubUc.
= ' =

of the CIL, vi, 631 (inscription Paegniarii. Orelli, 2566 and Henzen,6i76 CIL, vi, 10,168 (a paegniarius coUeg. Silvani) ludi magni ', who lived to nearly 100) ; Wilmanns, E.I., 2617 ; feris ed. Roth tabidis CIL, vi, 10,182. Suetonius, Calig.,26, : vilissimos senioque confectos gladiatores, *quoque paegniaris patres Mem. famiUarum sed insignis debilitate aliqua obiciebat notos {cod. other for coll. codd. Scutilli which pegniares, [De glad.] pegmares, and Marini [Iscr.alb.,p. 12] had already conjectured paegniarios) That dwarfs, as conjectured by Cavedoni they were {Bdl, 1846, is carried lusoria arma 191) (arms improbable. Perhaps they p. incapable of causing death). The mosaic found at Nennig represents between two paegniarii ; they are protecting themselves a fight 15.
.

with the
to

small

top

with

shields,and carry in the left hand a largeknob, in the righta whip.


that

staff bent

round

at

Meier

{Westd. Ztschr.,
incidi

i, 157) believes
Seneca

they appeared
casu

at the

according midday intei'val, spectaculum


and TertuUian lusus

{Epp., 7) :
et sales et

in meridianum

exspectans {Ad Nat., ludi de lusum risimus meridiani et dels 10 i, Apolog., 15) (? a The assumption of Henzen pantomime). {Mks. Borgh., p. 117) that of a specialclass of gladiators, meridiani the name is based on was which is not an Gruter, 2587 genuine. inscription (Orelli, 335, 4) Other classes of gladiators at least cannot are or erroneously assumed be certainly shown to have The in the colleg. existed. manicarii Silvani (CIL, vi, 631) are of brassards, not gladiators but makers
= =

aliquid laxamenti,

which the

is the less remarkable, as an collegium. The velarii who drew


'

amphitheatre may also have often trainer was under one (the whole troop of gladiators called familia): Orelli, 2569, Ind. p. 189 ; Herzog, Gall. Narb. App. 315 (Antipolis CIG, 6776) :'AvTiTo\i5 khI ol TroXirai ri yeviKhv KO.I oi"\api[ft}v\ ti.m\o^Ax"'"'\
=
...

of this unctor,yfS.s also a member pulled to the awning of up and lies famibelonged to the gladiatorial
'

Scissores. Only in the list IRN, 737 is mentioned, as Marcus Caecilius scisso(r)
16.

CIL, ix, 466, where tiro,killed or dead


concludes with from wild

(Meier,p.
.

17.

43, 2). Sagittarii. IRN,

the

followingpassages

737 that

CIL, ix, 466.


not

Meier who

only

those

fought

i8o
beasts, but

Appendices
:

[vol.
and
arrows
crura :

ii.

(iv,42)
subter schol. quem
whose to
serve

also gladiators proper caedimus inque vicem

used

bow

Persius
"

praebemus

sagittis ^ilia

vulnus auro ; cp. caecum praetegit habes, sed lato balteus ut sagittis, : Nux} praebemus saepe plagis, 171 corpora {codd. cum) populus manicas quem deposuisse vetat (i.e.,
be meant, In the latter passage gladiators may demanded death was obliged by the people, and who were to the caedimus leads archers. In the former for as targets

populus non

mittit)
.

assumption

that gladiators differently equipped the archers. matched with than one Gladiators might be skilled in more

(?horsemen)
mode
3
:

were

of

fighting.

Boissieu, Inscr.
sive assidario

de Lyon, p. 469 Muratori, vii rv(di)i ; Martial, v, 25, p.


=

613,
11 :
"

dymachaero

Hermes Hermes

superbus hasta, belligera


aequoreo casside minax

tridente,
timendus.

Hermes

languida
:

Hermes with

was

veles and To
X,

retiarius

the third

class cannot and

be defined

certainty.
these

Venatores.

belonged

the taurocentae

iaurarii

{IRN,
,

mentions succursores 1074) ; the same inscription and kovtIis ; cp. KovrpoKwriy^aiov CIG, pontarii (? contarii from (a successor Augusti probably, Uke successores 3422). Succursores have been persons to who in IRN, CIL, ix, 2369), appear 4785 took to flight(Henzen, Mon. irritated the bull and then Borgh.,p. of monuments the armed On men or armed quite unfigures badly 151).

2378

CIL,

are

probably
trained M. Caesarem Romano
et
an

condemned

criminals

the {bestiarii),

well-

equipped
Fronto,

the manica. chief armament was venatores, whose posita epp., v, 23 : consul popuU Romani leonem manicam inter induit, juvenes quinquatribus praetexta Ad

populo percussit quando id factum


sub
arena

spectante. Whereupon
Romae ?
num :

Marcus

inquires:
factum
"

illud

dicis in Albano
ursos

Domitiano

In

Juvenal, iv, 99
=

cominus but

figebat nudus

venator,
on

nudus

wearing
be
seen

nothing

the

simple

tunica.

Well-armed

venatores

(seeabove, p. 168),where Henzen's especially {Mus. Borgh., p. 117 ; cp. AdI, 1841, p. 15)recognition of a Parthian equipment receives additional support from the fact that the Parthians with Tiriwere arrows : experts at shooting wild animals in this manner dates distinguished himself and Corn(Dio, Ixiii, 3) took lessons in archery from modus Parthians, in javelin-throwing from Moors (Herodian, i, 15). A venator on horseback, pursuing a deer in flight, already wounded by a spear, in Garrucci, Graff.,pi. mounted venatores contorniates xiv, 5 (cp. p. 74) ; on (Sabatier, Descr. of venag4n. des c, pi. iv, i and pi. ix). Slingsas weapons tores (P. J. Meier, in Bonner Jahrbiicher, Ixi, p. iii). On the whole without they appeared variouslyequipped, sometimes any defensive armed with a only hunting spear {Bull.Nap., iv, tav. i). weapons,
,

may the Torlonia

in Bartoli, Pitt, antiche, ii,27,

relief

Yet
"

venatores

appears
'

to

have

been

the

general

name

for all who

sometimes ascribed to Ovid (printedin Balirens, [An elegy oa a nut-tree Poetae Lalini minores,i,90). It is probablynot by him, but at any ratejjelougs to the Augustan Jr.] age,
' "

'

VOL.

II.]
with wild beasts

Appendices
(except
ed
erano

i8i criminals) ;
those
were so

fought
Meier's
'

condemned that
muniti

P.

J.

conjecture (Bdl, 1884, p. 159)


uso

che

facevano

di brache and

nesi da is at

caccia',the heavily (in Samnite

only completamente d'ararmed fashion) provocaiores


,

called

once

arbitrary
On
the

improbable.
used for the

XXX.

Animals

Roman

Venationes

(Vol. II. p. 62.)


Of
most
errors ou

the in

treatises

on

this best

subject with
arranged
and

which
most
sur

am

complete, the
tuSs

instructive

acquainted the (inspite of


promenis
x

is that of Mongez, detail) in Mimoires dans les cirques In the

Mlmoive

les animaux

following survey the chronological order and order in which known they became Three writers. ancient periods may
a.

360-460.

torn, de I'Institut, I have far as as

(1833), pp.
the

possible preserved by
of ele-

discussed
at

the
or are

Rome

in animals mentioned

be

distinguished.
to

From

the

introduction

of first

the

venationes

the

games
with

Scaurus

(186-58 B.C.). Romans Elephants. The


in

became

acquainted

war they against Pyrrhus, Lucanian oxen ', an popularly called expression first occurring in Plautus (Marcellinus,Chronic, ad a. 496 p. C. : Anastasio India Plautus principielephantem, quem poeta noster nomine Lucam bovem dicit, duasque camelopardalespro munere misit ; L. Miiller in Rhein. Mus., xxi, p. 299), and last used by the in the fifth century (ib.in writer Claudianus Mamertus Christian in Rome first exhibited N. Jahrb. f. Phil., 1886, p. 391) They were Curius Dentatus at the triumph of Manius (275 B.C. ; Seneca, De Brevitate Vitae, xiii,3). Lucius Caecilius Metellus, the victor over the Carthaginians, who triumphed 250 B.C., caused 120 (or 140 or 142) elephants to be driven into the circus ; according to Verrius killed, according to other authorities, not (PMny, Nat. they were Hist., viii,16 ; Seneca, De Brev. Vit., 13, 8). A coin of the gens of Fam. Caecilia (Ursini, ram., p. 37) exhibits, in commemoration

phante
were

the

in

Lucania
'

whence

this Gran.

triumph,
to

an

elephant with
Pompey,

bell round 79
who
B.C.

its neck.

first made

fightin Rome

99 and

againstbulls
in
a

They were I.e. ; (Pliny,


drawn

Licinian., xxxi).

first rode

chariot

ib.,viii,4 ; by elephants, at his African triumph in 81 B.C. (Pliny, the Vit. to however, gate being Plutarch, Pomp., 14, 3, according first the to set he was also too narrow, obhged to use horses) was them (at the dedication fighting (20, 17, or 18 of them) with men of his theatre, 55 B.C., Seneca, ib. ; Pliny, ib. ; Dio, xxxix, 38 ; Fam., vii, i). Cicero, Ad
,

used for drawing chiefly empire, when elephants were for heavy loads, chariots and (also processional imperialtriumphal Under
the in Hadrian's reign was drawn from its place e.g. the colossus of Nero in the circus was by 24 elephants ; Vit. Hadr., 19),their appearance only generally limited to the performance of tricks ; they were of the dedication venationes. at the the Even to rarely given up with a Flavian amphitheatre only four fought (Dio,Ixvi, 25 ; one

82
one

Appendices
(againsta rhinoceros) in
a.d.

[vol.ii.
5

bull, Lib. Sped., 17) ;


; Commodus

(Dio, Iv,

killed in 202 killed two (Dio,Ixxii,10) ; one was (Dio, 27) 218 in in 212 Ixxvi, i) ; one (Dio, Ixxvii, 16) ; one (Dio,Ixxix, 9). On coins of Titus, Antoninus Severus, of the years Pius, Commodus,
in a coat of mail dressed 183, 197 the elephant appears net-work. A coin of an Gordian, representing resembling elephant theatre, (accompanied by a mahout) fightingagainst a bull in the amphiDescr. gin., t. viii, contomiate is repeated on a (Sabatier, II). African wild animals Ai^vkA,i.e.various species (Africanae, Btipla. of the genus Felis, especially spotted,such as panthers and leopards, lllustr.Thierl., i, 257, which the Romans, according to Brehm, distinct the two name as species ; rightly regarded Uopardus first the in historiae occurs Scriptores Augustae ; see Mongez, p. 379, and cf. Keller, Thiere d. kl. Alterth., p. 144) were at Rome as seen early the first venatio, 186 B.C. as (Livy, xxxix, 22), and (63 in number) in 169 b.c. (Livy, at a second Aufidius xUv, 18). The tribune Gnaeus (according to Pighi, Ann., iii, p. 106, probably in 140 B.C.)contrary of the senate, exceptionally allowed old decree their introduction. to an his exhibited Scaurus all During aedileship spotted ; 150, ServiUus, when praetor in 25 B.C., 300 (Dio, Pompey 410 ; PubUus xiii,27) ; Augustus 420 (Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii,64), according to of the theatre of Marcellus as Dio, at the dedication (13 B.C.), many 600 his at some as once during reign (Dio,liv, 26), altogether 3500 of the temple of {Mon. Ancyr.) ; Caligula 400 at the dedication Augustus A.D. 37 (Dio, lix, 7) ; Claudius,a.d. 41, 300 (Dio, Ix, 7). These the most were commonly used of the non-European animals and in the municipia (at Verona, at venationes, in Rome Pliny, CIL, ix, 2350). Epp., vi, 34; Allifae, IRN, 4768 once Hyaenas. Only mentioned (Gordiani Tres, 33 : belbi, id est, hyaenae decern) ; cp. H(iic". i)iocJ., viii, hyaenae 19, 59 : pellis

80, 149,

infecta
. . .

confecta. Exhibited
at

They
the

seem

to

have
of

been M.

little suited

for

venationes.

(Livy l.c.), fighting; Quintus Scaevola (consul B.C. 95) of Uons, during his aedileship first gave a fight with a number these being probably chained first let loose in even were up ; they the circus by Sulla at a show him given by ; during his praetorship from obtained to fight with javelin-throwers were King Bocchus them (Pliny,Nat. Hist., viii, 53 ; Seneca, De Brev. Vit., xiii,6). Uons with manes also 100 According to Pliny these were IJubati), elsewhere Vit. Prob., 19) from the rest ; Mongez distinguished (e.g. real lions,the were (p. 390) conjectures that only those with manes others des Indes Felis jubata : being Indian leopards (chasseur there is maneless kind of lion in India, in a Linn.). However, Gujrat (Felislea Goojratensis vii, 2, p. ; Oken, Allg. Naturgesch., in other 1658 ; Brehm, lllustr. Thierl., i, 213) : it is also found of and south the Persian is included in to India, be perhaps parts
but

Lions.

first venatio

Fulvius

probably

without

which have been commoner in antiquity than at variety, may the present day. Pompey exhibited 600 in the circus, 325 of them with manes (according to Dio, xxxix, 38 ; Plutarch, Pomp., 52, givesonly 507) ; Caesar 400 (Pliny, l.c.) ; Augustas, at the dedicathis

VOL.

II.]

Appendices

183

200 temple of Mars Ultor (2 B.C.) (Dio,Iv, 10) ; GermaniNero (a.d. 12) 200 (Dio,Ivi, 27) ; (a.d. 56) 300 (Dio, Ixi, 9). Hadrian {Vita,18) is said to have frequentlyprovided 100 lions for the circus ; in the year 118 on his birthday,100 honlions and 100 cus
esses

tion of the

(Dio, Ixix, 8),


the
manner

Antoninus
at the 900 of

Pius

{Vita,10) also

lions at once,

probably
year

magnificence in 15), and in like


number
at 10,
a

secular games the city (a.d. 147; Aurelius is said


to have

exhibited 100 with celebrated great

Victor, Caes.,
;

Marcus

(Eutropius, viii,14
slain the
; Ammianus
100

cp.

Eusebius, Chron., 181). Commodus

same

singleshow
Probus

xxxi,

19).

(Herodian, i, 15 {Vita, 19) caused


100

maned

Marcellinus, lions, whose

roaring was
Ostriches.

like thunder, and Exhibited


:

lionesses,to be slain in the amphitheatre.


in the circus. Plau-

at

the

first venationes istuc

(?)marinus 17 passer per circum solet. Commodus shot them as they were running with the points of which were arrows, crescent-shaped(Herodian, i, 15, 5 ; first Gordian, when aedile (Vi".,i, 3),at his cp. Dio, Ixxii, 20). The red the sixth show exhibited Moorish ostriches dyed (in 300 tion inscripCIL,
X,

tus, Persa, ii, 2,

vola

curriculo.

3704
to be

venatione
with

pass, is not

taken

pass., denis bestis et iiiiferis dent., Lipsius for passerum, but passiva,
=

i.e. promiscua ;

Mommsen,

Mitth. birds

Cranes the are with venationes

only
at

other

d. arch. Inst.,1888, p. mentioned v/hich are Parrots and other

82)

Trained in connexion
.

(Dio,Ixvi, 25).

rare

however,
...

used

the occasion of the in ornatibus item

exhibitions, probably also to adorn rusticae (Varro,R.R., iii, spectacles 9, 7 : gallinae

birds were, the forum on merulis

pubhcis poni solent

cum

et psittacis

albis,

aliis id genus rebus inusitatis). the only non-European animals As far as we know, these were of Scaurus. before the aedileship Of European used in venationes : animals, the following are mentioned
"

Bears.

From De

Lucania

(Varro,L.L.,

v,

100

Martial, Sped.,
',

8 ;

alimentor. facuUatibus, iii, 2 ed. Kuehn, vi, 666 : 4i" rb ^IroKias S ^ p-era^Ottws dpKTov re Kal ffvSs ? Petronius, AevKavly, ttjs 66 : ursina Apulia (Symmachus, sapit) From ipsum aprum ursus (J6.,x, 20). Caledonius "/"^., X, 13 and 15). From Dalmatia

Galen,

aedile
no

Sped., 7, 3). Lucius (Martial, (B.C.61),first exhibited


doubt that bears
were

Domitius
100

Ahenobarbus

Numidian in Numidia

found

when curule There be bears. can this is attested by ;

(Herodotus, iv, 191 ; Pliny, ; Juvenal, iv, 99 ; Dio, Iiii, ; that also the fact and Charlemagne received a bear from by 27, etc.), that country (Monach. Gall., Gesta Karoli, iii, 8). Shaw {Voyages, in bear is found the Oken, Barbary, that i, cp. 323) says 1723, Illustr. Brehm, vii, Thierl., Allgemeine Naturgeschichie, 2, p. 1670 ; Keller, Thiere d. klass. i,580, doubts this. Cp. on the other hand
numerous

passages

in ancient

writers

Nat.

Hist., viii,131

Martial, i, 104, 5

Alt., p. 365, 3 ; and on the diffusion of the bear in Spain, Gaul, Greece, anterior Germany, Noricum, Pannonia, Thrace, northern exhibited bears were As B.C. (Livy, early as 169 Asia, ib., 40 p. 106. that their number equalled or exceeded xliv, 18) ; in later times, Thus, Publius Servilius during his praetorof the Africanaebestiae.

ship (25 B.C.)exhibited

300

bears

(Dio,Uii,27) ; CaUgula

400

(Dio,

184
lix, 7) ; Nero
400

Appendices

[vol.

11.

slew 100 (Dio, Ixxii, (Dio, Ixi, 9). Commodus together {Vit., 18) ; the first Gordian 3) exhibited on one day 1000 Minturnae with 100 {Vit., 19). Africanae bestiae ; Probus 300 ursis ii (et ?) herban. {CIL, X, 6012), A.D. 249 : cum Bulls. early as 79 B.C. fighting Very frequentlymentioned ; as with elephants (so often, e.g. Martial, Sped., 17), later in particular habere with men. (omithona oporVarro, R.R., iii,5, 3 : ostium et et humile potissimum ejus generis quod cochleam tet) angustum
ut appellant, numbers
are

solet not

esse

in
as a

cavea

in qua have

tauri pugnare

solent.

The
mon. com-

given

rule, since
to

they

were

Theodosius

is said shows

forbidden

evidently too at bull-fights


Zebus. First

Rome
tioned men-

(Prudentius,
at levata
one

Adv.

Symmachum,
:

ii, 1122).
et tauros

of Nero's in

Vidimus

deformis

scapulis torus
parte Asiae

carici quoque bus eminente


common

eminet foedi visu

quibus aut cervice (Calpumius, Ed., vii, 60) ;


tubere

super

armos

cervici-

72,

of

(Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii, 45). They were especially Cyprus (KuVpioi^oes, tauri Cypriaci; Keller, pp. 66described who wrongly put the show by Calpumius in the reign Carinus).
in

Boars.
sues

fertur, quantum Calydon paret purpureis aper capristis.At the decennalia of Severus (a.d. another (Dio, Ixxvi, i) ; 150 202) 60 boars had to fight with one boars (Probus, 19). (Gord. Tres, 3) ; 1000 animals under tame Wild and the of various kinds, included animalia herbatica Bdl, 1859, p. (Vit. Probi, 19; general title of vari dentatar. venat. ferar. CIL, viii,7969 [Rusicade] gen. 51 item The meant herbanae et same are herbat). by [man]suet. IRN, CIL, x, 6012 ; cp. Henzen, AdI, xxv, 4063 (Mommsen, omni 118),Aecfeanae (C/L, X, 7295 [Panormus] genere herbariaet numerosasorientales; rum Henzen, CIL, pp.herbariarum, 6177 Varro the describes of .ii., iii, vi, 10,209). 13) (if Quintus preserves
?
:

Tamed

Martial, v, 65, 10 : ib.,i, 104,

quod
et

tua

MaenaUos

collocat tulisse

hasta

his Laurentine Hortensius on circumfluxit tanta nos cervorum


'

estate, where
aprorum formosum mihi

at

blast

of the

horn

et ceterorum

quadrupe-

dum

multitudo,

ut

non

minus

aediUum sine in circo maximo quam venationes ; Plautus, Persa, iii, 3, 30 : citius extemplo a foro fugiunt ludis emissust ex lepus ; Ovid, Metam., xi, 25: porta quum quam ut matutina theatro cervus structoque utrinque periturusharena. animals Such were especiallybaited at the FloraUa (Ovid, Fasti, v, 371
:

visum sit spectaculum Africanis bestiis cum fiunt

imbelles

capreae

sollicitusque lepus);
De
Civ.

foxes

at

the

Cerialia

Dei, x, 35, 57 : canem 43). Augustine, (cp.Preller,RM, ii', in circo fit. post leporem jam non specto cum in large numbers also often seen Of course in the venathey were Hones of the imperialperiod (Gordiani Tres, 3 : cervi palmati ducenti mixtis Britannis). In the latest as well as the earliest times, the to have venationes been again chieflysupphed with such appear animals and were as were more less dangerous ; readily obtainable at least they are particularly frequent on diptychs (so also MiUin, Voy. d. I. midi, p. 100, pi. xxiv, 3 and Bdl, 1851, p. 92) and contornlates (MorelU, Thes., vol. iii, i,p. 335],vol. p. i, tab. 33, 19 [vol. tab. other venationes ii, 18, tab. 79] ; 19 [vol. iu, p. ii, 20 and 49), (ib.,
currentem

86
It is the

Appendices
who

[vol.ii.

of the French). Cp. Mongez, p. lynx [loup-cervier du Levant : the from Cosmographie Thevet, following quotes 401 dont avons cruelz nous Les loup-cerviers sont que ceux trop plus maintenant parl6,et de cette esp6ce on en vit un en France, n'y ha de de la forest d'Orl^ans, au pays pas long temps ; lequelsortant is extinct in It now I'an d6vora 1548, plusierspersonnes.' Berry, to animal from "sent this France. Pompey Probably Caesar had

84).
, '

Gaul. fecta.

Edict.

Diocl., viii,35

infecta lupicervarii pellis

con-

for the first and apparently seen Lastly, at these games there was the only time the Ethiopian Cepus (Pliny,viii,70) a sort of ape with Hist. Anim., tail (Aristotle, ii, 8),according to Mongez (pp.402a des singes-macaques habitans de la the class to 404) belonging de their since that Guinee de I'int^rieur et Pliny says I'Afrique : hands and feet are beings, Keller (Thiere very like those of human be gorillas. des class. Alterth.,p. 16) thinks they may first exhibited The Giraffewas by Caesar at the triumphal games Hist., viii,69). It is spoken (46 B.C. ; Dio, xliii, 23 ; Pliny, Nat. of by Varro : Alexandrea camelopardalis nuper adducta) (L.L., v, 20 and Horace {Epp., ii, i, 194). Pliny says'that the animal, which wild and the Greeks Bsaiaris called camelopardalis, or sheep {ovis known to the Ethiopians as fera, no doubt a popular name), was nabun. On the Palestrina mosaic are Ni/3ousand Ka/iiiXmrdpSaXis de different but similar animals Mos. Palestrina, p. (Barth61emy, i860, t. i, 40). Cp. Brandt, Bull, de Vac. imp. de St.-PStersbourg, of Is the Nabus identical with his ? Pliny camelopardalis 353 PThe Arabic is zardfa (the lovely) ; modem Greek name fopd^is; in Albertus Magnus, seraph. See Mongez, pp. 413 and 418, who (pp. complete collection of the statements 41 1-422) has given the most
, ' '
"

of

ancient

and

modern

writers

on

the

with giraffe

which

am

quainted ac-

der Villa Pamfili, p. ; cp. also Jahn, Columbar. first descriptionof it by an eye-witness,subsequent to the

45). Augustan

The

in Rome and calls it the Indian one age, is that of Pausanias, who saw lived camel under who is said to have (ix,21, 3) ; Florentinus, there Dio next saw one Macrinus, (Geopon.,xvi, 22) and (Ixxii, 10) who
were saw one

slain

by
which

Commodus.
were

Under led in
;

the

third

Gordian

there

ten

at

Rome,

procession at the secular


III., 33) ;
some

of

PhiUp
in two

the Arabian AureUan's


were

(a.d.247

Gordian. Zenobia
in

games also took

(a.d. 278 ; Vit. Aurel., 496 to Theodosius (Marcellinus of the giraffe Comes, Chron. of the year). Ancient representations in Jahn as above and i,1 Bdl, 1858, p. 125 : sarcophaguswith (taf. the Indian triumph of Bacchus ; cp. p. 173 ; AdI, 1863, p. 375 ; Mon. d. I., vi and vii, tav. 80). From the dedication of the theatre c. of Marcellus (11 B.C.)to
part
over

triumph
from

33) ;

sent

India

the Varro

latest

times. first
seen

The

Tiger was

at

Rome
that

during the reign of Augustus.


it

{L.L., v, 20) was impossible to capture it Seleucus the end of the fourth century, alive, although I, towards had already presented one to the Athenians, mentioned by Philemon and Alexis in Athenaeus (xiii, p. 590) ; cp. Ausland, i860, p. 833 {Der Tiger im Alterthum). According to Dio (liv, 9) the first tigers

declared

VOL.

II.]
presented
the island
to

Appendices
of Samos

187

were on

Augustus by an Indian embassy, which met him (19 B.C.) ; according to Pliny {Nat. Hist.,

he exhibited the first tiger at Rome the 4th of May, 11 on of the theatre of Marcellus B.C., at the dedication tame and ; it was in a Claudius exhibited A four. kept tame cage. tiger also mentioned in Martial(S/'., 18 ; i,104, 1-3). Domitian a

viii, 65)

presented

large

number

tigers (probablyat the shows given to celebrate the Sarmatian triumph, at the beginning of the year 93 ; cp. Martial, viii, 26 ed. Friedlander) also Antoninus Pius {Vita, 10) ; ten were ; so slain at a show given by Septimius Severus in 203 (Dio, Ixxvi, 7) At the wedding of Elagabalus (a.d.218) (who, attired as Bacchus
.

of

drove have

teams

of

been

killed
to

deer, lions and tigers.Vita, 28) 51 tigersare said to III possessed ten {Vita, (Dio, Ixxix, 9). Gordian
four

33) ; Aurelian,
In addition

{Vita, 33).
animals mentioned are following during the imperialperiod at
as

having
The

been
or

the above, the exhibited in Rome


on

the

venationes

other

occasions.

of Domitian. Bubalus, at the shows According to Pliny the Hist., viii, {Nat. 38) ignorant vulgar (' imperitum volgus ')gave

this Greek
their

name
,

of

the

primigenius)and
'

the confusion

antelope to the aurochs (urus. Bos buffaloes was kept up : when


'

urus,

made

in Italy under the name the Lombards, was appearance ready to hand the wild other found (Hehn, Culturpfl.*, ox p. 502). Also, in Germany, the Bison (aname from borrowed the Germanic wisand and in Seneca, occurs by the Greeks Romans), Bos bison (first Martial
;

villosi H4^/"o;.,65: {Spect., 23,

Mongez,
in

p.
202

of Severus p. 450.

feri cornibus latisque uri) Tame, in esseda : turpes tes) 5 ; i, 104, quod trahunt bisoniii, 61) and at the games 433 ; also C^lpumius {Eel., (Dio, Ixxvi, i) ; accurately described in Mongez,
. . . .

bisontes
8

Pausanias Thiere dtvpioi (Keller,

calls

these

animals,

elsewhere
bulls
'

called

;86es

des cl. Alt.,p.

