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estrogen and thyroid. These of course arent found in our brain formula.
Menopausal women often become dingy. When estrogen drops too low this is bound to happen. It only
takes a tiny dose of estrogen cream to eliminate this problem.
Testosterone is important for brain function too. With testosterone replacement in men who use their
brain power at work; they can often notice the difference in cognition after injections are started.
Low thyroid certainly effects brain performance. Tweaking replacement to ideal levels makes an obvious
improvement in many. Im sure if we had a way to actually, objectively test brain performance before and
after thyroid replacement; we would always see a marked improvement.
Piracetam ls anoLher Lrlck. 1here ls a sLory behlnd Lhls one. 1hls was developed behlnd Lhe lron
curLaln Lo keep Lhelr flghLer plloLs Lhlnklng opLlmally under sLresses llke sleep deprlvaLlon and hlgh Cs
(gravlLaLlonal forces). lL ls derlvaLlve of Lhe amlno acld/neuroLransmlLLer, CA8A. lL ls compleLely
safe/nonLoxlc aL far hlgher doses Lhan needed for our purposes. Cne way LhaL plraceLam helps memory
ls Lo lncrease your braln's polyrlbosomes. 1hese are sLrucLures ln our braln's LhaL allow us Lo recall sLuff
llke why dld l come Lo Lhls room?....whaL was Lhe polnL l was Lrylng Lo make?....whaL's hls name? 1he
polyrlbosomes you bulld whlle on plraceLam wlll remaln vlable for several monLhs afLer you dlsconLlnue
Laklng lL.
A loadlng dose of plraceLam may be someLhlng llke 4,000 Lo 8,000m.g dally, dlvlded lnLo 3 doses.
SubsequenLly Lhe dally dose may be 1,300 Lo 2,300 dlvlded lnLo 2 dally doses. AfLer 6 Lo 12 monLhs you
may be able Lo qulL Laklng lL and sLlll reLaln Lhe effecL for who knows how long. 1he effecL of plraceLam
would be caLapulLed by uslng all of Lhe prevlous LacLlcs along wlLh addlng 2 grams of phosphaLldyl
chollne hLLp://www.vrp.com/braln-healLh/phosphaLldylchollne and a few cups of coffee per day.
l use 1,600m.g. of plraceLam ln Lhe A.M. along wlLh 4 8raln lormula. 1hls ls enough Lo glve ob[ecLlve
resulLs ln my case. l beL noL many would need Lhe exLra chollne lf already on Lhe braln formula.
Brain Formula is innovative medicines custom formula for brain power.
It contains most of the ingredients mentioned below
They call it brain fog for a reason: When your mind is tired, even the simplest mental tasks can feel like
navigating a cognitive maze. Your concentration is dull, your memory is fuzzyand your brain is stuck on
stupid......what was i just talking about?.....why did i come into this room?..........what was his name?
Theres no doubt that a slow brain can take a serious toll on your quality of life. And if your daily activities
include driving or operating machinery, brain fog also is a threat to your physical welfare. But luckily,
boosting your intake of several nutrients can help you to cut through the fog and revitalize your mind with a
much-needed shot of pure, focused energyresulting in clear, sharp mental focus that will last the whole
day long.
The one of these nutrients is phosphatidylserine (PS)a phospholipid that is necessary for
building cell membranes, especially in neurons, and forming acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter that plays an
integral role in short-term memory. Dozens of clinical trials have demonstrated that PS can deliver a powerful
boost to a sluggish brain, with results showing that a daily dose of this nutrient can dramatically enhance
memory and mental performance, quality of life, sociability and mood within a few months.
anyone can benefit from PS supplementation, with studies revealing that it can balance levels of the fight-
or-flight hormone cortisol and enhance both mental and physical performance during occasional periods of

Another nutrient brain-booster is acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC)a powerhouse nutrient that augments PS
by providing abundant cellular energy as ATP, which is needed to activate your brains circuits and revitalize
tired neurons. ALC works with PS to boost acetylcholine production and to restore the function of the
membranes of your mitochondria, which serve as your cells energy factories. ALC also acts to provide the
mitochondria with more of the fatty acids they need to generate the vital cellular fuel called ATP (adenosine
AMP (adenosine monophosphate) is phosphorylated to ATP and then used to create energy. This is how
we create energy from oxygen. Increasing AMP will increase brain energy in addition to boosting your overall
energy. Even though AMP isnt part of brain formula, it is the main ingredient in our AMP+ injections.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is an important nutrient for brain health. It is a key nutrient for
mitochondria which are the powerhouse for brain cells. The mitochondria convert the energy
which is stored in sugar into the energy which the cell can use to do is work in the form of ATP.
An ample supply of Niacinamide makes the generation of ATP more efficient and reduces the
level of toxic free radicals (a bi-product of making ATP).

