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English rewiew

Simple present tense with 'be' The verb 'be' is different from the other verbs in this tense. Let's look at 'be' first: Here's the positive form (positive means a normal sentence, not a negative or a q estion. This is sometimes called 'affirmative'! "ositive #hort $orm %&m 'o &re He&s

"ositive % am 'o ()e( The* are He(she(it is

+e,t, here's the negative. %t's ver* eas*. 'o onl* add 'not'. %&m not 'o aren&t He isn&t

% am not 'o ( we( the* are not He( she( it is not

-nd finall* let's talk abo t the q estion form of the present simple with 'be'. $irstl*, here's the '*es ( no' q estion form:

'es ( +o . estions am % / are *o ( are we( are the* / is he( is she( is it / %f *o 'd like to make a 'wh' q estion, *o 0 st p t the q estion word at the front:

)h . estions )here(what(wh*(who(when(how am % / is she/ -re the*/

Present simple tense with other all verbs The positive is reall* eas*. %t's 0 st the verb with an e,tra 's' if the s b0ect is 'he', 'she', or 'it'. Let's take the verb 'pla*' as an e,ample: "ositive (of 'pla*'! % pla* *o pla* he pla*s 1on't forget the 's'2 Even reall* advanced st dents do this2

$or a few verbs, there is a spelling change before the 's'. $or e,ample, 'st d*' becomes 'st dies'. 3erbs that end in '*':

3erbs that end in '*' often change '*' to 'ie' before 's': st d* becomes st dies tr* becomes tries marr* becomes marries fl* becomes flies cr* becomes cries (4e caref l2 '*' doesn't change to 'ie' if the ending is 'a*', 'e*', 'o*', ' *'. #o, pla* becomes pla*s, sa* becomes sa*s, b * becomes b *s, en0o* becomes en0o*s, sta* becomes sta*s! 3erbs that end in 'es', 'sh', 'ch', or ',':

3erbs that end in 's', 'sh', 'ch' or ',' often add 'e' before 's': pass becomes passes wash becomes washes teach becomes teaches There are also few verbs which are irreg lar in the present simple:

'have' becomes 'has' 'do' becomes 'does' 'go' becomes 'goes' To make the negative form, *o need to se 'do not' (don't! or ' does not' (doesn't!. % don't pla* *o don't pla* he doesn't pla* she doesn't pla* it doesn't pla* we don't pla* the* don't pla*

% do not pla* *o do not pla* he does not pla* she does not pla* it does not pla* we do not pla* the* do not pla*

)e se 'do' or 'does' before the s b0ect to make the '*es ( no' q estion:

'es ( +o q estions do % pla* /

do *o pla* / does he pla* / 5 st like with 'be', if *o 'd like to make a 'wh' q estion, *o 0 st p t the q estion word at the front:

)h . estions where do % pla* / what wh* do *o pla* / does he pla* / When Should I Use The Present Simple Tense?

6: $irst, we se the "resent #imple when something is generall* tr e: a! The s n rises in the east. b! "eople need food. c! %t snows in winter. 7: #econdl*, we need to se this tense for a sit ation that we think is more or less permanent (see the present contin o s for a temporar* sit ation 8 one which we think won't last long!: a! )here do *o live/ b! #he works in a bank. c! The* love coffee. 9: The ne,t se is for habits or things that we do reg larl*. )e often se adverbs of freq enc* in this case (also see the present contin o s for new, temporar* or anno*ing habits!: a! 1o *o smoke/ b! % pla* tennis ever* T esda*. c! )e often go to the cinema. :: $o r, we se the #imple "resent to talk abo t what happens in books, pla*s, or films: a! The hero dies at the end of the film. b! - *o ng woman travels thro gh E rope, where she meets different people, and finall* falls in love. ;: )e se it in the first and the <ero conditional: =: #trangel*, we can se this tense to talk abo t the f t re. )hen *o are disc ssing a timetable or a fi,ed plan, *o can se this tense. >s all*, the timetable is fi,ed b* an organisation, not b* s: a! #chool begins at nine tomorrow. b! ? r train leaves at eleven.

c! )hat time does the film start/ @: )e also se it to talk abo t the f t re after words like ' 'when', ' ntil', 'after', 'before' and 'as soon as' in a f t re sentence: d! % will call *o when % have time. (+ot: 'will have'! e! % won't go o t ntil it stops raining. f! #he'll come as soon as her bab*sitter arrives.

A: )e need to se this simple tense with some special verbs which we don't se in contin o s tenses (stative verbs!. Blick here for more information abo t stative verbs: a! This so p tastes great. b! 'o look fab lo s. )ith the present simple, we often se adverbs of freq enc* to sa* 'how often' we do something. Here's a list of common adverbs: occasionall* often rarel* reg larl* seldom sometimes s all*

alwa*s freq entl* generall* hardl* ever infreq entl* never normall*

)e s all* p t these adverbs in the middle of the sentence, between the s b0ect and the verb: % often go to the cinema. #he sometimes visits me at home. )e s all* drink coffee. )e can also p t them at the ver* beginning or end of the sentence. This makes them stronger: ?ften % go to the cinema. % go to the cinema often. 4 t never: % go often to the cinema. Here are some other e,pressions we can se to sa* 'how often'. -ll of these longer phrases go at the beginning or the end of the sentence b t not in the middle. once in a while: % go to the cinema once in a while. ever* now and again: #he drinks wine ever* now and again. from time to time: $rom time to time % visit m* mother.