53),

'

Paeonian

(they were

in Paeonia), and describes in detail the method especiallycommon he in Rome of hunting them saw one (x,13,2) ; (ix, 21, 3). At the time this mammalia of contithe of the animal, nental largest present Europe ', is only found in the primeval forest of Bialowicza in the Russian province of Grodno (Brehm, Illustr. Thierl.,ii,636). in Schade's the article Wisunt Altd. Worterb.^, Cp. comprehensive 1173-1185 and Keller as above, pp. 53-65. Further, the Damma (Martial, Sped., 30),according to Cuvier an African antelopecalled It is (Mongez, nanguer p. 434) ; cp. Martial, iv, 35, 74, xiii,94. J often mentioned in Vita Gordiani II in 200 Vita later, (3),2000 Probi (19). The ultima non Oryx (Martial,xiii,95 : matutinarum (Pliny,Nat. Hist., xi, oryx), a one-horned praeda ferarum, saevus African deserts animal from the 255) (xiii, (ib., x, 201). Martial ^d the Onager (Cicero, at Att.,vi, i, 25) as seen 100) also mentions It was venationes. formerly identified with the zebra (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch. 20). Mongez (pp. 443-446) rejects this view, that the ancients mention the because not only tamed, onager was could be (cp., which the zebra never however, Brehm, Illustr. Thierl., have been truly extraordinary if ii,378),but also because it would the about characteristic when ing describhad said nothing stripes they is first zebra described the animal. The by Philostorgus {Hist.
' ' '

88
the

Appendices
name

[vol.ii.

EccU, iii,Ji) under


onager others
of with
1

6voi

the

Romans wild

with
ass.

the It is

the

Ixxvi,

Gordiani
shows
were

Tres, 3 [30] :

identified the dypios. Cuvier hemionus Pallas), jagatai (Equus later (Die, frequently mentioned Gord. Ill, 33 : xx onagri, 1 equi
'

feri).
At the of Antoninus
'

Pius, where
the

of the world
were

to be
:

seen

10),the (Vita,
and
theCrocuta. of

exhibited p.
the

every part tioned, following,not yet men(an African variety of Strepsiceros The
in
202

animals

from

antelope : Mongez,

439)

latter, described

under the name by Dio, Ixxvi, i, at games used elsewhere for an /co/jokAttos (Haupt, Opuscula, ii, 187 note; in which his Gr. Rom., animal, Rohde, 2), opinion 229, Ethiopian Severus
had which
never

been p.
to
a

seen

before

that
to

time, has
the the coins

been

taken

for

hyaena

(Mongez,
for reference in

436).

According
and
on

the
coat

first time

exhibit
the these

(D.N., vii,19), inscriptionMunificentia with


a

in Eckhel
hon

venationes of

reverse

passant
in the

or

an

phant ele-

Besides

3)
ten

and
a

both

mail, place year 149. white Deer at Rome the above, Pausanias saw (viii, 17, the Gallic Alces ix, 21, 3), resembUng in appearance (S.\kti, Gordian I and Gordian III had stag and a camel ',the elk.
'

shows

took

(Gordiani Tres, 2 ; Gordianus III, 33 : Aurelian., 33). Henzen (Ann. d. Inst.,xxv, p. 118) the aninial thinks he can Eel., 7, 58 : raram (Calpumius, recognize silvis etiam editur on a quibus alcen) diptych (Man. dell' Inst.,v, 51). mentioned Dio The by (Ixxvii, 6) as having been slain Hippotigris,
elks
;

and

Aurelian

certain

number

at the from
as

games

of Caracalla
in itself the

is

the zebra, which certainly of the

was

so

called

the

uniting camelopardalisthose

characteristics of the camel

horse

and
:

the

tiger,

and

the

pard
of

cp. Brehm,
: oves

Illustr. Thierl., ii, 373. of Gordian At the games

I mention

is also made
course

ferae

Oves C, tauri Cypriaci C, ibices CC. of the mentioned animals class are
nam cum

ferae (hereof by
Columella

giraffes) (R.R., vii, 2, 4 :


not

miri coloris vicino Africae ex municipium Gaditanum sicut munerariis arietes aliae bestiae feri apportarentur) ; Edict. Diocl., viii,25 : pelUs obiferi (d^iipdpi) ; cp. Apicius, viii, 4 The wild maned and Ducange, s.v. sheep (Ovis tragelaphusDesm.), inhabit small flocks of which stands one thehighplateauxof Algeria, the to and is metre withers, high up shy, characteristically very the underside of the neck, a on distinguishedby a splendid mane much shorter one the withers, and thick knee-tufts reaching over (Schwarz, Algerien,1881, p. 320). Tauri Cypriaci are zebus (see ibex is mentioned by PUny (Nat. Hist., viii,214: p. :84). The genus). Ibices and oves ferae in Vit. Probi (19). caprarum In the description of the shows in Calpumius (Eel.,3, 57) the mentioned animals also the white are Hare lis : following (Lepus variabithe horned Boar and the Phoca PaU.), (probablythe babiroussa) (cp.also Aegae in CiUcia in the Ust of the amphitheatres); Mongez, Pellis vituli marini infecta confecta pp. 448-453. (Edict. Diocl., viii,37). Symmachus (Epp., ix, 125) procured for his games someAddaces (a kind of gazelle)and Pygargi (perhaps Capra aegagrus Pall; also from Scotland Mongez, p. 456), dogs (Epp., ii, 77).already

in

silvestres

VOL.

II.]
in Strabo's time

Appendices
(iv, 5,
2

189
British hounds

exported
Snakes Rome another and

p.

199) ;
accounts

(Grat.
at

Falisc, Cyneg., 174;


are never were

Nemesianus,
mentioned

Cyneg., 124).
of the venationes

in the

Animal.,

52)
kind

saw

only used for show (see appendix ii). Philo {De between and of a a one fight poisonous snake
Alexandria.

at

XXXI.

How

Animals

were

caught

for

the

Amphitheatre.

(Vol. II,
The animals
2,
were

page
in

69, line 5.)

often
:

captured
foveas

pits. Paulus,

Lib.

ad

Sabinum.

Digg., ix,
causa

capiendorum cervorumque cp. Pollux, v, 81 ; Festus, p. 87 (Keller,Thiers d. Nets with feathers tied to them klass. Alt., ^"j2, 151) ; also in nets. for catching bears, sows, and foxes described are deer, wolves by
ursorum

28
;

qui

faciunt

iv, 534 Oppian (Cyneg.,

{Cyneg., iii, with rotten caught snares, for bait (Aelian,Nat. An., xiii, in Oppian (iv, meat 10) ; differently, 320). The hippopotamus caught in pit-falls (AchillesTatius, iv, Diod. hunt with Sic, i, 35), as still 2) ; a hippopotamus harpoons in the Sudan (Brehm, Illustr. Thierl., ii, 776). Cp. the representations
;

Keller, 120)
Mauretania

and

Nemesianus

303).

Panthers

in

with

Gerhard, Archdol.Anzeiger, Sic, I.e. 1858, p. 169*. caught in nets, Diod. the of The The Scot manner catching bison, Pausanias, x, 13, 2. in Numidia Arrian, De Venat., by horsemen, (?) lassoed "ypioi.
on

the

Palestrina

mosaic

and

The

crocodile

For mounted the fabulous tiger-hunt,in which 24, 3. took the tigercubs from their lair and saved themselves them 66 ; in front of

huntsmen

the

mother

in

Pomponius
;

de' Nasoni 353-

Mela, iii,5 ; Keller, p. 132.

by dropping pursuit, see Pliny, Nat. Hist., viii, Martial, viii, 26 ; Bartoh, Sepolcro
A

different

method

in

Oppian, iii,

XXXII.

Modern page
a

Animal

Fights.

(Vol. II,
Fights
at the

71, line

14.)
amusement in Asia

between

animals
as

are

very

favourite

present day, dog, cock, caliphs(especially d. and and ram Or., ii, 75 fights; Kremer, Culturgesch. i). 203, broad-tailed camels, and buffaloes in Armenia Fights between rams, and (Brugsch, Reise nach Persien, i, 122, 125, 140). In Bokhara
of the

in the time

Turkestan p.

ram-fights (Vambery, generally,


Animal the diversion Indian

Skizzen
often

aus

Mittelasien

and the only occupafightsare tion cocks, and princes. In Bharatpur antelopes, rams, quails are trained to fight; male elephants formerly at Lucknow ite (OrUch, Reise in Indien, pp. 195 and 207). One of the favourof the Javanese is a fight between amusements a tiger and a native buffalo ; the former has often to be urged on by prodding it with it,or pelting sharp-pointedsticks,pouring boiling water over Reise nach Java, 1846, p. 154). it with lighted straw (Selberg, In Europe also animal to have been fights seem by no means in earlier times. Christina Sweden of uncommon Queen arranged and between aurochs an a bear a lion and a fight (Grauert, Konigin
of

139).

190
Christine the
for

Appendices
und

[vol.ii.
of January, 1701, at ing Prussian king, a bait-

ihr Hof, i, 421).


of the

On

the

20th of
at
a

celebration
was

first coronation
of the

held in the presence baiting wild beasts) at

court, in the

Hetzgarten (place
in
an

Konigsberg,

which,
i

hour
were

and

place Briiggen, Polens Augustus elk and ^and a bear an fightbetween Auflosung, pp. 131 and 159 which held the more Hetzhaus, 295). At Vienna, up to 1796, ^yhen of the animals, with down most burnt than was 3000 spectators, used in favourite one this kind of show was a very (hence Hetz was einer Reise Nicolai the of sense {Beschreibung 'amusement'). und die Schweiz, 1781, iv, p. 630) represents these durch Deutschland baitings as in the highest degree disgusting. which More than barbarous ing (accordfightis a custom any animal of December, of the i8th to the Augsb. Allgem. Ztg. (Beilage of the Church. of the States 1864) existed in the country towns On a fixed day in the year a bull is tied up in the market-place and themselves all the inhabitants allowed to amuse are by ill-treating
in Warsaw

half, 14 wolves, i aurochs, 3 bears, Preussen, v, 332). Such (Erlduteytes


under Stanislaus
"

and

wild

boar
also

slain

exhibitions der (E. von

took

"

'

it.

It is beaten

with

sticks, peltedwith
is dead.'

stones, stabbed

and

hacked

with

knives, until it

XXXIII.

Executions
OUT
IN

and
the

other

Punishments

carried

Amphitheatre.

(Vol. II,
In addition
out to

p.

72,

line

6.)
was

the

shows,
and

the

amphitheatre

often

used

for

carrying
Atellanae harena

sentences

executions.

Suetonius

media poetam ob ambigui joci versiculum cremavit ib. ut moveri a igni ; cp. (Tiber.,75) : corpus Miseno coepit,conclamantibus plerisque Atellam potius deferendum et in amphitheatro semiustulandum. Suetonius (Titus,8) : (delain foro assidue fustibus novissime traducac caesos ac tores) flagellis tos per amphitheatri harenam, partim subici ac venire imperavit, avehi partim in asperrimas insularum ; cp. Martial, Lib. Spect,, 4, delatores b. ordered the had Similarly,Trajan (informers) who 4 been sentenced in the amphitheatre to deportationto be exhibited bonorum (Pliny, Paneg., 34). Vit. Hadrian., 18 : decoctores si catomidiari in auctoritatis suae essent, amphitheatro et suorum, dimitti jussit. The in also used amphitheatre Constantinople was for executions Sur : Bock, I'amph. de C. (Suidas,s.v. Kwifyiov) ; books be burnt there to xviii, Justinian ordered (Malalas, pagan Ammianus on Marcelhnus, xxvi, p. 48, I ; cp. also commentators 3. 2). XXXIV. On
the

(Calig., 27) : amphitheatri

Vularium

of

the

Amphitheatre.

(Vol. II,
In
a

p.

79,

line

22.)

(pp. 38) entitled Del Velario e delle vele negli nelV anfiteatro Flaviano anfiteatri, especialmente (Roma, n.d.,Topografia di G. Menicanti) the architect Efisio Luigi Tocco the view contests
,

short

treatise

(put forward

by

H.

Barbarus

and

illustrated

by

drawing by

C.

VOL.

II.]
p. and

Appendices
the

191

perforatedstone slabs in the cornices of for holding amphitheatres could have been intended masts or siderable poles. The system of cordage would have exerted a constrain in the direction of the centre the entire phery, periupon and the slabs,being without any point d'appui outside, might have driven in the edge of the wall, especially easily during a strong
theatres wind wall
wooden
;

Fontana,

8), that

in
on

order the have

to

support
as a

masts,

they ought

to The for

have

been

structed con-

inner acted

side of the
to

periphery,where

the

edge

of

the he

would

considers, reallyintended
.

support (p. 17). serve as supports

slabs
an

were,

uppermost
lutely absoin
mast

the as storey (p. 19) The author assumes, of the velarium point d'appui indispensable of the
'

chief and
a

large

in the arena. Consequently, the velarium was il quale avesse il suo centro padiglione, alquanto acuminato, e tenacemente appoggiato al grand' albero di cui abbiamo or bell-tent,the centre of which was parlato (a large pavilion, somewhat pointed and firmly supported by the tall mast of which

the

centre

form

di

un

gran

spoken). A severely damaged by


we

have

construction
a

like storm.

Fontana's undertaken

would

have

been

sudden

But

the Paul

careful

examination,

kindly
'

at

my

request

Laspeyres (died1881) in Rome, shows Tocco's assumption to be completely untenable. The old theory appears to me I clear the which in not to manner am as unassailable,although quite
the

by

Mr.

awning

was

spread.
were

But

I have

no

doubt

whatever

that

the

exclusively to the exterior ropes upper of the periphery amphitheatre, by a ring of firmly planted masts. By using the corbels preserved in so many amphitheatres, with fixed with correspondingapertures in the cornice, the masts were a complete security ; for in the first place a stone corbel in which where it from the wall is is inserted mast at the point projects than enormous capable of supporting weights far more any which could be required here, and secondly the four surfaces presented by the sides of the apertures in the cornice at the top of the wall
necessary attached afford

only
and
curve

The tension of the rope to the pressure. effective resistance centre inwards towards the of the building, draws the mast

this pressure is entirelycounteracted, of the wall. Any tendency to sway checked

just as
from the

in

an

arch, by
The

the

side to side is effectively cornice. but


outer

side of the
constant be

by the compact aperture is no doubt


of the mast

mass

of

somewhat
the

weak,
centre
at

owing
will

to

the

strain

towards lower I know will be the

exerted
to

outwards. the mast the

The

the
no

point
reason

pressure the which


it should

never

rope
be

is

attached inwards But in

(and
shorter

why

ticularly par-

high), the
and my attachment he assumes, have been
'

less will be

exerts lever which the structure strain on

the

pressure

generally.
for the

The

of the ropes supporting the pavilion for in any case, to avoid inconvenience, the ropes must the heads of the spectators. attached above in of a pavilionwith velarium the form a suspensionof the would would

opinion Tocco's of the lower ends

theory requires

these

masts

central the

column

certainly have
be

pleasing appearance,

but

construction

could not be

given

to the

sufficient stability because impossible, of the arena, mast centre in the on lofty

192
which would the whole structure

Appendices
would

[vol. ii.
This central the the
to view
mere

depend.
of

support
towerlike of the notion

the form to take a therefore have with interfere which would seriously scaffolding other considerations, from '. arena Apart many of such
a

firmly braced

central
180

height
Tocco's

of

high (the support 200 ought feet) is a monstrosity which


feet
'

outer

wall have

having
roused idea

and suspicions, '.


Abolition
of

made

him

perceive that
Shows.
more

his whole

is

untenable
XXXV. Shows

the

Gladiatorial
Ages
and

Gladiatorial

in

the

Middle

Recent

Times.

(Vol. II,
De

p.

80, line 22.)


Porto alludente

Rossi

(EpigrafestoHca

scoperta in

agli ulHmi

ed gladiatorii spettacoli

p. 84) Portus

alia loro abolizione,in Bull, crist., 1868, vi, of the front stone on a at conjectured that the inscription clarissimus ) (CJL, xiv, 300) : Arpagius Lupus v(ir

ad splendorem nynfii petentibus civibus locum ca solo .)largitus sua constructumpopu(lo .)a om(ni pecunia est vota est ; (exequutus) publica "celerit(ate ) qua referred to the erection of a new building in place of a gladiatorial the back school. The on a {CIL, xiv, 157), in which inscription certain (Ac)holius Abydus c. v. probably (praef. annonae urb)is
. .

Romae

is

named,

he restores

as

follows

miseri (hie
sua

in dirum

saeva arma-

n)ecessitatecertamen
bantur
.

(ad

oblectandos

morte

pop)ulos

ab initio decon)dito sed sine usu The is said to be meant school, which gladiatorial r(el)icto De have Rossi's been built to must here, according conjecture of the in abolition the rather gladiatorial shortly before games 404 (or of the gladiatorial and therefore schools in 399 ; see note on vol. ii, 81) p. from unused the very beginning. The second line have remained
autem (aedificio
,

of the
or

the the

the front he restores follows : locum on as inscription ca(stri) sordentem) ad splendorem, etc. He places ca(mpi) (gladiatorii But somewhere about the time of Cassiodorus. inscriptions of all this is either is since there increased, no uncertainty proof the

stone set up by was formerly in the place where it was refer to the same Lupus or (2) that the two inscriptions remarks). building (cp. Dessau's As to gladiatorial in the Middle shows recent Ages and in more times, I can only give the followingreferences. Petrarch, Epist. fam., V, 6 : (inNaples) luce media inspectantibus regibus ac populis infamis ille gladiatorius ludus celebratur barbarica plus quam their feritate. Sons fall before parents' eyes, juguloque gladium

(i) that

AchoUus

"

cunctantius
combat

accepisseinfamia
that
a

summa near

took and

place

court,

before
shout

large
of

brilhant
ante
was

a torial gladiacity in the presence of the public : formosissimus juvenis

est.

He

describes

the

rigido mucrone
II
at
:

transfossus

pedes
raised.

meos

applause

mendous a trecorruit, whereat de Henry Brantome, M6m.

The

Cardinal

of Ferrara

Lyons. Cette entree belles singularitez, I'une vestus douze gladiateurs

festival in honour of the king a gave done fut accompagn^e de plusieurs trfe d'un combat k I'outrance de et k I'antique, de satin blanc les six, et les autres de satin

194
is Arena. Du

Appendices

[vol.ii.

Arenae documents Cange s.v. cites from mediaeval de Ar^nes and Bourges. Petracoricenses, Remenses, Parisienses, that during these times On the other hand, Maffei (p.76) observes
'

nfe si sapea
e

che

fosse anfiteatro

nh

si

usavano

si fatti nomi

nel

suo

vero

antico

'. significato
when

to be

have
assumed

existed

Certainly amphitheatres can be proved with certainty but in all those places, they cannot (or as in Valesius, supported only by this name
332,

Cavea) ; when, for instance, by the name at Aquileiais inferred by Bartoli amphitheatre the frequent mention of a from (Antich. d'Aquileja,p. 254) only At Naples even, in old civic documents. torre d' Arena accordingto delV anf. di Garrucci Giovanni (SulV origine e sulla costruzione a platea amphitheatriin the regio Catania), a vico dell' anfiteatro, be proved that there Thermensis are mentioned, although it cannot was really an amphitheatre there. The name Colosseum, also, was given to amphitheatres at least The here and there in Italy,not only in Rome. best known is the Benedictine monk Erchempert, who Capuan, called Colossus by the in the ninth his history of Lombardy wrote at Capua century. this concluded from have Mazzocchi and Maffei that the (p. 31) from not also Flavian received its the colossus amphitheatre name, of Nero hard by {ase.g. Scriver on Martial, Sp.,2, assumes), but from its size. On the other hand, Jordan (Topographic, ii, 510) is of that the name colossus,by which the Flavian amphitiieatre opinion
Notitia
the

Galliarum, p.
of
an

existence

was

known of the the

in the tenth

century,
the

was

transferred,

after

the

tion destrucfrom of this

colossus, to
at

to

Capuan

buildingthat stood amphitheatre. Benvenuto


1

near,

and

Cellini

(Vita, cap. ; Goethe, da' nostri Fiorentini scritto nelle chronache di fede, che la citti di Firenze ed uomini fu fatta ad imitazione della cittei di Roma, di alcune del Colosseo delle e cio si vede e vestigie of Terme. Travels S. Kiechel (1585-1589 ; Bibliothek des litl. Vereins zu Stuttgart, has acolosseo. Promis 1866), p. 236 : Verona

amphitheatre
trovasi

Florence

the says bd. 28, p. 6) : molto antichi

(Memorie
there
da
was

quello
Yet
a

della cittA di Luni, p. 225) says that the called colosseo by the country people, nome di Roma, celebre e frequente sopra tutto
'

amphitheatre propagatosi
nella Italia

inferiore '. third


name,
common

in

mention.

Erchempert
origin and
the

calls the date

places in Italy,deserves amphitheatre of Capua also Berosome

lais,Berelasis,Berolassi, names
are

which

according
time when

to

Italian

savants
was

of Arabic

from

the

this district

occupied by (Rucca, Capua Vetera). My former colleague J. Zacher (died 1887),however, is of opinion that the word berolais (properly tero-laz) is Lombard and derived from ber and Idzan, which, on the analogy of stole-saz, scult-heiz, though mare-paiz, properly used of a person, might also denote a place,properlya bear's house '. This explanationis remarkably confirmed by the local names in Cologne and Berlich Perlach in Augsburg. The latter, in the Vita Oudalrici (end of the tenth century), is spoken of as coUis qui dicitur Perleihc ',and in the appended treatise De signis Oudalrici, Perileihc ; later forms are Perleich and Perlaich, in chronicles of the fowrteenth and fifteenth centuries,Pernlaich,
' '

Saracens

VOL.

II.]

Appendices

195

Bernlaich,Perleig, Perlach, Berlaich (J.Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, Eng. tr., i, pp. 293, 295, cites the etymology : eo quod legio ibi dey Rheinl., xx, perierit). Diintzer (Jahrhb. f. Alterthumsfr. 21) had already conjectured, that a place was bears meant, where are laiks : It is obvious ludus, munus) kept (from leih, Gothic
.

that these in the known

local

names

are

identical

with
'

that
a

and mouth

also,on

the other north their

hand,
of the

that
a

Capuan amphitheatre, designation, originating


work have that been became
planted trans-

of the

of German in the
to

peoples, for

Roman

to tliem

by
a

them

during

wanderings

empire, might also to Italy, used

there in

similar its
'

manner

denote

held

ground, although (J. Becker, Der Berlich zu Koln und der Perlach zu Augsburg, is called by the ib.,xlii,p-. 64). The amphitheatre of Vindonissa people Bdrlisgrub (bear-pit). Consequently, there is no need to
to later generations

the same kind of Roman its meaning was unknown

buildings,and

suppose
In

an

Arabic the
name

derivation.
is found in li

Italy

only at Capua (now


Minturnae remains of
'

the now usual form Verhisci,not Virilasci, Beloch, Campanien, p 352) but also at {ai Virilasci, CIL, x, 6054 a) and at Venafrum ; the
.

place nel cosi detto Vorlascio storiche di Venafro,p. 264) ; in Arezzo (Cotugno,Memorie the name has become and Florence of time. Parlagio in the course It is not uninterestingto trace these changes, and some information
an

amphitheatre

exist in the

latter

'

from

Parlagioovvero (Bologna, 1746, 4),found by me in Otto Jahn's will perhaps be the more acceptable, as this work is very library, in the amphitheatre, called ColosThe remains of seum rare Germany.
di anfiteatro Firenze of the eleventh, twelfth, Cellini,in documents by Benvenuto thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries, are called Perilasium, Perlasium, Perlagium, Perlascio, Pierlascio,Piarlagio, Piarlasgio; these

Dom

Maria

Manni's

Notizie

istoriche iniorne

al

Jordan's explanation ment corruption of palatium. In a docualso occurs, of 1701, Peribasium of the a slip perhaps pen, (p. 18) considers perhaps a learned attempt at explanation ; Manni The it the original, form. variant Pratolascio in two docucorrect ments is striking. The of 1085 and 1086 unintelUgible word naturally changed into the apparently intelhgible Parlagio; as had taken the derivation the from as soon change parlare place, appeared certain, and from that time the building was regarded as intended for councils of the people. Villani (Storie, one i, cap. 33) tells of its Caesar Comandd a' suoi, : building by Julius already
forms
seem

to

me

absolutely
name as a

to

exclude

(Topogr.,ii, 402) of

the

'

che

dovessero
; ed

andare

nella

villa memoria

di

Camarti

d'Arno
nostre

ivi edificassero
e

Parlatorio

parlamento

per

una

sua

per poter lasciarlo.


Fu

il fiume presso in quello fare suo

Questo
fatto

edificio in

in e si cominciavolte con piazza in mezzo ; e poi al torno, e poi di grado in grado sopra vano infino alia fine dell' altezza, ch' era alto volte andavano allargandosi il popolo due porte,ed in questo si ragunava pii di 60 braccia, e avea

volgare avemo moltp maravigliosee gradi da sedere tutto

chiamato

Parlagio.

tondo

parlamento. E di grado in grado sedeano le genti,al di sopra la dignitel deUe genti ; ed era i piii nobili,e poi digradando secondo I'un I'altro in del si vedean che tutti quelli parlamento per modo
a

far

196
viso ; ed udivasi ad agio infinita torio '. who This
was :

Appendices
chiaramente moltitudine

[vol.ii.

dictionaryhas
bardia the

e capeavi parlava, per tutti cid che uno Parlaera di gente e'l diritto nome Crusca's sixteenth believed till the century : Du Parlamento. Cange, Parlagio, dove si tenea : seu

quotes Villani, says praesertim


of locum

Parlatorium
cameram,

appellant
ubi de

in Italia et Lom-

rebus

seriis civitatis who

The first Florentine recognized In Aretine an was (1578). Borghini building purpose of Arezzo is also the chronicle amphitheatre (fourteenth century) alia dissertazione called Guazzesi i Parlagi, and (Supplemento intorno agli anfiteatri degli antichi Toscani, p. Ixxv) still connects

cujuspiam disceptatur.
the

writer

the del

name

with

assembhes.
:

But

the
a

name

also

occurs

in

Pisa.