Dimethyl-amino-ethanol (DMAE) is a precursor of acetylcholine, a main neurotransmitter responsible
for carrying messages between brain cells and from the brain to the muscles to control our movements.
Unlike choline, it easily passes the blood/brain barrier where it stimulates the cholinergic nervous system.
A variety of cognitive and disruptive disorders may be caused or aggravated by a lack of acetylcholine. Since
DMAE affects acetylcholine production, these issues may be improved with long-term, consistent DMAE use. As
long ago as 1974, research was conducted showing that DMAE was comparable to some prescription drugs in
improving learning and behavioral problems associated with shortened attention span.
Depression in older people also is often caused by lack of acetylcholine in the brain. In a controlled, double-
blind study with normal human volunteers, findings demonstrated an increase in daytime energy, attentiveness
and concentration, sounder but less sleep, and improved mood and personality. Additionally, in research and
clinical practice it has been used to improve memory in older adults.
In adults, high-dose DMAE is especially useful in lipofuscin dissolution. Lipofuscin is a brownish cellular pigment
consisting of molecular waste formed by the inefficient metabolism of fatty acids, resulting from oxidative
stress. In the skin, especially the back of the hand, this debris manifests as either age spots or liver spots,
which act as a sentinel for lipofuscin potentially present inside the body, including the brain, neurons and
DMAE has the ability to dissolve lipofuscin and can work both inside and on the body. The mechanism for this
action is fat emulsion. DMAE has properties similar to that of lecithin. Lecithin emulsifies fat in the liver and
both of these substances produce acetylcholine in the body. However, DMAE and not lecithin is capable of
lessening lipofuscin. magnesium must be present for many enzymatic reactions to occur in the body, the two
elements work synergistically to help clear lipofuscin.
In other research, topical DMAE has been found to be effective and safe in the improvement of wrinkles and
skin firmness. The mechanism of action is related to the fact skin cells contain acetylcholine receptors as well
as DMAEs anti-inflammatory actions and its ability to scavenge free radicals.
Because of DMAEs free radical scavenging ability, when it was added to the hearts pumping cells (myocytes)
in another in-vitro study, they were protected from damage caused by a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the
heart (ischemia).
High-dose DMAE can help protect against accelerated aging by removing cellular debris caused by many
factors present in twenty-first century daily life.
DMAE and choline, included in brain formula, are the precursors to the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine. Acetylcholine, important for learning, memory and attention, is found in low levels in conditions
such as Alzheimers disease. Studies using animal models have shown that DMAE stimulates brain neurons and
improves working memory performance. Vitamin B5 is a precursor of coenzyme A, which is important for
energy metabolism as well as the biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Huperzine-A inhibits the breakdown of
acetylcholine and has been shown in clinical trials to significantly improve cognition, behavior, mood and
quality of life.
L-phenylalanine, also part of brain formula, is an essential amino acid that is converted into
the amino acid L-tyrosine, the precursor for the synthesis of several other neurotransmitters including
norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine. These are stimulatory neurotransmitters that regulate mood, sex
drive, memory, alertness and learning. L-phenylalanine is also metabolized to phenylethylamine, a mood-
elevating compound that occurs naturally in the brain.
Vitamin B12 is important as reduced levels are associated with faster rates of cognitive decline.
Pyroglutamic acid acts as a neuroprotective agent and has been shown to improve memory in
older subjects in clinical trials. Vinpocetine enhances memory by improving cerebral circulation,
antioxidant activity and increasing utilization of glucose and oxygen. Clinical trials have shown that vinpocetine
supplementation significantly improved cognitive function in subjects with ischemic stroke and mild cognitive
impairment. Ginkgo biloba leaf has been extensively studied as a memory enhancer. Ginkgo also has
antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, improves microcirculation, decreases platelet aggregation
and protects neurons from oxidative damage. Numerous human trials have demonstrated that standardized
Ginkgo leaf extract significantly improves cognitive function in a wide range of cognitive disorders and is
particularly indicated for memory loss, attention, alertness, vigilance, arousal and mental fluidity.
In a recent study, researchers reviewed the previous randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials in which
Ginkgo biloba extract was supplemented to dementia patients for at least 6 months. The data from 6 clinical
trials was collected and analyzed. The results of this analysis showed that cognitive function was significantly
improved in the subjects supplemented with Ginkgo biloba extract compared to the subjects receiving placebo.
The study authors concluded, Considering baseline risk in the assessment of treatment effect, Ginkgo biloba
extract was found to be effective for cognitive functions in dementia with the treatment of 6 months.