To sa* how often something happens, *o can se a n mber or 'several' or 'man*', followed b* 'times'.( %f the n mber is one, se 'once' instead of 'one time'. %f the n mber is two se 'twice,' instead of 'two times'! Then add 'a' and a period of time: % go to the cinema twice a week. #he takes these tablets three times a da*. % change the sheets once a fortnight (fortnight C two weeks!. % meet him several times a *ear. % visit m* parents once a month. )e can also se 'ever*' D period of time: ever* morning ever* da* ever* T esda* - da* of the week with 's' at the end (for e,ample 'on T esda*s'! means the same as 'ever* T esda*': % take a dance class on )ednesda*s. % rela, on #at rda*s. Stative verbs: verbs who call about a state( emocion) not about action. The stative verbs aren t used in the continuous tense ( present!past!"utureper"ect continuous: I m wor#in$% I was Wor#in$% I have been wor#in$). &on t add in$ on them. Stative (or State) 'erb (ist li#e love hate want need pre"er a$ree mind own sound hear disa$ree #now realise suppose mean understand believe remember reco$nise appear taste astonish please belon$ "it contain consist seem depend matter see loo# ()seem) smell den* impress ever* week ever* month

satis"* doubt wish disli#e deserve lac# owe

promise thin# ()have an opinion) ima$ine be involve

surprise "eel ()have an opinion) concern have include

measure ()have len$th etc) possess wei$h ()have wei$ht)

E,: 5 lie likes flowers not 5 lie liking flowers. The +ero ,onditional )e can make a <ero conditional sentence with two present simple verbs (one in the 'if cla se' and one in the 'main cla se'!:

%f D present simple, .... present simple. This conditional is sed when the res lt will alwa*s happen. #o, if water reaches 6EE degrees, it alwa*s boils. %t's a fact. %'m talking in general, not abo t one partic lar sit ation. The res lt of the 'if cla se' is alwa*s the main cl ase. The 'if' in this conditional can s all* be replaced b* 'when' witho t changing the meaning. $or e,ample: %f water reaches 6EE degrees, it boils. (%t is alwa*s tr e, there can't be a different res lt sometimes!. %f % eat pean ts, % am sick. (This is tr e onl* for me, ma*be, not for ever*one, b t it's still tr e that %'m sick ever* time % eat pean ts! Here are some more e,amples: %f people eat too m ch, the* get fat. %f *o to ch a fire, *o get b rned. "eople die if the* don't eat.

The -irst ,onditional The first conditional has the present simple after 'if', then the f t re simple in the other cla se: if D present simple, ... will D infinitive %t's sed to talk abo t things which might happen in the f t re. ?f co rse, we can't know what will happen in the f t re, b t this describes possible things, which co ld easil* come tr e. %f it rains, % won't go to the park. %f % st d* toda*, %'ll go to the part* tonight. %f % have eno gh mone*, %'ll b * some new shoes. The Second ,onditional

The second conditional ses the past simple after if, then 'wo ld' and the infinitive: if D past simple, ...wo ld D infinitive ()e can se 'were' instead of 'was' with '%' and 'he(she(it'. This is mostl* done in formal writing!. %t has two ses. First, we can se it to talk abo t things in the f t re that are probabl* not going to be tr e. Fa*be %'m imagining some dream for e,ample. %f % won the lotter*, % wo ld b * a big ho se.(% probabl* won't win the lotter*! %f % met the . een of England, % wo ld sa* hello. #he wo ld travel all over the world if she were rich.

Second, we can se it to talk abo t something in the present which is impossible, beca se it's not tr e. %s that clear/ Have a look at the e,amples: %f % had his n mber, % wo ld call him. (% don't have his n mber now, so it's impossible for me to call him!. %f % were *o , % wo ldn't go o t with that man. How is this different from the first conditional/ This kind of conditional sentence is different from the first conditional beca se this is a lot more nlikel*. $or e,ample (second conditional!: %f % had eno gh mone* % wo ld b * a ho se with twent* bedrooms and a swimming pool (%'m probabl* not going to have this m ch mone*, it's 0 st a dream, not ver* real! 4 t (first conditional!: %f % have eno gh mone*, %'ll b * some new shoes (%t's m ch more likel* that'll have eno gh mone* to b * some shoes! -irst vs. +ero ,onditional: The first conditional describes a partic lar sit ation, whereas the <ero conditional describes what happens in general. $or e,ample (<ero conditional!: if *o sit in the s n, *o get b rned (here %'m talking abo t ever* time a person sits in the s n 8 the b rning is a nat ral conseq ence of the sitting! 4 t (first conditional!: if *o sit in the s n, *o 'll get b rned (here %'m talking abo t what will happen toda*, another da* might be different! -irst vs. Second ,onditional: The first conditional describes things that % think are likel* to happen in the f t re, whereas the second conditional talks abo t things that % don't think will reall* happen. %t's s b0ectiveG it depends on m* point of view. $or e,ample (first conditional!: %f she st dies harder, she'll pass the e,am (% think it's possible she will st d* harder and so she'll pass!