Guazzesi,
serviva
cronaca

p. Ixxxv

ed in Pisa

la Porta

Lucca

si chiamava

la Porta

Parlascio

ne' tempi antichi I'Anfiteatro, che per esservi stato In una nel 800 di Xpto al popolo di Pisa per adunarvisi. della citta manoscritta si legge che nel 1534 nel far le mura
non

fu But

trovata

procul
et ibi

ab

balnei the should


la gran

marmorei entire
us

amphitheatro moles reperti tubi plumbei


as

peregregia
ad

diruti

absence hesitate

of information
to
assume

to

the
of

ductum. aquae of this ruin form


an

make

the existence

amphitheatre,
'

as according especially

to Manni

(p. 12) by
secondo che

this

name

s'intendeva seppe Giu-

Fabbrica Martini'

delle Terme,

scrive

il canonico

{Theat. Basil.

become a popular term P. S. Bartoli the people at Rome soleva grandi edifizi, dalla grandezza delle Terme
'

Pis., p. 5). Perhaps the word had for all ancient ruins, just as according to
chiamar
di

Terme
e

Antonino

tutti i di Dioquently fre-

cleziano Even

'

(Fea, Miscellanea,
statements A

i, p.
upon

ccxlix).
remains of

the and

based

buildingsare

erroneous.

copied

described

supposed amphitheatre at Dou6 in Poitou, by Lipsius ("""amph., vi),was, according to

Montfaucon

of an old French iii, expliq., (Antiq. p. 258), the remains in the case of undoubtedly ancient ruins, royal palace. Moreover, the most the similarityhas often been held to justify superficial di of di rotonditi an : o assumption amphitheatre ogni apparenza oval figura all' imaginazione d' alcuni ricorda anfiteatro (Maffei, p. 93). Consequently all such statements, if not further supported, be received should with the if they date from caution, especially Middle
of many

Ages
ruins

or

the
it is

early

centuries

of modern determine
statements

times. whether

In

the
are

case

of

an

impossibleto amphitheatre.
on

they

those

If

then,
must

the be

one

hand,

the

theatres concerning amphithe


other

considerably discounted, on

it is evident

our knowledge of those which existed in ancient times can only of them must have partial. Very many disappeared during the Middle Ages without leaving a trace behind or have been destroyed and the result of beyond recognition. It is only exceptionally as

that
be

concurrence a

of

circumstances special
number

that

more

or

less

important

ruins of

tion standing, informahas reached from the concerning us period that preceded their total destruction. A considerable a certain, perhaps even of similar information amount be gathered from might no doubt of earUer centuries, especially the writings cityrecords,topographior

considerable
them

have

remained

VOL.

11.]
and descriptions times would books

Appendices

197

cal

of those

antiquity by making

of travel, and students of the literature render service to the knowledge of Roman a it known. Even in more countries remote

be awaiting discovery. amphitheatres may many made The first attempt at a list was by Lipsius in his treatise De He Romam. extra enumerates of amphitheatris quae 15, two ohe and which, however, the ruin at Dou6 mentioned, already posed supexisted to have at Athens, are apocryphal. Montfaucon
18 outside Rome, all in France {Antiq. expUquie,iii, p. 258) mentions with ruin Italica. the of the of Maffei's work exception Italy, second vol. ed., Milano, 1826, Degli Anfiteatri(Verona illustrata, 5)

and

caused about

healthy

reaction

against slovenly and


in his
of

uncritical

statements

amphitheatres ; certainly Mafifei


and

too far in

Capua,

admitting the Verona) ;

existence
that

only three
he

went hypercriticism amphitheatres(Rome, to be


a

of Pola

declared

theatre

and

at least doubted

that of Nimes.

Cl^risseau

(AntiquiUs de

la France,

1804, pp. 90-96) gives a list of 62 amphitheatres, Promis (asabove, in of which 62 reckons he alone, assumes as Italy beyond 55 p. 225, i) all doubt (?). In his Storia dell' antica Torino (1869),p. 190, he di asserire che una increases the number nh ho dubbio by 23 : della la men d'ltalia,come diligenteperlustrazione parte percorsa il I'ultima Calabria almeno numero ne a cento, Puglia e porterebbe contando non quelle delle isole '. I have accepted all those given as by Promis, but I am the less able to regard his statements beyond all doubt, since as a rule he does not state whether based are they written information for I do not remains or ; thus, example, upon the latter does not include of gladiaknow whether simple mention torial which I am The list with most recent shows. acquainted of Emil that of Hubner esisall the known amphitheatres, (Iscrizioni dell' Inst., tenti sui sedili di leatri ed anfiteatri antichi,p. 23 ; Annali 83 to 85. 1856, p. 67) contains gations investiA complete list can by the continuous only be obtained of people ; what follows here wiU have of a number fulfilled if it should basis for such its purpose, serve as a complementary it will suffice to give an efforts ; certainly approximate idea of the be proved. existence number of the amphitheatres whose For can the I of of Italian considerable a notices, especially ruins, am part is especially indebted to the hbrary of Otto Jahn (died 1 869) which rich in monographs the subject. Further, for the list of the on I in amphitheatres Italy, have beeri able to make use of information Rudolf from Bergau, Otto Hirschfeld, and Nissen ; to Hirschfeld I am of French further indebted for bringing to my notice a number The statements local treatises on amphitheatresin Gaul. on Spanish
' ,

amphitheatres are
Konrad the collected Bursian
at

from

Emil
far

Hubner,
The
as

on

those

of Switzerland

from
of
are

(died 1883).
so

statements

of measurements accessible notices


are

chief

dimensions,
the
end

they
of

are

to

me,

of

this list.
to be the

Other

only given
more

when incidentally,

frequently, when
of these

they appear they verify

specialinterest ; but existence and degree of


so

servation prehas

disappearedonly
that far

ruins in earlier times. The fact that last the few centuries makes during

much

more

amphitheatres

existed

in the

it very probable Roman empire

198

Appendices
present
appear time
not
;
so

ii. [vol.

than be ascertained at the can ill-accredited items of information


of

that

many

even

altogetherunworthy
by Statilius Taurus generally recognized

notice.
The first stone not

amphitheatre in Rome,
the oldest in
It is

built

now B.C. was Italy. Bull. Nap., n.s., i,p. 145) that the amphitheatres in Etru(Garrucci, ria were not, as was formerly believed, built by the Etruscans, but has already referred the other the Romans. On hand, Henzen by the earhest to the amphitheatre at Pompeii period of the Sullan colonization, arguing from the antiquated letters and forms of words which twice in the amphitheatre in the followinginscription, occurs C. : CIL, X, 852) Quinctius C. f. Valgus M. Porcius {CIL, i, 1246 honoris M. f. duovir caussa spectaculade sua peq. quinq. colonial in perpetuom deder. fac. coer. locum et colonels (Henzen, AdI, when The C. same duumvir, with Valgus, 1859, p. 211). Quinctius at Pompeii [CIL, x, 844) his coUeague M. Porcius built the Odeum been and that had restored the walls of Aeclanum destroyed by Sulla {CIL, i, 1230 ix, 1140). All the inscriptions (as well as the Ciceronian to that fromCasinum, CIL, x, 5282) belong age ; but the date of the building of the amphitheatre at Pompeii (according is stilluncertain to Nissen, Pompej. Studien, p. 118, 70 B.C.) (Mommof RuUus sen on CIL, x, 844). Valgus (perhaps the father-in-law in Cicero, Leg. Agrar.,ii, mentioned 26, 69 ; iii, i, 3 : a Valgi genero, MSS. C. F. W. corr. tainly cerMiiller,earlier reading, Valgii, Vulgi) was old adherent had raked his property together of Sulla, who an of the proscriptions(Dessau, C. Quinctius Valgus, der at the time des A. von Erbauer Pompeii, in Hermes, xviii, 1883, pp. 620-622). dell' antica Torino, p. 188) also considers Promis the amphi(Storia theatres of Pompeii and Aosta to be the oldest of those preserved. in existence It is probable that, even in republican times, others were accad. di arch.,-w., besides the Pompeian (Henzen, Aiti della pontif. be proved p. 74, cp. p. 88, note 16),but such high antiquity cannot known for any of those The the to us. on inscription theatre amphirucci at Puteoli CIL, x, 1789) is restored by Gar{IRN, 2541 (SulV epoca e sui frammenti dell' iscriz. dell' anf. Pwieo?.,Naples, fecit pecunia 1831) as follows : colonia Flavia Augusta Puteolana ing is which Henzen sua, approved by (Bdl, 1851, pp. 93-95). Accordit to this, not built before the time of the Flavian was dynasty. The IRN, 3593 CIL, x, 3792 restored by Mazzocchi inscription nothing as to the date of the Capuan amphitheatre : col. proves Felix Juha Augusta Capua fecit divus Hadrianus Augustus restituit
= = = =

in 30

imagines
Antoninus After
,

et

columnas

addi of the

curavit

imp.

Caes.

Aelius

Hadrianus in Rome

Aug. Pius the building


were

dedicavit. first stone erected that in

amphitheatre

(30

B.C.) others
Vitruvius
built
near

probably soon
recommends in circus

(i,7)
the

Italy,notonly in Campania. should be temples of Hercules


have Italiae
a

towns,
i

which in

neither

amphitheatres ; however, gladiatorial games


in the
est

eadem has

forum. Vitruvius, v, ratione faciendum


est
:

gymnasia nor frequently took place urbibus (forum) non


consuetude Yet in

ideo

quod

majoribus

tradita

gladiatoria
neque

munera

in foro

dari. cultus

Propertius (v,8,
umbra,
nee cum

76)

tu

Pompeia spatiabere

VOL.

II.]
sternet

Appendices
harena
forum
;

199
be
an

lascivum poem, before

certainly this might


by

earlier

Lachmann's

the fifth book subsequently assumption (Rhein. Mus., vi, 107), that middle said
' '

admitted

into

its editors.
wrote not

Vitruvius he would

the have have from

only
and also

January, 27 imperator Caesar

of

B.C.,
'

since
the
'

otherwise

at

elsewhere

imperator
use

'

and
name

'

Caesar

beginning of the alternately, but


as an
'

address would
;

made
the

of

the

Augustus
himself that
'

well, is untenable
aedes

apart
at

fact

that be

Vitruvius remembered

mentions

Augusii

of a.s a form Auguste address Caesar forms a,i"d. the was uncommon, imperator being very In the Augustan generally in use. age (besides Suetonius, A ugustus, sit tibi domuique 58 : [Messalla] quod bonum, inquit, faustumque is Caesar the instance tuae, Horace, Odes, iv, Auguste) perhaps only muneribus cura Quiritium plenis honorem patrum quaeve 14,3 : quae in aevum titulos fastos tuas, Auguste, virtutes per memoresque aeternet. the the entire literature of first Throughout century it in Martial (iv, 27, i ; v, 13, i ; 65, 15 ; viii, perhaps only occurs tit. 36, II ; 80, 7 ; 82, I ; ix, 3, 13 ; 18, 7 ; 80, 3 ; xi, 20, g). If the temple of Quirinus mentioned one (iii, 2, 7) is the by Vitruvius dedicated by Augustus in 19 B.C. (Becker, Topogr., p. 569), Vitruvius about wrote Lit., Eng. tr., Cp. Teuffel, Hist, of Roman 14 B.C. " 264, I).
In

Fanum,

it should

the

provinces also
At Alexandria

the

number
was

of
one

amphitheatres
as

increased
B.C.,

rapidly.
is mentioned He year. at Cyrene cp.
'

there

early
was

as

24

very since it

by
also
was

Strabo

mentions

(xvii,p. 795), who at Nysa in one


in existence
in

in

Caiia
b.c.

already

13

Egypt during that (xiv, p. 643). That (Bockh, CIG, 5361

below).
name

xi, 25, has Ovid, Metam., (for which ampkitheatrum theatrum in first Vitruvius occurs utrimque (i,7, i) : ') civitatibus sunt in non Herculi, quibus gymnasia amphineque in RGDA theatra, ad circum ', p. 94 : (venationes) in circo ; then in foro in amphitheatris. Mommsen observes aut aut : equidem videtur crediderim vocabulum,quod Augusto principedemum
The structum
. . .

usurpari coeptum
solo duo. Dion.

esse

nee cum

vere

Graecum

est, initio

pluralinumero
theatra

usurpatum
Rather

esse,

essent
an

amphitheatra
adjective

tamquam

is A,/jupidiaTpos

{d/x^n-ffiarpos 'nnrdSpo/wi,

the iii, 68, iv, 44), which strictly follows analogy from such of adjectives formed and as substantive, a d/ii^iiifn^l A.fi."p^0d\aiiOS, afiiplffvpos, du0i7rpiio-a"7ros ; KavBos, d,ii(pla\os, d/i^i.da,\a(i"ros, neuter i.e. olKoS6p.-qiM,the being used consequently i.i)."l"i.8iaTpov 8 Koi Kvintyennbv kpiiitrot, substantially. Dio, xliii, 22 : BiaTpbv n dyev ffKTjvrj^^X^'" 'tpo(TeppTi8ij. aiMJuBidTpov iK ToS iripi^iravTax^^^" ^Spas

Halic,

support for the plural amphitheatra in the native (Geschichtedes A mphitheaters by Nissen spectaculaas observed be generally in Studien, p. 108, which von Pomp. Pompeii, may form of the by Nissen amphitheatre is derived consulted). The Augustus
no

doubt

found

from

that

of

the

circus.

200

Appendices
A.

it. [vol.

THE
ITALIA.

WEST.

iii Idus Mai. CIL, x, 3792, 7 (a.d. 387) Capua. dello stato Descrizione rosaria ampiteatri {sic). De Laurentiis, deW antico e moderno anf. Campano (1835). Rucca, Capua vetere (1828),pp. 136-291 ; ib.,Anf. Capuano in Mus. Borb., xv (1856), Minervini and (Bull.Nap., n. s., vi, p. 184) says tav. 37-39 41. recent excavations. tlie most nothing wortli mentioning about

Campania.

thinks that the accommodation Colosseum ; that the amplrifor the spectatorswas as large in ing the latter size,since accordtheatre equalled,if it did not surpass, it had four stories, all of the Doric order, to his definite statement

Beloch,

Campanien,

p. 351.

Rucca
as

in the

the the

lowest, still
lowest

being preserved,
the

story of
the

Colosseum

Neapohtan palma higher than (35^-36!). It also contained


of the

80 arched

entrances, marked
with busts
of six others

by images
been

gods
the

only

two

arches

adorned
to

Jupiter and Diana,


have
let into

stillremain.

ing (Accord-

Bergau, new Capua ; one into the campanile built of to Rucca, are according buildings,
hall of
Here

fa9ade
from

of the
stones

of the townBoth cathedral.


the

theatre.) amphiVicOn

also

were

found

the

statues

of Adonis, Venus

trix, Psyche, etc., now


the

in the Mus.

Borb.

his vaults see large subterranean logy Su V ipogeo dell' anf. Puteolano, p. 11. Parker, Archaeoof Rome, p. vii (1875),pi. 27, 35. According to this, besides have been for 1000 and room machines beast-cages, there would terranean through four subpeople, who could have gone in and out unseen very treatise
:

(Capua Vet.,p. 138). Rucca, pp. 272-280 and

entrances of the
arena

under

the

main
to those

gates.

The

underground

sages pas-

correspond amphitheatre, except that, in conformity with the larger dimensions, we have here three open corridors along the great axis of the arena, while a fourth the There in addition six arched round are runs periphery. along Two arched corridors, hghted by square openings. ning passages, rundistance for a considerable underground, run into the middle
of the two. The

in the PozzuoU

material
;

of the is
an

arcades

of the

arena

elsewhere
It
was

brick
the
as

there in

entire the
as

absence

of

reticulated

is travertine, work.

destroyed
served

840, when
quarry for

Saracens
a

devastated

Capua.

It it

next
was

Lombard
a

leaders

fortress, and
ut moveri

in later times material.


a

also used Atella.

obtaining building
:

Suetonius, Tiber., 75
semiustulandum The

corpus

Miseno
at in

conclamantibus theatro
there

plerisque Atellam

(see p.

potius 190).

deferendum

coepit, amphi-

[Neapolis.
was an

assertion

of Promis

d. (St.
'

a.,

Torino, p. 190) that


'

amphitheatre here, is probably only based upon the of the streets given by Garrucci names vico deW : anf.'and platea of its chief buildings amphitheatri '. It is clear from the account in Statins existed iii, [Silvae, at the end of the 5, 81-104) that none first century. certain C. Herbacius a Inscription on Romanus demarchisanti iivir, etc.,qui ob promiss. venat. phetris divisit quina mil. num. (IRN, 2454 CIL, x, 1491). Beloch also (p.72) assumes that no amphitheatre existed.]
=

202

Appendices
that the
'

[vol.il.
it was
vom

reasons

cavea

was

(p. io6).

R.

in process Schone Permissu

of restoration,when

whelmed over-

(Wandinschriften
aedilium Cn. Aninius

theater AmphiFortunatus

zu

P., in Hermes,

iv, 138) rightly attributes

the

inscriptions

painted outside occup[avit] and


hawkers,
wall'
who
'

(such as
the

like : CIL, iv, 1096, 1096 a, 1097 b, 1115) to stalls in the niches of the outer set up their movable

(Kiessling,Neue Jahrbb. fiirPhilologie, 1872, p. 10) ; they were consequently only good for the time a show lasted ; cp. ZangeIn 1869, on the wall of the peristyleof a meister in the Addenda. the street from the temple of Isis to the amphihouse opening upon theatre discovered older painting an a placed upon picture was rounding already destroyed ; it represents the amphitheatre with the surthe Pompeiaus locahties, and the bloody fray between and in 59 (Tacitus, ^ mm., xv, 17). SeeG.de Nucerians Petra, Z-'om/. Scavi Pompejano rappresentato in un antico dipinto; Giornale degli di Pompei, n. s., i, 186 foil, and tav. viii. [Sorrentum. Promis (St.dell' a Torino, p. 190) ; Beloch, p. 266. had It is doubtful whether Sorrentum an amphitheatre.] Nola. Nissen remarks Corcia {Storiadelle due Sicilie, : ii,416) states, according to the municipal inscriptions[rather,according to Ambrogio saurus, TheLeone, De Nola, Venice, 1514 F, in Burmann,
'

ix,
one

4 ;

Beloch, p. 389]
and
one

that

Nola

had

two

amphitheatres,
the
as

of marble The

of brick, the from

latter before intimations theatre.

gate
to

towards

first,judging Naples. a style of architecture, etc., is certainly


the

situation,
second

The

has

vanished
have

from
me

the in
a

earth's surface, but


a

shown

cornfield

earth, forming
the
that

large

oval
; in

at

stated peasants locality the pillarsjust above below the or In intervals. regular places many
have
no

in the

ground
the '.

was

hollow

short, I
the

doubt

in my
seen

own

tradition, which
'In Leone's lower

removes

the

amphitheatre
could

to this
'

miy^ spotfis
mfe^

correct

time

walls

still be

above

arches p.
200

of the

storey and

the additions
'

of the second

(Beloch,
(

404).
Abella. Of its

amphitheatre
be

the

oval,

some

300

palmi
ofi

seen cavea as palmi wide, can be seen five arched chambers ; ground. On the west the place is now Le grotte d' Autonello called from these (Beloch, Below o f the certain L. a inscription p. 415). Egnatius Juventius muneris (qui obUtterato spectac. impetrata editione ab indulgentia diem max. gladiatorum et omne(m) apparatum pecunia principis edidit in the year sua a.d. amphitheatre is 170, CIL, x, 121 1) an

the

; the side can

is marked

png and in ahollow


'

'

shown, the
within

rows

of seats, windows,

and

gates

of which

are

visible ;

fighting gladiators are represented. [Cajatia. Promis, St. d. a. T., p. 190.]


Nissen
a
'

Cales. to

The

extensive

ruins

of Calvi

tion contain, in addi,

theatre, an amphitheatre. Corcia, i, 507 : I'arena qual di terreno oggidi, comprende un moggio e mezzo ; la sua lunghezza ^ di palmi 334, la larghezza di p. 226, e tutto il circuito di p. 990 : cosi che era alquanto piiipiccolodi quello di Casino '. Nissen considers it more [Teanum. likely that the supposed amphitheatre (e.g.Corcia, i, 519) is a theatre.] [The supposed amphitheatre at Capreae (Anacapri ; see, e.g.
si vede

VOL.

n.]
the Richerche

Appendices

203

Donaldson, Architect. Numism.,


'

to be apocryphal. p. 303) appears isola di C. by Rosario topogr. ed archeol. suW 1 834) where the ancient remains Mangoni (Napoli, of the high plateau of Anacapri (pp. 231-262) are described at length, there is no hint of ruins of any such building'. Bursian, Lift. Centralbl., 1869, no.

In

17.]
Latium.
Suessa Aurunci
:

[Sinuessa. Promis,
Auruncorum.
The

St. d.

a.

T., p. 190.]

inscription(De Masi, Sforia degli alia torre di S. Imato),according to which Sex. a certain Caecilius Sex. f. Quir. Birronianus Scriba fibrar. quaest. iii decuriarum quinquen. p. c. Sinues. gratissimis podium amphitheatri a solo fecit (= CIL, X, 4737 is probably interpolated, but genuine).
2) : exstat quae extra Romam, nunc Campaniae fluvium (Garigliano dicunt) juxta Mintumas (hodie Trajecto) pars amphitheatri latericii bene also by Montfaucon conspicua. This building, mentioned (Antiq. 2nd of November, dated iii, expl., (letter p. 258), De Brosses 1739), and Guattani i [Mon. in., 1784, Oct. p. 82),and to which the name Virilasci (CIL, x, 6054 i ; p. 195 above) refers,is no doubt the one meant by Kephalides (Reise,ii, 204) and Vv^estphal (Die rSmische Campagna, p. 67), according to whom only some unimportant of a theatre remains are preserved at Minturnae. Casinum. C. f. QuadraCIL, x, 5183 IRN, 4236 : Ummidia tilla amphitheatrum Casinatibus et templum sua pecunia fecit. The buildingconsequently belongs to the second half of the first century (seePliny,Epp., vii, 24). Volkrnann (Hist.Krit. Nachr. iiber Italien,1771, iii, The arena is 200 feet long,the seats, p. 346) : which The utter ruin, not included. walls are are an 57 feet high. The five large entrances 26 feet high and feet The wide. are 13 where the animals and the which were canals, places kept perhaps stillvisible. The walls are brought in the water for the naumachiae of brick outside and are lozenge-shaped (opus reticulatum) J.
Minturnae.

Lipsius (De am-ph.

hodieque

ad

Lirim

'

'

Burckhardt,

Der The

Cicerone, p. 45

At

St. Germano

there

is

circular

amphitheatre,

the

only

one

of its kind
of
an

(in Italy).

Aquinum.

remains

Prudentius, which, however, are only fourteenth century in Ughelli (vol. i ; Acta Sanctorum, Aprilis, Antonini vol. x, ist of April, forum p. 12), '. Jordan.] non longe ab amphitheatro is mentioned Promis di Luni, p. 225, note i) credits this town [Arpinum. (Citt" with an amphitheatre, to know.] which Westphal (p.90)does not seem that Frusino. of old not even a trace Westphal (p.85) asserts
acta of St.

are construction, is It called (p.92). Capua, i, 282). In the \Atina ?


'

ful amphitheatre of simple and beautiother ruins mentioned by Westphal amongst by the people Grotte de' Pagani (Pellegrino,
'

'

known

from

chronicle

of the

buildingsremains; on the other hand, Deminicis (Giorn.Arcad., this town of those in which there was an as one Iv, p. 160) mentions Ges. Mommsen Analekten in Ber. d. sacks. (Epigr. amphitheatre. from the amphitheatre at Frusino (Bdl, 1849, p. 286) : Tessera ?) x 1830, p. 265). On the one side : Cvnv. i (Cvn. vi ?) in(feriori other viii If we the : as (locooctavo). may (gradu decimo) ; on had only two the amphitheatre at Frusino storeys, cuneo assume,
' ,

204
sexlo
cuneo

Appendices

[vol.ii.
'

priori, ectiywell be substitated for maeniano might perf inferiori three to sexto ; or, if we storeys, infimo (Mommprefer assume

sen). {Valeria (Vara). Deminicis, loc. cit.'] Tibur. {Cittidi Luni, According to Promis
was

p.

225)

an

theatre amphi-

II. till the time in existence (jj ing di Cecconi Palestnna, (Storia p. 70) quotes the followM. Claudius : time xiv, of of CIL, the 3010) (now inscription in dimidiam solo. clari 1. tyrannus amphitheatri partem jjarenus in CIL, x, 1333. a.d. 21 Clarus from An inscriptionof M. Varenus and a spoliarium ludus divi built a flamen Cn. Voesius Augusti, Aper,
Pius

Praeneste.

for the Roma.

Praenestines
On

(Or., 2532

the

amphitheatres of

Ant., i, 680

foil. ; Beschr.

xiv, 3014). d. rom. cp. Becker, Hdb. der Stadt Rom, iii,i, 319 foil., Becker, p.
=

CIL,

Rome

hand, Preller, Regionen Roms, p. 132 ; also 549 foil. ; on the other des AntiquMs, Dictionnaire and C. Thierry in Daremberg Saglio's excavation and resof the '. For the torations s.v. history amphitheatrum
'

1814, see Parker, Archaeology of Rome (part vii, 1876, pp. 31-39). Lanciani (Bull,comun., 1876, p. 189), arguing from the inscription Orelli,22 (= CIL, vi, 130) of the year a.d. 241, rightlyregards the belonging to the cohortes praetotiae amphitheatrum castrense as one
in the Colosseum since
and

urbanae. Caracalla

Water-pipes for
(202/3
;
see

the

same

were

laid down
est

by

Severus

and

Lanciani, Acque, pp.


8
'

Lanuvium.

An scriptio inin amphitheatro occidisset. Hercules, quod de theatrum found there : s. c. sua ex {CIL, xiv, 2127) pec. refec, is perfect on both sides. {Bdl, According to O. Benndorf 1865, p. 226) alcuni scrittori anticlii citati dal Volpi {Vet. Lat., v, of an amphitheatre at Lanuvium. p. 87 ?) attest the existence to Tusculum. Canina According {Descr. dell' antico Tuscolo, p. di Cicerone Scuola 130, tav. 22 and 23) the building,generally called about of an ',was amphitheatre,capable holding 3000 spectators.
' ' '

Vii. Commod., feras Lanuvii

appeUatus

217, etiam

307).
Romanus

The Tav.
to

arena

had shows

substructures
.

there

still remained

traces di
a

of the

podium (inquesto anf


23
on an

rimane

visibile soltanto
on one

I'ambulacro of which
are

mezzo)

arena, elliptic
rooms

part
there

the

other

here is

and

visible.

nence, slightemiAccording

Hirschfeld, the amphitheatre is


of the
rows

of seats

leading to the of the arena. through the middle Albanum. According to Westphal (p.24) the great ruins of the amphitheatre (in the upper part of the modern town) are shown by the style of architecture to belong, not to the time of Domitian (to which they are ascribed by Nibby, Analisi della carta de' contorni di Roma, i, p. 99) but to a later period ; perhaps to the time when the formed had its permanent legio ii Parthica by Severus quarters here (De Rossi, Bull, di archeol. crist., vii, 1869, p. 67). Velitrae. According to an inscription(Orelli, CIL, x, 2538 is only partially 6565 ; cp. Henzen, iii, p. 225), which intelligible,
a
, ' '

staircase

now thing pretty well exposed ; somepreserved, also a large entrance gate, first praecinctio, the passage ground running under-

the

amphitheatre

was

restored

under

Valentinian

and

Valens.

VOL.

II.]
of
road
an

Appendices
there
a

205
are some on

Setia.
remains

According to Westphal (p. 53)


amphitheatre, consisting of
to Sermoneta. 72

scanty
the left

few

arches

of

the

: Circeios pertendit. Ac interfuit, sed etiam missum harenam jacuUs desuper petit. With this is connected aprum inscription in Murat. (612, 7), found at Paola in Maritima CIL, X, 6429 :

Circeii.

Suetonius, Tiber.,
ludis
non

castrensibus

tantum

in the
' =

'

"

S. Montanus iiii vir i. d. m. nivm amphitheatrvm sva


et

o.

[Fundi. Promis, Samnium. Venafrum.


vibi

emque venatione St. d. ant.

mvnere

gladiatorio
1. d. d.
o.

dedicavit.

(?)
4892
:

Torino,
IRN,
c.

p.

190.]
=

4625
m.

CIL,

x,

s.

f.