Brain formula also contains specialized, natural ingredients shown to regenerate neurites and dendrites in
the brain, thus improving cognitive processes. Aging in the brain is characterized by loss of neurons, neurites
and dendrites, which disrupts the neural communications network, resulting in physiological and behavioral
impairments. Evidence suggests that reductions in the levels of brain growth factors, like nerve growth factor,
lead to declining brain cell function and degenerative diseases. Brain formula should be taken by individuals
who want to increase the number of brain cells, which will promote increased brain processing speed and
improved cognition.
Brain formula can provide a rapid improvement in mental processing speed and clarity as well as longer-
term brain support. It can instantly refresh the brain and can be used as a late-afternoon pickup; in addition,
Brain formula provides cognitive support for those under increased stress. Brain formula can give an
immediate boost for those times when thought processes are sluggish and can be the ideal solution to
eliminate brain fog. The nutrients in the product also nourish the brain over time, adding long-term support
to its short-term brain-boosting action.
Brain formula includes phosphatidylserine and acetyl-L-carnitine.
Phosphatidylserine has been shown to improve cognitive impairments in elderly subjects with moderate to
severe cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled study, supplementation with 300 mg per day of
phosphatidylserine for 6 months resulted in significant improvements in behavioral and cognitive
measurements compared to the placebo group. Phosphatidylserine also is useful in younger individuals.
Research indicates that phosphatidylserine reduced elevated blood cortisol levels while improving mental and
physical performance in younger subjects, who were under stress

Vinpocetine, huperzine, DMAE and ginkgo are specifically known to support memory
enhancement. Recently more studies on ginkgo have been published. One new study in a mouse model of
Alzheimers disease found that ginkgo significantly increases cell proliferation in the hippocampus of both
young and old mice. And that it stimulates new neuron growth. It also reduces the deposits of amyloid-beta
plaques thought to be responsible for the brain damage seen in Alzheimers. These results lead to the
conclusion that ginkgo will help prevent and treat Alzheimers dementia.
In another new double-blind trial of 400 subjects with Alzheimers disease or vascular dementia, ginkgo
improved dementia scores while subjects receiving the placebo experienced a deterioration of scores.
Ginkgo can be used synergistically with natural cognitive enhancers such as huperzine-A, investigated for its
ability to significantly improve symptoms of Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia, and vinpocetine,
a constituent of the common periwinkle (Vinca minor). In a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of
203 people with mild to moderate dementia, vinpocetine produced significant benefit in the treated group.
DMAE is another nutrient involved in brain health. DMAEs effects have been studied in behavioral disorders in
children. Dr. Leon Oettinger, Jr., found that DMAE accelerated mental processes, improved concentration span,
abolished early morning fogginess, relieved lassitude and mild depression and improved IQ.

Ashwagandha, an exotic Indian herb, has remarkable stress-relieving properties comparable
to those of powerful drugs used to treat depression and anxiety. In addition to its excellent protective
effects on the nervous system, ashwagandha may be a promising alternative treatment for a variety of
degenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Ashwagandha has powerful antioxidant
properties that seek and destroy the free radicals that have been implicated in aging and numerous
disease states. Even more remarkable, emerging evidence suggests that ashwagandha has anti-cancer
benefits as well.
Scientific studies support ashwagandhas ability not only to relieve stress, but
also to protect brain cells against the deleterious effects of our modern lifestyles.
For example, in validated models of anxiety and depression, ashwagandha has been demonstrated to be
as effective as some tranquilizers and antidepressant drugs. Specifically, oral administration of
ashwagandha for five days suggested anxiety-relieving effects similar to those achieved by the anti-
anxiety drug lorazepam (Ativan), and antidepressant effects similar to those of the prescription
antidepressant drug imipramine.
In a remarkable animal study, examination of the brains of sacrificed animals showed that 85% of the
brain cells observed in the animals exposed to chronic stress showed signs of degeneration. It is this type
of cellular degeneration that can lead to long-term cognitive difficulties. Amazingly, when ashwagandha
was administered to chronically stressed animals, the number of degenerating brain cells was reduced by
In one of the most complete human clinical trials to date, researchers studied the effects of a
standardized extract of ashwagandha on the negative effects of stress, including elevated levels of the
stress hormone cortisol. Many of the adverse effects of stress are thought to be related to elevated levels
of cortisol. The results were impressive. The participants subjectively reported increased energy, reduced
fatigue, better sleep, and an enhanced sense of well-being. The participants showed several measurable
improvements, including a reduction of cortisol levels up to 26%, a decline in fasting blood sugar levels,
and improved lipid profiles. It looks like this herb would be a good one for treating stress related
Some studies have noted that ashwagandha supported significant regeneration of the axons and
dendrites of nerve cells. Furthermore, ashwagandha extract supported the reconstruction of synapses,
the junctions where nerve cells communicate with other cells. The investigators concluded that
ashwagandha extract helps to reconstruct networks of the nervous system, making it a potential
treatment for neurodegenerative diseases.