4 t (second conditional!: %f she st died harder, she wo ld pass the e,am (% think that she won't st d* harder, or it's ver* nlikel*, and so she won't pass! The Third ,onditional )e make the third conditional b* sing the past perfect after 'if' and then 'wo ld have' and the past participle in the second part of the sentence: if D past perfect, ...wo ld D have D past participle %t talks abo t the past. %t's sed to describe a sit ation that didn't happen, and to imagine the res lt of this sit ation. %f she had st died, she wo ld have passed the e,am (b t, reall* we know she didn't st d* and so she didn't pass! %f % hadn't eaten so m ch, % wo ldn't have felt sick (b t % did eat a lot, and so % did feel sick!. %f we had taken a ta,i, we wo ldn't have missed the plane. Present ,ontinuous How to make the "resent Bontin o s Tense: )e make it sing the present simple of 'be' D verb8ing: "ositive % am sleeping *o are sleeping "ositive #hort $orm %'m sleeping *o 're sleeping

)e made the q estion with 'be' in the present simple, here we also p t 'am', 'is', or 'are' before the s b0ect to make a '*es ( no' q estion: 'es ( +o . estions am % eating chocolate / are *o st d*ing now / $or 'wh' q estions, 0 st p t the q estion word at the front: )h . estions )h* am % eating chocolate / )hat are *o st d*ing now / Uses o" the present continuous:

6: $irst, we se it for things that are happening at the moment of speaking. a! %'m working at the moment. b! "lease call back as we are eating dinner now. 7: )e can also se this tense for temporar* sit ations, when we feel something won't contin e for a long time.

a! #he's sta*ing with her friend for a week. b! %'m living in London for a few months. 9: )e can se the present contin o s for habits b t the* have to be temporar* or new habits (for normal habits that contin e for a long time, we se the present simple!. a! He's eating a lot these da*s. b! #he's swimming ever* morning (she didn't se to do this!. :: -nother present contin o s se is for anno*ing habits, when we want to show that something happens too often and we don't like it. %n this case we s all* se an adverb like 'alwa*s', 'forever' or 'constantl*'. a! 'o 're alwa*s losing *o r ke*s2 b! #he's constantl* missing the train. c! He's alwa*s sleeping in. d! The*'re forever being late. ;: The ne,t se is for definite f t re arrangements (with a f t re time word!. %n this case we have alread* made a plan and we are prett* s re that the event will happen in the f t re. a! %'m meeting m* father tomorrow. b! )e're going to the beach at the weekend. c! %'m leaving at three. =: $inall* we se this tense to talk abo t a sit ation which is slowl* changing. a! %'m getting better at pla*ing the piano. b! The weather is improving. The Present Per"ect Simple Tense To make the positive present perfect tense, se: 'have' ( 'has' D the past participle Fake the past participle b* adding 'ed' to reg lar verbs (for e,ample, 'pla*' becomes 'pla*ed'! There are a few verbs that change their spelling when *o add 'ed' (for e,ample, 'st d*' becomes 'st died'! )e also have some completel* irreg lar verbs

(-lso, here's some help if *o are not s re how to prono nce '8ed' at the end of a verb!. "ositive % have pla*ed "ositive #hort $orm %'ve pla*ed

*o have worked he has written

*o 've worked he's written

The negative is reall* simple too. 5 st p t 'not' after 'have' or 'has': +egative % have not eaten breakfast toda* *o have not been to -sia he has not seen the new film +egative #hort $orm % haven't eaten *o haven't been he hasn't seen

To make a q estion, p t 'have' or 'has' in front of the s b0ect: ''es ( +o' . estions have % missed the b s/ have *o visited London/ has he worked as a waiter before/ has she met 5ohn/ -s *o can imagine, for 'wh' q estions, we 0 st p t the q estion word before 'have' or 'has': ')h' . estions where have % left m* mbrella/ what have *o done toda*/ wh* has he gone alread*/ .ow to use the present per"ect tense )e se this tense for nfinished and finished actions: >nfinished -ctions )e se this tense when we want to talk abo t nfinished actions that started in the past and contin e to the present. >s all* we se it to sa* 'how long' an action or state has contin ed with 'since' and 'for'. ?ften, we se stative verbs in this sit ation: a! %'ve known Haren since 6II:. b! #he's lived in London for three *ears. '#ince' and '$or' )e se 'since' with a fi,ed time in the past (7EE:, -pril 79rd, last *ear, two ho rs ago!. The fi,ed time can be another action, indicated with the past simple (since % was at school, since % arrived!: a! %'ve known #am since 6II7. b! %'ve liked chocolate since % was a child.

c! #he's been here since 7pm. )e se 'for' with a period of time (7 ho rs, three *ears, si, months!: a! %'ve known 5 lie for ten *ears. b! %'ve been h ngr* for ho rs. $inished -ctions

6: Life e,perience (we don't sa* when the e,perience happened, 0 st sometime in the past! a! b! c! % have been to Tok*o. #he has lived in Jerman*. The* have visited "aris three times.

7: - finished action with a res lt in the present (foc s on res lt! d! %'ve lost m* ke*s (so % can't get into m* ho se!. e! #he's h rt her leg (so she can't pla* tennis toda*!. 9: )ith an nfinished time word (this month, this week, toda*, in the last *ear! a! % haven't seen her this month. b! #he's dr nk three c ps of coffee toda*. c! This week the*'ve been shopping fo r times. +ote: )e can't se the present perfect with a finished time word: %'ve seen him *esterda*. '4een' and 'Jone'

%n this tense, we se both 'been' and 'gone' as the past participle of 'go', b t in slightl* different circ mstances. 4een

)e se 'been' (often when we talk abo t 'life e,perience'! to mean that the person being talked abo t has visited the place, and come back. +otice the preposition 'to': %'ve been to "aris (in m* life, b t now %'m in London, where % live!. #he has been to school toda* (b t now she's back at home!. The* have never been to Balifornia. Jone

)e se 'gone' (often when we are talking abo t an action with a res lt in the present! to mean that the person is at the place now:

')here's 5ohn/' 'He's gone to the shops' (he's at the shops now!. 5 lie has gone to Fe,ico (now she's in Fe,ico!. The*'ve gone to 5apan for three weeks (now the*'re in 5apan!. The present per"ect continuous tense

Here's the positive (it's the present perfect of 'be' D verb 8ing!: "ositive("ositive #hort $orm % have been walking ( %'ve been walking