Q.
pec.
sua

Flamen fac. curavit

amphitheatrum pro parte dimidia According


p. 260
'

storiche di Venafro (Naples,1824), Cotugno, Memorie amphitheatre, the ruins of which are to be found nel COS! detto Vorlascio for 8000 spectators. had room (seep. 195), 82 Allifae. Henzen, Exempt. Mus. : Borgh., p. according to Corcia (i, 318) there are no remains of an amphitheatre,although its existence is to be assumed from the inscription IRN, 4768 CIL, ix, 2350 (where only the shows are spoken of) ; on the other hand he mentions the ruins of a theatre (Nissen) Trutta {A ntichitd A llifane, that an p. 29) also assumes amphitheatre existed here, on the authority of the same inscription. Saepinum. This is probably the place,to which a patron presented the buildings mentioned in the following inscription ; ac adfectionis ludum sicut rem omni gladiatorium publicam erga instructum impensa sua ita spoUarium a fundamentis ornatumque dedit. As Lanciani observes pro nitore civitatis rei publicae dono ii, 1874, p. 87), the builder of the ludus and the (Bull, comun., from pinum SaeSpoUarium is probably one Neratius, whose family came

to

the foil.,

'

'

'

and

still exercised The

century.
the

built in Rome Telesia.


'

patronatus of that town in the found in the neighbourhood of the inscription Neratius Cerialis by (consulin 358) is no doubt
the ruins of the

fourth baths from

family palace.
The
to the west of the
'

i,345) are

old town
'

amphitheatre (according to Corcia, (Nissen). Cp. CIL, ix, 2197


'

(ad portam amphitheatri),2235. bei ruderi [Beneventum. The


mentioned

by
to
a

Promis

remains) of an amphi(beautiful theatre, to Nissen 225), according (C.d.L., p.


no

belong certainly
Tacitus there

theatre

; he found
a

trace

of

an

(Ann., \Aeclanum.
was

xv,
'

34) mentions According to

munus

of Vatinius

amphitheatre. there.]
'

Corcia games

508), (ii,
which

the

called

Jdcolofrom

the

took

amphitheatre place in it (?)

(Nissen).]
Winckelmann Paestum. Lucania. (Anmerk. iiber die Baukunst ' and 10 rows the lower arches der Alien, Vorbericht," 12) says that Paoli still exist. of seats of an (Ruine delV aniica amphitheatre
'

2o6
cittd di Pesto,

Appendices
a

[vol.ii.
Roinanelli

Pompei
e

1784) gives the dimensions. Pesto, ii,p. 42) : Oggidi restano


'

(Viaggiodi
di
10

gli avanzi
erano

gradini
G.
:

le indicazioni di che

delle

cavee

dove

le fiere

ristrette

'.

Ba'

mente

Capaccio,Le aniichitd Pesiane, Naples, 1819,


si vuole '. di rottami

p. 62

II

luogo
ed

6 coverto
Grumentum

della cittk aniiteatro Pestano, 6 posto nel centro adesso circolare 6 concavo e di terra un ; Promis loc.

alia semina

(aliaSaponara,

cit.). Roselli,

Storia

Grumentina,
tavia in

deW inst. archeol., tutMemorie p. 237 : Sono p. 50. dell' altezza di di reticolata diversi 20 mura pezzi piedi

piedi ed
non

alcuni I'arena

corridoi
a

volta, alti
ovale
'.

palmi

larghi altrettanto,

che

forma

Calabria,
Tralascio Guido
lo dice tuito

Lupiae.
o

Promis

{Storiadell'
ora

Lupia and Geografo (ed. Finder

I'a. di Lictia

Lecce
il

ant. Torino, p. 190, 3) : in Calabria, di cui fa motto

Parthey,
nuovo

p.

teatro, ma per contenere 6 che air antica, chiaro


Otacilia St. Aloe costruito
era

468). EgU veramente piccolo caseggiato sostiun'


a.

doveva M.

esser

CIL,

ix,

21

(Lecce nuper rep.): Apulia. Venusia. Fu i, 1843, p. 62) :


'

tutto

il lato esterno

amphitheatrum. {Bdl, 1842, p. 126 and Bull. Nap., tutta con magnificenza. II suo portico di grossipezzi di travertino composto
"

f. SecundiUa

duro

"

^le colonne

che

ornavano

la decorazione

esterna

erano

tutte

di marmo bianco d'orcon bigi e cipoUini capitelli Le si mantennero fabbriche dine dorico e composito. in parte salde sino al secolo xi, quando i monaci Benedettini distrussero quasi al suolo que' preziosiavanzi per rizzarvi con essi il magnifico tempio della ss. Trinita '. 'At the present day only some depressions in the ground are visible, probably the ancient entrances ; I have been assured credible authoritythat in the course of subsequent on
" " "

di marmi

colorati

excavations
on

several few

years
'

ago

(which

however
were

were

only
which

carried

for

again filled up by Lupoli see [Tarentum.


well

days) important were found, with earth (Hirschf forged eld) On the inscription Mommsen {Bdl, 1847, p. 118). so-called The in Forster) may amphitheatre {e.g^.
sotterranei
.

'

have

been

circus. few

Its

circumference
of

can

still be

recognized, but
reticulatum,
are

only

remains

the
.

wall-work,
Nissen holds
that

preserved' (Hirschf eld)


as

clearly chieflyopus {Pomp. Stud.,


there
are no

no) regards

tliis view

unfounded,
in

and

proofsof
however

the existence

of circuses

Italyexcept

in Rome.

Beloch,

{Campanien, p. Larinum. Frentani. dell' anf. Flavio, p. 30] :


nel regno

a circus at Puteoli.] 142) expressly mentions sacre Marangoui e {Delle mem. profani Di pietra ancora si 6 1'anfiteatro di Larino
'

cui accuratissimo disegnoe descrizione delle alia luce I'anno 1744 nel erudito libro delle memorie istoriche di quella citt^ di Mons. Andrea Tria gi^ vescovo della ed ora di Tiro '. arcivescovo medesima, Sabini. [Marrubium. Promis, Cittct di Luni, p. 225.] [Superaequum. Promis, St. dell' ant. Torino, p. 190.] A Iba Fucentina. According to Westphal (p.116) very dilapidated. Promis {Le antichitd di Alba Fucense negliEqui, p. 243) : una vasta caviti nel terreno che dalla sua forma dei e sopratutto dagli avanzi
sue

di

Napoli, il di

parti feuscito

'

muri

cuneati

si

palesaper

un

aniiteatro

p.

248

le

dimensioni

VOL.

II.]

Appendices
il nome

207
capacity
di

molto

dauno-una prossime a quellidell' anf. di Amitemo di circa 20,000 spettatori.La cavity, dell' anf. porta ora fossa di giudizio '.

Amiternvm.
set

The

amphitheatre is represented
=

in Guattani

Sab., iii,14). Cp. CIL, ix, 4208


up in the amphitheatre). Reate. According to Promis
not

IRN,

5789

(on
the

{Man. biga,to be

was

destroyed
Mutuesca Ancona.

till the
'

Trebula

near

year Montelione

(C.d.L., p. 225), 1283.

amphitheatre
ruins of
an

della Sabina

has

amphitheatre'
Picenum.
existence
of
an

(Nissen).

Rinaldini (Bdl, 1865, p. 11) considers the contrastato dal Peruzzi) confirrned amphitheatre (gi^ M. the D. Ti. Clau. DioCeleri : by inscription preconi ex la(?)C(?) rudis et officiales cunti {cum A. CI. Saturnini ini{?) Beryllussecunda tironibus ?) b. m. Nissen (p. 14) adds : Riguardando gli avanzi tuttora di piccola estensione, in bench^ una casa superstiti private ed insieme vi fu una che scuola considerando nessuno gladiatoria, tal edifizio grandioso in Ancona potrapiu dubitare, ch' era veramente situato in mezzo della cittJi sotto quel colle, che secondo la giusta dei dotti Anconitani formava I'antico opinione Capitolio ed ora 6 celebrato dal famoso Un altro argomento vedi tempio di S. Ciriaco. Promis also mentions an Colucci,Ant. Pic, xv, p. 100.' (loc. cit.) Ancona. at amphitheatre Henzen [Auximum. {Expl. Mus. Borgh., p. 82?). 'I heard does Colucci : nor (torn,v) nothing of an amphitheatre at Osimo know of one (Nissen) anything .] Macerata Ricina. Hard by the left bank of the Potenza, between the time and Recanati, is a well-preserved amphitheatre of about of Septimius Severus. Cp. Orelli,915 : L. Septimio Severe ^p. C. colonia Helvia Ricina conditori suo (Nissen). 205 Guattani Salvia. Urbs {Mon. Ined., i, 83). 'Considerable ruins ; the dimensions were variously given to me (axis 60 x 59 80 X 60 m.) or (Nissen). of Fermo, sixteenth [Firmum. According to Adami (Chronicle and ci, Colucone. ma:gnificent century) the amphitheatre was a large in describing Fermo, where however he himself (Ant. Pic, ii),
' ' '
"

'

"

'

lived, only mentions


ruins Giorn. of
rows an

a an

theatre,

to

which

also Nissen

considers
to

the

to (ascribed

Faleria

(near

the
has

modern 160

1846, p. 54) belong. amphitheatre Fallerone) According to Deminicis,


.

in AdI,
the

Arcad., Iv, p.
and ellipse, of

The

arena

and
of
can

the

amphitheatre is in the form 8 to the entrances, 4 leading to the arena, which sections divided into 3 are seats, by 2 praecinctiones. with far the of the podium, earth is choked as as edge up outside wall, still preserved, is only 45 Roman palmae high.
sqq., p. 168,
12

Asculum
an

Picenum. traced been with

'

In

the

Orto

delle

comitrici
not

(?)the
it for
a

circuit

amphitheatre (Imyself certainlydid


stiU be accuracy standing, but
;
were

take

circus)
are
'

at

an

earUer

date
some 20

arcades years

said to have

destroyed

ago

(Hirschfeld).
Praetutiorum. Interamnia. avanzi d'un Miserabili : 80)
'

Delfico

(DeW

Interamnia
in

Petruzia, p,

grand'
ne

anfiteatro

di cui si veggon

varj

arghi

varie

altre

se reliquie

scorgono

alcuni sotterranei ',

2o8 Cp.
20)
una

Appendices
Bull.

[vol.ii.
due

Nap., ii, p. 64
di
un

'

:
"

Cita

Corcia

delU {Sforia

Sicilie, i,

gli avanzi

grandi
piu

doveva dice che esser esistendone una proporzioni, muraglia, cui


e

anf.

magnifico e di vedesi poggiata


il nel
....

serie di volte basso


'.

che sorreggevano da grandi pilastri, sostenuta ordini di archi a due corridojoper glispettatori di Nereto
in

circondario
teatro

Garufo

si veggono

avanzi

di

un

bell' anfi-

Interpromium.
on one

CIL,
Sextus

ix, 3044
Pedius

i. d.

(inscription praef. Germanici


who

Henzen, IRN, 6939 5330 Hirrutus, prim. pil. leg.xxi. iwir


=

Caesaris built
an

iterum, quenn. Mommsen's cp.


'

quinquennalici juris ex amphitheatre at his own

s.

c.

quin;

expense)

remarks.

P. S. BartoU in Fea, Miscell., i, p. 272 : Ocriculum. 0inbTia. di beUo anfiteatro '. Accordsi vi i vestigj ing un ma piccolo scorgono to Guattani (Monumenti inediti,i, p. 83) it was three-storeyed. Interamnia

(Terni). Promis
caduta

(C.d.L.,
delle
'

p.

Giuseppe
p.

Ricardi, Sulla

marmore

225). According to (ed. 5, Rome, 1825),

', also 84, there is an amphitheatre al giardino dell' episcopio According to Hirschfeld, the remains given in the plan annexed.
are

still considerable.

Spoletium.

Procopius (Bell.Goth., iii,23) : iTiyxavov

Si

TdrBoi

ijvlKa 'Upwdiavov ^vSt.S6vTos is rb lSa(j)OS Ka0c\6vT"S,tov rds v"vo/xiKa(n, dfj.(fn8iaTpov


Carsulae.
'

'LttoKItlov cl\ov, rijs fiiv7r6Xcws rbv Trepi^oKov Si rpS rrjs irSXeas Kvvqyealov,Srep Ka\etv
re

eta-dSovsis tS

/c.t.X. "Kpi^isd-rro^pa^avTes

Promis

air
none

antica

(C.d.L.,p. 225) states that there Carsulum Acqua Sparta presso


the
'

is
'

an

theatre amphi-

to

Nissen

P.

S. Bartoli

Promis means exists, and (Fea, Miscell., i, p. 272) in

ruin

according mentioned by
;

Carsoli beUissimo

sotto

Porcheria

vicino

Acqua

Sparta

'

il bel

porticodi
circo

un

tio di grosse colonne di travertino. arco Mevania. Promis remains of


'

ed

intiero, un

ovvero

tempio coiinippodromo con un

Fulgineum.

An
in
'

di Aosta, p. 170, 2). 'The siderable con{Aniichitd the amphitheatre are all built over (Nissen). fied amphitheatre, the existence of which is testi'

by
is still examine
trust

local writers

(e.g. Mengozzi
the town.

spoken
the

of

in Colucci, Ant. Pic, xi, p. 75, I have able to not been certainly in this
case

ancient An

site

but properly,

am

content

to

the

tradition

Hispellum.
cis,Promis
from

(Nissen). amphitheatre
5580.
to

; cp. Henzen

'

is mentioned The ruin


'

by Guattani,
on

Demini-

the

high

road

leading

Assisi

past Spello
'

Foligno

(Nissen).
170 not.) endeavours all his evidence goes
3,

Asisium.

Di

Costanze of
none an

(Disamina, etc., p.

to prove the existence to show that there was of

amphitheatre,but
'

(Nissen)
.

Promis

(as above)
to

and

O.

MuUer in the of
the

Nevertheless, the statement (Handb. der Arch., " 260,


there
was an

according
at

Schom,
finds

Reisen, p. 462)

that

amphitheatre
a

Asisium,
and
in

confirmation mathematician that he CoUxei the


found
'

report
Padua,
ruins
'

of who

Johannes Dondi,
visited
arenarum

philosopher and
1375
varum

Rome

in par-

declares modum xxvii. outside

duarum
and

between

CIL,

vi, p.

Consequently the
town.

Spello amphitheatre,

Assisi.

Henzen, like that of

Spello,was

210

Appendices
On the

[vol. ii.

Vitlci. Arretium.
torno

amphitheatre
to

found

According degliantichi Toscani, aglianfiteatri

Guazzesi

cp. Bdl, 1833, p. 77. in{Suppl. alia disseHazione there

In Charlemagne's statues. ornamental or of bricks, without any the abode arches its were called gymnasium time it was ; Arretine the it to church, which caused him to present of prostitutes, da luogo questa pestiferainfamitS. '. In the togliere quel per tom. Eusebi 24) we read : Arretine chronicle of Girolamo (Muratori,
'

p. columns

69) it

was

large,but only

Mense

1333 oliveti, et celebrata

Maji

inceptus

est

locus

S.

Bernardi

ordinis
i

montis

p. erection

195), et

quarry, ita summa rium rudentium whether


are more

Parlagi (see civitatis. Owing to the publicae meretrices used was of this building the as a amphitheatre, which Noris was {NeW ipocausto Pisano) : completely destroyed. Aret. in meritonostra aetate ut imis dies miscuit, amph.
est ibi missa

ubi

prius vocabantur

ibi stabant

animaUum the ruins this

stabulum
seat

versum

sit.

Dennis

is

tain uncer-

reallybelong
no

to

an

amphitheatre,
in

since
;

they

like

baths, and Dennis


appears
whether
'

remains

the ruins

cavea

Nissen, theatre, amphia

however,

regards
which

Volaterrae.

doubt as unfojinded. the rso^TSientions (ii, p.


to it

of the

be

Roman

of seats Dennis other doubts half

remains, apparently cut in


was ever more

circle semibuilding. Only of the mountain. the slope than


a

theatre, since the


Guazzesi d'aver nella
; cosl

of the

structure

has

totallydisappeared.
ancora

(as

above, p. 44) says : I'anfiteatro,parlando delle


alle

Volterra
sue

pu6 vestigie I'lnghirami


la statua Etrusco nel
2 suo museo

vantarsl

avuto

risposta
il Bor-

opposizioni,

ove

dice al
num.

che

ivi fu trovata 4 del


e

dal riportata delle Iscr. Alberti in he concluded


he
tions men-

dottissimo di Toscana

Sgr. Gori
'.

ghini nell' originedi

Firenze
to

il

Sgr. Gori

tomo

[Vetulonia. According

Dennis of

(ii, p. 206) Leandro


some

1550 first gave a detailed account of Itulonium to be the remains the remains of
a

ruins, which
,

(Vetulonia) amongst

which

led to no p. 40) declare also considers that

however,

splendid amphitheatre. Later investigations, lonia, di Veturesult, which made Inghirami {Ricerche
that it there
was a

is not

of Alberti. pure invention the least evidence that it

Dennis
was

the

site of the

ancient [Rusellae. Dennis


some an

regarded by
of

Vetulonia.] Roman some (ii, p. 229) mentions as the (though in his opinion erroneously)
M. Manni

arches,
remains

amphitheatre.]
Dom

Florentia. il alia

(seep. 195),p.

'

2, says

collocato

era

Parlagio dietro
dell'

alia fianca

sinistra della chiesa

di S. Simone

fino

piazza de' Peruzzi per la sua lunghezza, h par larghezza daUa alia di S. Croce ; e quindi e che la chiesa Anguillaja piazza stessa di S. Simone si disse del Parlagio '. On p. 4 he quotes Bordalla parte di fuori non v'ha dubbio alcuno ghini : veggendosi tuttavia Molto con le son gli occhi. pii malagevoli parti interiori a tutte rinvenire, essendo mutate in abitazioni oggi quasi privatee
via
'

all' per

uso

modemo

e girava bracchia larghezza burelle, i. e. spezie di prigionie forse segrete


"

la

accommodate bracchia 173

'.

P.

'

la

sua

vastit^ '.
esser

ascende
'

573 altre

P. 28
non

le

pote-

vano

che

cavee

^nfit. e del tea,tro', poste sotto le scalinate (Jell'

VOL.

II.]
(ii, p.
the
can

Appendices

211

Dennis
near

wall

the ruins of the amphitheatre 75, note) also mentions Croce ; according to Nissen Piazza di Santa the enclosing be clearly in cording Acof the Via Torta. recognized the course
u. Forsch. Hartwig {Quell, zur.

to

p. 79), the amphitheatre, the remains the Perruzzi palace, appears to have wall of ancient Florence. Volsinii. Dennis (ii, p. rather
more

dltest. Gesch. von Florenz, of which stillvisible near are situated outside of
'

been

the

ring

25) mentions
a

the ruins Bolsena


be

small
It

theatre, amphiruins,
with
two there
'

than
rows

mile

from
can

is in

hardly anything of the (of opus incertum) are


earth
is said be
;

of seats
to

recognized,some
is covered

arcades

preserved,

the

foundation

the

arena are

is said

large entrances
to have
.

15 palms deeper. still clearlyrecognizable ; twenty years


a

lie about

The

ago

been

gate
and

stillin

complete state
vol.

of

preservation
the shows

eld) (Hirschf given


Pisa.
Luca.
.

Cp.

Henzen

5580 and

at

Florence

(on Hispellum alternately).


Vibio
.

ii,p.

80

to

quinqu[e dec. amphithe[atri is decern et cum res]publicadecrevissetpec[unia] [perfici dedit] annos [probato s]ua publica, ex testament[o opere] a quinquennahbus emendations fecit rett sima. The t ique inpensa October de Pr"id. are Brosses, unsatisfactory. (Mommsen's) 14,
.

above, p. 196. O. CIL, xi, i, 1527. alae] Hispanorum al[ae] praef


.

See

ex

hie HS

in opus

'

1739
des

On

trouve

au

centre
'

de

la ville les restes

informes

d'un

a.

cabanes lequel on a bati de m"hantes qui into A large amphitheatre converted achSvent de la defigurer'. The entrances into a vegetable market. dwelUng-houses, the arena and some pieces of the enclosing wall of a good period are still visible {Cicerone, (Nissen). Burckhardt p. 45) also speaks of the remains of the amphitheatre as important. Promis Luna. {Cittddi Luni, p. 222) calls the amphitheatre la di Luni. La piu antica fabbrica e meglio conservata piu celebrata h quella che trovasi in un che se n'abbia memoria diploma di Fededi Luni nel 1185 nel quale h detto : aedifirigo I a Pietro Vescovo '. The aut vocatur cium arena inscription L. quod circulum is a clumsy forgery. According Svetius L. L. amph. f. v. s. 1. m. ruin in 1442, the marble columns it was to Cyriac of Ancona a statues of the : quest' broken, only fragments remaining (p.22S) essendovi che una sola preche 2 cavee anf. non non poteva avere cinzione ; k pure improbabile che la cavea superiore fosse coperta il nel Flavio di Roma, da soffitto come ma era piuttosto doveva

Romains,

dans

'

'

'

muro e

esterno

decorato

inferiori al di sopra delle arcuazioni vedesi di pilastri anche nel interno, come

essere

tutto

solido '. it that

all'anf. di Sutri

(p. 228) belongs to the age


Promis

concludes of the

from Antonines

the
;

style

of

architecture

Gallia Cispadana.

[Ravenna.

cp. Dennis, ii,p. 65. Promis, St. dell' ant. Torino, p.

190.] {Hist., 67 ; in the year 70) : tertiadecimani ii, Caecina struere amphitheatra jussi. nam Cremonae, Valens Bononiae spectaculum gladiatorum edere parabant. Perhaps, however, these as of wood above, p. 86). were (Maffei,
Bononia. Tacitus

Parma.

Lopez,

Lettera

al Braun

intorno

alls rovine

d'un

antico

212

Appendices
scoperto in
come

ii. [vol.

teatro eretto

Parma,

1844,
built

p.

25
le

I'anf.

"

sarebbe
P.

stato

usavasi in his the

da' Romani

presso

mura.

26

il nostro

anf
not

in the time of Trajan, certainly Tac, ; see burning of the amphitheatre at Placentia vicende delle onte secoli ad resistere molti ii, Hist., 21) potfi per ed alle del tempo guerresche a cui ando soggetto.^ alia voracita solo non barbarie bella memoria degli uomini, dappoichfesi trova f. ne' nostri statuti Sior. di no. del 1255 P.T.S., 36, App., (Pezz., eziandio nostra delle terzo nel codice leggimunicipali di 30), ma which forbid the pollution of the amphitheatre : quod cum 1317, ad videndum vadant multi forenses quando sunt in civitate Parma in Palatium in et est domini Arena, ipsa arena Imperatoris, quod def erantur multa videlicet animalia mortua, lutum turpiaet inepta, de andronis, et alia quam in dedecus plurima turpia,quae redundant
.

(which

opinion was

before

maximum penes

Communis

Parmae
et
i,

et

vicinorum

morantium

circa

et
a

ipsam

Arenam

Palatium

supra
;

dictum.

on Inscription

CIL, retiarius,
Placentia.

xi,

1070.

Tacitus, Hist., ii,21

(in a.d.

70) :

in

eo

certamine

pulcherrimum
"

muros conflagravit amphitheatri opus, illata ignis ad fraude sugpieJorfgS', municipale volgus, pronum invidia et aemuvicinis r "hUi"[flfiiTn coloniis, "'^itintP''*'"'^!'"'^''^*^'**^'"'

situm

extra

latione, quod
Velleia. Smaller
than

nulla
the

in

Italia moles and


at

tam

capax

foret.

Hiibner

Aosta). and di Aosta, p. Ant. (C. di Luni the amphitheatre at Aosta). 170. A very Alba Jntemelium. small amphitheatre (according to the Illustr. Zeitung,1877, p. 370, 31 to 35 m. in diameter) was discovered here in 1877. Ligurla.
Libarna. Smaller than Promis Venetia et

(as above) amphitheatre

Promis

{Ant.

di Aosta, p. 170.

Histria.

Hadria.

Promis

(as above). Deminicis

(as above). C. f. [Ateste? CIL, v, i, 2529 : De (pec.) pub. C. Rubenius liberti et ludum Etti Boebiani gladiator,fecit ; cp. ib., 2541 M. famil. venatoria.] of an Patavium. the existence Pignorius (1571-1631) assumed since the Middle recinto,called arena amphitheatre in an elliptical in document of 1300 ; of of date bill sale a a Ages (so ; cp. 1090 muris ab omnibus lateribus circumdatam arenam excepto a latere fratrum St"" heremitanonim de Padua), on which the little church and Mariae de Caritate de Arena built in was 1 306, (dell' Annunziata) and illustrations of the same.* Mailei anfit., gave a plan {Degli p. 80) of walls as only about regarded the remains 400 or 500 years old.
But
the

excavations

carried

on

since 1880
the

Pignorius' assumption : cp. {Notiziedegli Scavi, i88i, pp.

detailed

225-242

completely confirmed account by Ghirardini with tav. iv). They have


have

Agathias (Hist., i, 15) : BounXil'OS o twc es aii^iBearpov Tt ov *pdyyui' riyefiitv ToO fi^fiov ol; 6 ^lOf 0"tofjL"vov T^T 7roA"b)9 iBpvijLevov (aceiTO Se toutq arSpaO'ii' epravQa k.t.X- (in jrpbs QiipCa SiayiiiVi^eiT9iu}, Stj fjLeyiarrjv iveSpav KaTatTni"rapievo"; A.D. 552). ' there is merely the outline of an Burckhardt, Cicerone,p. 45 : In Padua theatre amphiwoppiii
"

near

S. Maria

dell' Arena,

VOL.

II.]
outside
one

Appendices
of three
of which

213

remains brought to light the but


the

(2 m.
was

walls surrounding the arena, elliptic 2'62 wide, m. high) had 26 entrance the outside wall
of the
to

arches.
was
summa

This, however,
surrounded
cavea

not

building,
support (2410-32

by yet another wall, which (pp. 230 and 235). The area of
that
.

served the
arena

sq.

metres) is

careful (2638-50 ; p. style of construction (pp. 229 and 236) indicates a good period. Kenner and Hauser der Central[Aquileia. Cp. p. 194. (Mittheil.

much smaller than The 225) extremely


not

of the

arena

of Verona

commission, 1875) in

report of the

excavations

'

that

vast

circular semi-

which is called the arena, in which Baubella depression, slab bearing the name stone found a Julius,perhaps belongingto clear '. s eats of the It is that this is not sufficient to one spectators' the assumption (Jung, Die roman. d. rom. Landsoh. Reichs, justify the of existence that an at i) Aquileia is amphitheatre p. 504, proved.]
an [Anfit. d. Pola, 1882, p. 78) mentions amphitheatre at Tergeste: fuori di porta di Riborgo, di cui F. Ireneo dalla Croce {Hist,di Trieste, p. 245) ci da I'asse maggiore di piedi geometrici157 ed il minore di 136. of seats Pola. rows According to Stancovich (p. 36) 43 marble P. 64 : the for still in existence. were amphitheatre had room entire the P. the of stone was ; (with building 135 22,000 spectators. of wood) ornamented above which was exceptionof the top storey, P. 137: nel registro dei diritti del Patriarca of columns. with a row civitate Polae : in di Aquileia nell' Istria (anno 1303) it is stated et Arenam -et quicunque accipit habet duo antiqua Palatia ladrum aUquem lapidem de dictis Palatiis ladri et Arenae, pro quolibet solvit domino patriarchae bizantia centum. accipit, lapide quam used the as a was But continually amphitheatre quarry, until it certis in Loca hominibus him to dedicated attributa, was 1584. indicata nominibus (CIL, v, i, 86). Mafiei ed. 2, p. Verona. Gallia Transpadana, (Degli anfiteatri, which of an the inscription, probably followingfragment 120),gives The letters are very large and S. CON. refers to the dedication : ese Veronof a good period. P. 159 : its height was 1 10-120 evidently feet, as it certainly had 4 storeys. According to Maffei it had seats and (p.261) in the highest parts (builtof wood) room 22,000

Tergesie.