In another study, researchers found that ashwagandha helped support the growth of nerve cell dendrites,
which allow these cells to receive communications from other cells. This finding suggests that
ashwagandha could help heal the brain tissue changes that accompany dementia.
In another study, the researchers noted that ashwagandha helped promote the
growth of both normal and damaged nerve cells, suggesting that the herb may boost healthy brain cell
function as well as benefit diseased nerve cells.

Ashwagandha also shows promise as a treatment for Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases, chronic
neurodegenerative conditions for which there currently are no cures. In a recent study using a
standardized model of human Parkinsons disease, ashwagandha extract reversed all the parameters of
Parkinsons-type neurodegeneration significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Remarkably, an
earlier study showed that ashwagandha extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for
breaking down one of the brains key chemical messengers. Drugs currently used in the treatment of
Alzheimers disease, such as Aricept work the same way.
In addition to ashwagandhas documented brain boosting effects a recent analysis showed that
ashwagandha extract inhibited the growth of human breast, lung, and colon cancer cell lines in the
laboratory. This inhibition was comparable to that achieved with the common cancer chemotherapy drug
doxorubicin. In fact, researchers reported that withaferin A, a specific compound extracted from
ashwagandha, was more effective than doxorubicin in inhibiting breast and colon cancer cell growth.
In the Feb 19 2002 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In the published papers
Ames and fellow researchers report that a combination of two dietary supplements alpha-lipoic acid (ALA),
and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC)can dramatically increase energy levels and improve memory in aging laboratory
Ames and his fellow researchers report that the two compounds work by quenching free radicals that tend to
build up inside mitochondriathe power plants of cells in the body. Deterioration of mitochondria is an
important cause of aging and the decline of memory and the bodys energy, Ames and colleagues contend.
With the two supplements together, these old rats got up and did the Macarena, Ames stated. The brain looks
better, they are full of energyeverything we looked at looks more like a young animal.
scientists have reported gathering anecdotal evidence from more than 50 healthy older human volunteers
taking the combination of the two antioxidant supplements. The volunteers have reported a wide variety of
positive effects, the company says, including: Increased energy, elevated mood, steady emotional state,
improved sleep, enhanced cognitive function, weight loss or improved weight control, decreased age pigment
(lipofuscin) and lower blood pressure
A new clinical trial investigated the effect of chromium picolinate supplementation in older adults with
cognitive decline. In this study, 26 older adults received either chromium picolinate supplementation or placebo
for 12 weeks. The subjects were evaluated for depression and memory at the beginning of the study and again
after the 12 weeks of supplementation. Some of the subjects were also evaluated with functional MRI to
evaluate brain activity.
The results showed that the subjects receiving chromium picolinate supplementation showed improvement
on learning, recall and recognition memory tasks. In addition, the MRI indicated that the subjects
supplemented with chromium picolinate had increased activation in specific areas of the brain including the
right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal and bifrontal regions, compared to the subjects in the
placebo group.
The researchers stated, These findings suggest that supplementation with chromium picolinate can
enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration.
Even though chromium isnt included in our brain formula, large doses are found in our, multi, immune
formula and weight loss formula.
In a recent study, researchers evaluated the levels vitamin D in a sample group of 3,369 European men
between the ages of 40 and 79. They also measured the subjects cognitive performance, based on the results
of three different teststhe Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, the Camden Topographical Recognition
Memory test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution testwhile accounting for other neurological factors such as
physical activity, functional performance, and depression.
The important, initial results showed that higher levels of vitamin D corresponded to better scores on all
three cognitive tests; however, further data adjustment to isolate interacting variables revealed that the
vitamin D levels only had a significant impact on onethe Digit Symbol Substitution test. Even so, the lowest
levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D still remained the strongest indicator of poor cognitive function in this group
reason enough for the study authors to speculate that ample amounts of vitamin D play an important role in
preserving your brains health as you age.
Vitamin D also has proven benefits for osteoporosis and against breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate
cancer, plus heart disease.
There is very little vitamin D in our diet and sunscreen blocks the suns vitamin-D-producing rays. As we
age we also loose most of our ability to produce vitamin D from sunshine. Also, at our latitude there is no
vitamin D production in winter no matter what your age is. So the only way to get enough D in the winter is to
take it.
Even though there is no vitamin D in our brain formula, good doses are found in our multis, immune
formula and bone formula. In addition we offer vitamin D separately in doses of 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 unit
caps as well as by injection at 500,000 per dose.
The preceding was adapted from several sources but mainly from VPR and the life extension foundation. I
have trusted these sources for my own health for about 30 years now.
Besides being available at the clinic, most of the nutrients mentioned can be purchased from
www.VRP.COM, our virtual pharmacy at www.innovativemedicine.org or from www.lifeextension.com.