*o have been r nning ( *o 've been r nning he has been cooking ( he's been cooking

To make the negative, 0 st add 'not': +egative +egative #hort $orm

% have not been walking ( % haven't been walking *o have not been r nning ( he has not been cooking ( *o haven't been r nning he hasn't been cooking

Ban *o g ess how to make the q estion form of the present perfect contin o s/ %t's not ver* diffic lt 8 0 st p t 'have' or 'has' before the s b0ect: ''es ( +o' . estions have % been walking/ have *o been r nning/ has he been cooking/ $or 'wh' q estions p t the q estion word first: ''es ( +o' . estions what have % been doing/ where have *o been r nning/ what has he been st d*ing/ wh* has she been working toda*/ how long has it been raining/ how long have we been watching this film/ how long have the* been living here/

Usin$ the present per"ect continuous

#ome people think the present perfect contin o s is diffic lt to se, b t reall* it's not ver* complicated, and it so nds ver* impressive when *o se it correctl*. There are two main times we se this tense. Kemember we can't se it with stative verbs. 6: To sa* how long for nfinished actions which started in the past and contin e to the present. )e often se this with for and since. (#ee the present perfect for the same se with stative verbs! %'ve been living in London for two *ears. #he's been working here since 7EE:. )e've been waiting for the b s for ho rs. 7: -ctions which have 0 st stopped (tho gh the whole action can be nfinished! and have a res lt, which we can often see, hear, or feel, in the present (foc s on action!. (#ee the present perfect for a similar se which foc ses on the res lt of the action! %'m so tired, %'ve been st d*ing. %'ve been r nning, so %'m reall* hot. %t's been raining, the pavement is wet. %'ve been reading *o r book, it's ver* good. Past simple "orm "ositive with 'be' % (he(she(it was cold 'o (we(the* were tired +egative with 'be' %(he(she(it was not sleep* 'o (we(the* were not on the b s ''es ( +o' . estions with '4e' was % sleep*/ were *o late/ was he at the cinema/ ')h' . estions with '4e' wh* was % sleep*/ where were *o / when was he at the cinema/ +egative #hort $orm % wasn't sleep* *o weren't on the b s

The "ast #imple (#imple "ast! with ?ther 3erbs )e make the past simple 0 st like the present simple e,cept we se 'did' instead of 'do ( does'. %t's reall* eas* beca se 'did' doesn't change, even with 'he ( she ( it'. The positive: )e s all* make the positive b* adding '8ed' to the infinitive. $or e,ample, 'pla*' becomes 'pla*ed'. However, there are some irreg lar verbs, for e,ample 'go' becomes 'went' and 'r n' becomes 'ran'. "ositive with ?ther 3erbs

% walked (reg lar! *o pla*ed (reg lar! %n the negative there aren't an* irreg lar verbs. -ll verbs se 'did not (didn't! D infinitive': +egative #hort $orm % didn't walk *o didn't pla*

+egative % did not walk *o did not pla*

''es ( +o' . estions

did % walk/ did *o pla*/ did he cook/ ')h' . estions

where did % go/ what did *o pla*/ what did he cook/ Usin$ the past simple 6 $inished events in the past with no connection to the present:

Leonardo painted the Fona Lisa. The 3ikings invaded 4ritain. 7 )ith a finished time word (*esterda*, last week, at 7 o'clock, in 7EE9!:

% went to the cinema *esterda*. )e visited 5apan in 7EE@. 9 $or stories ( lists of events:

He went to a cafL, sat down and lit a cigarette.

'esterda* % went to the librar*, met a friend for l nch, and pla*ed tennis. : 1etails of news:

%'ve h rt m* leg. % fell off a ladder when % was painting m* bedroom. %'ve been on holida*. % went to #pain and "ort gal. ; -s part of the second conditional:

%f % won the lotter*, % wo ld b * a ho se in Bhelsea. %f she knew his n mber, she wo ld call him. The Past ,ontinuous

How can we make the past contin o s/ $irstl*, check that *o know how to make the past simple with 'be' (s b0ect D was ( were!. Then 0 st add verb8ing. Here's the positive form:

% was sleeping *o were working he was coming +e,t, here's the negative 8 it's ver* eas*, 0 st add 'not':

% was not (wasn't! sleeping *o were not (weren't! working he was not (wasn't! coming -nd, 0 st like the past simple with 'be', to make a '*es ( no' q estion, p t 'was ( were' in front of the s b0ect:

)as % listening/ )ere *o working/ )as she working/ To make a 'wh' q estion (of co rse! p t the q estion word at the beginning:

)h* was % working/ )here were *o living/ How was she travelling/ 6 Usin$ the Past ,ontinuous - contin o s action in the past which is interr pted b* another action or a time:

% was taking a bath when the telephone rang. -t three o'clock, % was working.

4ackgro nd information, to give atmosphere to a stor*:

%t was a bea tif l da*. The birds were singing, the s n was shining and in the cafes people were la ghing and chatting. 9 -n anno*ing and repeated action in the past, s all* with 'alwa*s':

He was alwa*s leaving the tap r nning. (%n the same wa* as the "resent Bontin o s! : $or two actions which happened at the same time in the past:

% was watching T3 and he was reading. +4:Kemember *o can't se this tense or an* contin o s tense with stative verbs. The Past Per"ect ,ontinuous Here's how to make the past perfect contin o s. %t's 'had' D been (the past participle of 'be'!D verb8ing $irstl*, let's look at the positive form:

% had been living 'o had been going #he had been sleeping The short form is: 'd been verb8ing. 4e caref l, beca se the short form for 'wo ld' is also 'd. However, 'wo ld' is alwa*s followed b* the infinitive, b t 'had' is followed b* the past participle. +e,t, the negative form:

% had not been tr*ing (% hadn't been..! 'o had not been working (*o hadn't been..! #he had not been cr*ing (she hadn't been..! ''es ( no' q estions:

Had % been working/ Had *o been sleeping/ Had she been reading/ ')h' q estions:

)here had % been working/ How long had *o been sleeping/ )hat had she been reading/ .ow to use

The past perfect contin o s isn't the most common tense, b t it's still sef l to know. #omething that started in the past and contin ed p to another action or event (tells s 'how long'! #he had been working at that compan* for a *ear when she met 5ames. (This tells s how long something had contin ed before another event in the past. )e s all* se 'for' or 'since' in the same wa* as we do with the present perfect contin o s! Ba se of something in the past The pavement was wet, it had been raining. (%t was raining before the time %'m describing in the past. )e co ld see the res lt of the rain 8 compare with the present perfect contin o s! -uture simple "orm Here's the positive form (it's 0 st 'will' D infinitive!:

% will meet him later (%'ll ..! 'o will come (*o 'll..! %t will rain tomorrow (it'll! He&ll #he&ll )e&ll +e,t, here's the negative form (0 st add 'not' 8 remember will not C won't!:

% will not go (% won't ..! 'o will not be late (*o won't ..! %t will not snow tomorrow (it won't..! )ill % go/ )ill *o come earl*/ )ill it be cold/ 'wh' q estions: '*es ( no' q estions:

)here will % go/ )h* will *o come earl*/ )hen will it be cold/ .ow to use: - decision at the moment of speaking:

-: '%'m cold'. 4: '%'ll close the window'. "rediction based on opinion:

% think the Bonservatives will win the ne,t election. - f t re fact: The s n will rise at @am. "romises ( req ests ( ref sal ( willingness:

%'ll help *o with *o r homework. )ill *o give me a hand/ % will give p smoking2 %n the same wa* as the f t re contin o s, b t with state verbs:

%'ll be at the station when *o arrive. '#hall' is sed mainl* in the forms 'shall % /' and 'shall we/' in 4ritish English. These forms are sed when *o want to get someone's opinion, especiall* for offers and s ggestions:

#hall % open the window/ (Cdo *o want me to open the window!. )here shall we go tonight/ (Cwhat's *o r opinion/!. )e se 'be going to' D infinitive for: $ t re plans made before the moment of speaking:

-: ')e've r n o t of milk.' 4: '% know, %'m going to b * some.' "rediction based on present evidence:

Look at those bo*s pla*ing football2 The*'re going to break the window. The -uture ,ontinuous The positive (will / be / verb0in$): -t 6E am tomorrow, % will be sleeping *o will be working she will be st d*ing +e,t, here's the negative form (0 st add 'not' 8 remember will not C won't!:

% will not go (% won't ..! 'o will not be late (*o won't ..! %t will not snow tomorrow (it won't..!

+e,t, here's the negative form (0 st add 'not' 8 remember will not C won't!:

% will not go (% won't ..! 'o will not be late (*o won't ..! %t will not snow tomorrow (it won't..! +e,t, here's the negative form (0 st add 'not' 8 remember will not C won't!:

% will not go (% won't ..! 'o will not be late (*o won't ..! %t will not snow tomorrow (it won't..! .ow to use: - contin o s action in the f t re which is interr pted b* a time or b* another action.

%'ll be waiting when *o arrive. -t eight oMclock, %M'll be eating dinner. (see the past contin o s which is sed in a similiar wa*!. - complete action in the f t re that will happen in the normal co rse of events.

The Jovernment will be making a statement later. 4eca se this talks abo t something that will happen if ever*thing is as we planned, we often se this tense to ask politel* abo t what someone is going to do. )ill *o be taking *o r car to the meeting/ (C%'m asking ver* indirectl* and politel* 8 perhaps % want to get a lift!. To make a g ess abo t the present.

F* mother will be working now (C % think she is working now, b t %M'm not completel* certain!. Will 1 $on$ to Fore e,amples: (The phone rings! 5 lie: %'ll get it2 ('%'m going to get it' is ver* strange, beca se it makes s think that 5 lie knew the phone was going to ring before it did!. %'m going to go on holida* ne,t week. ('%'ll go on holida* ne,t week' makes it so nd like *o 've onl* 0 st decided at that min te. ?f co rse, this is possible, b t normall* we plan o r holida*s more in advance2!. ?ther points abo t the f t re:

)e se the present contin o s tense for definite f t re arrangements. ?ften, it doesn't reall* matter if we choose 'be going to' or the present contin o s. %n the following e,ample, there is reall* ver* little difference in meaning: %'m going to the cinema tonight. %'m going to go to the cinema tonight. )e se the present simple tense in two cases. $irst, we se it for a timetabled event in the f t re, like p blic transport or the start of a class: F* train leaves at si, tonight. His class starts at Iam tomorrow. #econd, we se it after certain words, when the sentence has a f t re meaning. These words are: before ( after ( as soon as ( ntil ( when: %'ll call *o when % get home. #he's going to st d* after she finishes dinner. "lease drink some water as soon as *o complete the race.

Remember: We use the past simple for past events or actions which have no connection to the present.

We use the present perfect for actions which started in the past and are still happening now OR for finished actions which have a connection to the present. We CAN'T use the present perfect with a finished time word: NOT: 've been to the museum !esterda!.