Stancovich

"

of standing-places;there were number 72 The wall of the podium (p. 213) entrances (p. 170),all numbered. kinds of marble, of which with valuable decorated fragments was receive the intended to channels were Subterranean still remain.
for

almost

the

same

rubbish For the

that

was

carried

down,

and
see

to

prevent floodingthe
CIL,
of
v, i,

arena.

inscriptions gladiatorial
all'

3466 sqq. (3471:


Antonio and

The famil]ia gladiatoria). intorno (Sugli scavi eseguiti

treatises

Conte
of the

Pompei

anfiteatro, 1874,
erection
are

intorno Stiidj
to
me

all'
the

anf. d. V., 1877),who


time of the
Etruscan

puts

the

amphitheatrein
from
a

domination,
in

notice

by Engelmann
Tac,
N

only known 1879, p. 94. Jen. Litt.-Zig.,

Cremona.

(Brixia):
Ticinum.

CIL, v, i, 4399 Hist., ii, 67 ; cp. Bononia. et munerar. vir FlaviaU Cremon. Valesii (Ammianus Marcellinus, ed. WagAnonym.
N VI

214

Appendices

tt. \yoL.

ner-Erfurdt, i, p. 623, 71) : Theodericus Thermas, Amphitheatrum, et alios muros


p. 193. titulum sedes

Mommsen,

CIL,

no. regis i, e. ni fallor ad amphitheatrum : Dn. spectaculii rex gloriosissimushas sedes spectaeuli anno regni sui fieri feliciter 528) praecepit.

Atalarici

TicBnum {sic)Palatium, civitatis fecit ; cp. above, inde etiam : habemusque v, 2 p. 707'' 6418 (= Orelli, 1161) pertinentem ad Atalaricus tertio
P.

(a.d.
Atilio

Brixia.
et

CIL,

v,

i,

4302

Wilmanns,
Brixiae

Ex., i, 2170
Cremon.
. . . . .

PhilippD ornamentis

decurion.

Veron.

honorato

iurequattuorliberor. usuq.anulor. adivo ob liberalitatem populi ejus quod in opus

Promis (C. di Luni, p. [Bergomum. Salassorum. Promis {AntichiiA di Aosta, Augusta Praetoria ruderi oltre I'ordine tav. : non ix, 1862, terreno, e questi p. 168) della somma cunei cavea con nove spettanti alia bassa cuneazione

postulatione dedit. amphitlieatri 225).]


ex
. . .

gliarchi esterni, no pilastri.P. 169 : 60 erano tutto spiraI'epocaAugustea. For this reason is supposed to have been built in 24 B.C. (the year of the
ed otto P. 171
:

souierrains.

(p. 172)
foundation

it

of the

colony) or
'

soon

afterwards. rotundum
to an

it is called

Palatium

of the year 1235 In a document '. The ruins at Aosta formerly

supposed

to

belong

Jahrb., Bd. Augusta


p. 188. somewhat

Reise, ii, 334 ; xi, Jahrgang vi,


Taurinorum. towards the The

amphitheatre cannot be such (Kephalides, Deycks, Antiquar. Alpenwanderungen : Bonner


1847, p. 27). Promis, Storia deW
i,

antico the

Torino, 1869,
marmorea,

amphitheatre,which
west

lay outside

Porta

(in (see tav. i) is called by Maccaneo illud extra marmoream evanescens a. 1508) pulcherrimum portam et obsoletum. Panciroli 1570-1582) says : (professor at Turin di T. nella strada Pinarolo si vedono i vestigii di un Fuor a. verso bene non di quella perfettione dell' a. di Verona. tioning se Pingone, menthe four suburbs destroyed in 1536 by the French speaks of
'

amphitheatrum
olim

cum

orchestra

et

area

in orbem,

qua

comoedi '.

et

tragoedi
Guida

dabant

cinctus, fragmenta
di Torino che disfecero fabbriche tutte
i Francesi
ancora

ludi. lacus spectaculaet edebantur Romanarum inscriptionum innumera


nota in

collicuUs 'La

del 1753
erano son

per

tradizione
'

che

in

quel sobborgo

I'an.,opera

d'Augusto, con rimasugli d'antiche GU anfiteatri di pressoch^ piedi'.

fuori di esse ; ma posti vicino alle mura, quando piu fiorirono i per quasi tutti I'etcin'6 quelladegliAntonini, municipi, cosicchfe la frequenza de' cittadini e de' pubbliciediiici lasciava spazio entro I'area urbana a siffatte moli. Tengo piu non le citt^ d'ltalia

dunque
laterizia

che
ne

il nostro fosse been

a.

sia stato

eretto

nel ii secolo,

come

pure

che

la construzione able

'. any details of Cimitino, wluch, of the places in Italy which one

[I have

not

to ascertain

according to Promis (p. 225) was had amphitheatres.]

SICILIA.

Syracuse.
mentions

Serradifalco

108, 128-131).

(Antich. di Sicilia,iv, tav. 13-15, pp. i, 7, 8 : Tac, Ann., xiii,49 (Valerius Maximus,
shows gladiatorial
at

gladiatorsand

Syracuse, but

no

Vol.

II.]
154
:

Appendices
it is
the elliptic,

215
round
8 other

amphitheatre.) P.
10-6

wall

the

podium
main
seat-

palmi high
at the

il poggiuolo di (olti-e of the It

gates
into

ends

marmo). longitudinalaxis there


no

Besides
are

the two the

entrances

the

arena.

has

souierrains.

of Inscriptions

steps, CIL,
Catana.

(v,tav. 7-9, pp. 19-21). Giovanni Garuccio, Sulld origins e sullA costruzione dell' anf. di Catania (Napoli, 1854), p. io : the amphitheatre is alia porta Stesicorea, detta di Aci ora
' ' ,

7130. Serradifalco
X,

for
'

the

most

part buried

under

alluvial

matter

and

covered

by-

houses.
saxa

to use (in 498) allowed the people of Catana amphitheatro longa vetustate coUapso ',to repairthe town walls (Cassiodorus, Var. epp., iii, 49). P. 29 : fino 1505 troviamo al patrizio Giov. cortcesso invBstito i preziosi Gioenio, che avesse avanzi dell' a. a comedo di private abitazioni e la sua ad uso arena di domestico erbajo. P. 30 : during the eruption of Etna in 1669 de
a

Theodoric

stream

Prince

of lava overwhelmed Biscari excavated one Himerenses.


at

it; side.

After

the

earthquake

of 1693

Thermae
an

amphitheatre

Serradifalco Termini. The used and

although scanty
HirschfeLd

and

beyond doubt, recognizable.

(v, tav. 44) gives a sketch Qf (of opus incertum), in building houses, are according to Of the amphitheatre is clearly the curve
remains

SARDINIA. Caralis. De la Marmora (Voyage en Sardaigne, i,p. 329, pi.38) the amphitheatre. E. Luigi Tocco only casually mentions (A. di details ; Spano's Cagliari, Bdl^ 1867, p. 121-133) gives more I give Anfiteatrodi Cagliari(1868) I have been unable to consult. the description of H. von Maltzan nach Sardinien, 1869, [Reise p. it in visited after 1868 'This 72) who Spano's excavations. amphitheatre can hardly be properly called a building it is the rock itself, merely hollowed out into a wide, funnel-shapedoval, over the arena of which rise stairs,galleries and seats, 100 feet high, all
"

hewn beneath

in the it '.
in

rock, like the


'

arena

itself and

The

two

lowest of

storeys

are

souterrains the roomy still visible,by far the

larger half
used about
as 20 a

perfect state
part is
in the

storey, a considerable
quarry

preservation ; of the third, the top destroyed, as this part of the rock was
'. In each

previouscentury

storey

there

are

steps,that is,60
rock The

stairs cut in the the atmosphere.

in all,very well preserved and been have decomposed by the baltei


are

lofty ;
action
man

the
of

almost is

podium, inaccessible from the The labyrinthine underground some seat-steps, largeand very

arena,

as high as a preserved in its

the
the

full

height.

yet all uncovered, are aU hewn Some have been used as cages ; out of the rock. certainly in one of them rings (forholding the chains of wild animals) are very One of of the Ume-stone, which the walls. forms cut out cleverly
not the

passages deep and

and

the

rooms

below

seat-stepscontains
room

the

letters

C. N. P. V. E.

The

amphitheatre

had

for

20,000

spectators.
DALMATIA. in Ann. in ib. dell'

Salonae.

Lanza

Inst., 1849, p.

dell' antica Salona (Deliatopografia K and Scavi di Salona 282, tav. d'agg.

1850,

2i6
p.
e

Appendices
It is almost
. . .

ii. [vol.

140).
di arcuate

ancor

di piloni entirelydestroyed : pochi avanzi situation and point ne Style rimangono.

to the

period after

Marcus

Aurelius.

Carrara
*

a di Salona mappa (Trieste, 1850) gives on enclosed of the remains S.' the by the line of antica building them information fortifications and (p. 92). As concerning the that they of stone found, he beUeves trace no steps has been direction of the the in A subterranean ran wood. of were passage Reise in Dalmatien iiber eine in Hirschfeld axis. smaller (Bericht

(Topografiae scavi topograficadell'

Osterreich. Mittk., ix, 18S5, p. 16) gives


of
for
a

sepulchral inscription
vii. de

gladiator (Sil[v]ianus
a

an.

pug.

posuit) and
the

stamp

(presumably

of

purveyor,

sibi cui dolet perhaps of bread,


suo

two contains between gladiators the gladiators),which Miscenius facit Salonas : words AmpMatus letters) (in inverted (= Salonitanus) Archaeologia Britannica, iii,344 : Mr. Fortis observes Aequum. that he saw some vestiges of an ancient Roman amphitheatre on
.

the

hill of

Aequum.
The

_._..

Epidaurum.
rupe excisi

of Jbe-town position,
other

on
'

the

site of

amongst vecchiat,^_shown,

things, by
CIL,

reliquiae (Mommsen,

iii,p.

amphitheatri 287).

Ragusa ex ipsa

GALLIAE.i

(a) Narbonensis.
Cemenelum midi
state de la
arena, elliptic

(Fr. Cimiez,
France

Ital.
;

Cimella). Millin, Voyage


Voyage
ith
room corn en
v,

dans

le

(ii, 544

cp.

of
sea
near

although planted preservation ; there was


be
seen

Savoie, ii, 122). The and olives, was in a good for about 8000 spectators ;
of
'

the lived

could

from ruins
et
'

called

the

upper la Tino de

the

rows

seats. de

Those
.

who
II
en

Fati
sous

existe

massifs plusieurs

une

arcade,

(Cave fees) laquellepasse le chemin

le mastic, qui la recouvrait, subsiste On y voit plusieurs encore. des restes autres arcades d'arcades. The ou given by description und Cimiez in Jahrbb.d. Alterth. Fr. im Nizza von Deycks {Alterth.
"

Rheinl., xxxii, p. 33) entirely agrees with this. Mommsen, ruderibus vetustis, maxime V, 2, p. 916'': Cemenelum
"

CIL,

amphiPontius
to wild Romano

theatro

adhuc Valerian in the

(under
beasts

conspicuo antiquum oppidum and Gallienus) is said to have


De
:

refert. been

'

St

amphitheatre at Cimella. in Alpibus maritimis CimeUensi martyre iii. (14th of May), p. 277 (Jordan).
'

thrown S. Pontic

Acta

Sanctorum

Maii,

t.

(Antipolis (?). See CIG, 6776 on p. 179.) Julii. The amphitheatre is mentioned by Valesius (Notitia Galliarum, 1676, p. 200), Montfaucon (Antiq.expL, iii, p. 258), De Brosses (28th of June, 1739": les restes d'un a. des Romains, dont I'enceinte est encore entiere et un des c6t" serve), passablement conand Millin (as above, ii,p. 483 : restes d'un ancien cirque;
Forum
son

plan
les

mais

elUptique. L' enceinte sont d6truits). After si6ges


'

est

est

encore

assez

bien

conserv^e,
it
was

the excavations
to Hirschfeld.

in 1828

Infonnation

marked

H, is due

2i8
eu

Appendices
monument

II. [voL.

lieu,si le

avait

d^k

servi and

aux

jeux nautiques, auxquels

il etait destine.

Grangent

Durent
for

Durand
also

[Monum.
that Pelet

du

midi

de la

France, p. 68
was

; op.

Pelet, pp. 118^127)

believe

intended originally of

naumachiae.

the

number Ibid. : La au-dessus of them

spectatorsat 24,000, Millin (iv, p. fagade est compos^e d'un rez-de-chaussee, d'un etage et d'un attique. It had 60 arches, not numbered (some chief and Pelet, bearing phalli) p. 73 : les gates. 4
au

the building estimates 87) (p. at only 17,000. 220)

gradins 6taient pareil nombre (p.183). From

precinctions par un fa9ade 21-52 metres 120 the uppermost edge of the wall projected pierced of the masts of which for corbels, some are receptioh preserved, (p. 127). Pelet and MiUin give the history of the amphitheatre lus d, la Sorbonne, ArcMologie, 1867, p. (cp. also Reveil, Mimoires fecit (CIL, xii, The T. Crispins Reburrus 163. H.). inscription the the does refer architect. not to on Inscriptions 3315) probably found in the neighbourhood steps (3316-3322) ; gladiatorial inscriptions
nombre de 34,

divises

en

de

baltei, hauteur

totale

de

4 la

(3323-3332).
Baeterrae. offrait encore d'hui Caumont de belles

(as above,
ruines
au

p.

xvii

qu'unepartiedes constructions les premiers siegesde I'ima cavea. Une 6tait taill^e partie de la cavea en 6pargn6 les travaux mafonnerie, street is called rue des arines. Cp. S.
de

(L'amph.) de Beziers reste plusaujour^ qui supportaientle podium et avait 234 pieds sur 180. L'Arene
495)
:

siecle ; il ne

dans
d'un
...

le roc, I'on avait de I'edi"ce. cote


in Bull.

ainsi

[The H.]

d. I. Soc. archiol.
4.

Stark

and Beziers, i s6rie, t. 4 (1845),pp. 142-145 pi. ii,no. Reste eines as above, p. 139 : amphitheaters '.
'

Narbo.
rooms

MiUin le

(iv,p. 392)
quartier Saint'

states

that

in

certain

underground
of the
a

('dans
town there

Just ',Caumont,
croit avoir

are vaults, qu'on amphithe3,tre '. [Tournal, Catalogue du musie de to no. les ruines de 1'ancien a. 177, p. 36 : mais mit k sur ce on ne jour que point
'
. . . .

p. 497) appartenu N.

ern modancien

un

de Narbonne, 1864, furent executees la partieinf^rieure

diamfetre Le le reste avait ite dStruit. ext6rieur de I'a. de N. 6tait moins grand que celui de Nlmes, mais I'arena etait plus vaste. It no certainly longer existed in the H.] it in his does time of Apollinaris since mention not he Sidonius, de
ce

monument,

tout

careful

enumeration

of
602

the

buildings

of

Narbo
the

{Carm., 23). Cp.

Stark, pp.
Tolosa.

146
MilUn

and

to (reliefs referring

amphitheatre).

(p. 455) says that two of the 24 arches of the 180 feet long, 50 feet still exist about was amphitheatre ; the arena wide. Caumont, antiquaries conjecture that Tolosa p. 406 : Some had another larger amphitheatre (Raynal, Hist, du Toulouse ; Du
Barry, Recherches sur 620) says, however
Palatium,
quorum les
: a.

du

midi ibi

Erat

trium

operum

(N.G., Capitolium, Amphitheatrum, et Romanorum nuUae supersunt


de la France. Valesius the
as

reliquiae.

Lapise (Histoire d'Orange, 1640, p. 29) describes town, amphitheatre,which lay outside both the old and the new
follows:

Arausio.

les arfenes autrefois ayant les murailles tout presque la hauteur de douze de d'autres autour, endroits, en pieds en aucuns de vingtmoins, avec les formes ou naissances des portes au nombre

J'ai vu

Vol.

ti.

Appendices
ont 6te

219

quatre.
de terre. des

Elles Les

fondements

et quasi rashes k fleuf depuis peu abattues t out autour les ouvertures avec paraisseiit de
a

la forme vraisemblablement laquelle

portes, et

I'ovale
traces

relev6e

en

dehors At

par
the
were

la terre,

et6 tir^e du

dedans.

beginning
still to be

of the
seen,

nineteenth but
had

century
to

of the foundations

according
Vocontiorum.
were

Gasparin

{Hist,de la ville
to

d'Orange,

p.

105)

they

disappeared in 1815.
According
MilUn

Vasio

(iV, p. 140) two


of and d'un
an

arches

still in existence

Cp. Voyage

de deux

to be remains considered Binidiciins i,p. 293 (17I/'),


...

amphitheatre.
as

Martin
a., ou

above,
mon-

p. 71 : SilriinB Eminence chemin tait par un creus6 ruines


des

on

voit les debris le de


roc.

Ton

dans

Les

Jacobins
caves,
en

voisins

de

ces

trouvferent
et

en

b".tissant deux ?

longues
distance

tres'hautes,

des

cotes, de

ayant des distance, il

voiites y

avait loin

conduits. [Dea Vocontiorum ruines


de des

Martin, p. 17

On

remarquait,
. . .

non

des

I'ancienne calvinistes des

6glise de
trois

cimetifere propre Palais.


aux

voutes,

St. Pierre, hors de debris d'un


Son
se

la ville,au

theatre,

encore gladiateurs. quartier N H. CIL, xii, Herzog (Gallia arbonensis App. 453 muneris curator 1585 (flamen divi Aug. gladiatori Villiani) ; venatorum CIL, xii, Deensium) 468 (collegium 489 ; 1590 CIL, xii, 1529 (munerps] publ. curat[or]ad Deam Aug.) ; inscription and Gallisclte ou a secutor, 1596. Cp. Hirschfeld, ib.,p. i6i'",

exercices

nomme
==

"

Studien, p. 30.]
Vienna. of
the existence of an (N.G.,605) assumes of any here, although apparently he does not know

Valesius

theatre amphiremains

one.

under

from Eusebius (Hist.Eccl., v, i),to be quoted passage does the not assumption. According to Lugdunum, justify
The

Chorier
of who
one

(Antiquitisde Vienne,
were

p.

416)
rest

some was

vaults
razed

(diversesvoutes)
the inhabitants, Terrebasse, Inscr.

stillin existence the ruin


as a

; the

by
a

used

antiques de Vienne, ii,413


Schneider 1775
et
meme :

quarry. Un a.

Aimer

and

etait adosse

la coUine
at

de

Pipet.
in la

(appointed director
des

of the
en a

drawing
vu

school
restes

Vienne dans

Stark, Stddtel., p. 576) qui

des

tres-apparents
mesurer

gradins encore
etait qu'il
21.

en

plaCe et qui a
que
a ceux

pu

les

longueur, estime Cp.


also

plus grand

de NSmes

et d'Arles.

Stark, p.

on Inscription

T(h)r(aex)CIL, xii, 1915.

(h) Aquitania. ILugdunum


Bertrand. Convenantm. M.

Dumege
de faibles

indique
vestiges
muros,
as

un

a.

Saint-

Caumont,
II
ne

p.
reste

496.]
que de I'a.

[Aginnum. Id., ib.] Burdigala.


Gallieni
vocant.

d'Agen.

Valesius

(AT.G., 502).
as

A. extra Montfaucon

quod
above

Palatium
:

Lipsius

above.
ou

autant

les arfenes de cet amphithesltre souvenir, champ que je puis me le cedaient etaient des plus grandes et ne peut-etre pas a celle du covered the ruin, the arena Colisee. Millin (iv, was When p. 623) saw le with and buildings,
the

scanty

remains

had the

almost
arena

disappeared.
was

According

of earlier date to representations

225

feet

220

Appendices
wide. etait

[vol.ii.
pieds. Le rezgaleriesplacees I'une
60

long, 165
de-chauss6e
sur

L'61evation d^core de

exterieure I'ordre

6tait de
4

Toscan,

k regnaient a.utour, 15 portiques conduisaient deux ainsi que plus grandes et plus ornees portes principales, mieux conserv6es. sont les de I'edifice parties aujourd'hui of Gallienus, since bricks are employed assigned to the reign

I'autre

I'ar^ne que It is
in the

construction
use as

"

material

which

is said

not

to have

been

in

common

period ia the Roman above, p. 477. Cp. also Stark, Mediolanum Santanum. Valesius
before that

buildings inGaul.
Stddteleben, p. 228.

(?)Caumont
hodiMont-

eque faucon the

amphitheatri
as

rudera

ac

{N.G., 502) : Supersunt nobiles extra muros. reliquiae


de
and

above.
de

(AntiquiUs amphitheatre hus. According


"

MUlin, iv, p. 679. Chaudruc insufficient Sainies, p. 72) on most


to the
to

Crazanues
Aure-

grounds assigns
Marcus

period
it had

between
room
"

Hadrian
for 5000

him

sitting places (60

il en existe 2 principales un seul etage de voutes arcades inclin^es seule precinction) No been I'arfene et une have traces found vers
.

of

arrangements
makes
it

for

an

awning
that

the

lowness

of the

parapet
in

of the

Cauplace mont it (and justice)whether (pp. 486-490) have been could flooded for naumachiae (Chaudruc, p. 81). Limonum (Pictavi). Bourgnon de Layre (L'amphithSdtre ou les ardnes de Poitiers,in Mim. de I'Ouest,1843, de la soc. des antiquaires who and pi.1-6), insufficient grounds (p.157) assigns on pp. 137-273 the erection of the amphitheatre to the time of Hadrian Antoninus or of the older literature (cp. also Valesius, N.G., Pius, gives a survey : les (bom 1475) says in his Annales d'Aquitaine p. 502). Bouchet arenas built by Gallienus) joignaient le palaisGallien (he thinks it was les ar^nes c'estait le lieu pour faire joustes et tournois Dom (P- 173)- According to the description by the Benedictine visited in Poitiers those Fontenau, who were 1740, the only remains of some entrances to and some surrounding arched vaults, passages,
arena

improbable
doubts

venationes

took with certainly

it.

"

"

some mann can

arcades
but

of

the

(Neueste

Reisen the

upper durch
and

built over. storeys all much Frankreich, 1787, ii,p. 48 :


"

Volck'

Nothing

(iv, 712) (engagees modernes). De Layre, as the result of very minute investigations, the amphitheatre to have been (which show gives the dimensions otthe one largestknown) and a detailed reconstruction. According to this,the building was three-storeyed,had no praecinctiones (said in Gallic buildings) to be generally unknown in the interior,seats for 40,000 for at least 12,000 more. spectators,and standing room also Cours Caumont, Cp. d'Antiq., Stark, Stddteleben, pp. 483-486. amphitheatre (now les Ar6nes ', also called p. 251 : The palais de Gallifene ')directlyadjoins the old city walls on the outside ; its
to
some

be seen inside with

shape

of the small

old

amphitheatre,
'.
dans

which

is covered Millin

gardens

houses

According
des

vaults

still remained

constructions

'

'

and masonry to late-Roman


a

the

little stone

rhombi
;
a

with

which

it is covered still
serves

point
as

workmanship

triple-arched gate
ville Gallo-romaine

street-gateway. Fines, according to 1882) was situated on


on

A. Tardieu the road

{La
from P. 9.

de Beauclair,

Augustoritum
: on

to

Augustonemek Beauclair les

tum

the

site of Beauclair.

reconnalt

VOL.

II.]
d'un
a.,

Appendices
plac"
"

221

traces

sur en

le bord bois
"

de les

la voie

romaine. seuls 6tant

II est probable

agenc^ Augustoritum (Limovices).


of Mariae

qu'il6tait

terre. en gradins Valesius tion {N.G., 268), from the menin mediaeval documents an arena {e.g.1314 ecclesia Set. de Arenis),had already assumed the existence of an theatre amphivii outside the town inter : hodieque est Lemoportas una
; there
was en un

vicis porta Arenarum Merimfie {Notes d'un


que states

also

'

un

cimeti6re

des'Arfenes' there.
reste des

l"ur

nom

voyage conserve k

that
on

the

foundations
of the

Auvergne, p. 97) : il ne quartier de la ville. had recently been laid

artees

Caumont bareon an

(1838)
nence emi-

It is said to have remained intact monks of till the time of Louis the Pious, who the St. Martial gave Considerable permissionto use the material for building a church.
west

the

town.

ruins

in removed were up to 158 1 ; the last visible remains laid out was promenade (Cours d'antiq., 1713 pp. 477-479). Chronicon Vesunna Du : Meminit {^Petrocorii). Cange s.u. Arena Arenarum Petracoricensium Petracoricensium sub Episcoporum when
a

existed

anno

1517 : sub hoc Petracoricensium


et satis

Boso

comes

Petracoricensis
turrem at

excelsam there
was

rum Arenasuper locum exaedificavit. According


'

araphitheatrum pulet arenae e lapide quadrato integrum extra moenia l atitudo Valesius xxx xx. longitudo (N.G., 446). ejus perticarura, in minis Cacarottas. vocant 1 1 : Gruter, amphitheatri quod 59, 7 de I'Acad., xix, 710. Caylus, Recueil d'antiquitis (vii, Cp. Mim. cet formait autrefois theatre, amphi1767. P- 3"5. pl-Ixxvii): le contour que
to chrum
" "

Lipsius (as above)

Petricorii

est
masses

tr^s bien
ou

marque

par
6
masures

les ruines
de
ce

"

il subsiste

encore

6 sont

informes
et

plutot
et fort

bdtiment
"

elles

considerables, isolees
de voutes

eloign^esI'une
"

de I'autre

des

portions

formant les souterrains. Cet edifice parait piliers de circonference. II subsiste dans avoir encore 1200 eu pieds de I'artoe k 15 pieds profondeur un aqueduc ou plutot un egout de II etait coupe et traverse 5 pieds de largueur et de 6 de hauteur.

de

dont les proportions etaient les memes ; I'un et I'autre par un autre k les ecouler de I'arfene. servaient eaux [Caumont, apparemment d' archtologieed. 2, p. 344 : k Tours et k Perigueux les Ablc6daire
' ,

Gallo-Romains
ent

utilisirent leurs amph.


en

pour

leur defense

et les avaito Caumont

H.] According left of the amphiiii, theatre (Cours d'antiq. monum., pp. 480-483) little was (De (in 1838) ; but on the basis of the results of excavation it. de he of detailed a Taillefert, gives description Antiquitis Vesone) in urbe Valesius Divona : ea vestigia {Cadurci). (N.G., iii) aquaerudera ductuum, amphitheatri et rupes perfossas hodieque cerni of an Remains aiunt. Volckmann theatre amphi(as above, ii,p. 482) : with '. built of small squared stones are still to be met
transformes
enormes
'

bastions

'.

Segodunum
celui d'Avenches
se

Rutenorum.

'

L'a.

de

Rhodez de

qu'une grande
quelques
destructeurs.

concavite

plus comrae eUiptique, autour


;

n'offre

de
a

laquelle

voient

debris

murailles

leur

soUdite

Caumont, d'ant., p. 496. (AfearTulle.) Caylus (Rec, vi, p. 356) quotes the following from Baluze, Histor. Tulliens, (1717), parte hujus capitis p. 8 : in extrema Tutela nobile a adnotabo olim iv m. (Tulle) oppidum in parochia p. multa adhuc et agro Tintinniacensi, cujus vestigia superNavensi
lasse les eflEorts des

Cours

222

Appendices

[vol.ii.

cc sunt ; imprimis vero p. in longitudine, amphitheatrum, habens etiamnunc et cl in latitudine, cujus caveas supersunt, rudera, quae hodie Etiam amphilocus, ubi rudera ego vidi in juventute mea. de TinArenae Tintinniacenses, vulgo les Ar^nes theatri, vocatur
"

tinniac.
of

He

Ptolemy.

erroneously considers the town Caylus, understanding that the


since the time

to

be

the

Rastiatum had

remains

greatly

himself with reproof Baluze, contented ducing in cxiii. Montlatter the the representation pi. given by dimensions, and the same who mentions the gives faucon, amphitheatre diminished
the doubt drew same authority. no upon pi.ex) gives the plan of a theatre, Aquae Neri (Niris). Caylus (iv, not an amphitheatre ; cp. ib.,p. 368. [Merimee, Notes d'un Voyage cus en gives a descriptionof it, takes it for a cirAuvergne, p. 73, who him. The incUned with remains to agree H.] ; I myself am in Niris, viciis Neriomagus in detail by L. Esmonnot described are in the Berliner notice from Chambalu's to me (1885 ; only known which it remains to Wochenschrift,May 14, 1887), according philol. theatre the building was a or an uncertain, whether amphitheatre.' In Du Arena consuetud. Bituric. tit. ii s.v. : Cange, Bituriges. de Unde de fosse Artoes des conficitur fitmentio la art. 20 Bourges. According to Valesius (N.G., amphitheatrum olim ibi exstitisse. filled up in 1619, and its place taken was 86) this fosse des Artees ii,458. by a market, la place Bourbon. Cp. Volckmann, Cours an d'ant., p. 497, mentions [Ernodurum ? Caumont, amphitheatre de Levroux, prfesd'Issoudun.]
' '

'

(c) Lugdunensis.
Lugdunum.
shows.

In 69 Vitellius was The Boian Dio, Ixv, i.

present
Mariccus

here
was

at

some

gladiatorial
to

thrown

the

wild

of the martyrs of (Tac, Hist., ii,61). The execution at Lyons in 177, described length in the letters of these communities in Eusebius Eccl., v, i),probably took place (Hist. this The is not explicitly stated. at Lugdunum, although passage oiv MarpCposrai 6 is as follows (ed. Schwegler, p. 162, 37) : 0 ixiv ets rb dTjfiiicrtof KttX Tj BXavBTva Kal 0 "AttoKos -fjyovTO ^-jrl tcl "LAyKTOs drjpla. e6vG)V t^s diravOpojirlas Kal els rd Koivbv tu}V 6^afia,iTrirtjdes rijstwv Orfpiodib.rods ^^eripovi b fi^v /laxiQvijfiipas SibofUvrji. Marovpos Kttl6 ^dyKTos aS^is irdXip KoXdffedts .Kal SLi^"(rav Sicnrdo-rjs iir^^epov ivTipdfitpt"earpip beasts
Vienne
. . . . .

in 70 and

Kal rods dwb tQv d-qplitiv Kal Trdpd^ b"Ta twv Ste^bbovs fj-affrlyuv e\K7}$fwis b dWoi Kal fmivb/ievos Sijpios KaliTlirdiriTriP dWaxbBev iTc^buv iTeKeXeiovro, aiiTovs iveipbpei. to. Kad^Spav, i:0* f;sTTjyavt^bfieva ffibfiara Kvltnjs fftdrjpdv In 1 561 remains of what was probably the amphitheatre stillexisted

T".S

in the
in the

disixictoit)xs

jardin des plantes laid


Terreaux
; and

out
1

under

the

first empire
saw some

quartier des belonging


'

before

arcades of
to

to

it,built
un

of small

793 stones, which

Artaud
were

then

stroyed, de-

signe de ffiodalitS '. During the course his excavations came (about 1820) some steps with inscriptions the of seats of the honour light,indicating deputies of the 60
comme

6tant

civitates. at the

Martin-Daussigny,

conservator

of

the

result of fresh

undertaken investigations by him conclusion that the amphitheatre (the arena


i

the as museum, after 1857, arrived of which could be

cemains [Alleged

of both exist.

"

Tr.]

VOL.

II.]
for

Appendices
was

223
neighbourhood
,

flooded
ara

naumachiae)
el

situated
as

in the

of the

Romae

N.G., p.

site of Ainay (Atanacum) but in the quartier des Terreaux in ancient times the Rhone and ; here Saone have since altered their See course. joined, although they
295 the

not, Augusti, and on Boissieu),

and

formerlyassumed

(asby Valesius,

Martin-Daussigny, Notice
dunum

sur

I'amph.

ei

I'autel

d'Auguste

Lug-

de France, 29th session, 1862, Paris, 1863, his letter to Henzen (AdI, i860, p. 215) ; pp. cp. also O. Hirschfeld, Lyon in der Romerzeit (Vienna, 1878, p. 16). in 1864) thought the amphitheatre Other Alhner antiquaries [e.g. for on to be looked of the Seine the right bank was at Fourvi6re,

Congrls 418-454 ; and

in

arcMol.

des Terreaux, to another ascribing the remains in the quartier the of existence two or assuming building, amphitheatres the one et Augusti for the imperial festival at the meetings by the ara Romae of the deputies at the Gallic diet, the other for the city shows (cp. in the notice of Hirschfeld's treatise in Rev. crit., J[ules]Vfermorel] July 12, 1879, p. 29, and Renan, Marc-AurSle, p. 331, i). The latter is now believed been to have discovered by the excavations of M. Lafon in Fourvifere of which the in the erection a building the hill has walls of been three concentric utilized, declivity being still standing. According to another view (shared also by Duruy and Renan) it is supposed to have been situated at the foot of the its chief axis to the Saone. being parallel Deseilligny declivity, Rev. as arcMoL, July-August, 1887, below, pp. 23-26. Cp. Bazin, Notice sur J. Pierrot Deseilligny, I'amph. de Lyon, p. 35, and
" "

either

Caen,

1888.

Aquae Segete (Segeste). The amphitheatre at Chatillon-surfrom is described Loing already known Caylus (iii, pi. 412, p. cxiii) les antiquitis in detail and illustrated by JoUois (Mim. sur du dip. with du Loiret, 1836, pp. i-io. de de Chenevilre, Description I'amph. d'Anville he like before it as him, regards platesi-vii) ; belonging to Aquae arena Segete (Ukert as above, p. 465). The elliptical for spectatorson only one has accommodation side, (fosseaux lions) of less than the half a nd to an according occup3dng JoUois ellipse that it could be Caylus assumed capable of holding 3000-4000. transformed into a complete ellipse with the aid of wooden ings. buildremains of the rows of steps that were still Nothing now visible before 1758. 1600 On a Vue g^n^rale d'Autun in Edme vers Augustodunum. Thomas citi d'Autun illustr6e et (died 1660), Hist, de I'antique annotSe as (Paris-Autun, 1846), p. 32, the amphitheatre appears an important ruin ; the illustration (p. 61) shows it as a building, at least three storeyshigh, of the circuit of which f to f is preserved, with of With this the illustration seats. rows complete agrees be to declared imaginary by Millin, i, 307) in Montfaucon (rightly after Auberi),in which (as in Thomas) the third storey (iii, ii, p. cli, in relief the side outer exhibits between the on figures large fourth also is of Thomas and a arcades, storey given. part says : je d^couvre les vestiges d'un a. cachfi par les ronces, les Opineset la est b^ti terre.maisdont on voit sans grands peineles sieges. II Md'uncimentferme. de deux BiniVoyage debriquetageengr^s, hors est la, de fait en demi-circje vilje, i,p. 164 : L'a, 4ictins (1717),
'

'

"

224
fort 61ev",autour oi Ton enfermait

Appendices
duquel
les betes,
on
. .

[vol. ii.
affreuses,
Chretiens environn^ d^vorerles demi-lune

reraarque

cavemes plusieurs

.qu'onlachoitpour
una

dans une grande plaine, qui fait comme de murailles. This description, like that
'

the

amphitheatre
to

outside

the

town

has

of Volckraann of the form

{Hist.d'Auiun, p. in the used as a According amphitheatre was quarry since eighteenth century and completely destroyed. Excavations of 1832 and 1842 have rendered possible an approximate estimate the two Hist. axes m. d'Autun, x (157 ; 131 p. 215). [Cp. Comptes rendus de la soc. fr. de numismatique et d' archiologie i, 1869, p. 14.
appears
to

refer to the

theatre

(ii, p. 206): semicircle,' 63 and p. 217).


a

Millin, the

H.]
Autisiodurum.

Leblanc-Davau,
In documents des
'

Recherches
the In fifteenth the
centre

siir

Auxerre

(2nd ed.,
mention is before

1871), p.
made of
a a

51.
'

of

century
of the
seen.

champ

Artoes

'.

same,

1830,
of
a

considerable revealed
'

depression could elliptic


une

be

well

conduisant galerie

dans

The I'int^rieur du

digging

cirque,
pierres
author

garnie de
de
assumes

petitesloges et ferm6e k son taille site is now (p.52). The


that

porte en par une The entirely altered.


built of wood.

entree

(N.G., p. 332) : Senonici amphitheatri meminit Passio beatae Columbae virginis et martyris (alleged occurred under to have AureUan). The Bulletin de la soc. archSol. de Sens (ii, 1851, p. 70) containing a treatise on the amphitheatre available. not (with plan) was Lutetia (Parisii). An article in the Grenzboten (1870,ii,p. 189), the Bulletin de la soc. impirialedes Der antike Circus zu Paris (after of the earlier antiquairesde France, 1858, p. 152) gives an account of Gregory of Tours notices of the amphitheatre. The statement in his Hist. Franc, v, 17 : (Chilpericus rex) apud Suessionas atque Parisios circos aedificare praecepiteos populisspectaculum praebens, to a restoration is referred of the amphitheatre. Alexander Neckam, who taught about 1180 in Paris, in his Laus sapientiaedivinae calls Agendicum
the

amphitheatre (Senones). Valesius

the

was

amphitheatre
later it
the

'

theatrum
as a
'

Cypridis,'vasta
tria

'

ruina

'.

hundred
document

years
of tur

1284

laid out was Sorbonne owned


ante Arainas and

vineyard ; according to a quarteria vineae in loco qui dici'. The


now

les Areinnes
'

St. Victorem
from
an

whole

district

was

called
same

Faubourg vineyard
as

Saint-Victor
ad

abbey
des

destroyed.
',is mentioned

The

',

'

Clos In

Arennes

in maps

xi, 1870, p. May, 1870 (Rev. archiol., 1307 1399. in the west of the rue Pantheon, some 349), Monge investigators the curve of the walls surrounding the arena and some came upon smaller half of the amphitheatre is laid bare ; a seat-steps. The cloister occupies the site of the larger. The declivity of the Genevieve utUized in Ste. Montague (mons Lucotitius) has been the construction. The masonry consists of irregular stones, laid in
as

late

cement
stones.

; the

side

turned

towards

the

arena

is covered
at

with
The

squared
of the

Two
rows

ascending
was

quadrangular of steps may


as a

chambers have been


in

the
as

bottom
and the

used

cages.

theatre amphila

used
a

removed cp.

to

quarry considerable distance,

the

middle ar^nes

ages

its material

to especially

lie de
in

Cit6;

(critesdes Longp^rier,Les pierres

de Lut"Ce

Jourv. des

226
poser
de de

Appendices
placespour
de

ii. [vol.

plus de

6000

spectateurs.
at

II

ne

restequepeu
I'enceinte in-

partie

I'enceinte

ext^rieure

presque

rien

de

t6rieure.

(d) Belgica.

(Helvetii.)The
of

following information
to

as

to

the

amphitheatres
called

Switzerland
Octodurum
'

is due

C.
'

Bursian.

ruins of the (Martigny). The consist {vivarium) by the people le Vivier tolerably circular, still almost in a complete

amphitheatre,
of state is
an

enclosing wall,
of
; preservation
more a

constructed
three The feet

of

boulders,
and No
N. trace

rubble

and

tufa

stones, it is stiU
more

than

thick

in many
to is

places its
S., is
214

larger axis, from


to

feet

height long

than

man's.
from

the

smaller,

which the on preserved of the arcades hence of the seat-stepsthemselves seats we jecture, con; may that the interior arrangement was only of woodwork. Aventicum (Avenches). On the amphitheatre op. 'BuTsia.n.Aventicum Helvetioriim in Mittheilungen der antiquarischenGesellschafi in Zurich, It is situated bd. xvi, i,heft i, p. 20. in the N.W. partoftheold town of Avenches, town, directly east of the little modern and, into an orchard, can be recognized at the first althovightransformed On the east side glance from the elHpticdepression in the interior. of this depression rises a lofty tower, the foundation of which is built in the seventeenth formed by an ancient double vault ; it was E.

W., 201. rested, nor

century
walls

as

granary,

and

is

now

used

as

museum

outside, the
the and old

arch-shaped
that

springs of several
them

such

vaults
seen

together
on

with

party
on

S.,
from

while

can support the on S.W., W.,

still be and

the

N.E.

the

N.W.

remains. S.E.

The
to

length
N.W.

of the

larger axis

nothing of the of the elUpse of


upper

the

building building

326) feet,
the whole modern

of the is about

is 314 the masonry (including smaller 282 (or 294) ; the 880

of the arcades of circumference surface


of the

feet, the height


near arena

of the
over

upper
the

terrace

constructed
covers

the

tower feet
;

the
feet

soil that
some

the
are

29J

the

of which

still

high.
hold

The has
at

number

preserved of spectators

in the which

deepest part of stone, seat-stepsof sandterrace wall, are ij the amphitheatre

could
of the at

been

estimated
on

by
the

Museum

Avenches,

Caspari, the conservator of seats, assumption of 20 rows


the

A.

8780 ; but according to Bursian's view building (the upper surface of the terrace sufficient grounds for calculating the no
number of the

present height of the

of seats ; the latter rows and there is in addition an 20, for the lower classes,such as are preserved in amphitheatres places in Italy and the south of France, so that the number of the spectators be estimated at twice the number can above. given

largerthan

with the tower) affords original height and the was probably considerably upper circuit with standing

Vindonissa

donissa,
an

and
the

Aargau). The amphitheatre of Vinvillageof Konigsfelden,now appears as oval depression, resembling a sandpit, but covered with grass without traces of corn, walls any ; by the people it is called Barlisgrub (bear-pit) The greater axis of the ellipse (from N.E.
on

(Windisch
W.
of

in

the

the

'

'

to

S.W.) was

about

230

feet

long; the

entrances

were

one opposite

VOL.

II.]
on

Appendices
narrow nor

227
There is
no

another the

the

side of the

of the vaults

building.
on

trace

of
F.

seat-steps,

which

they
in
der

rested.

Cp.

Keller, Statistik der romischen

Ansiedlungen
zu

Ostschweiz, in
xv,

Mitteilungender antiquar.Gesellsch. 142), in whose opinion the statements


Darstellung von
be
'

Zurich, bd.
of Haller

heft

3, p.

und (Histor.

topogr.
are

Helvetien

unter

romischey

Herrschaft,ii, 390)

to

considered
'

purely
calls
of the of
a

fictitious.

theatre

(as he
half
of the

the the the with

second
east centre

gate, and

which it), the ruins of eighteenth century, especially of large,rectangular block granite,right in
'

Haller of this speaks of remains still visible above were ground in

former and

arena,

to which

the

wild

animals
were

intended fastened has been Ver-

for the venationes

chains, the [Augusta Rauricorum.


at

also persons condemned double holes of which were No


trace

to death

still visible '.

of

an

amphitheatre
for such
; see

found Hdb. such

Baselaugst ; what has been der Archdol., " 263, i) is rather einer Beschreibung historischer

taken
a

(e.g. by Miiller,
Bruckner,

theatre
und

natiirlicher

Merkwiirdig-

keiten der

Schoepflin 2772. this illustration of theatre an {Alsatiaillustrata, gives (e saec. i,160) romische Mommsen schedis Schweiz, p. xvi, e Amerbachi). (Die
ing Augst. Accordromische (Das paper Theater zu Augusta Raurica, in Mitth. d. histor, u. antiquar. Gesellfrom notice to me a zu Basel, n.f.,ii,1882), only known by schaft the first Bliiraner (of about (D.L.Z., 1882, no. 44), the theatre

Landschaft Basel,

xxiii. Stiick

(1763), p.

16) also speaks


to

of the

ruins

the

by

Th.

of the amphitheatre of Burckhardt-Biedermann

century) was
an arena.

later

purposely altered, and

the

orchestra

made

into

[Aquae Vicus (Baden in Aargau). According to F. Keller (Die rom. Ansiedlungen in der OstecAwei^,Abtheilung i, in Mittheilungen der antiquar. Gesellsch. in Zurich, bd. xii, heft 7, p. 297) there was of this the at stillto be seen there, beginning (nineteenth) century, which not without reason was regarded as the a circular depression, of a theatre' (? the interior of an amphitheatre); but no traces cavea of it are now visible.] Valesius Maxima (N.G., p. 600 : AmphiSequanorum, Vesontio.
'

theatrum
cxx,

ohm

Yesontio

extra et

muros

cuius

fundamenta

porticusmaiore

habuit, latum ex parte

passus
dirutas

circiter

ait

est extra murum ubi nunc Chifletius Superest in urbe hodieque vicus Arenarum,

spectari sacellum Scti Jacobi. qui ad portam amphi-

theatri

ducebat,
datis

et

porta ipsaamphitheatri,una
ohm
cum

porta portis,
anno

Arenarum

aliis turn

nunc quae tribus Arenarum de vii civitatis tribubus conspicitur. Quin et una the still be town Outside dicitur. Volckmann, iii,162 : may in feet diameter.' about 120 remains of an seen amphitheatre,

Mcxx

nuncupata,

Vesontionis ex v Callisto pp. ii in litteris intra muros urbis Integra

'

Castan

de Vesontio, in (Le capitole

MSm.

lus

d la Sorbonne. 6t6
;

Archiol.,
en avons

ont Les ruines (de I'a.) says p. dans I'un des bastions construits par Vauban 2 Hist, de Besangon, ms. des images (Prost, d'Ar^nes en conserve rue de notre et le nom

1869,

33)

'

il est vrai, noyfies,

mais

nous

plans

of the

Arines)

en

la m^moire. de Grand (Gran) (Town of the Leuci.) Caylus,vii,p. 349 : Le village ? ^NoviomaFines Neufchateau et entre (ad Joinville Champagne
"

228
gus, U ne Leuci

Appendices
Ukert,
reste
. . .

[vol.ii.

de ces anciennes villes,dont above, p. 505) 6tait une du la de cit6 elle faible ^tait tradition, peuple des qu'une
as

du coUine. Son 6Uvation 6tait adoss6 k une de 18 pieds 6 pouces c6t6 du midi est encore 30 ; I'ardne a encore toises de longueur et 10 de largeur. II y avait 3 portes de chaque de ramph. et aux souterrains c6t6 de I'artoe, qui conduisaient aux Son

amph.

habitans les appellent spectateurs. Les pour Ste croit le chateau de on Libaire, vierge, y Julien, que I'amph. from the outline on pi.cxi rather Yet it seems, souffrait le martyre. theatre. been to have a [JoUois,Antiquiiis de Gran (extract in de I'Acad. de Metz, 1842, p. 247) believes Mdm. (in Dufresne,

gradins

destines

accordance

with

excavations
2000

in

1822),

that

it

was

accommodating spectators ; like the theatre and used both it as a was above) Dufresne (p. 250) gives as the dimensions
"

building at
as an

capable of N^ris (see


the
ces

amphitheatre.
whole belles

building 137-60,
mines
aissent k sont

small

61 P.
on

metres,
249
a
-""'

and
en

large axis of says (p. 251) :

maintenant

converties
: au

carriSre

pubUque
du sol de

et

dispar-

chaque
de

jour.

dessous

I'orchtetre

2,\ m.

profondeur
.

troav^'Tin Valesius

aqueduc {N.G.,
'

parfaitement

conserve.
Dimrd-aram'

H.]
Mediomdfncum.

174) quotes the : cum pervenisset B. following from a MS. life of St. Clement ut ferunt Mediomatricam Clemens civitatem, in cavernis amphieandem urbem situm habuit '. theatri quod extra est, hospitium Saliae fluvius Ibidem dicitur, nimirum juxta decurrere juxta in de Metz amphitheatrum. Ch. Abel (Notice sur la Naamachie d'arcMol. de la soc. et d'hist. de la Moselle, i860, p. 49) says: Mhn. de I'areue en ce Ueu (between the porte St. Thi6baut L'existence and d'une 6gUse que saint C16ment Mazelle) est confirmee par le nom
p.
' ' '

y 61eva auteurs

"pxka de

la SeiUe

en

I'honneur
mines

de saint Andr6
A
en

appela toujours
de

St. Andr6-aux-Ar6nes.
de

croire

et que le peuple les B6n6dictins,

I'histoire k

Metz, les

de I'a. subsistferent les colonnes de Metz.


en ses a en

jusqu'en

1562, 6poque
pour grava C'est
trouve et

et laqueUe les pierres les


murs

furent C'est
une

d^plc^es
erreur,
no.

construire
k

de la citadelle
vers

puisque

S^bastien I'eau forte

Leclerc,
et

1650,

pris un
oeuvres

croquis qu'il
sous

qui

fait

partie de
de

le

205.

aprfescette
k la

estampe

rarissime

S"bastien
"

Leclerc

se (elle

Bibhothfeque imp6riale de estampes) que M. Migette a donn6 dans I'Histoire de Metz par Bfigin, t.
avec une

des gravures des artoes de Metz une vue i. Elle represente encore I'enet
une

Paris

Collection

ceinte

partiede
et

du
de

rangto par deux k Nimes et k Aries. On y voyait aussi I'escaher d'un des vomitoires par lesquels s'^coulait la foule d'une travers centr^e form6e au d'ordre colonnes porte par deux Un de Metz de ionique. montre le d6bris d'une de plan 1574 nous arcades avec colonne. ces En 1719 Montfaucon une faisait dessiner, bel des son ouvrage AniiquMs ce pour expliquies, qui restait de I'a. de Metz, et le pubUait, t. iii, Les B6n6dictins planche 103. reproduisaient dans leur histoire de Metz t. i, planche ii ce dessin, qui
colonnes

premier 6tage

du

contreforts ses rez-de-chauss"e


comme

portion des galeries

eclair^es

superpos^es

nous

d6molies

apprend que et qu' en

les

galeriesdessin^es
restait

1719 il ne

6t6 avaient par S. Leclerc debout plus que levomitoire et

VOL.

II.]
escalier, sa
Metz

Appendices
porte
et

229
de I'ar^ne. Au 17.

son

I'encemte
vu ces

circulaire ruines

sifecle P. de

Ferry qui a

Romische
p.

debout, supposaitque I'a. avait du 6tre construit sous Augusta (?). See Hiibner, in AUeHhumer Lothringen {Bonner Jahrbb., liii-liv, 1873,
encore

161 : supposed seat-stepsof the amphitheatre with the relief visor. ho[li]tores inscription ; p. 163, gladiatorial ; p. 171, Wyttenbach' (Neue Forschungen, p. 70) Augusta Treverorum. and Steininger(Gesch.d. Trevirer, i, p. 285) assign the construction of this amphitheatre to the time of Traj an ; the second of the spurious of Nennig (Mommsen, Gremboten, 1866, p. 407) is based inscriptions
on

159), p.

this

d.

assumption. zu Philologenvers.
architecture

As

F. Hettner {Das romische Trier, in Verhandl. Trier, 1879, p. 16) observes, the extremely

careful the
a

of the

amphitheatre
Roman
;

shows

it to have

been
'

tainly cer-

older
extreme

than

the

other

buildings of
the
eastern other

S.E. the hill, of Herr

of the
western
von

town
on

the city. semicircle leans

It is in

against

natural

the

hand
'

Wilmowsky

in the

cavations by the exis artificially structed con'sixties)

(as is shown

wall

remains Nothing now leading to the beginning of cages,


with

'.

but
the

the

arena,

together with
part
of the
an arena

rows

of seats,

mals' anitrance en-

and

further relieve

at the

end

of each of the

side of the
are masses

three

gates.
the

The

entrances

flanked of

by
earth.

strong

towers,
central seats.
on

the
.

The pressure the the led into the two to others gate spectators' arena, The latter could also be reached by two tunnel-like entrances city side (Hettner). According to Quednow {Beschr. des
'

which

is elliptical, its floor of rock ; in the zu Trier, p. 24) the arena latter is cut a euripus 3 feet wide and 4 feet deep, used for flooding for the purpose into the water at the naumachiae, being conducted
A

amphitheatre by

an

aqueduct
been

(?).
10

'The

podium,

now

feet

high,

high ; it had 10 doors, leading appears formerly animals' The number of places for the spectators, to the cages. estimated be settled, in Hettner's by Steininger at 8000, cannot

to have

feet

opinion.
Trev.'
here
see

On the

the

'

collegium arenariorum
=

consistentium 770.

Orelli, 2773
Bructeri

Brambach,
were

CIRk.,

Col. Aug. Perhaps it was

destroyed by wild beasts (before the see i , 306) ; According to the Gesta Trevir. Steininger, 231, 1. year civitatis the Vandal Crock the Treviri in arena besieged prince in this {i.e. amphitheatre, fortified by them) in the year 406, but without success Forsch., p. 53). Perhaps it (Wyttenbach, Neue
that
' '

was

at

that
are

time

that the semicircular be


seen

towers

were

built,remains

of

which

still to

{ib., p. 60).
Du

Durocortorum
commemorat

{Remi).
Marlotus

{N.G., p. 181) : Extra amphitheatri seu rum,


'

Arenas Remenses : Cange s.v. Arena lib. i Valesius Remensi metropoli cap. 5. Arenae Arenasunt Martis seu mons portam iii, duplicishemicycli figura. Volckmann,

in

p. 172

Two

hundred '.

paces

from

the

town

are

the

remains

of

an

amphitheatre
Augusta

Hist. Franc, v, 17 : see Valesius Lutetia. above under {N.G., pp. 58 and 332) infers the Cavea from the name existence of an (monasterium amphitheatre Yet St. Cr^pin en Scti Crispiniin Cavea, according to Chaye). Leroux, Hist, de Soissons (1839), i, p. 108, the amphitheatre was Suessionum.

Gregory

of Tours,

230
not

Appendices
there, but
in

[vol.it.

depressionin the

semicircular where a town, undoubted evidence affords ground opinion confirmed occasional been view have this is said of its site ; to by But their results are so in the 'twenties and 'thirties. excavations the building was whether doubtful small that it remains elliptic the latter to be more considers semicircular probable. or ; Leroux the
west

part

of the

in his

He of

assumes

that

its remains

were

choked

up

with

earth

in the

time-

Chilperic(576).
lus A la Sorb Senlis. Some
.

[Mayne, Mimoires Augustomagus [Silvanectes) des ardnes de la dicouverte Note sur 1867, p. 155 :
before, in
a

onne,

years

but at a considerable the modern town field not far from the circuit of the Gallo-Roman distance from town, a circular depression still to be seen of buildings were Fontaine de and a remains ; documents fontaine Raines in the vicinityis called in mediaeval
'

d'Airaines the

'

and

'

fons

Arenarum

'.