Prepositions o" Time

n" at" on and no preposition with time words: #repositions of time $ here's a list of the time words that need 'on'" 'in'" 'at' and some that don't need an! preposition. %e careful $ man! students of &nglish use 'on' with months 'it should be 'in'(" or put a prepostion before 'ne)t' when we don't need one. at times: at *pm" at midnight" at +:,holida! periods: at Christmas" at &aster at night at the wee.end at lunchtime" at dinnertime" at brea.fast time on da!s: on /onda!" on m! birthda!" on Christmas 0a! da!s 1 morning 2 afternoon 2 evening 2 night: on Tuesda! morning dates: on the 3-th of 4une in !ears: in 5663" in 3--+ months: in 0ecember" in 4une decades: in the si)ties" in the 576-s

centuries: in the 56th centur! seasons: in winter" in summer in the morning" in the afternoon" in the evening no prep ne)t wee." !ear" month etc last night" !ear etc this morning" month etc ever! da!" night" !ears etc toda!" tomorrow" !esterda! Prepositions of Place #repositions of place can be difficult $ here's some help about using 'at'" 'in' and 'on' when !ou're tal.ing about where things are. %asics: f something is contained inside a bo) or a wide flat area" we use 8in9: in the newspaper in a house in a cup in a drawer in a bottle in a bag in bed in a car in :ondon in &ngland in a boo. in a pub in a field in the sea in m! stomach in a river f something is on a line or a hori;ontal or vertical surface" we use 8on9: on the table on the wall on the floor on the window on m! face on a plate on the page on the sofa on a chair on a bag on the river on a t$shirt on the ceiling on a bottle on a bi.e on his foot f something is at a point" 'it could be a building( we use 8at9: at the airport at the door at the table at the bus stop at the cinema at at the top at the bottom at the pub at the traffic lights at the front at the bac. at school at universit! at the window at the hospital at the piano <ere are some more common ones that don't reall! fit: on T= on the bus on a train on a plane on the radio at home

at wor. Adjectives and Prepositions >ome ad?ectives need a preposition before their ob?ect. There doesn't seem to be a logical rule" 'm afraid@ We ?ust need to learn them. <ere are some of the most common ones: famous for Arance is famous for its food. proud of <e is ver! proud of his new car. interested in 4ulie is ver! interested in sport. pleased with 4ohn is ver! pleased with his new suit. bad at The! are ver! bad at maths. good at &instein was ver! good at ph!sics. married to /! mother has been married to m! father for 3- !ears. e)cited about 'm ver! e)cited about m! holida!. different from 2 to Coffee is different from tea. afraid of 'm afraid of spiders. Verbs and Prepositions >ome verbs need a preposition before an ob?ect or another verb. The preposition is onl! grammatical" it doesn't change the meaning of the verb. <ere are some of the most common ones: arrive at 2 in somewhere We arrived at the airport. We arrived in :ondon. belong to somebod! This boo. belongs to me. borrow something from somebod! borrow a boo. from m! classmate. concentrate on something 2 doing something concentrated on stud!ing at the wee.end. depend on something 2 somebod! t depends on the weather. e)plain something to somebod! The teacher e)plained the e)ercise to the students. listen to something 2 somebod! listen to music. pa! somebod! for something pa! the waiter for the coffee. wait for somebod! 2 something

Wait for me@ worr! about somebod! 2 something 0on9t worr! about a thing@ Tag questions Tag Buestions 'or Buestion tags( turn a statement into a Buestion. The! are often used for chec.ing information that we thin. we .now is true. Tag Buestions are made using an au)iliar! verb 'for e)ample: be or have( and a sub?ect pronoun 'for e)ample: " !ou" she(. Negative Buestion tags are usuall! contracted: t's warm toda!" isn't it 'not 'is it not'( Csuall! if the main clause is positive" the Buestion tag is negative" and if the main clause is negative" it's positive. Aor e)ample: t's cold 'positive(" isn't it 'negative(D And: t isn't cold 'negative(" is it 'positive(D f the main clause has an au)iliar! verb in it" !ou use the same verb in the tag Buestion. f there is no au)iliar! verb 'in the present simple and past simple( use do 2 does 2 did '?ust li.e when !ou ma.e a normal Buestion(. There is one wierd e)ception: the Buestion tag after am is aren't . Aor e)ample: 'm in charge of the food" aren't D #ostive sentences" with negative tags #resent simple 'be' >he's talian" isn't sheD #resent simple other verbs The! live in :ondon" don't the!D #resent continuous We're wor.ing tomorrow" aren't weD #ast simple 'be' t was cold !esterda!" wasn't itD #ast simple other verbs <e went to the part! last night" didn't heD #ast continuous We were waiting at the station" weren't weD #resent perfect The!'ve been to 4apan" haven't the!D #resent perfect continuous >he's been stud!ing a lot recentl!" hasn't sheD #ast perfect <e had forgotten his wallet" hadn't heD #ast perfect continuous We'd been wor.ing" hadn't weD Auture simple >he'll come at si)" won't sheD Auture continuous The!'ll be arriving soon" won't the!D Auture perfect The!'ll have finished before nine" won't the!D Auture perfect continuous >he'll have been coo.ing all da!" won't sheD /odals <e can help" can't heD /odals 4ohn must sta!" mustn't heD Negative sentences" with positive tags #resent simple 'be' We aren't late" are weD #resent simple other verbs >he doesn't have an! children" does sheD #resent continuous The bus isn't coming" is itD #ast simple 'be' >he wasn't at home !esterda!" was sheD #ast simple other verbs The! didn't go out last >unda!" did the!D #ast continuous Eou weren't sleeping" were !ouD #resent perfect >he hasn't eaten all the ca.e" has sheD #resent perfect continuous <e hasn't been running in this weather" has heD #ast perfect We hadn't been to :ondon before" had weD #ast perfect continuous Eou hadn't been sleeping" had !ouD Auture simple The! won't be late" will the!D

Auture continuous <e'll be stud!ing tonight" won't heD Auture perfect >he won't have left wor. before si)" will sheD Auture perfect continuous <e won't have been travelling all da!" will heD /odals >he can't spea. Arabic" can sheD /odals The! mustn't come earl!" must the!D The! are made in three different wa!s in &nglish grammar depending on the verb tense: 5: We change the position 'or 'invert'( the verb and the sub?ect. This is used for the present simple and the past simple of 'be' and for modal verbs 3: We add an e)tra word" li.e 'do 2 does' or 'did'. This is used for the past simple and the present simple of all other &nglish verbs 'not 'be'(. ,: We change the position of the first au)iliar! verb and the sub?ect. This is for all other tenses" for e)ample the present perfect" the present continuous or the future perfect continuous. To ma.e the 'wh' .ind" ?ust put the Buestion word in front of an! '!es 2 no' Buestion: s he coming ''!es 2 no'( becomes When is he comingD ''wh'( <ere is a summar! of the tenses and their interrogative forms 'clic. on each tense for more information(: Ees 2 No: #resent simple 'be' Are !ou hungr!D #resent simple other verbs 0o !ou li.e ice creamD #resent continuous Are !ou coming to the part!D #ast simple 'be' Were !ou at home !esterda!D #ast simple other verbs 0id !ou go out last nightD #ast continuous Were !ou watching T= at * last nightD #resent perfect <ave !ou eatenD #resent perfect continuous <ave !ou been wor.ing hardD #ast perfect <ad !ou sleptD #ast perfect continuous <ad !ou been runningD Auture simple Will !ou comeD Auture continuous Will !ou be comingD Auture perfect Will !ou have finished at +D Auture perfect continuous Will !ou have been wor.ingD /odals Can !ou swimD /odals /ust !ou leaveD Wh: #resent simple 'be' Who are !ouD #resent simple other verbs Where do !ou pla! tennisD #resent continuous When are !ou coming to the part!D #ast simple 'be' Where were !ou last nightD #ast simple other verbs <ow did !ou do itD #ast continuous What were !ou doing when called !ouD #resent perfect What have !ou eatenD #resent perfect continuous Where have !ou been wor.ing hardD #ast perfect What had !ou eatenD #ast perfect continuous Wh! had !ou been wor.ing hardD Auture simple Who will !ou meetD Auture continuous Wh! will !ou be sleepingD

Auture perfect When will !ou have finishedD Auture perfect continuous What will !ou have been doingD /odals Where can we swimD /odals Wh! must !ou leaveD <ere's how it wor.s: We use a 'reporting verb' li.e 'sa!' or 'tell' 'Clic. here for more about using 'sa!' and 'tell'(. f this verb is in the present tense" it's eas!. We ?ust put 'she sa!s' and then the sentence: 0irect speech: F li.e ice creamG Reported speech: >he sa!s she li.es ice cream We don't need to change the tense" though probabl! we do need to change the 'person' from ' ' to 'she'" for e)ample. We also ma! need to change words li.e 'm!' and '!our'. %ut" if the reporting verb is in the past tense" then usuall! we change the tenses in the reported speech: 0irect speech: F li.e ice creamG Reported speech: >he said she li.ed ice cream Tense 0irect >peech Reported >peech present simple F li.e ice creamG >he said 'that( she li.ed ice cream. present continuous F am living in :ondonG >he said she was living in :ondon. past simple F bought a carG >he said she had bought a car OR >he said she bought a car. past continuous F was wal.ing along the streetG >he said she had been wal.ing along the street. present perfect F haven't seen 4ulieG >he said she hadn't seen 4ulie. past perfectH F had ta.en &nglish lessons beforeG >he said she had ta.en &nglish lessons before. will F 'll see !ou laterG >he said she would see me later. wouldH F would help" but..G >he said she would help but... can F can spea. perfect &nglishG >he said she could spea. perfect &nglish. couldH F could swim when was fourG >he said she could swim when she was four. shall F shall come laterG >he said she would come later. shouldH F should call m! motherG >he said she should call her mother mightH I might be lateI >he said she might be late must I must stud! at the wee.endI >he said she must stud! at the wee.end OR >he said she had to stud! at the wee.end H doesn't change Occasionall!" we don't need to change the present tense into the past if the information in direct speech is still true 'but this is onl! for things which are general facts" and even then usuall! we li.e to change the tense(: 0irect speech: FThe s.! is blueG Reported speech: >he said that the s.! is2was blue Clic. here to practise reported statements. Reported Juestions