Then

follows

of description

Caix de Saintremains H.] recently discovered. trifling very de archiol. France, session, Paris, Tours, 44= {Congris 1878, Aymour of the building (75 x 68 m.) and pp. 69-78) gives the dimensions

ascribes sian's

its construction

to

the

third
104.

century.

Detlefsen

in Bur-

Jahresber.,viii

(1880),p.

Cours d'ant., [Caesaromagus {Bellovaci).According to Caumont, was an amphitheatre at Beauvais.] p. 495, there the also of an Valesius existence assumes [Rotomagus. Here at for the same reason as Soissons.] amphitheatre (pi.cxxvi) [Juliobona. Caylus (vi,394) thinks that the theatre also used as an amphitheatre ; cp. Merivale, Hist, of the Romans was Lillebonne had ture under the Empire : iv, 418, i : a miniain architecture and masonry '. Theatres, shown Colosseum by
'
. . . ...

the to

unusual
serve a

size and double

form

of their

orchestra

to

have

been

intended Letronne

purpose

facultatifs,as {amphith^eltres

them), are also said to have existed at Valognes (cp.Volckmann, Caen. See A. de la Mare iii, 354) and the village of Vieux near de Rev. mines Khremissa in archiol.,xii, 644),who {Excursions aux the excavations refers to the treatise by Charma at Vieux on (Mim. de la Normandie, de la Soc. des antiquaires vol. xxii).]
calls

(e) Germaniae.
Earlier investigations the existence of an beyond doubt amphitheatre the Berlich' (seeabove, p. 194 ; and Kolnischen Beiblatt zur near T)as Berlich zu Koln, in Jahrbb. Zeitung, 1829, no. 17). Diintzer, lich der Alterthumsfreunde imRheinlande,xx, Between the Ber-p.26). of a Roman have and the Appellhof the traces amphitheatre been found. Like the simple buildings near and those Vetera, Bonn described [Loiret], by Caumont (C. Archiologie,a. de Chenevidres exhibit a uniform Caen, i860), which type, it possessed an arena terraces with round for the spectators,100 m. long and 60 m. wide,

(G. inferior.) Colonia


established

Agrippinensis.

'

have

'

open
of the

towards

the
'

East

'.

C.

von
,

Beith,
16. the

Das

1885, Winckelmannsprogramm)
town.

the

Roman
a

Immediately Here probably camp.


of the sixth

p. before

romische Coin (Bonn, the subjoined plan Berlich was undoubtedly

Cp.

also

was

the
to

vivarium, enclosed
a

by

centurion

legion,according

votive

tablet

(in

VOL.

II.]
foundation
wall. of
a

Appendices
nr.

23 1
CIRhen.,

Lersch, Centralmiiseum,
in the
Roman
on

Brambach,
built
on

336),
Rome,

found
the

monastery
a

the

castle wall

into

There
near

is the

remarkable castra

with similarity

where

enclosed praeioria(later by the wall but there an are projecting considerably), amphitheatrum castrense and both before the old a vivarium, city ',Diintzer as above, p. 31. bach, BramInscriptionon an ursarius (Lersch, Centralmuseum, iii,196 211).
=

the Viminal,

Castra Castra Xanten

Vetera.^ and

Ph. Colonia

Houben
'

and

Fr.

Fiedler, Denkmaler

von

Trajana in Ph. Houben's Antiquarium zu (Xanten, 1839), p. 6 : According to the oldest information the remains of an amphitheatre or an the village arena campestris near of Birten, also belonged to the old camp. On the field rises oval earth firwith an rampart overgrown copsewood and some four cardinal the trees, with entrances, exactly facing points. 4 In the interior the rampart The circuit is about outer 350 paces. to a depth of about that runs so a 30 feet obliquely downwards,
120 space, the arena, paces in circumference, is formed the last to the west is about distance from entrance

Vetera

below.
120

The paces '. of a

already At the end of amphitheatre of the garrison at Vetera. the seventeenth century aged people could still remember having in the arena column seen a consisting of millstones laid one upon which the author He assumes another, peryersely takes for a meta. built of wood. that the amphitheatre was On a field not far distant of simple urns with have human bones been found. a large number The call the Victors arena or Lager country people usually St. the Victor, a captain of legend Victorsgelag ; according to the Theban legion, suffered martyrdom with his Christian soldiers of Colonia the marshes near Trajana by the orders of the emperor
for

Pighi
Roman

had

taken

this circumvallation

the

remains

'

'

'

'

Maximian.

BRITANNIA.
There in their
d. Berl.

is

no

doubt

that

in Britain

also the

legions kept gladiators


3 ; Monaisber. have relatingto them

permanent
Acad.

quarters (Hiibner, CIL, iii, 1335,


some

,iS68, 8g),and

monuments

been

preserved (Greek inscriptionon a retiarius in London, CIL, no vii,p. 20 ; probably also ib. 830 : venatores Bannies[es]) ; but the ruins of amphitheatres have been found. On other hand, English believe that they have discovered, in the vicinity archaeologists
'

quarters, traces of sosay, circular depressions all sides by the declivities on correspondingto the arena, enclosed of hiUs and thus presenting more less the form of natural amphior theatres. An Account Roman and other some of John Strange, i n in the Archaeologia (readMay 11, 1755) Antiquities Monmouthshire the hollow circular spot known at Britannica, v, 1779, p. 67 : the of Arthur's Round Caerleon name Table, Silurum) by (Isca which is generallysupposed to be a Roman work, and to have served In it this be considered must as one case by way of amphitheatre. of the Castrensian kind, like that at Richborough Castle, not far
towns

of

different

Roman

and

permanent
is to

called

amphitheatracastrensia, that

'

am

indebted

to Prof. Friedrich

Leo

for the above.

1^2
from Sandwich
in

Appendices
Kent, and
many others

[vol. li.

(cp.Wright, Wanderings,

one i, p. 156) mentions CwnosMW, Stukeley {/iey p. 88 : Rutupiae). bably ProCornwall. in Redruth and another at SUchester 3 miles from Westand Shap in morland, Penrith between entrenchment the round

described him
to
a or cock-pit name

by Salmon {Survey, p. 637) and compared by It also goes kind. is of the same wrestling-ring
Round
the Such

by
wall the
P.

the

of Arthur's used

at Winchester.

Table, as does that on temporary amphitheatres were


Romans that in those distant the

the

castle

probably
provinces '.
in

only
68
'

ones

by

It

is observable
no

the

castrensian seats,
saw so

amphitheatres
that

general preserve
have

stood
nor

leon,
that

95),that
any

signs of subsellia or declivity. I grassy in the more near perfect one also has Stukeley {ib., p. 166)
on

people
that

must

the

no

signs in

of Caer-

Dorchester

(Wright, ib.,p.
Nor do I recollect castrensian theatre, amphi-

observed. other
seem

such

have For

been
our

discovered

in any

at least in
numerous.

island, where

they
be
are

to have

been there
at

rather
were

many

more

of

it may them in

reasonably
Britain than
is

supposed
known
no means

that
to
us

present,
'.
more

though
That
at

the

number

of the

latter
see

by

inconsiderable

Caerleon (on which described by Lee accurately


ner

also Archaeol. the been

Brit., ii, 6) is
p.

{IscaSilurum, 1862,
to
same

128),as
traces

E.

Hub-

informs
are

me.

According
to have

scholar,
at

of

theatres amphi-

(Aquae SuUs), Cirencester. also and xvii, Silchester, Cp. Archaeol., (near p. 171 Llandrinolt, Wales) and Gough's Camden, i, p. 158 (Chaselbury, Wall, 3rd ed., 1867, {The Roman Wiltshire). Colhngwood Bruce he rude rehef at Chesters in believes can a recognize very p. 158)

believed

found

Bath

(Cilurnum) a

scene

from

the

amphitheatre, and

hence

conjectures
.

traces of one existed there : decided stillexist at the station that one of Borcovicus Housesteads) (a fort in the wall of Hadrian, now An illustration of this is given on p. 190 about a circular depression,
"

looft. Th.

in

diameter,
very

10

ft.

deep.

It is obvious

that

all these

vations obser-

are

uncertain.

in Manners and Sentiments Wright, A History of Domestic Middle the Ages (London, 1862), p. 64 {Homes of England during In the glossaries Other Days), p. 77 : plegere(a player) and pj^gaand man gladiator,' (a playman) are used to represent the Roman and plega-hus (a playhouse) plega-stow (a play-place) express a theatre or more that probably an amphitheatre '. Wright assumes denoted the walled-round the Saxons amphitheatres of the Roman still existingin their times by the first name, towns and those which formed the in were the second name. only by depressions ground by Among the illustrations of an Anglo-Saxon MS. of the Psalms (Ms. Harl. 603, perhaps of the ninth century) there is one, which according to Wright evidently represents an amphitheatre (reproducedon p. bear-leader with : a which a bear, 65) a dancer, pretends to be asleep, flute all on an arena a player on a double at the foot of a depression in the ground, with spectators in the background. many
'
"

THE

REST

OF

THE

NORTHERN Vindelicorum.
zu

PROVINCES.

Raetia et Vlndelicia. Augusta und der Perlach Berlich zu Koln

Augsburg,

in

J. Becker Jahrb. d.

{Der
Alter-

234
money
and

Appendices
lost under
L.

[vol.il.

Valentinian,
the

to

cipium
Nemesi g. et
mann,

97 coins (from Augustus to Valens found there. the inscription 33-37) were pp. Among VM on a stone-block with letters 25 cm. high may belong architectural VIR another in all proon inscription ; IIII bability served to indicate the seats of the quattuorviri of the muniof Carnuntum : ; a cippus bears the inscription Junoni
et
.

Verus) and

Eppius Martinus et lul(ia)Rodo


.

an

Mem(mius) Esper (t)ub{icen ?) leg.xiiii ara : (I)ovi(S)erap(iI)ulius. (Bor-

pp.

36-41).
Inferior.

The Aquincum. amphitheatre excavated described in 1881 was in a publication by Karl Torma in the Hungarian language, from which a plan of the building peared apinOestefj-eicA.MtWA.,viii (1884), plateiv,and an exact explanation in ix (1885), Several parts of the buildingshowed pp. 233-7. of small "^traces repeated painting. A sanctuary of Nemesis had been outer wall of the amphitheatre, and the dedications buifragSsUlstthe there ^Fof tfias^ of two j.6?-ind"'259. votiveaftiaJS..fa"nddate^froin and the other inscripnoussteU'jiVTCii.vTi 23-34) (1883), pp. 92-7 (nos. the benches and them for the inscriptions f., on i-ii, p. 97 among and G. 6. Valeria Nonia. et Juliani ?) Quinti, Ae(lii 4. Val)erii) of Muchar [Cibalis, The statement (Das romische Noricum, i, to be once a 365) that there was large amphitheatre there, seems

Pannonia

there

in 1880

'"

'

erroneous

at

all events

there

is

no

mention

of it in the text

cited,

Zosim., ii, 18.]


Dacia.
now

Porolissum
in

836)
m.

Imp. trib. pot.


;

the Caes.
xx.

(Mojgrad). In Klausenburg museum, T. Ael. Hadri | anus.

1858
was

the

following inscription,
there

found

Antoninus.

Aug.

(CIL, iii, Pi | us p.

dUapsum

denuo

imp. ii. cos. iiii.p. p. amphitheatrum vetus [tate Tib. CI. Quinti jlianoproc. suo fe|cit curante
Dacien

(A.D. 157). Sarmizegetusa. Neigebaur,


castrum
on

the

east

side of the

(1851), p. villageof VArhely


still be very

17 : Without which covers

the

of the and

old

citythe amphitheatre can

part easilyrecognized,
Pfarrer
saw

fifteen years benches. several stone ago still retained and Dr. Fodor, two Aukner here, antiquaries well known 80 paces E. and such at that time. The arena measures

five

W., and

surrounding wall is still 15 feet high and is everywhere covered with debris : only a few years stones ago largehewn lay about everjrwhere,and the form of the rubbish heaps stillshows the position of the former the seats. The four envaults beneath trances in the wall surrounding the oval arena indicated are by CIL, iii, depressions. Cf. p. 37, no. 105 amphi1522 (in scamno theatri). Champagny, Les Antonins, i, 292 : un amphithe3.tre dont le sable garde selon les paysans hongrois qui le montrent rouge O. Bennaujourd'hui la trace inefiajabledu sang qui y fut verse. O. Hirschfeld, who dorf and in the amphitheatre saw 1873, found covered the arena by a maize plantation,which only permitted an of its size. its longer axis approximate estimate They estimated 5o,N.
to
=

S.

The

at

60-65 paces, its


with

indicated

by

The ends of the the main entrances of the building,which four deep gaps in the buried wall, which

shorter

at 32-35.

'

axes are

sponded corre-

clearly
the

forms

VOL.

II.]
A double
row

Appendices
of small isolated the

2^5

cavea.
one

from depressions, equidistant

to the first and another, undoubtedly marking gangways second round the arena at the top of the wall and at its tiers,runs

lower
arena

edge. Nothing
or

is

now

to be

seen

of substructures

beneath

the

Bericht Hirschfeld, Vorldufiger liber eine archdologisch-epigraphische Raise in Dacien, reprint from

of benches.'

Benndorf

and

Carl vom Mittheilungen der Centralcommission J. 1873, p. 14. Gross n.f., 13 (Archiv. d. Vereins f. Siebenbiirg.Landeskunde of the amphitheatre as an [1876], p. 319) describes the remains in which the at oblong rubbish-heap 450 paces long beginning of this century benches limestone still preserved." of hewn were
, "

HISPANIAE.

following notices by E. Hiibner are based partly on his own observations (cf.his Antiquansche Reiseberichte,i, 1860-2) partly better in MSS. and on sources print (cf.the reports on epigraphic in the der Berliner Monatsberichte Academie, i86o-i). explorations The works the of the on Spanish country are entirely antiquities uncritical and untrustworthy, especially of the tendency account on to exaggerate the importance of all national The best treasures. de known is D. Sumario las Juan Augustin Cean-Bermudez, d las romanas en antiguedades Espana, en especiallas partenentes
bellas

The

Hiibner, Die aniiken 1832 fol. (cf.thereon Madrid, p. 277). See also Florez, Espana sagrada, Madrid, 1752-1850, xlvii,4 vols. ; D. Antonio Ponz, Viage de Espana, de I'Espagne, xviii, 8 vols. ; Laborde, Voyage pittoresque 1772-94,
artes, Madrid,
in

Bildwerke

Paris, 1806-20,
see

vols.

fol.

For
an

the

Roman

remains p. 249

of Lusitania ff.

Bellermann,

Erinnerungen

Sud-Europa,

(Berlin,

1851). (a) Tarraconensis.


Tarraco. Since Luis Pons de Ycart ruins
all

8, f.p. 215) affirmed that the prison) belong to the theatre,


followed

(Grandezas de Taragona, 1572, Na. Sa. del Milagro (now a near subsequent Spanish writers have

Florez, xxiv, p. 229 ; Albiiiana, Where, however, these writers Tarragonae monumenta, speak of the amphitheatre of this city (Cean, p. 7 ; Florez, xxiv, p. did ruins, which 228; Albiiiana, p. 124) they refer to the same which the to theatre, an amphitheatre. (Of undoubtedly belong him,
e.g. Cean, p. 6 ; p. 128. the so-called torre del city near upper for the inscriptions on ; Patriarca, there still exist several benches d. Berl. Acad., i860, p. 239). For them in Monatsber. cf. Hiibner now of the amphitheatre, of which a view only a small part of the

probably lay on

hill in the

cavea

remains,
Cornide

see

Laborde,
del de

i, plates 53, 54, 56.


indistinct

Ercavica
to

(Cabeza by Cean,

Griego). Very
I'academia
de

remains

according

(Memorias
p.

Madrid,
at Barcino

iii,1796, p. 172),

described The

59-

(p.15),Carthage Also Hiibner (p. n8) are quite uncertain. in has shown by an investigation of the site that Kiepert was of the alt. the existence d. in alleging (Lehrb. Geogr.,p. 497) error almost destroyed of an amphitheatre at Saguntum. ruins, now (p. 34)
and
Toletum
' '

amphitheatresmentioned

by

Cean

236

Appendices
(6) Baetica.

[vol. ii.

[Corduha. The very doubtful ruins, found in 1730, which Ruanes (Historiageneral de Cordoba, i [1761],p. 289) described, are said by Cean, p. 340, to have belonged to an amphitheatre. Hiibner saw An provin(ciae) nothing of the kind. inscription by a flamen flaminatus ob honorem edito there who erected statues Baet(icae), in is recorded Huebner, munere gladiatorioet duabus lussionib(us), note ii, i6. on 30.)] iii, Ephem. epigr., (See 77, p. 37, in 1885-6 Carmo (Carmona). The MS. report on the excavation in the with of an is be to a library found, plan, amphitheatre here, of the cf the Boletin in Madrid of the Academy of History academy, ; X, 1887, p. 174. ItaKca SeviUe). According to Montfaucon, (Santiponce near in great part destroyed the Ant. expl., iii, amphitheatre was p. 262, material for embankments. by order of the municipalityof -SesdUe-ta4!roxide
.

Cf. Cean, p. 283. the Cean latest excavations


a.

It is most de

descrfbed accurately
los

from

del gico-descriptiva

Rios, Memoria arqueoldby de Italica,Madrid, 1861, with a large plan.


Demetrio

has

also

asserted and

the

existence

of

(Baelo, p. 232)

Malaca

(p. 317), but (c)Lusitania.

these

amphitheatres at Belonia are quite uncertain.

Emerita.

Cf.

Huebner,
del
.

Bdl, 1862, p. 173, L'a.


terreno
e

riconoscibile
di

dal ed

profondo
archi
ore

avvallamento

da

pezzi difformi

muri

(Laborde, t.
parte

156)
venne

L'arena

suppleto erroneously considers it a naumachia. [Bracara Augusta (Braga). Very described, after Portuguese authors,
MAURETANIAE.

in gran

un seminato, il muro campo daUe circonstanti colline.

esteriLaborde

uncertain
in

the

remains p.

are

Bellermann,

252.]

(Djar Djedid). Tissot, Itiniraire de Tanger d Rbat d. g6ogr., vi, 12 [1876]), ou L'amphitheS,toe plus et que exactement, je crois,le theatre qu'avait signal^ Davidson Mr. Drummond Hay, consul a g^n^ral de I'Angleterre Tanger, a encore vu en 1842, n'existe plus aujourd'hui, k moins que 1'enceinte sfimicirculaire qu'on remarque loin d'Ain Kheil n'en represente non les derniers vestiges.
{Bullet,d. I. socUti
Portus zan, Drei
Arseu magnus.

Ad

Mercuri

Near
in

Arseu
von

remains

of

an

amphitheatre.

Malt-

Jahre
the

NW.

Africa, ii,6

(who erroneously

identifies

with

ancient

Arsenaria).

chel est

Julia Caesarea in (Algirie),


mieux

(Jol).
Rev.

De Blinifere, de la ville de CherAntiquitSs arch., v, p. 344 : L'enceinte de l'a. exterieure

conserv6e, j'aigravi 17 gradins encore Cf. bon 6tat. en de I'Alg. : BeauxExplor. scientif. Arts, iii, plate 21, where the amphitheatre is given in the plan of the town, and plates 29, 30 where it is figuredas Hippodrome romain. Renier, Inscr. de I'Alg.,3287 Sitifis. CIL, viii, 8482 : four mutilated fragments of an inscription, them ANFIT very among
=

HEATRI. The theatre

(not amphitheatre)

at

Cuicul

(Djemila), Expl.

VOL.

II.]
is also for

Appendices
tjiought by Ravoisi6, p. 60, to and with beasts. gjnamasticgames fights
NUMIDIA. have See

237
been below

Beaux-Arts, i,plate47,
used

(Khremissa).
Cirta.

Renier,
Scantius

1825

CIL,

viii, 6995
locorum

Divo, Pertinaci
exornatus

Aug.

patri L.
quam
de

L. fil. Quir. reditibus


sua

Julianus eq. pub.

statuam

promisit, ex
liberalitate

amphitheatri
iiiviratus edidit

diei dedit.

muneris

queni Rusicade This

ob
.

honorem

ii, plates 56-9.


2175
=

de Beaux- Arts, (PhiUppeville) Expl. scientif. I'Alg., Cf. Rev. arch., i, 814 (only one tier of galleries). in the local inscription, amphitheatre is mentioned Renier,

CIL, viii, 7983.

de la MaUe, Recueil des renseignemenis sur la Tipasa ? Dureau de Entre Tifiereh : et Guelma Constantine, Hebenprovince p. 204 streit (Nouv. Ann. de Voy. A 46, p. 58) a vu les debris d'uue grande
.,

ville ancienne, de

superbes portiques

bien

alignfe,des

colonnes

de

marbre, des palaisencore diamfetre, dont 10 rangs


taille. Les Maures situ6 Arab miles
sur

debout, un amphitheatre de 150 pas de sont intacts, le tout en grosses pierres de appeUent ce heu Hamisa, probablement par;

est cequ'il Tipasa.

I'Hamise

c'est

je crois

la colonie E. of
of
an a

romaine

de

[In the
about and 40

villageof
from both

Khremissa

(S.of Bona,
the
at

Constantine,
Roman

places)are
just as
have been

ruins

town,
the

including a theatre,
athletic la
contests

in which,

Cuicul,

arena

for beasts

might

provided by removing
de

proscenium,
So A. De

which

was

presumably
aux

built of wood.

(Cf.Juliobona.)
in Rev. arch6ol., la
sur

xii, p.
France.

Mare, 644.]

Excursion

ruines

Khremissa,
des

Lambaesis.

MSmoire

de la sociUi 800

nationale De bien
;
ses

antiquairesde
se

Troisifeme

serie, t. i

(1852).
assez

La
du

Mare, Recherches

la ville de Lambdse, p. 34 : A ramphith6a.tre. Ce monument etudi6


; U
au comme a

mtoes

pretorium
n'a
de

trouve

conserve,

tique et
centre,
ment

104 nombre

metres

de 15-20,

s'Us On

de

terre.

gradins, eUipderanges et incHnfo vers le avaient 6t6 16g6rement secou^s par un tremblede cintr^es metres de 2 ci 3 y compte 14 portes
sont
un

de

diamfetre

pu forme

Stre

peu

large,plusieursont
aussi deux
au

conserve
en

leurs

arceaux

en

bon

6tat.

On

y voit

de Text^rieur inclinSes,qui conduisent passages sol int^rieures de I'^difice, contre-bas trouve du terse en rain lequel
voutes

environnant. estime
assez

Cet
sa

amphitheatre
a

6t6

vu

bien

circonf6rence

300

pas.

par Peyssonel, the benches On Saturnia


'

qui
are

of curule names inscriptions (Antoniniana Augusta Inscr. de CIL, viii,3293. Renier, 185 I'Alg., jana)
=

Tra-

Thamugadi.
the arch and
' '

CIL,

viii,p. 951

ad

2392.

Bruce, 1765,

between

of a temple '. amphitheatre are the remains d'El-Outaia Batna entre pr"s du caravanserai Caesares M. AureHus Antoninus et Biskaxa : {Masarfelta?) Imp. SarCommodus et L. Aurelius (nomen abrasum) Augg. Germanici matici fortissimi amphitheatrum vetustate corruptum a solo restiPisone A. VI Laevilio coh. tuerunt Julio Commag. PompUio per AeUo Sereno curante CIL, praef. Henzen, 6597 leg.Aug. pr. pr. viii,2488. Dans les ruines
=

238
Thevesie. Annuaire ff.: le
arene

Appendices
de

[vol.ii.
de

la socUti

arcMologique
situ6 45-50
du

Constantine, 1858-g (ina paper

du by Moll, capitaine c6t6 metres de

province de T6bessa= ginie,


la

Theveste),
ville environn6e
....

p. 40
une

cirque est
circulaire de

seul de

de I'ancienne 6tait diam^tre interieuredeux


. . .

d'un
ou

massif

ment entries

par 15 conduisaient I'une


le

16 rangees

mafonnerie, qui se terminait de gradins en pierresde taille


I'intSrieur de

dans

vis-k-vis
au

g6n6ral
. . .

cirque
avancer

de I'autre, aux de Th.


une

I'artee, elles 6taient plac6es diamfetre extr^mitfe d'un mSme 6tat de conservation mauvais est dans un
. . .

sans

date
a

precise, nous
construit
entre

que

Tamphithdatre

de

Th.

6t6

pouvons les annSes

af"rmer,
75 et 80

aprSs J.-C.
AFRICA.
As the work

of V.

Gu6rin, Voyage arcMologiquedans

la

Tunis,
statements his

1862, contains

by
the

far

the

most

numerous

and

rigencede important
follow

regarding

amphitheatres

of

this

province, I

order.

Carthago. Gu6rin, i,p. 37, Dans le petitvillagede Malga on passe auprfesdes mines d'un a., mines fort peu importantes actuellement, du terrain, laquelle ofEre une mais qui par la configuration meme
excavation la nature
of du

evidemment
monument

ne artificielle,

laissent

aucun

doute

sur

dont

il

Falbe, Sur

V emplacement de

s'agit. G. considers the estimate axis of Carthage (1833), p. 39 (longer


of Sir Grenville ple, Tem-

than that exact the inner ellipse more 240 ft.) Excursions in the Mediterranean, i,p. 106
180
X

(300
and

230

497, the time

100). According it could easily have


of

to

Davis,

Carthage
water

her

arena ft., Remains, p.

been

filled with

for naumachiae.

At

Abu-Obaid-el-Bekri

(Description de

I'Afriquesepten-

stillwell trionale,trad, par Mr. de Slane, p. 105), i.e. in 1082 it was Gu6rin and Davis 490) give a preserved : G., p. 39. (op.cit., p.

description by Edrisi in the twelfth centary, according to which it Ibri^louardi in the fourteenth still a magnificent ruin ; even was to testify century and Ibn-Ayas at the beginning of the sixteenth la topode la Malle, Recherche its good preservation (cf Dureau sur graphie de Carthage, p. 190). Expos, tot. mundi, 62 (Geogr.I. min., ed. Riese, p. 123) : In delectabilibus solum unum spectaculum habitantes The munerum. (Carthagine), exspectant epigram of de eo Luxorius saliebat qui podium amphitheatri (Meyer, Anthol. For lot.,ii,p. 149, 380) probably refers to the amphitheatre here. the spectaclesof the sacerdotes provinciae Africae, which were given
.

here,

see

the

end

of

this section.

Thysdrus (El Djemm). of the amphitheatre


i, 816. arch6ol.,
in Ann. Canina and xlii-xliv tav. p. 492 Gordian it
was :

Gu6rin, i, p. 91 gives a detailed description Lettre d Mr. Hase, in Rev. ; cf. Pellissier, Aim6 Rochas, ib.,ix, 90 (plate 185). P. Coste and d. Inst, arch., 1852, 241 fi. (Mon. dell'Inst., vol. v, tav. d'agg. U.). Davis, Carthageand her Remains,

empans

thinks that this amphitheatre was begun by finished by Gordian III ; Pellissier considers that Gu6rin never completed. gives on p. 93 El-Bekri's description de pierres,dont plusieurs II est construit ont li-peu-prfes 25 de long. Sa hauteur est de 24 toises, tout I'intfirieur est

ft.

Canina

I., and

disposeen gradins depuis la

bas

jusqu'au haut.

According

to

the

VOL.