>o now !ou have no problem with ma.ing reported speech from positive and negative sentences. %ut how about BuestionsD 0irect speech: IWhere do !ou liveDI <ow can we ma.e the reported speech hereD n fact" it's not so different from reported statements. The tense changes are the same" and we .eep the Buestion word. The ver! important thing though is that" once we tell the Buestion to someone else" it isn't a Buestion an! more. >o we need to change the grammar to a normal positive sentence. ConfusingD >orr!" ma!be this e)ample will help: 0irect speech: IWhere do !ou liveDI Reported speech: >he as.ed me where lived. 0o !ou see how made itD The direct Buestion is in the present simple tense. We ma.e a present simple Buestion with 'do' or 'does' so need to ta.e that awa!. Then need to change the verb to the past simple. Another e)ample: 0irect speech: Iwhere is 4ulieDI Reported speech: >he as.ed me where 4ulie was. The direct Buestion is the present simple of 'be'. We ma.e the Buestion form of the present simple of be b! inverting 'changing the position of(the sub?ect and verb. >o" we need to change them bac. before putting the verb into the past simple. <ere are some more e)amples: 0irect Juestion Reported Juestion FWhere is the #ost Office" pleaseDG >he as.ed me where the #ost Office was. FWhat are !ou doingDG >he as.ed me what was doing. FWho was that fantastic manDG >he as.ed me who that fantastic man had been. >o much for 'wh' Buestions. %ut" what if !ou need to report a '!es 2 no' BuestionD We don't have an! Buestion words to help us. nstead" we use 'if': 0irect speech: I0o !ou li.e chocolateDI Reported speech: >he as.ed me if li.ed chocolate. No problemD <ere are a few more e)amples: 0irect Juestion Reported Juestion F0o !ou love meDG <e as.ed me if loved him. F<ave !ou ever been to /e)icoDG >he as.ed me if had ever been to /e)ico. FAre !ou living hereDG >he as.ed me if was living here. Clic. here to practise reported Buestions. Reported ReBuests There's more@ What if someone as.s !ou to do something 'in a polite wa!(D Aor e)ample: 0irect speech: IClose the window" pleaseI Or: ICould !ou close the window pleaseDI Or: IWould !ou mind closing the window pleaseDI All of these reBuests mean the same thing" so we don't need to report ever! word when we tell another person about it. We simpl! use 'as. me 1 to 1 infinitive': Reported speech: >he as.ed me to close the window.

<ere are a few more e)amples: 0irect ReBuest Reported ReBuest F#lease help meG. >he as.ed me to help her. F#lease don't smo.eG.>he as.ed me not to smo.e. FCould !ou bring m! boo. tonightDG >he as.ed me to bring her boo. that night. FCould !ou pass the mil." pleaseDG >he as.ed me to pass the mil.. FWould !ou mind coming earl! tomorrowDG >he as.ed me to come earl! the ne)t da!. To report a negative reBuest" use 'not': 0irect speech: I#lease don't be late.I Reported speech: >he as.ed us not to be late. Reported Orders And finall!" how about if someone doesn't as. so politel!D We can call this an 'order' in &nglish" when someone tells !ou ver! directl! to do something. Aor e)ample: 0irect speech: I>it down@I n fact" we ma.e this into reported speech in the same wa! as a reBuest. We ?ust use 'tell' instead of 'as.': Reported speech: >he told me to sit down. 0irect Order Reported Order FKo to bed@G <e told the child to go to bed. F0on't worr!@G <e told her not to worr!. F%e on time@G <e told me to be on time. F0on't smo.e@G <e told us not to smo.e. Clic. here for an e)ercise to practise reported reBuests and orders. Time &)pressions with Reported >peech >ometimes when we change direct speech into reported speech we have to change time e)pressions too. We don't alwa!s have to do this" however. t depends on when we heard the direct speech and when we sa! the reported speech. Aor e)ample: t's /onda!. 4ulie sa!s I 'm leaving toda!I. f f f f tell someone on /onda!" sa! I4ulie said she was leaving toda!I. tell someone on Tuesda!" sa! I4ulie said she was leaving !esterda!I. tell someone on Wednesda!" sa! I4ulie said she was leaving on /onda!I. tell someone a month later" sa! I4ulie said she was leaving that da!I.

>o" there's no eas! conversion. Eou reall! have to thin. about when the direct speech was said. <ere's a table of some possible conversions: now then 2 at that time toda! !esterda! 2 that da! 2 Tuesda! 2 the 37th of 4une !esterda! the da! before !esterda! 2 the da! before 2 Wednesda! 2 the Lth of 0ecember last night the night before" Thursda! night last wee. the wee. before 2 the previous wee. tomorrow toda! 2 the ne)t da! 2 the following da! 2 Arida!

Used To AOR/ Mused to 1 =&R%N &)ample: used to go to the beach ever! da!. t is better not to use Iused toI in Buestions or negative formsO however" this is sometimes done in informal spo.en &nglish. t is better to as. Buestions and create negative sentences using >imple #ast. C>& 5 <abit in the #ast ICsed toI e)presses the idea that something was an old habit that stopped in the past. t indicates that something was often repeated in the past" but it is not usuall! done now. &)amples: 4err! used to stud! &nglish. >am and /ar! used to go to /e)ico in the summer. used to start wor. at 6 o'cloc.. Christine used to eat meat" but now she is a vegetarian. C>& 3 #ast Aacts and Kenerali;ations ICsed toI can also be used to tal. about past facts or generali;ations which are no longer true. &)amples: used to live in #aris. >arah used to be fat" but now she is thin. Keorge used to be the best student in class" but now :ena is the best. Oranges used to cost ver! little in Alorida" but now the! are Buite e)pensive. ICsed toI vs. >imple #ast %oth >imple #ast and ICsed toI can be used to describe past habits" past facts and past generali;ationsO however" Iused toI is preferred when emphasi;ing these forms of past repetition in positive sentences. On the other hand" when as.ing Buestions or ma.ing negative sentences" >imple #ast is preferred. &)amples: Eou used to pla! the piano. 0id !ou pla! the piano when !ou were !oungD Eou did not pla! the piano when !ou were !oung. ACT =& 2 #A>> =& &)amples: 4err! used to pa! the bills. Active The bills used to be paid b! 4err!. #assive

All the au)iliar! verbs e)cept be" do and have are called modals. Cnli.e other au)iliar! verbs modals onl! e)ist in their helping formO the! cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence. %e" do" and have also differ from the other au)iliaries in that the! can also serve as ordinar! verbs in a given sentence. The modal verbs are:$ CAN 2 COC:0 2 /AE 2 / K<T 2 /C>T 2 ><A:: 2 ><OC:0 2 OCK<T TO 2 W :: 2 WOC:0