II.]

Appendices
began
about

239
1695 (accordingto
the Arabs had
trenched en-

Arabian

tradition,the destruction
Under
themselves
here

Coste, p. 245, in 1710).


the upper the upon
several the

Mohammed

Bey

stones ordered

during a revolt, and almost part of the amphitheatre, in order to hurl down besiegers. After the defeat of the rebels, the
of the main
entrance
as on

troyed desentirely

the

bey
such

arcades
the the

the south
a

to be blown

up

to

level of the
then to build

ground,
Arabs

so

to

prevent

repetitionof
of the

acts.

Since

have

continued and

the

demolition, using

the stones the

houses, tombs
Rochas

marabouts

adjacent
stones in

of El village possess
the

Djemm
power

; and

says

they believe
There three
was

that these
are

of of

wall elliptical Corinthian

expelling scorpions. the amphitheatre, and


and
above

68

arches

with with

half-columns,

storeys adorned attic formerly an


of the interior

rectangular openings, corresponding to the beneath them. The style is simple and noble.
choked
was

axes

arches is
so

The

with

used
to

connected extends

that it is for naumachiae. There with subterranean a off rain-water. and

rubbish

impossibleto
is indeed
an

determine

whether

it

channel, which

opening in the centre, tined was probably des-

carry
8

Barth,

leagues Wanderungen herself here in the year prophetess, who entrenched 170 f. a Berber and from of the whom the Hejira, amphitheatre is called K'as'r 73 the of Kdneha is said to have constructed el fortress the prophetess ', this channel of horsemen could ride along which a great number (' abreast ')that she might be able to provisionherself from the sea the arena there is during the siege. Gufirin asserts that beneath in a large vaulted subterranean along which he succeeded passage, about choked which it was creepingwith difficulty 30 paces, beyond
'

The Arabs allege that this channel communicates with the sea. According to des durch die KUstenlander Mittelmeeres, j,

up.

He

thinks

it may

have

regards (rightly,no
fabulous. Hadrumetutn passage
sont de du

doubt)

led to the cages of the its alleged extension

beasts, and
to

he
as

the

sea

from
cote

El-Bekri de

(Sousa). Gu6rin, i, p. 108, quotes the following autres ciUe) : Deux {trad. portes de la ville
I'occident
et

regardent
sur se

le MelUb. voutes
un
...

Ce

vaste

edifice de

construction
. . .

antique
Autour du

est

hautes. voutes, tel que

pose Melib

des

et tckstrfes-larges

trouvent

grand

nombre

communiquant
El-Bekri

les

unes

avec

le decrit, etait

les autres. trte-certainement

Ce monument

(?) un

theatre amphi-

the other hand inclines to regard (Barth, op. cit., p. 154, on it as a theatre.) II n'en reste plus aujourd'hui le moindre vestige. d'un Edifice Leptisparva (Lemta). Gu6rin, p. 127 : Les mines trfes-consid^rable Arabes les le sont sous nom designees par de c'6tait En fosse de la r6aUt6 Henfra-m'ta-sedjen (le prison). jadis un amphitheatre. II avait 340 pas de tour, I'arfene mesurait galeriessont complStement 32 de large. Les 50 pas de long sur
. . .

detruites. On
and

the

Turris

and

was

Lettre

ci

Zeugitana between Leptis minor (Lemta ?) phitheatre ama villageDimas an (El Mohedieh ?) near is preserved (43 x 32 metres) ; it had one story, only in the style of that at PhilippeviUe in Algeria. Pellissier, writer (op. cit.. Mr. Hase, in Rev. arch., i, 814. The same
east coast of

Hannibalis

240
ii, 498) mentions
five

Appendices
the ruins of
from
a

[vol. ii.
at Kfeais

miles

Muredina,
130

small in the
:
...

amphitheatre
style of plus au
tour.

sia) (Tuni-

Thapsus.
d'un pas de

Gu^rin, i, p.
II
a sur

amphitheatre.
long
44 de

460 pas
eUe
est

de

that at Dimas. les debris sud sont 62 L'arfene mesurait

large ;
or

cultivee, les gradins n'existent

plus. Ruspae (now henchir-Badria, Batria or les restes d'un : j'apergois d'abord Botria). Guerin, i, p. d^moli ; amphitheatre. II est aujourd'hui presqu' enti^rement neanmoins trfes-reconnaissable. est encore la forme L'artee, qui est maintenant cultiv6e, avait 50 pas de long sur 32 de large. Des de contreforts ait appuyaient la muraille d'enceinte, qui mesurespfeces

Oppidum

Botrianense

161

environ Colonia
. .
.

320

pas

de

circonference.

Suffetula (Sb^itla).Gu6rin, i, p. 383. L'amphithe41'ellipse est presque tre circulaire, qu'il determine, 6tant peu ont Tousles et il est ruin6 de fond en gradins disparu, prononc6e. N6anmoins la configurationgenerale en est encore comble. recon80 de II mesurait de naissable. long sur 76 large. Eph. ep., pas vii, 53 (rep. in moeuibus amphitheatri) Mactaritanum (henchir-Makter) Guerin, i, p. 409 : Oppidum 160 pas de construit seulement en blocage mesure L'amphitheatre et les gradins qu'elles Les voutes tour. soutenaient, n'existent plus. Utica (Bou-Chater) Gu6rin, ii,p. 6 f. : Un vaste amphitheatre
. . .

6t6

pratiquedans

un

ravin

naturel, qui offrait


k
ces

de

lui

meme

forme les

celle elliptique

qui

convient
et

sortes debris

de

monuments.

par sa Tous

subsistent insignifiants environ Elle avait seuls de cette puissante constructiou. 360 pas de circonference, I'arfene mesurait 52 pas de long sur 42 de large. Lettre d Mr. Hose, zde partie, in Rev. archlol., Cf Pellissier, iii,399, who 266 metres, and makes the circumference Davis, Carthage and the arena have her Remains, p. 307, according to whom might easily

gradins ont

6t6 enlevfo

quelques

flooded. been Thuburbo minor

(Tebourba).
encore

Guerin, ii,p.
de
son

188

II

ne

subsiste

plus
tous

que
les

la forme

reconnaissable

amphitheatre, .cjsnt
actuelfement

gradins
de

ont

ete

enleves,
et

et

dont

I'arfene est

herissee

broussaiUes
name

de

cactus. ancient

(Meraissa,the
ii,p. 214
sauf mesurait
contours

of the dans de

f.

Creuse pans
de

les flancs
murs,
22

d'une de

Guerin, city is unknown.) colline TamphitheS-tre est,


demoli. L'ar"ne les

quelques

long sur 40 pas ? Putpui Abyad). (Souk-eld'un


sur

compietement large.
262
:

Guerin, ii,p.
I'arSne

on

reconnait environ les d'un

amphitheatre, dont
de

mesurait

55 pas

de d'un

long
Aurelia

45 Vina

large.
.

(henchir-el-Meden) Guerin, ii,p. 265


282 f. : Les
sur

vestiges

amphitheatre. Uthina {Oadensih). Guerin, ii, p.


72 donnaient principales L'arfene avait de

ruines de

theatre. amphiOn par


un

portes
avait vallon est

profite pour elliptique.AUonse


sui une

pas entree dans ce le construire d'un bassin

long

50
vaste

large. Quatre
monument.

Rousseau,
:

forme naturel Lettre d M. Amidie

Jaubert,

in Revue

arch.,iii, p. 146

place

eminence

L'amphitheatre qui est de forme ovale, j'aiestiml sa circonference 240


.

242
et munerarii

Appendices
item duoviru
.

[vol.ii.

duumviralicius

Neapolis
aedilis
ac

a.

400
sac.

: et munerarius. 4418 (Lambiridi) (sic) mun(erarius) Lambiridi{tanus) 969 (col. Julia Septimia Vaga) : (401) : ex mun(erario). 1225 {col. : Ilvir qq. II. cur. muner. Lup(iani). 6995 (Cirta)

(coloniaJulia Curubis) : [quod fee. fratri]sIlviri (duobu)s annis munera Liberi fl. sac. aed. Ilvir. patris" : CIL, viii, 4681 (Madaura) pp. q. 1888 (Theveste): ob honorem admod(um) largus munidator. ilamonii annui. 5276 (ager Hipponensis) : a mil. flam. Aug. pp. muneris ob magnificentiam gladiatorii quod civibus pontifici Ilvir(o) ^Valentiniani Pro beatitudiue suis triduo edidit. : 8324 (Cuicul) editione muneris Gratiani debiti. Valentis NN. c. v. adq(ue) pro 7969 (Rusicade) : pro salute imp. Caes. (187 a.d.) 241 (Suffetula) nobilis cuncta Marcellus -medica arte cum parasset edendo, dies muneris tres tertium i.e. ?) obiit. 1887 (diem placiturus per cum) occisioni(busferarum). (Theveste): mun. qui(nque dierum cade) 857 (Tuburbo majus) ob edit[ionem]. Eph. ep., vii, 720 (Rusieditione liberaUtates. ^in muneribus : promtas
.... . . .
" " " " " " "

quern Eph. ep., vii, 145 patris Ilviri et

diei muneris

de liberalitate

sua

ob

honorem

Illviratus
in

edidit.

vicem

(6) THE
For these

EAST.

provinces I have not only catalogued the scanty records of amphitheatres, but also the notices known of amphitheatral to me der Cf. Vniversitdt, i860, vi, De proKonigsb. Programm games. Graeciam venationum Orientem. et ac pagaiione munerum per
ACHAIA. Corinthus.
The

only city

of

Greece

in

which

there

is certain

scription amphitheatre ; for the notices of Cyriacus, that an inad has been xviii, CIG, (pp. 1108) amphitheatrum 129, found another at Sicyon, and {CIL, i, 526) in pariete amphitheatri at Delphi, are by no means trustworthy. Curtius, Peloponnes., ii, small also mentions brick building at Sparta, the inner dia222 a meter

proof

of

an

of which

is about

100

ft.,and

the

have and

for musical amphitheatre of Roman performances '. Cf. Welcker, Tagebuch einer griech. circular circus in a corner Reise, i, 217 (in Kiepert'smap a of the and ii,113. Bursian, Geogr. v. Griechenl.,ii, 126 regards Issorion) been
an

ft. ; Sparta,intended

whole

180

'

it

seems

to

other

it
as

as

an

Odeion remarks
in

belonging to
not
even

the

temenos

of p.

Maffei

iv, (Verona illustr.,


at

Dionysos. Pausanias, no 59), mentions theatre amphi-

at least remain Corinth, and it must uncertain whether the one there was It lies, yet built in his time. ii, town at the foot according to Curtius, op. cit., 527, east of the new of the hill, and is entirelybuilt into an artificially enlarged depression in the rocky surface, so that one does not see it until one stands the immediately above top of the benches '. Bursian, Geogr. v, Cf. the full description Griechenl.,ii, 15. by Vischer, Erinnerungen und Eindrucke aus Griechenland, p. 264 f. Curtius thinks that it
'

Greece,

was

already mentioned
78, ed. Dindorf,
ffw ttjsirAXeus
"

p. 591. games

p.
iv

by Dio Chrysostom, who 385) that the Corinthians

says
saw

{Or.,xxxi,
gladiatorial

x^paSpf tlvI, ttX^Sos nh

SwaiUtx^ S^foirfci

VOL.

II.]
Dio

Appendices

243

di rlnrif, pvirapif

That

"v /M-qSl tCiv IKfvSipwi, fiWus Kai Sttou jUijSels firjSha 8a\pei.e be refers to the place where the amphitheatre stands may

true, but he would

expressed himself thus if the building were already in existence, which according to the Exp. tot. mundi, I. m., ed. Riese Ii8, ig) was an 52 {Geogr. opus praecipuum in the fourth For the here cf. also Apuleius,Metam., century. spectacles where at the festival a thiasus promises a three days' munus X, c. 18, celebratingthe beginning of the quinquennalitas ; also JuUan, Epp., to the cost of the compelled to contribute 35 (the Argives were

hardly have

gladiatorial games
is xopvyW-^ eirl 06 Ttt

and

venationes

of the

Corinthians,

who

are

not

xp'?y^c{rwi'. eirtTeXoi^jj.eva Kvvqy^(TLato. iroWaKLs iv rois OezirpoLS dpKTovs Kai Cf. the inscriptionof Corinthian venatores, CIG, livovvrai,). TapSiXets below in note on no6, quoted ii, 56, 24).^ 8^ "TKetrTO'ii.ivuv Athenae. Kara Lucian, DemoM., 57 : KB-r^valiiiv f^Xoi' eh auroii?,M?) Tbv wpds KopivBiovsKaraffri^ffaaBaL dia.v fM)voj.idx^J^, Trpoekd^v Ka,$irod 'EX^ow top ^(o^bv "v /j.t} TpSrepoVj^etpT}, raOra, Sj 'A$7}vcuoi, \l/7]"pii7r}a$"^ Dio of When his Rhodian Prusa delivered oration^,gladiatorial XTjTe. had already been introduced into Athens. Dio, Oral.,xxxi, games o{it03 R. olov rods : e'jdds acpSSpai^7]\{I)KaiTL roi fwvo/.^dxovs Trepl p. 630 KalToOs "Wovj tcaKeluous d' /J.aWov KCKoSaip-cvig. iTrep^e^XTiKaa-LTTJ Kopivdiovs, iv TroXews ol rivi^ ^^v ^^"ottjs "TavTaSj ibffre Beiapovatv x^pf^^p^^ KopivdiOL 5^ (iXXw? Kai birou fifjSeis tXtjBos jx^v bvva.fi4vt^ di^aaBat Toirtp, /tvirapc^ Bei^vrai 5i iv t^ Bedrp'.p d.v /iijS^ tw /.i-qdiva Bdij/eie ekivBtpuv, ^kB-^vaioi
oLyiJVtiJv yvfXVLKGtv t] ^ov"xlku}v

tGiv iroWitiv

SiovraL

'

Ka\^v raijrrjv B^av irr avr^v ttjv aKphwoXiVj o5 rbv AUpvffoy 4tI rT]v iv airraid nva TiBiainv CitrTe iroWdKis a^arTeaBai rail BpbvoLS, opx^iyrpav In the theatre Kai rois "\\ovs o5 rhv Upo"j"i,vT7iv Icpds avajK-q KaBl^uv.
TT/y
"

'

of

Dionysos
a

there

runs

before
of

the

stand 5 in.

marble

balustrade

which steps on construction rough


the the Roman orchestra'. in

the

thrones ft. 3 when

about

high, probably
were

dating
held
in

from

period

A. MuUer, Dio continues, xxiii, Philologus, 494. oi^K aiVoi)s Kai roOrov elirbvra Kai rbv vovBerrjaafTa wepi (pi\6(TO(pov ivra Surre iKetvov dXX' oSras iSvirx^pavav, aweSi^avTO o6dk iiryveaav, ^x*"""" ^"XIkt)? /j,riSevds Sijax 5^ TTfKiKairriv Hkv yiveL 'Pdj/ialiav li(rTepov, d^ ii.bvov oidels iK Trdi'v ttoXXoO rerdxv'^^^] fjAXiCTa fj^rh d/j.o\oyo6pt."vov KaraKiireiv Toils dpxaiovs ixkoXgOBus tols Xbyoi.s, ttjv TrbXiv Kai fSe^itoKivat The 'EXXdJos. ferred fXi"rBai philosopher re/iaXXoK diarpi^eivdXXaxife rijs

gladiatorialgames
Scenische

Alterthiimer,

to

here

cannot

possiblybe Demonax,

if the

latter's

period

later. Zeller, Gesch. d. is to be dated between 50 and 150 or even 6. Philos. d. Griechen, iii, It might, however, be Apollonius i, 691, ancient of Tyana, to whom a very Philostratus, Vit. i, 4, attributes
oi Mrivaloi lineage. Ibid.,iv, 22: AmpBoSro Si xaKeivo 'A-B-nvriaiv Kai {ittq dvBpthirtjiv tr"l"aya'is fs irpotre^xov ^vvtbvres Bdarpov to ttj aKpoirbXtt re ij raSra ev jxeyaXuv xP'HI'-^tijiv fsei KopivBip vm, /jiaXXov effTTOuiSdfeTO Kai k"''-^aXavTiorbixoL Kai tolx'^P'^XO^ Kai irbpvoi. coivrmhotijyovTOii.oi.xol
'

^Bvrj, ol 5 SnrXi^ov adroiis Kai ivdpairoSurTalKai rd ToiaCra b 'AiroXXtij'iosKai KaXoivrav Kai Si ro-uray ^vixirlirTeiv, iXd^ero
1

eKiXevov airbv is

For

the plan of the


as a

Venetian

Promediiore
za

Corinth
2

plague

lazaretto
z-

cf. Spyr. (1701),

to use F. Grimaai P. Lampros, Das

the

of amphitheatre

korinthtsche Amphi-

in MiUh. thsr.'.er,

d. disch. archdol. InstUuts

Athen, ii (1877), pp. 282-8,;with.platexix.

349, Marquardt,StV., i",

244

Appendices

[vol.ii.

oliK "v ItfVTrape\9etp is X'^P^o" ''k$rivaloiv, aKdSaprov Kal XiSpov iKKXrjfflav iv ii If this ravra iwiaToK^. happened under Nero, l\eye lifurrbv. the of Philostratus, it to narrative according quite untrustworthy

would
to deter

be

to assume necessary the Athenians from

Demonax that reintroduction


a

only attempted
of the

spectacle,
few
tain cer-

which

had

been

discontinued
=

for

considerable

time.

Megara.

CIG, 1058
of the

Lebas-Waddington, ii,43 (with a


text
:

Kovprlov Koipnov TipbKkov koX Kal Kal vlov avaTpirtiyov 0 HvBaituiv ii Sij/xos a.ywvoB{Ty\v UpdnXov ^ovXij Tiav^CKriva. {i.e. fiOvop-A-x^^ t^^V i^ dyopavdfwv (ptXoretfiTja-dfievov irpwrov
restorations
V"Xov
. . .
"

Megara to president of the deputies The is of set up by Hadrian. inscription


Plataeae.

of

the
the
:

council time

of

Panhellenes

of Antoninus

Pius).
super

Apuleius,Metam.,
nomine
Nam

iv, c. 13
rnunus

quodam
hendimus.

Demochare
vir et

Ibi famam celebrem edituro gladiatorium


et
suae

depre-

genere

primarius
fortunae

liberalitate

praecipuus, digno
instrue1S*t.
bestiarum facies
, .

opibus pluribus et splendore pubUcas


famosae
manus,

voluptates
venatores

Gladiatores

isti

illi

: alibi noxii probafee-fjernicitatis perdita securitate

suis

epulis

saginas
ferarum

numerus,

quae

etiam, advexerat
Thessalia,
sos

generosa Hither journeys Thiasus,

Qui praeterea forensi studio, praecipuo ilia damnatorum capitum funera, etc.
instruentes. Nam
. .

nobilissimas there
to

feras

et famox,
c.

inde

gladiatorescomparaturus.
Id.

Apuleius, Metam.,
goes
see a

18.

Larissa.

ib.,i,c. 7

spectaculum

satis

: a pedlar famigerabile.

gladiatorium

MACEDONIA.
. . . .

xii

CIL, iii, i, 607 : Dyrrhachium. gladiatorib.p[aribus] archSol. Macidoine en edi[dit]. Heuzey et Daumet, Mission of and reliefs 30) : (1876), p. 383 (pi.27, p. 4 gladiators. Thessalonice. of 112 Heuzy, op. cit., (inscription p. 274, no. of announcement three and : days' jxovop.axlo.t, A.D.) Kw-qyia 143
with the will and
on

in accordance

testament

of

certain

Herennia

s. asinus, 13th 6 6 ix Si r i/uSv Se/nrdriis : OfffaaKovlKiis SeSpo i\i}ttjs MeveKXijs 49 64av fiirXois X^Bet iir'alrlq. VT4"rx^T0 Trpbs r^ dvdpojv iraTplSi irap^^Giv rotaijTjj in eldSruv. is the of the scene ABiarpov dXXiJXous p,ovopax^tv spectacle, of the is be which one a woman, iJTis Bt/ploii performers to KareKiKpiTo

Hispana,

to

begin

the

of March.
. . .

Lucian, Lucius

'

airoBaveiv

(52) and
,

the
was

narrator
no

(53).
Verona
.

That

there

illust., iv, 67 from cf Taf el,De Thessalonice, p. xlii ff.) where


games circulus bulas
to the

fears p.^irov dpKTosf)X4oiv di/aTnjSiJireToi amphitheatre here is inferred by Mafiei, S. Demetrii the Acta Annal., (Mabillon, it is said of the
;

of Maximianus
the of

illic enim Ad.


a

circumseptus.
stele of

de

parabatur per Longp6rier, Rev,


found
here.

ial gladiatorquasdem taarchM.,

vi, p. 198 describes


emendation

retianus

Kaibel, De

monumentor.

According aliquot Gyaecor.

runs carminib., p. 40, the inscription irais JjXBov,16^ al EicppArtis of a Tombstone 'B|iiKi iirrlaav, TrXoKap.e?5es iinjvKXi'Cffa,. viK-qffM iroTplS' in Mitth. d. deutsch. archdol. Inst, in Athen, x secular (1885),p.

15,

T.

4"Xaoi)ios

Sdrvpos

1^ eiKrjipSpif Si/i"^ou

rif AaKeSaipj"vl(f

Kai

acKniropirb T^apKiffffi^

k.t.X. i]p(^ov

PMHppopolis.

The

found sepulchral inscription

here, CIL, iii, i,

VOL.

II.]
=

Appendices

245

erected by a Ilvir et munerarius to his son Orelli,3746, was ; 660 iterum CIL, iii, (muner[arius] I, [fla]meii D[ivi] Vespasi[ani]) Kaibel, Epigr. Gr., 529 : sepulchral inscriptionof a gladiator BiKTup SfceuSs (Scaeva, see note on ii,57, 1. 16). He was of Thessaslain lonica,and f6ll at the hands of Ulwas, who in his turn was the aOi/oirXos by HoKvveiKrjs.

659
cf.

"

THRACIA.

Bock, L'amph. de Constantinople(Bruxelles, Constantinopolis. that the amphitheatre 1849) assumes, apparently without reason, which according to the Chronicon built by Paschale, i, p. 495 was Severus at Byzantium theatre was a (kwvY"' {sio) iiiya. "wi.vxj) only with arrangements for gladiatorial combats. In Codin., De Signis,
6, p. 31, ed. Bonn
.

; (cited by Suidas, 5. Kw^/jyiov

ev

ri^ k.

to

irpioTov

kt.\.),mention e^piTTovTool "iod6.vaToi

is

In the old description of (to Kw-^iov) the utr. dign. imp., p. 259 amphitheatre in the regio secunda is mentioned Horn (at the end of the Golden ; cf. Fries, Byzantium, StRE, i", 2620). Cf. Cod. Theod., xiv, 6, 5 (419 a.d.) : inter ing Accordamphitheatrum et D. JuUani portum per littus maris. to Bock, p. 36, the latest mention of the amphitheatre occurs in the twelfth century : Banduri, Imp. orient.,ed. Paris, p. 26. Sepulchral reUef of a Samnis t(^Iditp fiveias [T{oirK6.pis irarpl x^P^^ from the Dardanelles
aus

6 Kricras Malt/itj/os the cityin Panciroli, Notit.

made

of

Gurlitt,Antike Oesterreich,i, 7.
:

Denkm.
,

in etc.,

Epigr.archdol.

Mitth.

CRETA

AND

THE

OTHER

ISLANDS,
a

Greta. Maffei, Verona isola di Candia by Onorio


as

ill.,iv, p. Belli Vicentino, who

62, cites

MS.

Trattato thither in

dell'

went

1583
di

6 scritta con generate (I'opera physicianto the provveditore si alle ha e con a non senno, stampe sopra quel paese According to Magrini, Scritture gran lunga paragouabile) zione
.

erudicosa

inedite

in materie

di architectura letters of Belli


He

the

two

(Padova, 1847), p. there printed only


that
besides he
seven

10, this treatise

deal

with of two.
con

is lost ; theatres and he Of had the covered disone

temples.
at

maintained

theatres

five simile di
out

amphitheatres,and
CoUseo nissun

gives views

Gortyn, ch'ei rappresenta


a

secondo

quella del
vie
e

Romano

il costume nel portico soU archi

pianta raddopiato e

afiatto nelle
tutto

quattro

diametrali,bench^
senza a

poi di
ornamento
.

56, dice ch'era

mattoni
two

d'architettura.

L'altro

dice ch'era of contraforti

Gerapetra (Hierapytna)
hillsides,and

completed
senza

It is said to be partly hewn in elUptical form with six

di

muraglia
to

soda

ornamento. the

MafiEei,who
most

was

generallyinclined
reports
be
sensato
on

call in question even that amphitheatres, admitted


on

this d'un

trustworthy information might


uom

correct, as he reUed
'. The

the
of

judgment
the
des deux

'

si intendente
at

existence G. Perrot

amphitheatre
mondes,
paces
In

confirmed h'Ue of seats

by
now

de Crite
The

[1867],p.
exist. is
statement

{Rev. 123).

Hierapytna is 1864, p. 1004, and


No tiers

It is 60

in diameter.
Melo in

Melos.

Bursian, Geogr. von in CIG, 2432 :


worth the notice.
common

Griechenland, ii,578.
marmore

supra

hardly amphitheatrum, on Lesbos. Inscription

tomb

of

/amifca gladiator

246
at iraTp. (?) KXau.

Appendices
2194
Kal

[vol.ii.
:

Mitylene (CIG, ii. Add.,


airov.

b, p. 1028)

v^ov Tpv"piovLavou

(pa/^Ma //.ovo/jAx'^'' AatXtas [S or 'O/)0fas dpxt-^p^^(^^

chief a Probably Claudius Tryphonianus was that they provided games in Lesbos, as elsewhere, is and priest, shown 2184-94. According to Conze, ifeise am/ (iejby inscriptions

Z]uiTiov yvvaiKos

of the castle in the bell-tower Lesbos, p. 5, there are to be seen armed of an of Mitylene four stones, each with the figure gladiator inscriptions.Two holding his shield before him, and with illegible Insel

other

stones

in the Uons. there

same

place
the
bull

show

fighting with
a

By
of
a

thermae
which
a

sculptures in relief of bestiarii (where also is the inscription


beneath the
man.
,

quoted above)
rude
tav.

is a stone
Tombstone

name

plays "EXif disAnn.

d. Inst., prostrate a 1842, d'agg. Q. lIoKvSpofws gladiator Mitth. Instit. zu Athen, xi (1886), 273, 17. d. Archdol. Thasos. CIG, 2164 : inscription of the gladiators {myrmillones it can from which, however, and essedarii of a certain Hecataea, by held be that concluded were no means here, as gladiatorial games for the residence often chosen of islands {e.g. Cos, CIG, 2511) were families of gladiators. rehef

goring

of

'

'

ASIA In the
were

AND Asiatic those

THE

OTHER
as

ANATOLIAN

PROVINCES.
most

countries,

elsewhere, the
the

important

tacles spec-

organized by {Comthe lead and at the munia, Koivd) of the separate provinces under cf. Marquardt, StV, cost of the priests who them : presided over and des Rom. ff., Reicks, p, 503 Kuhn, Verfassung i, 111-115.1 The of when last mention these games is in the year 465, the gladiatorial combats had long ceased : Cod. Just., 1. un. de officio comit. Orientis that gladiatorswere {Cod. I.T., xxxvi). There is ample evidence
exhibite